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Department of Education

Region III
Division of Pampanga
DON JESUS GONZALES HIGH SCHOOL
Pandacaqui Resettlement, Mexico, Pampanga
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL DEPARTMENT

THE EFFECTS OF ICT AS INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS TO GRADE 12


GAS STUDENTS OF DON JESUS GONZALES HIGH SCHOOL
___________________________________

A Research Paper Presented to the Faculty of


Senior High School Department
Don Jesus Gonzales High School
Mexico, Pampanga
___________________________________

In Partial Fulfillment
of Inquiry, Investigation and Immersion
___________________________________

Submitted by:

Rochelle Alfonso Eugene Lugue


Joan Enriquez Rotschild Salvador
Mariella Santos Lenardo Bunda
John Paul Dela Cruz

Submitted to

ANDRES VERGEL V. SANTOS, LPT

February 2018
D O N J E S U S G O N Z A L E S H I G H S C H O O L
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Approval Sheet
Acknowledgments
Table of Content
List of Figure
List of tables

Chapter I: THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction
Conceptual Framework
Statement of the Problem
Hypothesis
Significance of the Study
Scope and Limitation of the Study
Definition of Terms

Chapter II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

Related Studies
Related Literature

Chapter III: METHODOLOGY

Research Design
Respondents (Optional)
Research Instruments (Optional)

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Chapter IV: Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data

Chapter V: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary and Finding


Conclusions
Recommendation

REFERENCES
APPENDICES
CURRICULUM VITAE

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D O N J E S U S G O N Z A L E S H I G H S C H O O L
CHAPTER 1: THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

Today, the use of technology has been an effective tool when it comes to
education. The 21st Century technology gives the students and the teachers’ access to
different websites, devices and strategies in the teaching learning process. According to
Muijus and Reynolds (2005), Education is vital to the pace of the social, political and
economic development of any nation, so effective teaching is very essential. Effective
teaching is important because teaching is based on helping children progress from one
level to another in a more sociable interactive environment and to get the right approach
for the students to be independent learners. Effectiveness does not mean being perfect or
giving a wonderful performance, but bringing out the best of the students in many ways.

The research study of Jackson (2012), states that the traditional “chalk and talk”
method of teaching that’s persisted for hundreds of years is now acquiring inferior results
when compared with the more modern and revolutionary teaching methods that are
available for use in schools today. According to Janovsky (2003), Instructional materials
aare the tools used in educational lesson, which includes activity learning and assessment.

As stated by Watson (2005), education is the first and best key area for ICT
applications. ICT is often perceived as a catalyst for change, change in teaching styles,
and change in learning approaches and in access to information. ICTs can help by
providing alternative possibilities for education.

According to Casal (2007), the use of different information communication


technologies has become inevitable for students in learning. By using modern
information communication technologies, students can retrieve required information
within a short time. In the constant changes in the educational system and other areas
related to education always cause discussion around this topic. It is obvious, that changes
turn positive only to effectively teach students and enhance their learning experience.

Moreover, interactive applications in digital learning have a significant impact on


them. The main objective of this study is to determine what are the pros and cons of using
ICT as instructional materials of Grade 12 GAS students of DJGHS (Main Campus).

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Conceptual Framework

This study was conducted to determine the effects of ICT as instructional


materials among Grade 12 GAS students of Don Jesus Gonzales High School (Main
Campus).

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT


a. Demographic Survey and The effects of ICT as
profile of the questionnaires instructional materials to
students. Grade 12 GAS students
Grade 12 GAS students
b. Commonly used of DJGHS
(90 respondents)
ICT devices
during discussion
c. Positive effects of
ICT as
instructional
materials.
d. Negative effects
of ICT as
instructional
materials.

Statement of the Problem

This study aims to answer the following questions.

1. What are the demographic profile of respondents in terms of:


1.1 Age
1.2 Sex
2. What are the commonly used ICT devices used by teachers in teaching?
3. What are the positive effects of ICT devices as IM’s used by teachers during
discussion?
4. What are the negative effects of ICT devices as IM’s used by teachers during
discussion?

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Significance of the Study

This research is about the effects of ICT as instructional materials to Grade 12


GAS students of DJGHS (Main Campus).

The significance of this study can be viewed and benefited under the following
perspectives:

To the teachers, this study will help the teachers to determine what the positive
and negative effects of the ICT devices to improve their performance in teaching and this
will also help them choose the best devices as IM’s.

To the students, this study will benefit the students for they will be more aware
to the effects of ICT devices as IM’s

To the future researchers, this study will contribute especially to those who will
conduct a study on the same framework.

Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scope of the study is the effects of ICT devices as instructional materials to

Grade 12 GAS students of Don Jesus Gonzales High School (Main Campus).

The respondents of the study are the 90 students from Grade 12 GAS (Main

Campus) chosen by availability sampling. The researchers believe that the respondents

can help them to solve the research.

Definition of Terms

ICT – Information and Communication Technology refers to technologies that provide


access to information through telecommunications (Internet terms)

(IM’s) Instructional materials - are the tools used in educational lesson, which includes
activity learning and assessment (Janovsky, 2003).

GAS – acronym for General Academic Stand

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CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

According to Aguilar (2012), nowadays “information” available can be cataloged


and accessed on an unlimited and immediate basis, and transmission thereof occurs
across all areas of an individual’s life, including politics, economy, education, and
leisure. The vast amount of information being now generated in our society has prompted
its designation as the knowledge-based society. Some scholars go further and call it the
digital society or the information society in their attempt to connect it with technology;
however, both concepts carry the idea of living in an age where accumulation of
information provides a boost for social interactions and dynamics He also states that The
transformation of ICT has allowed these to become educational tools that could further
improve the educational quality of the student and revolutionize the way information is
obtained, managed and interpreted

A search study by Parra (2012), states that the impact of ICT on the knowledge-
based society has brought about major changes. In terms of form and content, it has had a
massive and multiplying effect, to such an extent that the purpose of knowledge has come
to permeate the wider society, with education being among the broadest implications and
developments brought thereby. He claims that school is one of the venues where
technology has had the greatest impact, which in turn has had an effect on the role of the
teacher and become a part of the school everyday life. The integration of ICT into
education has become a process whose implications go far beyond the technological tools
nurturing the educational environment.

According to Díaz-Barriga (2013), the ideas of teaching construction and the way
one can build and consolidate meaningful learning based on technology are now being
discussed, or the technological use of education, in strictly pedagogical terms.

As part of the roles played by each educational agent, students currently use
technological tools to facilitate learning. This development began early on with the
emergence of calculators, TV sets, voice recorders, among other. However, such has been
the progress that technological resources have become educational resources, where
efforts to improve learning entail the task of involving technology with education. And it
is with teaching that the teaching-learning process is being completed. According to

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Granados (2015), the use of ICT means breaking with traditional media, boards, pens,
etc., and it has given way to a teaching role based on the need for training in and updating
one’s knowledge of teaching methods based on current requirements.

According to research study of Angadi (2014), the application of ICT is creating


significant changes in the teaching and learning process. The traditional approach in
teaching has stressed on content. For decades course materials were designed around
textbooks. Teachers taught the content through lecture method and the activities were
designed to enforce the content knowledge. To support a research study by Oliver (2000),
states that resent day teachers need to create relevant and intriguing learning experiences
for their students. Technology provides a remarkable role in making education inclusive
since it has the potential to improve educational performance of students. Furthermore,
utilization of ICT facilitates learner-centered approach rather than conventional teacher-
centered pedagogy. The present day curricula promote aptitude and performance of the
learners, emphasizing on the application of the information rather than factual
knowledge. As a result, incorporating ICT in teaching helps both teachers and students
since it has the potential to impart quality education if it is used effectively

A research study of Cabero (2005), states that the emerging technologies were
created outside an educational context and were later integrated into it. While Suárez and
Custodio (2014), state that education, as a relevant aspect in human life, has combined
with ICT to create a new learning environment where students take responsibility for
their own learning, where time and flexibility play a major role, as education becomes
increasingly digital, as digitalization has become a revolution, and as new technologies
converge into emerging educational and pedagogical paradigms.

The study conducted by Herrera (2015), states that technology and its
contributions are evolving and changing the fields of knowledge very quickly. It is here
that it can be appreciated that education, as a discipline, is taking on new challenges that
deserve a more detailed study. Teachers, faced with the transformative vision of a society
that needs to integrate ICT into the classroom, have seen their role change into that of
agents with the ability to generate the necessary skills for a society ‘yearning’ for
technological knowledge and the frequent use thereof in various educational matters.

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Successfully integrating ICT into education depends to a large extent on the teacher’s
ability to structure the learning environment. As stated by Mestres (2008), there is much
talk about giving the “leap” forward and “breaking up” traditional formulas with
cooperation and teamwork-based learning. However, the use and involvement of ICTs in
education has not yet been understood as a tool through which meaningful learning can
be generated. Frequent mistakes at school minimize ICT as a tool allowing access to, and
transmission of, information, a misconception that continues to plague traditional
education

According to the study of Unesco (2008), teachers must structure their role by
organizing the way students acquire cognitive competences and manage to apply them in
different situations. As stated by Cabero (2010), classroom teaching will require new
spaces so as to add to current knowledge through the use of technological media by both
students and teachers. Prieto, et al. (2011), states that the emergence of ICTs easily fits
into this process. Students participate as new educational agents, who have become a
major element for communication and social interaction as a result of being born in a
high-tech society. The diversity of scenarios, contexts and trends in education currently
impose new roles on the training process, which brings challenges for future
professionals and the institutions and agents responsible for their education.

According to Lewin et al.,(2000), states that ICT helps the students to gain
understanding and analytical skills, including improvements in reading comprehension.
(1) Development of writing skills (including spelling, grammar, punctuation, editing and
re-drafting) also fluency, originality and elaboration; (2) Increased motivation,
organization skills and responsibility amongst pupils (Perry, 2003); and (3)
Encouragement of independent and active learning and self-responsibility for learning
(Passey,1999).

A research study by Perry (2003), states that the factor that affects the students in
using ICT is needs sufficient time and familiarization with the devices. There needs to be
ready access to technically competent staff, to allow devices to be used to their full
potential. However, according to Moseley and Higgins (1999), comprehensive
information must be available regarding the technological and educational capacities of

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the devices. Teachers must be directly involved in decisions on planning and curriculum
use

A research study by Florence (2012), elaborated the positive impact of ICT on


education: On the positive side, the use of ICT in education can provide opportunities
that might not otherwise exist, such as: (a) distance learning, where students can access
teaching materials from all over the world, (b) the ability to perform ‘impossible’
experiments’ by using simulations, (c) the possibility for students to have individual
learning programs within a topic, rather than everybody having to do the same thing at
the same time at the same pace. More able students can be given more challenging work,
less able students can access remedial lessons. While the negative impact of ICT on
education: (I) There are large costs involved and poorer students / educational
establishments can end up being disadvantaged. This is often referred to as being a factor
in the digital divide. (II) Students, and sometimes teachers, can get hooked on the
technology aspect, rather than the subject content. Just because a topic can be taught via
ICT, does not mean that it is taught most effectively via ICT.

Based on the research of Sandhoitz (n.d) it will take a lot of time in the classroom
even up to a year with the support of experienced teams. Teachers always depend on the
information that searched from the web. It may make a mistake. Information from the
web or internet that mostly came or wrote from personal's opinion. It is not all facts by
the way. Teacher who depend more on the ICT do not perform well as a teacher. For
example, they may not check through the details of the work that searched from the web.

Even if a subject can be taught effectively via ICT, and there is the money
available, it does not always follow that there is any advantage to it. There have been a
lot of studies / assessments carried out, looking to see if ICT usage improves learning.
The results are mixed. Much simplified, it would appear that: (a) there is some initial
impact of using ICT in that students get a wider range of resources and experience some
extra motivation; (b) the motivation effect soon fades as using ICT becomes the new
normal; and (c) the wider resource range remains a positive factor. (c) there are some
well documented positive effects in specific. e.g. simulation and modeling is effective in
improving science standards, use of word processing and communication software is

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effective in developing language skills, but there is concern that large areas of the
curriculum are not benefiting.

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Chapter III: METHODOLOGY

This chapter shows how the study was carried out. It discusses the research
design, population, sampling strategies, data collection instruments, data quality control,
research procedure and the data analysis techniques employed in the study.

Research Design

The study employed a descriptive research design. According to Glass &


Hopkins (1984), Descriptive research involves gathering data that describe events and
then organizes, tabulates, depicts, and describes the data collection The choice of this
design was dependent on the nature of the study variables.

Respondents

The study was carried out among the Grade 12 GAS students of Don Jesus
Gonzales High School to find out the common ICT devices used during discussion,
positive and negative effects of ICT as instructional materials. The total number of Grade
12 GAS students is 115 which divided to three section: 12 – Garnet has 39 students, 12 –
Citrine has 39 students and 12 – Amethyst has 37 students. The target respondents
formulated with the Slovin’s formula with a 95% of significance level are 90 students
selected by availability sampling.

Table 3.1: Number of Students Respondents

Section Number of Respondents Percentage


Students

12 – Amethyst 37 27 30%

12 – Garnet 39 27 30%

12 – Citrine 39 36 40%

Total 115 90 100 %

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Research Instrument

The researchers employed the method of survey questionnaires in the form of


descriptive rating to gather data from the respondents. The general instruction ruled is to
put tick in the box provided. The first part is to identify the commonly used ICT devices
during discussion while the second and third part is a descriptive rating on the given
statements on the positive and negative effects of ICT devices as instructional materials
to the students.

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Chapter IV: Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data

This chapter discusses the data analysis and findings collected from the 90
respondents of Grade 12 GAS students of Don Jesus Gonzales High School. The purpose
of this study was to identify the following; a.)demographic profile of students; b.)
commonly use ICT devices during discussion; c.) positive effects of ICT devices; and d.)
negative effects of ICT devices.

a. Demographic Profile

Table 4.1: Age of Respondents

Age F Percentage

17 years old 24 26.67%

18 years old 61 67.78%

19 years old 5 5.55%

Total 90 100%

Table 4.1 presents the profile of the respondents in terms of their age. It shows
that most of the respondents are 18 years old (67.78%), 26.67% are 17 years old, and
5.55% are 19 years old. Since they almost have the same age, it implies that they have the
same perception on the effects of ICT devices.

Table 4.2: Sex of Respondents


Sex F Percentage

Male 32 35.56%

Female 58 64.44%

Total 90 100%

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Table 4.2 shows the profile of the respondents in terms of sex. Out of 90
respondents, 32 (35.56%) are male and 58 (64.44%) are female. The data implies that
there are more female students in Grade 12 GAS.

b. Commonly used ICT devices during discussion


One of the major factors that affects the teaching and learning process are the
instructional materials used in delivering the content of the subject. Table 4.3 shows the
commonly used ICT devices used as instructional materials during discussion.
Table 4.3: Commonly used ICT devices as instructional materials during discussion
ICT Devices Frequency Percentage Ranking

Television 77 85.56% 2

Laptop 84 93.33% 1
LED Projector 44 48.89% 3
Smart Phones 23 25.56% 4
Tablets 3 3.33% 6
Computer Desktop 21 23.33% 5

Table 4.3 shows the frequency and percentage of the devices. 93.33% of the
respondents chose laptop, the 85.56% of the respondents chose television, 48.89% of the
respondents chose LED projector, 25.56% states that smart phones are also used during
discussion, 23.33% selected that computer desktop while 3.33% of the respondents chose
tablet.

The findings from Table 4.3 revealed that laptop got highest vote and rank 1 as
the most commonly used ICT devices during discussion. According to the article of
Mann (2012), with the use of laptop students can look things up during lectures and
discussion, they can save and access information, some students take notes more
effectively on their laptops and observed by the researchers, most of the teachers used
laptop during discussion because it is portable it helps them to lessen their work.

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Television got the second place with 85.56%, because most of the rooms in Don
Jesus Gonzales High School have television that is used during discussion, for viewing
educational videos, documentaries and many more.

Rank 3 in the commonly used ICT devices is LED Projector it has 48.89%,
projector makes the discussion more interesting by showing interactive presentations and
information that gives the ability to share notes digitally at the end of the lesson — and
they can focus more on listening, and only writing down things that are specifically
useful to them. But due to its expensive price not every section can afford to buy
projector.

Smart phone got the percentage of 25.56%, most of the students has smartphones
but some of the teachers forbid the used of smart phones because sometimes students
used their smart phones in cheating and most of the times it becomes distraction.

23.33% of the respondents chose computer desktop the second to the least ICT
devices used during discussion because nowadays, most of the students and even teachers
prefer to use portable or handy devices so that you can bring it anywhere.

The tablet is also useful during discussion but due to the continuous development
of other devices got the lowest vote with 3.33%, they prefer device that is handier and at
the same time tablet is more expensive.

c. Responses of the students’ about Positive and Negative Effects of ICT devices as
instructional materials
Respondents were asked to give their descriptive rating on the positive and
negative effects of ICT devices as instructional materials and below (Table 4.4 and Table
4.5) is the summary of their responses.

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Table 4.4: The Weighted Mean and Descriptive Ratings of the Assessment of
the Students on the Positive Effects of ICT Devices as Instructional Materials

POSITIVE EFFECTS SD D A SA
(1) (2) (3) (4) W W D
V M R

Frequency

1 Technological devices help the 3 6 52 29 90 3.19


students to gain understanding and (3) (12) (156) (116) 28 Agree
analytical skills, including 7
improvements in reading
comprehension.
2 Technological devices helps 1 15 58 16 90 2.98
develop the students writing skills (1) (30) (174) (64) 26 Disagr
(including spelling, grammar, 8 ee
punctuation, editing and re-
drafting) also fluency, originality
and elaboration.
3 Increased motivation, 1 9 65 15 90 3.04
organizational skills and (1) (18) (195) (60) 27 Agree
responsibility amongst pupils 4

4 Provide learners an opportunity to 3 4 50 33 90 3.26


develop creativity, communication (3) (8) (150) (132) 29 Agree
skills, and other thinking skills. 3

5 Students can access teaching 1 3 62 24 90 3.21


materials such as modules in the
(1) (6) (186) (96) 28 Agree
internet. 9

6 Technological devices give the 1 4 70 15 90 3.1


students the possibility to have
(1) (8) (210) (60) 27 Agree
individual learning programs within 9
a topic.
7 Technological devices make the 2 6 54 28 90 3.2
course content more lively and (2) (12) (162) (112) 28 Agree

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actively. 8

8 Technological devices make things 3 10 41 36 90 3.22


too easy for the students.
(3) (20) (123) (144) 29 Agree
0
3.15 Agree

Table 4.4 shows that majority of the respondents agreed to the statements given
about the positive effects of ICT devices as instructional materials.

Item 1, 2 and 3 are based on the study of Lewin (2000), he states that

Item 1 Technological devices help the students to gain understanding and


analytical skills, including improvements in reading comprehension, got the weighted
mean of 3.19 and a descriptive rating of Agree. As stated by one of the respondents, it is
indeed helpful in improving the analytical skills and the ability to visualize and
conceptualize.

Item 2 Technological devices helps develop the students writing skills (including
spelling, grammar, punctuation, editing and re-drafting) also fluency, originality and
elaboration, got weight mean of 2.98 and a descriptive rating of Disagree, which
contradicts to the study of (National Commission on Writing, 2003, 2006; National
Writing Project & Nagin, 2006), technology-supported writing can advance all phases of
writing—planning, transcribing, and editing and revising using tools, which include, but
are not limited to, the word processor. But technology also enables writing in new ways.
Technology provides new sources for and means of obtaining information (e.g., the
Internet, search engines) and enables sharing, editing, and collaboration among writers,
teachers, and peers. It helps the students to enhance their writing skills because they can
easily access online grammar checker and dictionaries.

Item 3 Increased motivation, organizational skills and responsibility amongst


pupils, got a weighted mean of 3.04 and a descriptive rating of Agree. As stated by
Prensky (2001), creating activities that students enjoy and respond to is a challenging task
for teachers of all subjects. Introducing technology infused lessons may prove to be a

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beneficial motivator for every grade level. Digital natives respond well to technology-
infused activities because of their familiarity with technology.

Item 4 Provide learners the opportunity to develop creativity, communication


skills and other thinking skills, got a weighted mean of 3.26 and a descriptive rating of
Agree. In this modern generation, everyone access different information and strategies in
the internet that can be applied in teaching and learning process. The use of ICT devices
help the teachers and students to develop their creativity in presenting during discussion.

Item 5 Students can access teaching materials such as modules in the internet, got
a weighted mean of 3.21 and a descriptive rating of Agree. Based on the study of
Florence (2012), it makes the learning process convenient because of the software
modules that are downloadable and accessible.

Item 6 Technological devices give the students the possibility to have individual
learning programs within a topic, got the weighted mean of 3.1 and a descriptive rating of
Agree. Just like the statement above in the item 5 technological devices helps the
students to be independent in learning process because the information and modules that
they need to study are accessible and downloadable.

Item 7 Technological devices make the course content more lively and actively,
got a weighted mean of 3.2 and a descriptive rating of Agree. Based on the observation
of the researchers, ICT devices makes the discussion more interesting and lively because
of different strategies and concept that can be applied during discussion example of these
are the PowerPoint Presentations, Prezi and many more.

Item 8 Technological devices make things too easy for the students, got a
weighted mean of 3.22 and a descriptive rating of Agree. Technology was invented and
develop to make things easier especially in education a vastly improvement in quick
access to information and a system to organize it.

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Table 4.4: The Weighted Mean and Descriptive Ratings of the Assessment of
the Students on the Negative Effects of ICT Devices as Instructional Materials

NEGATIVE EFFECTS SD D A SA
(1) (2) (3) (4) W W D
V M R
Frequency

1 Students can get hooked on the 0 25 59 6 90 2.79 Disagree


technology aspect, rather than the
subject content. 0 (50) (177) (24) 251

2 Reduced personal interaction during 0 38 44 8 90 2.67 Disagree


discussion.
0 (76) (132) (32) 240

3 Thinking capacity reduced. 3 40 46 1 90 2.5 Disagree


(3) (80) (138) (4) 225

4 Students find pre-written work online 0 16 59 15 90 2.99 Disagree


for their assignment without citing the
sources that leads to plagiarism. 0 (32) (177) (60) 269

5 Constant looking down at devices can 1 23 49 17 90 2.69 Disagree


cause neck pain and overtime will
(1) (26) (147) (68) 242
cause the neck its natural curve.

6 Eyestrain can also cause headache, 0 7 54 29 90 3.24 Agree


blurred vision and migraines.
0 (14) (162) (116 292
)

7 Reduced physical activity during 1 24 46 19 90 2.92 Disagree


discussion.
(1) (48) (138) (76) 263

8 Students don’t use what they learn 5 33 44 8 90 2.57 Disagree


while using ICT when the move on to
paper-and-pencil tasks. (1) (66) (132) (32) 231

2.80 Disagree

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Table 4.4 presents the majority of the respondents disagreed to the statements
given about the negative effects of ICT devices as instructional materials.

Item 1 Students can get hooked on the technology aspect, rather than the subject
content, got a weighted mean of 2.79 and a descriptive rating of disagree. As stated by
Florence (2012), technology doesn’t always helps to make the content lively and creative
but the devices itself serves as distraction, some students focus on the technology not on
the subject content.

Item 2 ICT devices reduced personal interactions during discussion got a


weighted mean of 2.67 and a descriptive rating of Disagree. As observed by the
researchers, technology attracts the students in the same way they focused their attention.

Item 3 Thinking capacity reduced, got a weighted mean of 2.5 and a descriptive
rating of Disagree. As stated by Greengard (2009), the technology distraction level is
accelerating to the point where thinking deeply is difficult. They become dependent on
the devices. They will feel lazy to attend the class if they can easily get the study material
from the web. It will change their behavior to become more irresponsible.

Item 4 Students find pre-written work online for their assignment without citing
the sources that leads to plagiarism, got a 2.99 and a descriptive rating of Disagree. The
dependence in technology makes the students lazy. Most of students when they are doing
their assignments they often forget to cite the sources when they are copying the exact
work of a certain author.

Item 5 Constant looking down at devices can cause neck pain and overtime will
cause the neck its natural curve, got a weighted mean of 2.69 and a descriptive rating of
Disagree. As interviewed by random students, smart phone and laptop use has a high risk
in neck pain and losing the natural curve of the neck because of constant looking down.

Item 6 Eyestrain can also cause headache, blurred vision and migraines, got a
weighted mean of 3.24 and a descriptive rating of Agree. Students using those devices
for a long time may cause health problem. Health problem such as stress and eyes strain
can affect a student in their education.

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Item 7 Reduced physical activity during discussion 2.92 and a descriptive rating
of Disagree.

Item 8 Students don’t use what they learn while using ICT when the move on to
paper – and – pencil tasks, got a weighted mean of 2.57 and a descriptive rating of
Disagree.

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Chapter V: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

This chapter presents the summary of the findings, conclusions and


recommendations based on the data analyzed in the previous chapter. A summary of the
research is presented, and findings of the study are discussed and interpreted.
Recommendations for further research end the chapter.
The scope of the following conclusions is limited to the related literature and
the data gathered from the respondents, these conclusions may yield incorrect
assumptions. Still, these conclusions are relevant to the effects of ICT as instructional
materials to the Grade 12 GAS students of Don Jesus Gonzales High School.

SUMMARY AND FINDINGS

The purpose of this study was to investigate what are the commonly used ICT
devices as instructional materials and their positive and negative effects.

1. Demographic Profile of the Respondents


1.1 Age
Majority of the respondents are 18 years old with the frequency of 61 and a
percentage 67.78%, 17 years old has a frequency of 24 and a percentage of
26.67%, and 19 years old with a frequency of 5 and a percentage of 5.55%.
1.2 Sex
Most of the respondents are female with a frequency of 58 and percentage of
64.44% and the male are 32 and a percentage of 35.56%.

2. Commonly used ICT devices during discussion

Table 4.3 presents the results of the data gathered from the respondents. Among
the ICT devices Laptop got the first place with a percentage of 93.33%,
Television got 85.56%, LED Projector got 48.89%, Smart Phones got 25.56%,
Computer Desktop got 23.33% and Tablets got 3.33%. Majority of the study
shows that laptop is the frequently used ICT device by teachers and students.

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While the device that got the least percentage is the Tablet because most of them
prefer the use of Laptops and Smart phones.

3. Positive effects of ICT devices as instructional materials used by teachers


during discussion
The results about the positive effects of ICT as instructional materials presented
in Table 4.4 states that majority of the respondents agreed to the statement. Item
1,3,4,5,6,7 and 8 got a descriptive rating of Agree while item 2 got a descriptive
rating of disagree.

2. Negative effects of ICT devices as instructional materials used by teachers


during discussion
The results about the negative effects of ICT as instructional materials presented
in Table 4.5 states that majority of the respondents agreed to the statement. Item
1,2,3,4,5,7 and 8 got a descriptive rating of Disagree and item 6 got a descriptive
rating of agree. It shows that most of the respondents disagree to the negative
effects.

Conclusions
From the discussions, the following conclusions are drawn:
 The study reveals that most of the respondents are female and most of
them are 18 years old.
 Most of the teachers have adopted the use of ICT devices as instructional
materials. However, this study verifies that laptop is the most used device
during discussion.
 This study implied that ICT has a positive effect that supports the previous
studies about this topic. Among the other statements found in table 4.4 the
item 4 got the highest mean of 3.26 it says that “ICT provide learners an
opportunity to develop creativity, communication skills, and other
thinking skills” while in the negative effects the statement that got the

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highest weighted mean of 3.24 it says that “Eyestrain can also cause
headache, blurred vision and migraines” agreed by the respondents.

 The study showed that ICT devices has significant impact and in
education.

Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were given as
follows:

 The researchers recommend that the every classroom should have at least one
of those ICT devices that can use during discussion.
 The researchers recommend to set a strategic direction for ICT use to reduce
the negative effects
 To the future researchers, the present study concentrated only on secondary
level, the same aspects can be investigated at the primary and higher level
also. Following are some of the areas related to the present research where the
studies are less and results may be added to the existing system of knowledge.
a.)Perceptions of the students about the use of ICT devices in eduction;
b.)Factors influencing integration of ICT in teaching learning process at
tertiary level; and c.) Professional competency and ICT education at higher
education level.

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