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105 visualizações5 páginasKnowledge representation and Reasoning

Mar 09, 2018

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Knowledge representation and Reasoning

© All Rights Reserved

105 visualizações

Knowledge representation and Reasoning

© All Rights Reserved

- Logic for Law Students
- Chap2 Set Theory
- Knights and Knaves
- Kant and Lying to the Murderer at the Door
- The Nature and Function of Conspiracy Theory
- Fuzzification of College Adviser Proficiency Based on Specific Knowledge
- Values
- The 7 Ways of Highly Effective Alcoholics
- Natural Machine Logic Foreword
- Butler Lies
- Doubting Vision
- Logic and law
- prelims2&3
- rel 110 paper rubric
- New Microsoft Excel Worksheet
- Hamlet's Love Letter and the New Philosophy
- Ancient Logic & Medieval Theories of Consequence Philosophy)
- Chart of Aok vs WoK 2
- Aristote Et La Bataille Navale
- Logical Thinking L16

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On a certain island there are only two types of people: Knights and

Knaves. Every person on the island is either is a Knight or a Knave, an no

one is both. When the people on the island speak, the following rules hold:

• Knaves always lie.

Problem 1: There are two native islanders, named Alice and Bob, standing

next to each other. You do not know what type either of them is. Suddenly,

Alice says “At least one of us is a Knave.”

Solution: Consider four possible cases, as shown in the four rows of this

table.

Alice Bob

Knight Knight

Knight Knave

Knave Knight

Knave Knave

Considering each of the four cases, we see that Alice’s statement is False in

Row 1 and True in Rows 2, 3, and 4. If Alice is a Knight, what she says

must be True, which means Row 1 cannot occur, but Row 2 can. If Alice is

a Knave, what she says must be False, meaning neither Row 3 nor Row 4

can occur. Thus the only possibility is Row 2, and hence Alice is a Knight

and Bob is a Knave.

Alternate Solution: Since Alice says “At least one of us are Knaves”, her

statement is true if she is a Knave. However, if she is a Knave, she must be

lying. Thus Alice cannot be a Knave, and hence Alice is a Knight. Since

Alice is a Knight, her statement is true, and since Alice is not a Knave, we

must have that Bob is a Knave.

1

2 KNIGHTS AND KNAVES — SOLUTIONS

Problem 2: Again, there are two native islanders standing next to each

other. One is named Claire and the other is named Desmond. You do not

know what type either of them are. Claire suddenly says, “We are both

Knights”. After this, Desmond says “Either Claire is a Knight or I am a

Knight, but we are not both Knights.”

What is Claire?

Claire Desmond

Knight Knight

Knight Knave

Knave Knight

Knave Knave

Claire is a Knight, what she say must be true, which means that Row 2

cannot occur. Hence we must be in the situation of Row 1 or Row 3 or

Row 4. In Row 1, Desmond is a Knight and must tell the truth; but since

Desmond’s statement is False in Row 1. Thus Row 1 cannot occur, and

we are either in the situation of Row 3 or Row 4. In Row 3, Desmond is

a Knight and his statement is true; so there is no problem and Row 3 is

possible. In Row 4, Desmond is a Knave and his statement is false; so there

is no problem and Row 4 is possible. Thus either Row 3 or Row 4 occurs

(but we don’t know which). This means Claire must be a Knave. However,

we have no idea what Desmond is, and he could be either a Knight or a

Knave.

statement would be true, implying Desmond is a Knight and his statement

(that they are not both Knights) is False, which is a contradiction since

Knights cannot lie. Thus Claire must be a Knave. Once can then check,

Desmond’s statement is True if he is a Knight and false if he is a Knave; so

Desmond could be either.

KNIGHTS AND KNAVES — SOLUTIONS 3

Problem 3: There are three native islanders, named Elena, Fernando, and

Gary, standing together. You ask Elena, “How many knights are among

you?”, and Elena answered but you couldn’t quite hear what she said. You

then ask Fernando, “What did Elena say?”, and Fernando replies, “Elena

said there is one knight among us.” At this point, Gary says “Don’t believe

Fernando; he is lying.”

giving us 8 total cases to consider.

Elena Fernando Gary

Knight Knight Knight

Knight Knight Knave

Knight Knave Knight

Knight Knave Knave

Knave Knight Knight

Knave Knight Knave

Knave Knave Knight

Knave Knave Knave

If Elena is a Knight, she must have answered with the correct number

of Knights (e.g., in Row 1 she would say “Three”, and in Row 2 she would

say “Two”). If Elena is a Knave she must have answered with an incorrect

number of Knights (e.g., in Row 5, she must have said a number other than

“Two”).

If Fernando is a Knight, then we must be in Row 1, 2, 5, or 6. Further-

more, if Fernando is a Knight, he is telling the truth, and Elena must have

indeed said there is One Knight. Row 1 cannot happen, because then Elena

is a Knight who is lying. Similarly, Row 2 cannot happen, because then

Elena is again a Knight telling a lie. In Row 5, Elena would be a Knave

and lying (which is fine), but Gary would be a Knight and he is saying that

Fernando (who is also a Knight) is lying, which is impossible; thus Row 5

cannot occur. In addition, Row 6 cannot happen since then Elena would

be a Knave who is telling the truth. We have just argued that Rows 1, 2,

5, and 6 are all impossible. Thus we must be in Rows 3, 4, 7, or 8, and

Fernando must be a Knave.

Consider Rows 3, 4, 7, and 8. In all these rows, Fernando is lying, which

means Elena must have said that number of Knights is something other than

One. In Row 3, Elena is a Knight and thus must have said there are Two

4 KNIGHTS AND KNAVES — SOLUTIONS

he says Fernando is lying (which is consistent with Gary being a Knight).

Thus Row 3 is possible.

In Row 4, Elena is a Knight, which means she truthfully said there is One

Knight, and that means Fernando is telling the truth, which contradicts that

he is a Knave. Thus Row 4 cannot occur.

In Row 7, Elena is a Knave, which means she lied about the number of

Knights and said a number other than One. Fernando is a Knave, and his

statement is a lie (which is consistent). In addition, Gary is a Knight, and

his statement that Fernando is lying is true (which is also consistent). Thus

Row 7 is possible.

In Row 8, Fernando is a Knave, so his statement must be a lie. In addition,

Gary is a Knave, but his statement that Fernando is lying is true. Thus

Row 8 cannot occur.

We see from above that either Row 3 or Row 7 is possible, and all other

rows are impossible. In Rows 3 and 7 we have that Fernando is a Knave

and Gary is a Knight. However, we cannot determine what Elena is.

a Knight or he is a Knave. If Fernando is a Knight, then he is telling the

truth and Gary is lying, so Gary is a Knave. However, since Fernando is a

Knight, that means Elena did indeed say there is One Knight among them,

which is false is Elena is a Knight (contradiction) and True if Elena is a

Knave (contradiction). Thus we cannot have Fernando be a Knight.

Therefore Fernando is a Knave, which means Gary is telling the truth,

and hence Gary is a Knight. One can then check its consistent for Elena to

be either a Knight or Knave.

KNIGHTS AND KNAVES — SOLUTIONS 5

Problem 4: You travel along a road that comes to a fork producing a path

to the right and a path to the left. You know that one path leads to Death

and the other path leads to Freedom, but you have no idea which is which.

You can only choose one path to follow. Fortunately, at the fork in the road

are two native islanders, named Horace and Ingrid. You know that one of

Horace and Ingrid is a Knight and the other is a Knave, but you don’t know

which is which. You are allowed to ask only one question. You can ask

either Horace or Ingrid (but not both), and the person you ask will answer

you.

How can you ask a question that will allow you to determine the path to

Freedom?

Note to Facilitators: Give the students a chance to think about this for a

while, and poke holes in their initial attempts. If the students try for a while

and seem to be stuck or frustrated, try giving them this hint.

Hint: Think of a question that each person will answer the same regardless

of whether they are a Knight (telling the truth) or a Knave (telling a lie).

Solution: Pick either person (it doesn’t matter which) and ask them

If the person you ask is a Knight, then the other person is a Knave. The

Knave would lie and tell you the opposite direction of Freedom, and the

Knight will then tell you what the Knave would say, thus giving you the

opposite direction of Freedom.

If the person you ask is a Knave, then the other person is a Knight. The

Knight would tell you the correct direction to Freedom, but then the Knave

you are asking will lie and tell you the opposite direction of Freedom.

In either case, the answer you get is the opposite direction of Freedom. So,

you should ask one of the people this question, and then go in the direction

opposite to the answer they give you.

- Logic for Law StudentsEnviado porChristian Casildo
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