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Computers and Structures 79 (2001) 361±373

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A residual strength model for deteriorating post-tensioned


concrete bridges
D.G. Cavell a,*,1, P. Waldron b
a
Mott MacDonald, 111 St. Mary's Road, Sheeld S2 4AP, UK
b
Centre for Cement and Concrete, University of Sheeld, Mappin Street, Sheeld S1 3JD, UK
Received 13 October 1999; accepted 27 May 2000

Abstract
Inspection of UKÕs entire stock of post-tensioned concrete bridges of the internally grouted duct type has revealed a
variety of defects. These include the presence of grout voids in incompletely grouted ducts, and chloride-induced tendon
corrosion ranging from slight surface pitting to extensive localised corrosion and fractures. These defects may have a
detrimental e€ect on the load carrying capacity of such bridges but, to date, there have been only limited attempts to
provide satisfactory analytical methods to assess their residual strength. The lack of appropriate analytical tools may
lead to unnecessary strengthening and repair, or even costly replacement.
This paper describes the development of an analytical model to assess the residual strength of deteriorating post-
tensioned bridges. The model is a useful tool in the investigation of the e€ects of tendon failure and regions of grout
voids. A non-linear method of analysis is proposed, based on the concept of strain compatibility, but suitably modi®ed
to accommodate the behaviour of unbonded tendons in regions of incomplete grouting in the ducts. Also incorporated
in the model is the contribution of failed tendons after re-anchoring into the grout. This uses the established phe-
nomenon of re-anchoring to estimate the distribution of residual prestress after tendon failure, where both the dis-
tribution of grout voids along the beam and the quality of the grout are considered. The provision of such an analytical
tool should be of considerable value to bridge engineers involved in the assessment of corrosion-damaged post-
tensioned bridges, and will assist in the development of strategies for extending the lives of such structures through
repair and strengthening. Ó 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Post-tensioned concrete; Bridges; Residual strength; Deteriorating

1. Introduction in localised loss of tendon area and fractures. In the UK,


concern over the durability of this type of bridge re-
The discovery of a variety of defects during the in- sulted in a temporary ban on their construction (1992±
spection of post-tensioned concrete bridges with inter- 1996) by the Department of Transport.
nally grouted tendons has raised doubts over the The main cause of tendon corrosion is due to the
structural capacity of existing bridges of this type. The ingress of chlorides from de-icing salts through inade-
defects include regions of incomplete grouting (voids) quately sealed ducts mainly at the anchorages. Localised
within the tendon ducts, and tendon corrosion resulting corrosion resulting in tendon failure is possible, partic-
ularly where the duct contains grout voids. The voids are
usually the result of improper grouting practice on site
when the air vents are prematurely shut o€ before en-
*
Corresponding author. suring that the duct is completely ®lled with grout, or
1
Previously from: Centre for Cement and Concrete, Uni- due to the movement of entrapped air to the high points
versity of Sheeld, Mappin Street, Sheeld S1 3JD, UK. often at the ends of the ducts.

0045-7949/01/$ - see front matter Ó 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
PII: S 0 0 4 5 - 7 9 4 9 ( 0 0 ) 0 0 1 5 0 - 4
362 D.G. Cavell, P. Waldron / Computers and Structures 79 (2001) 361±373

Nomenclature

Ac cross-sectional area of concrete Tps , Tus total force in prestressing steel, untensioned
Aps cross-sectional area of the prestressing ten- steel
don x neutral axis depth
Aus cross-sectional area of the untensioned steel zb , zt section modulus for bottom and top con-
C total concrete force crete ®bre
cy height to the centroid of the section a1 factor for the bond characteristics of the
dps , dus depth of the prestressing steel, untensioned reinforcement
steel a2 factor accounting for sustained or repeated
dt tendon diameter loading
eyt eccentricity of tendon group b proportion of original tendon force
fc stress in the concrete ec concrete strain
fct tensile strength of concrete ecen strain in the concrete at the centroid of the
fps , fus stress in the prestressing steel, untensioned section
steel ecf average concrete strain
fr residual prestress after corrosion eco pre-compressive strain in the concrete
fse e€ective prestress ect , ecu top ®bre strain in concrete, ultimate con-
l length from the free end of the member crete strain
ln length of each beam segment epe e€ective prestrain in the tendon
lr re-anchoring length of failed tendon eps , es strain in the prestressing steel, untensioned
Ma applied bending moment steel
Mr moment of resistance of the section / curvature
m modular ratio /f coecient of friction between steel and
nt , nu number of tendons, untensioned steel bars concrete
T total e€ective tendon force lc , ls PoissonÕs ratio of concrete, steel

Although the tendon corrosion problem has been Due to the diculty in determining the e€ect of de-
highlighted in many papers [1±3], most investigations of terioration on the residual strength of existing post-
deteriorating post-tensioned bridges have so far been tensioned bridges, there is a risk that some of the bridges
concerned with improving methods of inspection to found to be su€ering from corrosion will be repaired,
determine the extent of deterioration within the beams. strengthened or replaced unnecessarily and at great cost.
The current problem experienced by engineers dealing This paper discusses the development of an analytical
with post-tensioned bridges is that there is very little model [6,7] to evaluate the residual strength of post-
detailed guidance available on methods for determining tensioned concrete beams in which a number of tendons
residual strength whilst accounting for the level of have failed due to corrosion, and some are unbonded
damage that has been discovered during inspection. over part of their length due to incomplete grouting
Some advice is available in the Department of Trans- within the ducts.
port's advice note BA44/96 for modifying the assessment
rules in BD44/95 [4], but it still remains dicult to make
a complete and realistic assessment. For example, BA44/ 2. Residual strength model
96 acknowledges that fractured tendons can re-anchor
to become fully e€ective, and proposes a re-anchoring A computer program, which is written in F O R T R A N
length applicable only in good grout. For grout which is code, predicts the moment±curvature response of a
too poor to allow tendon re-anchorage, it recommends damaged post-tensioned beam up to failure. The pro-
that the tendons should be treated as unbonded and gram is currently limited to simply supported beams of
assessed accordingly. BD58/94 [5] for designing un- constant cross-section, symmetrical about the vertical
bonded post-tensioned concrete is usually adopted in axis. In addition, although it is possible for biaxial
such cases, but is not entirely appropriate for assessment bending e€ects to arise as a result of lateral eccentricity
purposes. Moreover, the strains in unbonded tendons of force when tendons fracture, it is further assumed that
are dicult to determine without appropriate analytical this e€ect is negligible. This is the case in beam and slab
tools. decks, e.g., where lateral con®nement is normally pro-
D.G. Cavell, P. Waldron / Computers and Structures 79 (2001) 361±373 363

vided by adjacent beams and the in situ slab. The pres- tendons during controlled demolition of redundant post-
tressing tendons and any untensioned reinforcement tensioned bridges has provided the basis of an under-
may, therefore, be assumed to be positioned in the standing of the debonding of fractured tendons [15].
model on the vertical symmetrical axis of the beam. Also reported was the evidence that some of the failed
A basic analytical model was ®rst developed, based on tendons re-anchored into the surrounding grout, the
the method of strain compatibility to determine the ¯ex- extent of which depended on the magnitude of the
ural strength of undamaged sections. The general bend- prestressing force released, the integrity of the grout and
ing theory of reinforced and prestressed concrete beams the quantity of shear reinforcement con®ning the duct.
is well covered in the literature [8,9] and is not discussed Bond between the tendon and the surrounding grout is,
here. To determine the e€ective prestressing force, the therefore, important to provide frictional resistance and
prestress losses to the post-tensioning system (before limit tendon slippage to enable a failed tendon to re-
additional losses due to corrosion) were ®rst estimated, anchor [16].
based on BS5400 for concrete bridges [10]. As described The basic analytical model was further developed to
later, the model was then modi®ed to accommodate incorporate the contribution of failed tendons after re-
damage due to tendon failure as a result of corrosion, anchoring into the grout. To estimate the re-anchoring
and regions of incomplete grouting in the ducts. length over which a failed post-tensioned tendon fully
The program adopts non-linear constitutive material re-anchors, an analogy was drawn with the transfer
models based on Hognestad's model for concrete and length in pre-tensioned concrete, and in which the re-
the trilinear and bilinear relationships for the prestress- quired prestress is developed mainly by friction and the
ing and unstressed steel recommended by BS8110 [11]. A wedging action as the tendon attempts to return to its
partial safety factor cm ˆ l has been used throughout to original diameter. To estimate the distribution of resid-
de®ne the actual stress±strain behaviour of concrete, the ual prestress after tendon fracture, several established
prestressing steel and any untensioned reinforcement. A equations for transfer length in pre-tensioned concrete
limiting strain of 0.0035 was adopted for the extreme [11,17±19] were investigated from which two re-
compression ®bre of the concrete at the ultimate con- anchoring models (Fig. 1) were developed for di€erent
dition. For concrete in uniaxial tension, the stress±strain situations:
response was assumed to be linear prior to cracking. (1) For well grouted ducts, the linear equation pro-
Both the tensile strength of concrete and tension posed by the ACI code for transfer length (in mm) of
sti€ening e€ects are included as a user option. The e€ect pre-tensioned tendons [17] was adopted:
of tension sti€ening was estimated by the equation
1 fse
proposed by Collins and Mitchell [12]: lr ˆ dt : …2†
7 3
a1 a2 fct
fc ˆ p : …1† (2) For partially or poorly grouted ducts, the expo-
1 ‡ 500ecf
nential equation (based on the frictional bonding phe-
The equations currently available in design codes for nomena) proposed by Janney [19] for the distribution of
determining the shear strength of prestressed beams are prestress transfer of plain wires in pre-tensioned con-
based essentially on empirical data from tests on pre- crete was used. Since the re-anchoring of failed tendons
stressed concrete beams with bonded reinforcement, and depend on friction between the tendon and the grout/
may not be appropriate for a section with unbonded concrete, and the wedging action of the tendon due to
tendons. The shear strength of prestressed concrete PoissonÕs e€ect, an equation which accounts for these
beams with unbonded tendons was investigated by two parameters was adopted, as de®ned by
 
Kordina et al. [13], whose experimental results indicated ÿ4/f ls l
that there was no signi®cant di€erence in shear cracking fr ˆ fse ÿ fse exp : …3†
dt …1 ‡ …1 ‡ lc †m†
behaviour for prestressed beams with and without bond,
and concluded that the shear strength of prestressed It can be seen that the residual prestress varies in-
beams with unbonded tendons can be determined with a versely with the coecient of friction between the ten-
truss analogy model. Accordingly, the CEB-FIP [14] don and the grout/concrete. A smaller coecient of
shear model, based on the truss analogy was adopted for friction can thus be used to represent poorer quality
the analytical model. grout, which leads to a longer re-anchoring length over
which a failed tendon fully re-anchors.
2.1. Re-anchoring of failed tendons
2.1.1. Tendon stress re-distribution after tendon failure
There is very little information available on the fail- Fig. 2 shows a concrete section with a number of
ure of bonded post-tensioned tendons due to corrosion. undamaged fully bonded tendons. The centre of force of
However, previous work on the debonding behaviour of the tendon group is computed by
364 D.G. Cavell, P. Waldron / Computers and Structures 79 (2001) 361±373

Fig. 1. Estimation of residual prestress.

Fig. 2. Strain and stress distributions before loss of tendon area.

Pnt i i i
iˆ1 fps Aps yps failure occurs, it is to be expected that prestress force is
cft ˆ Pnt i i ; …4† lost over a ®nite length. As a ®rst estimate, it is assumed
iˆ1 fps Aps
that the loss of total tendon force is directly propor-
where i designates a typical tendon. The eccentricity of tional to the loss of total tendon area. A number of it-
the tendon group is then eyt ˆ cy ÿ cft . erations are performed, as described below, until force
Before concrete decompression, the original stress in and moment equilibrium is achieved. Denoting the re-
the concrete at the extreme top and bottom ®bres (as- sidual force as bT0 , the extreme ®bre stresses at the jth
suming no corrosion) are, respectively, de®ned by iteration are
T0 T0 eyt;0 Ma j j
rct;0 ˆ ÿ ‡ ; …5a† bj T0 b T0 eyt Ma
Ac zt zt rct ˆ ÿ ‡ ; …6a†
Ac zt zt
T0 T0 eyt;0 Ma
rcb;0 ˆ ‡ ÿ : …5b†
Ac zb zb j j
bj T0 b T0 eyt Ma
rcb ˆ ‡ ÿ : …6b†
The contribution from any untensioned reinforce- Ac zb zb
ment is ignored at this stage since the force provided by
untensioned reinforcement is negligible compared to From Fig. 3, the concrete strain adjacent to tendon
that provided by the prestressing tendons. If tendon level i is given by
D.G. Cavell, P. Waldron / Computers and Structures 79 (2001) 361±373 365

Fig. 3. Strain and stress distribution after the loss of tendon area.

eic ˆ ecen ÿ /y i : …7† though the failed tendon cannot contribute to the total
force at the section, the remaining tendons carry more
The change in strain in the concrete adjacent to this load to compensate for some of the force which was lost
tendon as a result of loss of tendon area is then in the failed tendon. In other words, the stresses in the
Deic ˆ eic;0 ÿ eic ; …8† other tendons are enhanced when compared to the non-
corrosion situation.
where the subscript Ô0Õ represents conditions before
corrosion. 2.1.2. Re-distribution along the length of the beam
To maintain compatibility of strain, The program requires that the beam to be analysed is
Deips ˆ Deic : …9† discretised into a number of segments to enable analysis
at the respective nodal sections to be performed. Fig. 4
The tendon strain is then computed from shows an idealised resultant distribution of residual
prestress after failure of a single tendon at a number of
eips ˆ eipe ‡ Deips : …10† locations along its length. It illustrates that the residual
prestress distribution at one position may be modi®ed
The stress fpsi corresponding to the strain eips is ob-
by the re-anchoring of the same tendon at a neigh-
tained from the stress±strain curve for the prestressing
bouring position. Clearly, when there are other tendons
tendon. The total tensile force T can then be computed
which have failed due to corrosion, a similar approach is
from
taken to estimate the resultant prestress distribution in
X
nt
the a€ected tendons. This then forms the basis for
T ˆ fpsi Aips ; …11†
iˆ1
analysis at the respective nodal sections, where the ten-
don stress re-distribution at a section is determined.
and the total compressive force C is given by
Z
2.2. Regions of ungrouted tendons
Cˆ fc dAc : …12†
Ac
An essential feature built into the program was the
The force equilibrium condition …C ˆ T † is checked modelling of regions of unbonded tendon behaviour due
and if this is not satis®ed, the above procedure is re- to the presence of grout voids in the ducts. This provi-
peated for another estimate of b. The iteration is ter- sion was necessary to study the e€ect of incomplete
minated when C ˆ T within an acceptable error, and grouting on the ability of failed tendons to re-anchor.
Deips ˆ Deic is also satis®ed for every tendon layer. The approach is based on the method of analysis for
The distributions of strain and stress (Fig. 3) now internal unbonded post-tensioned beams proposed by
indicate an expansion in the concrete (less compressive Harajli [20]. The method is similar to that for bonded
stress in the concrete at the tendon level). The original prestressed beams, but the stress in the unbonded ten-
lever arm ao and curvature of the section have increased don cannot be evaluated from moment equilibrium and
in order to maintain the same moment of resistance of strain compatibility alone, since the assumption of per-
the section. From Eq. (4), it can also be deduced that the fect bond between the tendon and the concrete is no
centre of force of the tendon group and tendon eccen- longer valid along the unbonded regions. Instead, the
tricity change slightly due to loss of tendon area. Al- change in stress in the unbonded tendon for any given
366 D.G. Cavell, P. Waldron / Computers and Structures 79 (2001) 361±373

Fig. 4. Distribution of residual prestress along the beam after corrosion at a number of locations.

loading depends on the average change in stress in the that the frictional forces that could develop between the
adjacent concrete over the unbonded length of the ten- tendon and surrounding duct are neglected.
don. This means that the stress in the tendon is member Fig. 5 shows a length of a post-tensioned beam with
dependent rather than section dependent, and both the three layers of tendons. Due to the presence of a void in
lengths and distribution of grout voids need to be con- the grout, tendon level 2 is e€ectively unbonded over a
sidered. length lu2 . The behaviour of the tendon over this length
In the model, the unbonded theory is only used where is assumed to be similar to that of an internal unbonded
voids are present. This is because the tendons are not all tendon. However, tendons at levels 1 and 3 behave as
likely to be unbonded (as in unbonded post-tensioned perfectly bonded tendons over their full length. Strain
beams) but instead, consist of a combination of fully compatibility is maintained at tendon levels 1 and 3, but
grouted, partially grouted and totally ungrouted ten- the strain in tendon level 2 is not compatible with the
dons. The analysis is complex and involves (i) analysis of adjacent concrete over the length lu2 . In this case, the
the e€ect of tendon failure using bonded beam theory, average strain increase in the prestressing steel over this
and (ii) where voids are present, analysis of the addi- unbonded length is obtained by integrating the concrete
tional e€ect of these voids using unbonded beam theory. strain increase at the respective sections as explained
Some simplifying assumptions were therefore required. below for a section at the ultimate condition.
Perfect bond was assumed in fully grouted conditions If tendon level 2 is unbonded over N number of
and, where voids are present, the tendons were assumed segments, then at each section (Fig. 6), the increase in
to be totally unbonded over the void length. This covers concrete strain above decompression at the level of the
the two extreme conditions likely to be present. It was unbonded tendon is given by
also assumed that the stress in the tendon at any given
loading is constant along the unbonded length, meaning De2 ˆ /e2 ; …13†

Fig. 5. Length of beam showing tendon level 2 unbonded over length lu2 .
D.G. Cavell, P. Waldron / Computers and Structures 79 (2001) 361±373 367

Fig. 6. Typical strain distribution at ultimate due to the middle tendon being unbonded.

where / ˆ ecu =x and e2 is the eccentricity of tendon 2. In If this is not satis®ed, the top ®bre strain ect is re-
the ®gure, epa is the actual increase in strain in the estimated and the above procedure is repeated until
unbonded tendon above the initial prestress level at the moment equilibrium is achieved.
decompression of the concrete. The solution for analysis of regions of unbonded
The total tendon elongation Dlps between the ends of tendons involves a highly iterative procedure, and can be
the void is given by time consuming. This is because the curvatures at all
X
N nodal sections along the whole length of the void must
Dlps ˆ …De2 ‡ eco;2 †ln ; …14† be calculated at each iteration until a state of force and
iˆ1 moment equilibrium is achieved. The analysis of un-
bonded tendons was also found to be susceptible to
where the subscript 2 refers to tendon level 2. convergence problems and some considerable e€ort was
The average increase in strain in this tendon (above spent in developing program methodologies to provide
e€ective value), over its unbonded length, is then ecient solutions.
Dlps It should also be noted that in practice, voids are
Deps;2 ˆ …15† normally detected by drilling into the ducts which are
lu2
then pressure tested to obtain the void volume. This
from which the total strain eps;2 is determined by does not actually locate the void nor determine the void
eps;2 ˆ epe;2 ‡ Deps;2 ; …16† length, as required for input into the model. This re-
quirement is dicult to achieve in practice due to the
where epe;2 is the e€ective prestrain in the unbonded limitations of the current inspections methods. The
tendon. practical use of the analytical model, therefore, requires
The corresponding stress in the unbonded tendon is engineering judgement based on experience and knowl-
obtained from the appropriate stress±strain curve, edge of the likelihood of void locations. It is also ex-
whereas the stresses in the bonded tendons 1 and 3 are pected that the more promising non-destructive test
found by the conventional strain compatibility method. methods will soon be suciently developed to detect the
Since the beam deformation changes as a result of the presence and extent of grout voids more reliably.
ÔunbondedÕ tendon, the distribution of stress in the The discussion so far has considered only one void in
bonded tendons will also have altered due to the re- the beam, requiring only one layer of tendons to be
distribution among the tendon layers. When the stresses considered as unbonded in the analysis. When there are
in both the bonded and unbonded tendons have been a number of voids along a tendon, and at a number of
determined, the total tensile force is determined and tendon layers as well, the situation becomes very com-
force equilibrium …C ˆ T † is checked. If this is not sat- plex. At a section, there may be more than one layer of
is®ed, then the neutral axis depth is adjusted and the ÔunbondedÕ tendons and, since the analysis of unbonded
procedure is repeated. Once force equilibrium is tendons is member dependent (i.e. depends on unbonded
achieved, the section is checked for moment equilibrium: length), the lengths of the voids also have to be con-
sidered. For a tendon with a particular void length, there
Mr ˆ Ma : …17† may be ÔoverlappingÕ voids from other tendon layers
368 D.G. Cavell, P. Waldron / Computers and Structures 79 (2001) 361±373

Fig. 7. ÔOverlappingÕ voids extending the region of unbonded tendon behaviour.

which extends the region of unbonded tendon behaviour failure, or (ii) limited voids are present within the range
in the beam. Fig. 7 shows an example, where segments A of the re-anchoring length.
to B require analysis for unbonded tendon behaviour. In the ®rst case (Fig. 8a), it is assumed that, as long as
a void exists, the tendon cannot start re-anchoring until
the end of the void is reached.
2.2.1. Regions of unbonded tendons a€ecting re-anchoring In the second case, some tendon re-anchorage has
length already occurred before the region of void is encoun-
To estimate the re-anchoring length of a failed ten- tered (Fig. 8b). The re-anchoring length assuming full
don, the user may choose to employ either the linear re- bond is ®rst estimated and, when a void is encountered
anchoring model if the condition of the grout is good, or within this re-anchoring length, it is assumed that no
the exponential re-anchoring model for less ecient further tendon re-anchoring is possible until the end of
tendon re-anchoring within poorer quality grout. How- the void. The additional length required for the tendon
ever, if limited voids are present within this re-anchoring to fully re-anchor is then estimated. It is also possible for
length, the tendon is assumed to be unbonded over the a combination of cases (i) and (ii) to occur, where a void
void length, and this will increase the re-anchoring exists at the tendon failure location, with additional
length of the failed tendon. Two main situations are limited voids present within the re-anchoring length as
possible: (i) a void coincides with the position of tendon well.

Fig. 8. Re-anchoring length being a€ected by regions of grout voids.


D.G. Cavell, P. Waldron / Computers and Structures 79 (2001) 361±373 369

2.3. Analysis with the residual strength model cracking are noted. At each stage of loading, the applied
bending moment, the stresses and strains in both the
The program requires data describing the beam concrete and the tendons together with the decompres-
cross-section and tendon location, material, loading, sion and cracking moments are all calculated.
location of tendon failure, and extent of grout voids to When the section has cracked, a non-linear analysis is
be input. The choice of the number of segments at which required to determine the moment of resistance, and this
the sectional analysis is to be undertaken is left to the is done by solving for the neutral axis as described be-
user. A larger number clearly allows a more accurate low. In bonded sections, this is relatively straight for-
location of tendon failure and grout voids to be deter- ward, but for bonded sections containing regions of
mined, although with a considerable increase in com- unbonded tendons, a further level of iteration is re-
putational time. quired. At each iteration, the analysis must be carried
Starting with the permanent load, the program ®rst out at every nodal section a€ected by the unbonded
considers the case where there is no loss of tendon area tendon(s) behaviour whilst ensuring force and moment
and all tendons are perfectly bonded to the concrete. equilibrium. This may involve analysis of both un-
This is the control situation against which other analyses cracked and cracked sections. It is only when all a€ected
are compared. The program then inputs additional data sections have been analysed that the stress in the un-
describing tendon failure locations and the location and bonded part of the tendon can be determined (since the
length of any grout voids. Along the segments, where a stress is member dependent).
failed tendon has not fully re-anchored, the a€ected
nodal sections will be ¯agged to indicate sections with 2.3.1. Post-cracking analysis
corroded tendons, where the appropriate subroutines When the section has cracked, the contribution of
are required to determine the tendon stress re-distribu- uncracked concrete is estimated by discretising the sec-
tion after tendon failure. At all other locations, the tion into layers to estimate the total compressive force.
normal sectional analysis of bonded post-tensioned The strain distribution in the section is assumed to re-
beams is undertaken. Where there are grout voids, the main linear up to failure. At a distance y from the top of
program sets another ¯ag on the nodal sections a€ected the beam (Fig. 9), the strain in the concrete ec is given by
for the appropriate subroutine to handle the analysis of
ec ˆ …x ÿ y†/; …18†
unbonded tendons.
Where a tendon has failed, the re-anchoring length where / ˆ ect =x:
and distribution of residual prestress is ®rst estimated The strain in tendon i is given by
for a bonded tendon. If a void is present within this
length, its e€ect in modifying the residual prestress in the eips ˆ …dps
i
ÿ x†/ ‡ eips;dec …19†
tendons is considered. Determination of the tendon
stresses due to the combined e€ects of tendon failure and and in the untensioned steel bar j by
regions of ungrouted tendons require a number of iter- ejs ˆ …dus
j
ÿ x†/; …20†
ations and use of the appropriate subroutine to analyse
each case. The load is then incrementally increased, and where eps;dec is the prestressing steel strain at concrete
the loads to cause decompression in the concrete and decompression.

Fig. 9. Determining sectional forces using layer-by-layer evaluation.


370 D.G. Cavell, P. Waldron / Computers and Structures 79 (2001) 361±373

The total tensile force in the steel T is then obtained 3. Substitute x into the compatibility equation to obtain
from the strain in the concrete and the strain in each steel
layer in the section.
X
nt X
nu
4. Determine the concrete and steel stresses from the rel-
T ˆ fpsi Aips ‡ fusj Ajus …21†
iˆ1 jˆ1
evant stress±strain curves.
5. Calculate the net compressive (C) and tensile (T)
and the total compressive force C in the concrete is given forces at the section and check for force equilibrium
by (C ˆ T ). If these are not equal to within reasonable
accuracy, repeat steps 2±5.
Z
6. Determine the moment of resistance Mr . If the mo-
Cˆ fc dAc : …22† ment of resistance is not equal to the applied bending
Ac
moment (within a speci®ed tolerance), then repeat
The integral is evaluated by idealising the cross-sec- steps 1±6.
tion as a number of layers, and assuming that the strain Determination of the full Ma ±/ relationship, thus,
in each layer is uniform and equal to the strain at the requires a large number of calculations. The ultimate
centre of the layer. This means that the concrete stress is condition is reached when either the concrete crushes in
also assumed to be uniform over the layer. The total compression, or the steel yields or fails before failure of
compressive force C is obtained by summing the force in the concrete.
each layer for n number of uncracked concrete layers,
X
n
Cˆ fck Ak ; …23†
kˆ1 3. Numerical example

where fck is the stress in the kth layer and Ak is the ap- Once a working model was established, it was used to
propriate area. investigate the e€ect of tendon failure and regions of
For a given value of ect , the neutral axis x depth is grout voids on the residual strength of an 18 m span
solved by the bisection method, where the interval be- simply-supported beam. This beam represents a typical
tween the upper and lower limits for the solution is post-tensioned beam from the Botley bridge, Oxford,
halved after each iteration. For a calculated value of x, UK which was replaced after tendon corrosion problems
the corresponding moment of resistance Mr is deter- were discovered [3]. The beam was stressed by ®ve ten-
mined by dons, each comprising 12 no. 7 mm wires. Fig. 10 shows
Z X nt the actual section at midspan of the beam, and the sec-
Mr ˆ fc …x ÿ y† dAc ‡ Tpsi …dps
i
ÿ x† tion idealised in the analysis.
Ac iˆ1
To determine an appropriate number of segments to
X
nu
enable a time-ecient analysis to be undertaken without
‡ Tusj …dus
j
ÿ x†: …24†
jˆ1
compromising the accuracy of solution produced by the
model, an analysis was carried out with the beam di-
The iterative procedure for a cracked section analysis vided into 20, 40, 80 and 160 segments. In each case, the
can be summarised as follows: accuracy of solution achieved and the time taken by a
1. Assume a top ®bre strain in the concrete, ect . PC with a 486 DX2-66 processor to complete the anal-
2. Assume a neutral axis depth, x. ysis was monitored. It was found that sucient accuracy

Fig. 10. Cross-section at midspan of Botley beam.


D.G. Cavell, P. Waldron / Computers and Structures 79 (2001) 361±373 371

was achieved with 80 segments for a beam of this span extending from the anchorage to midspan. The ®gure
and con®guration (Table 1), and this was adopted in shows that the stresses in the remaining tendons in-
further parametric study. creased signi®cantly in regions containing the failed
Fig. 11 illustrates the tendon stress distribution at the tendon, compared to regions where the tendon had re-
ultimate condition when the model was used to analyse anchored. It also indicates that where a void exists
the beam for the deterioration case of failure of the within the re-anchoring length of a failed tendon, the
middle tendon (Tendon C) at the anchorage, with a void tendon is assumed to be totally unbonded over the

Table 1
Analysis time taken and results obtained
Number of seg- Time Ultimate moment (kN m) Midspan curvature (10ÿ6 rad/ Midspan de¯ection
ments (min) mm) (mm)
20 2 1247.1 10.38 310.0
40 4 1247.1 10.37 305.8
80 7 1247.8 10.09 302.2
160 14 1247.8 10.9 302.2

Fig. 11. Tendon stress distribution at the ultimate condition for failure of Tendon C at the anchorage, with the presence of voids in the
grout.

Fig. 12. Moment±curvature diagram for failure of Tendon C and Tendons (D ‡ E) at the anchorage, with the presence of voids in the
grout.
372 D.G. Cavell, P. Waldron / Computers and Structures 79 (2001) 361±373

Fig. 13. Moment±de¯ection diagram for failure of Tendon C and Tendons (D ‡ E) at the anchorage, with the presence of voids in the
grout.

length of the void, and does not re-anchor until sound 3. The phenomenon of tendon re-anchoring of failed
grouting conditions are re-established. tendons has also been incorporated into the model to
Fig. 12 shows the resulting moment±curvature rela- estimate the distribution of residual prestress after ten-
tionship corresponding to this case of failure of Tendon don failure. Both linear and exponential expressions to
C at the anchorage in the presence of voids. This is describe the re-anchoring behaviour have been consid-
compared with the case of failure of the two bottom ered. This has then enabled the re-distribution of tendon
tendons (D ‡ E) at the anchorage. Although the tendons stresses within a tendon group as a result of tendon
failed at the anchorage in both cases, the tendons could failure at a section to be evaluated.
not re-anchor within the long length of void, so the 4. The in¯uence of the presence of limited voids
capacity at midspan was compromised, as if the tendon within the ducts on the re-anchoring ability of failed
failed at midspan itself. Fig. 13 illustrates the corre- tendons has been considered. This includes the presence
sponding moment±de¯ection curve, indicating an ap- of a complete void at the position of tendon failure and,
preciable increase in de¯ection due to the loss of tendon of secondary importance, the presence of limited grout
prestressing force over a signi®cant distance as a result voids within the re-anchoring length of the failed ten-
of incomplete grouting. don.
The results of a parametric study with this model to
investigate the e€ects of tendon failure due to corrosion
and regions of ungrouted tendons on the residual
strength of post-tensioned bridges is discussed in more Acknowledgements
detail elsewhere [7,21].
The authors gratefully acknowledge the ®nancial
support of the Engineering and Physical Sciences Re-
4. Conclusions search Council, UK.

1. In this paper, the development of a sophisticated


non-linear analytical model to assess the residual
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