Você está na página 1de 41

UNIVERSITY TECHNOLOGY MALAYSIA

ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS- URSP6013


HOW THE POPULATION GROWTH REFLECTS THE ENERGY DEMAND AND
GIVE IMPACT TO ENVIRONMENT IN MALAYSIA.
Group Assignment Report

REVIEWED BY:
Dr. NORAZLI BINITI OTHMAN

PREPARED BY:
MAGED MOHAMMED AHMED QASEM PRS173005
MOHAMED MAHATHIR BIN MOHAMED YOUNOS PRS173005
MOUSA ABDULLAH MOHMMED HASAN PRS173006
HAMDI ABDULRAHMAN SAIF SALEM PRS173004

UTM RAZAK SCHOOL OF ENGINEERIMG


AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY
TABLE OF CONTENT

Table of Content ................................................................................................ i

LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................................ iii

1. POPULATION GROWTH AND ENERGY DEMAND ....................... 1

1.1 Introduction ........................................................................................ 1

1.2 Advantages of Population Growth. .................................................... 6

1.2.1 Economy Growth ......................................................................... 6

1.2.2 Increased Human Resources ........................................................ 6

1.2.3 Diversity of Population ................................................................ 7

1.2.4 Social Equality ............................................................................. 7

1.2.5 Source of Happiness ..................................................................... 7

1.2.6 New Advances .............................................................................. 8

1.2.7 Better Innovative Technologies .................................................... 8

1.2.8 Increased Military Might .............................................................. 8

1.3 Disadvantages of Population Growth. ................................................ 9

1.3.1 Depletion of Natural Habitats....................................................... 9

1.3.2 Increased Organic and Inorganic Wastes ..................................... 9

1.3.3 Rise in Crime Rates .................................................................... 10

1.3.4 Poor Access to Quality Health ................................................... 10

1.3.5 Depletion of Fresh Water Resources .......................................... 10

1.3.6 Degradation of Environment ...................................................... 11

1.3.7 Increased Farming Activities...................................................... 11

1.3.8 Emergence of New Types of Diseases ....................................... 11

1.3.9 Child Labor................................................................................. 12

1.3.10 Rise Unemployment ................................................................. 12

i
1.3.11 Conflicts and Wars ................................................................... 12

1.4 Type of Energy Demand by Society ................................................ 13

1.4.1 Industry ....................................................................................... 13

1.4.2 Transport .................................................................................... 14

1.4.3 Other Sectors .............................................................................. 15

1.5 Energy Sources in Malaysia ............................................................. 15

1.5.1 Natural gas .................................................................................. 15

1.5.2 Coal ............................................................................................ 16

1.5.3 Oil and Petroleum ....................................................................... 16

1.5.4 Renewable energy resources ...................................................... 17

1.6 Environmental Impact from Energy Consumption .......................... 18

1.6.1 Energy and Emission .................................................................. 19

1.7 Sustainability Technology for Energy Recovery ............................. 21

1.7.1 Energy Recovery ........................................................................ 22

1.7.2 Waste to Energy Approach ......................................................... 23

1.7.3 Biodiesel in Malaysia ................................................................. 25

1.7.4 Biomass Energy .......................................................................... 26

1.1 Pollution Control .............................................................................. 27

1.2 General View of Environmental ethics ............................................ 33

REFERENCES............................................................................................... 35

ii
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1: population Growth Trend From 2010 to 2040 (DOSM, 2016). 1
Figure 1.2: Age Structure of Malaysian Population in 2010 and 2040). 2
Figure 1.3: Population Distribution in Each State for Year 2016 (DOSM, 2016) 3
Figure 1.4: Malaysian Ethnic composition in in 2010 and 2040 (DOSM, 2016). 4
Figure 1.5: Sex Ratio of Malaysian Population in 2010 and 2040 (DOSM, 2016). 5
Figure 1.6: Energy Demand Growth from 1990 to 2050. 14
Figure 1.7: Coal Required by Malaysia from 2008 to 2030 16
Figure 1.8: oil consumption in Malaysia from 2007 to 2016. 17
Figure 1.9. Malaysian Renewable Energy Sources 17
Figure 1.10: Energy Demand in Malaysia from 1990 to 2009 19
Figure 1.11: National Biofuel Policy Malaysia 2006 with 5 Strategic Trust and
Expected Benefits 21
Figure 1.12: Energy Generation & Energy Recovery 22
Figure 1.13: Municipal Solid Waste Being Disposed to Landfill. 23
Figure 1.14: Taman Beringin Landfill Site. 24
Figure 1.15: Malaysia National Biofuel Policy and Implementation 25
Figure 1.15: Timeline of Technological Availability in Malaysia 26

iii
1. POPULATION GROWTH AND ENERGY DEMAND

1.1 Introduction

In 1963, the population of the whole Malaysia was nearly nine million. The
over-all population increased to more than 10.8 million in 1970 and 13.7 million in
1980. The growth rate of population had declined gradually from a high level of 3.0
percent per year in 1966 to 2.30 percent in 1980. With the high influx of immigrants
during the period of 1980-1991, the average yearly growth rate has risen to 2.64
percent per annum giving the total population of Malaysia in 1991 to more than 18.5
million. The 2000 population survey gives a population of 23.3 million, growing at an
annual growth rate of 2.60 per cent per annum for the period 1991-2000.

Malaysia's population is projected to increase from 28.6 million (2010) to 41.5


million (2040). Nevertheless, the population increase is slow with the annual
population growth rate decreasing from 1.8 percent (2010) to 0.8 per cent (2040). The
average population growth rate decreases by 0.05 per cent per year. The increase in
population size for the next two decades is due to the in-built momentum of population
growth arising mainly from maturing of young age groups of the last few decades into
larger fecund age groups (DOSM, 2016).

Figure 1.1: population Growth Trend From 2010 to 2040 (DOSM, 2016).

1
In terms of age structure, the present population of Malaysia can be described
as “youthful”. Due to high fertility in the last two decades coupled with declining
mortality, as many as 33 percent of the present population are under age of 15 years
old. The current median age of the population is less than 24 years. With regard to the
aged population (65 years and older), there has been a clear trend towards ageing
population.

According the study conducted by department of statistic Malaysia (2016) in


which encompassed the age structure of the population that was categorized into three
main groups, the younger age group (0-14 years), the working
age group (15-64 years) and old age (65 years and over). The study shows that the
younger age group contributed to the population with 27.4%, however, this group
portion is expected to decrease to 18.6 % by 2040. Similarly, there is predicted slight
drop in the working group between in the 30-year period between 2010 and 2040.
Contrary to younger age group, old age is predicated to increase significantly by 8.5
% from 2010 t0 2040. That might happen to the low rate of fertility and the decrease
in the mortality rate in the next 25 years. Figure 1.2 shows the age structure of
population in year 2010 and 2040.

Figure 1.2: Age Structure of Malaysian Population in 2010 and 2040 (DOSM, 2016).

2
In terms of spatial distribution, the proportion of the population living in urban
areas has increased from 50.7 per cent in 1991 to 61.8 per cent in 2000, growing at an
annual average rate of 4.8 per cent. This increase was due to rural-urban migration,
spurred by expectations of jobs opportunities and a better quality of life, growth of
new urban areas and extension of existing administrative boundaries (Peng et. al,
2014). Figure 1.3 shows the population distribution in each state of the country. It can
be seen that Selangor is the most populated state with 19.9 %, followed by Sabah as
the second largest populated state with percentage of 12 % of the total population.

Figure 1.3: Population Distribution in Each State for Year 2016 (DOSM, 2016)

The decline in fertility and mortality levels in Malaysia has been consistent
with the rapid economic growth that the country has been experiencing. While there
has been general awareness of the need to integrate population factors within the broad
framework of development, the vision of attaining an industrialized and developed
nation status by the year 2020 would necessarily require closer understanding of the
implications and consequences of future changes in population trends and dynamics.

The population of Malaysia, which is 23.3 million in 2000, is expected to grow


to about 33.4 million by the year 2020. The increase in population size for the next
two decades is due to the in-built momentum of population growth arising mainly from
maturing of young age groups of the last few decades into larger fecund age groups.

3
Among the main ethnic groups, Bumiputera showed the highest percentage
increase of 4.8 percentage points, from 67.3 percent (2010) to 72.1 percent (2040). On
the other hand, chines population account the total population by 24.5 percent in 2010
which put it in the second highest place in the country. This portion of population will
be reduced by 4.5 %. The portion of population from the Indian origins is only 7.3
percent of the total population in 2010. This figure is expected to decrease by 0.9
percent by 2040. Figure 1.4 shows the ethnic composition in Malaysian population.
The factors that might contribute to the increase of Bumiputera are due to the high rate
of the births and slow rate of mortality.

Figure 1.4: Malaysian Ethnic composition in in 2010 and 2040 (DOSM, 2016).

The sex ratio in 2010 was 106 males for every 100 females and will increase
to 108 in 2020 and shall remain unchanged until 2040. The sex ratio is 103 by citizen
and will be sustained over the period of 30 years. On the other hand, the sex ratio of
noncitizens is higher, namely 156 in 2010 and is expected to increase to 169 in 2040.
Figure 1.5 presents clearly the sex ratio in 2010 and the expected in 2040.

4
Figure 1.5: Sex Ratio of Malaysian Population in 2010 and 2040 (DOSM, 2016).

The future age structure of the population will have considerable implications
for social and economic development. In the next two decades, Malaysia will still have
a moderately “young” population, with those within the age group 0-14 constituting
30.5 per cent of the total population. This implies that much of our development
resources will still need to be devoted to cater for the needs of the younger age groups,
particularly in terms of child care, education and other social services. While attending
to the needs of the younger segment of the population, there is also concern for the
steady increase of older persons, both numerically and in proportionate terms. Steps
will have to be undertaken to plan for the needs of the projected two million elderly
by the year 2020.

Malaysia stands unique today as one of the very few countries which has,
within a relatively short period, succeeded not only in achieving growth but also in
addressing more effectively the problems of poverty and economic imbalances.
Alleviation of poverty has been in fact among the top priorities of development
programs since independence in 1957.

5
1.2 Advantages of Population Growth.

In general, there are some advantages that can be noticed for the growth of
population. The following section explains in details those merits generally and
specifically in Malaysia.

1.2.1 Economy Growth

The bigger a population in a country, the bigger the domestic market of that
country. More people are able to work, which means that products are manufactured
at cheaper costs and labor costs are lower, which in turn make these products more
affordable to the general population. This creates economies of scale because volume
increases and cost per unit decreases.

With a labor force that is projected to grow in Malaysia from about 12.7 million
in 2010 to 15.1 million inm2020, the number of new jobs to be created is about 273
thousand to begin with in 2010, and17 with the slower growth of the new entrants to
the labor market, the number of new jobs required will be decreasing. The number of
child dependent will be around 7.8 to 8 million between 2010 and 2020. The GDP will
be increasing from around RM1, 000 billion in 2010 to RM1, 616 billion in 2020. Per
capita GDP will increase from about RM 35 thousand to RM 49 thousand during the
same period.

1.2.2 Increased Human Resources

One obvious advantage that some people believe can be found in a large
population is a greater number of human resources. This will most likely not lead to
an increase in jobs in places in which unemployment has been a major issue, but with
more people there will be an increase of people willing to work for less. Whether that

6
is a good thing in a socioeconomic climate that has historically placed a great value on
class and wealth is open to debate, but some people believe that an abundance of
people willing to work may have a positive effect on society.

1.2.3 Diversity of Population

Population growth is beneficial because it adds diversity to the world. This


advantage is embodied in Malaysian society as we can see the different ethnics with
different cultures and different background such as Malay, chines and Indians. With
these different population composition, society is more enjoyable when we're able to
learn about the lives of people in different cultures. However, when certain cultures
become extinct, we miss out on important life lessons we could get from them.

1.2.4 Social Equality

Overpopulation is also bound to re-examine traditional gender roles, bringing


true social and economic equality for women. In addition to social equality, more
inventions are inevitable to help solve the common problems that may arise due to the
large population. This can create more jobs, which improves the economy for the
better

1.2.5 Source of Happiness

As humans, we were designed with the need to enjoy healthy relationships. We


may have the latest gadgets which allow us to communicate with each other, but it's
not the same as a warm hug, a beautiful smile or a meaningful face-to-face
conversation. This is why we need population growth.

7
1.2.6 New Advances

Population growth is also important because we need a new generation of


people with creative mindsets who can think out of the box and create ways to keep
society strong. New born babies of today, are the inventers of new technologies
tomorrow. That will ensure safe food production methods for us.

1.2.7 Better Innovative Technologies

With better innovative technologies, the increased demand for services and
goods will become patent because the pricing of raw materials will become more
competitive. Additionally, overpopulation provides labor in manufacturing and
processing industries leading to reduced prices of goods and services.

1.2.8 Increased Military Might

If a country can control its large population, it can have a significant military
advantage over smaller countries. If the economy is stable, and if the government can
properly manage its increasing number of people, the military size will increase, along
with the military supplies. Additionally, an increase in population can lead to an
increase in technology, which will allow for the production of more sophisticated
military products.

8
1.3 Disadvantages of Population Growth.

Overpopulation refers to the condition whereby the number of living persons


in a given region exceeds the capacity of the given region or state to satisfactorily cater
for the needs of the occupants. This condition is caused by a number of reasons among
which includes increased birth rates, low mortality rates, inward immigration, lack of
proper education, cultural beliefs, and many other factors. There is a myriad of
shortcomings that are brought about by overpopulation and the following section
discusses some of these.

1.3.1 Depletion of Natural Habitats

As the population of the people in a given region grows it reaches to the point
where the originally available space for the people to settle on is no longer enough
hence forcing them to move to regions originally occupied by other living species.
This consequently forces the other species to relocate to other areas that could be less
favorable in terms of their survival requirements and some have as a result gone
extinct.

1.3.2 Increased Organic and Inorganic Wastes

Overpopulation leads to increased organic and inorganic wastes. This has


emerged as a major cause of deaths from diseases that are in one way or the other
associated with organic wastes. Heavily populated areas tend to consume great
amounts of energy hence producing great amounts of toxic waste to the environment
such as Carbon Dioxide emissions which is a major contributing factor to the ozone
layer depletion

9
1.3.3 Rise in Crime Rates

The rise in crime rates can also be linked to overpopulation. When the
population exceeds the capacity of the available resources to cater for the basic needs,
many will resort to illegal activities as they strive to make ends meet. They will often
involve themselves in crimes such as robbery, drug trafficking and other crime related
activities

1.3.4 Poor Access to Quality Health

Just as in the case of education, health is one very important basic need that
every citizen should be assured of. However, if the population of a given region or
country exceeds the support capability of the country in terms of medical equipment,
doctors, nurses or medical supplies; the lives and health quality of the people in the
overpopulated areas is at stake.

1.3.5 Depletion of Fresh Water Resources

Depletion of fresh water resources is the other disadvantage of overpopulation.


Fresh water is one of the most essential need to the human existence. Over the years,
human activity has threatened the sources of fresh water in the planet. Human activity
such as logging, charcoal burning, and encroachment to rainforest and water tower
zones is continuously posing a major threat to the source of this limited commodity in
the human existence.

10
1.3.6 Degradation of Environment

With the overuse of coal, oil and natural gas, it has started producing some
serious effects on our environment. Rise in the number of vehicles and industries have
badly affected the quality of air. Rise in amount of CO2 emissions leads to global
warming. Melting of polar ice caps, changing climate patterns, rise in sea level are few
of the consequences that we might we have to face due to environment pollution

1.3.7 Increased Farming Activities

As the human masses inhabit the earth, the attempts to meet the food needs is
on the rise. This forces the people to find means by which to proficiently cater for the
need for food. Farming is predominantly the most preferred method to the production
of food. Increased farming activities lead to deforestation and degradation of the soils
on the lands that farming activities have been carried out for a long time. This could
lead to the question of where the people will source their foodstuff if all the farming
lands is rendered barren and cannot produce any crop anymore.

1.3.8 Emergence of New Types of Diseases

Increased rate of population and overpopulation leads to emergence and speedy


outbreaks of new types of diseases, pandemics and epidemics. The spread of these
diseases is even catalyzed by the crowding of people in overpopulated areas, as there
are no sufficient means to control such outbreaks. Some examples of these diseases
that spread the fastest in overpopulated areas are Tuberculosis, HIV, and malaria and
cholera.

11
1.3.9 Child Labor

As distressing as it maybe to hear, child labor is still used extensively in many


parts of the world. UNICEF estimates that approximately 150 million children are
currently working, primarily in countries that have few child labor laws. This can result
in children being seen as a source of income by impoverished families. Furthermore,
children who begin work too young also lose the educational opportunities they should
be granted, particularly when it comes to birth control.

1.3.10 Rise Unemployment

When a country becomes overpopulated, it gives rise to unemployment as


there fewer jobs to support large number of people. Rise in unemployment gives rise
to crime as people will steal various items to feed their family and provide them basic
amenities of life

1.3.11 Conflicts and Wars

Overpopulation in developing countries puts a major strain on the resources it


should be utilizing for development. Conflicts over water are becoming a source of
tension between countries, which would result in wars. It causes more diseases to
spread and makes them harder to control. Starvation is a huge issue facing the world
and the mortality rate for children is being fuelled by it. Poverty is the biggest hallmark
can be seen when talking about overpopulation. All of this will only become worse if
solutions are not sought out for the factors affecting our population.

12
1.4 Type of Energy Demand by Society

Malaysia has a good mix of energy resources; oil, natural gas, coal and
renewable energies such as hydro power electricity, biomass, and solar. We are
interested in detailing some information towards these types of energy and the
utilization in Malaysia within 5-year time back. Instead of electricity generation, these
most popular types of energy those being used in Malaysia widely are also important
in various fields such as transportations, industries, residential and commercials, and
also being exported to some countries.

Malaysia’s final energy demand (excluding the international transport sector)


is projected to grow at an average annual rate of 2.1%, reaching 69 Mtoe by 2035
under business-as-usual (BAU) assumptions. The industry sector accounts for the
largest portion with a share of 38% by 2035, followed by the domestic transport sector
at 28%. Malaysia’s final energy intensity is projected to decline by 44% between 2005
and 2035. Figure 1.3 shows the energy demand growth based on sector.

1.4.1 Industry

By 2035, natural gas will account for the largest share of the final industry
demand (33%), followed by electricity and oil, at 28% each. The final energy demand
for the industrial sector is expected to nearly double over the outlook period, reaching
28 Mtoe in 2035. The energy intensity for the industrial sector, calculated as industrial
demand divided by current GDP, is expected to reduce by 28% within the same time
period. This reflects the sector’s shift towards a structure that is less energy intensive
as well as improvements in technical energy efficiency. Figure 1.6 shows
chronological growth of the energy demand in different sector from 1990 to 2035.

13
Figure 1.6: Energy Demand Growth from 1990 to 2050.

1.4.2 Transport

The transport sector energy demand is projected to increase in the outlook


period by an average annual rate of 1.5% for domestic transport and 1.8% for
international transport, reaching a total of 24 Mtoe in 2035. Petroleum products are
expected to remain the dominant transport energy source, but other energy resources,
especially natural gas and biofuels, are expected to contribute an increasing share over
the outlook period, together accounting for about 3% of the total transport final energy
demand in 2035. This would be in line with existing government incentives to
encourage utilization of natural gas and biofuel in light vehicles. Currently, the fuelling
stations for non-petroleum products are very limited and concentrated mostly within
the Klang Valley. The contribution from natural gas would likely increase dramatically
if the fuelling stations were more widespread across the economy.

14
1.4.3 Other Sectors

The final energy demand for the ‘other’ sector, which includes commercial,
residential, and agriculture sub-sectors, is projected to grow at an average annual rate
of 2.4%, reaching 16 Mtoe in 2035. Electricity constitutes the largest portion, with a
share of about 62% (10 Mtoe) in 2035. This will be heavily driven by the need for
space cooling. Generally, most urban dwellings are currently equipped with at least
basic electrical home appliances such as televisions and refrigerators. Air conditioning
is less common outside cities and townships as fans are deemed sufficient to cope with
the humid weather. This moderate growth trend will likely continue throughout the
outlook period unless there is a drastic change in climate.

1.5 Energy Sources in Malaysia

There are number of energy resources being used in Malaysia such as oil,
natural gas, coal and renewable energies such as hydro power electricity, biomass, and
solar.

1.5.1 Natural gas

Malaysia’s total natural gas resources are estimated to be 100.7 tscf. Thus,
based on the current production rate, Malaysia’s natural gas resources should be able
to last up to 40 years. Natural gas therefore is expected to continue to play an important
role in helping to power Malaysia’s economy, as well as feature prominently in
ensuring security of the nation’s energy supply up to 2050.

15
1.5.2 Coal

Coal is cheaper than gas. However, Malaysia is still imported 100% from
Indonesia, Australia and South Africa. There could be exposed to risk of security of
supply due to weather, political as well as competition from developing countries such
as China and India. Figure 1.6 shows the coal required by country from 2008 t0 2030.

Figure 1.7: Coal Required by Malaysia from 2008 to 2030

1.5.3 Oil and Petroleum

Malaysia’s Oil Consumption was reported at 829.22 Barrel/Day th in Dec


2016. This records an increase from the previous number of 813.56 Barrel/Day th for
Dec 2015. Malaysia’s Oil Consumption data is updated yearly, averaging 273.64
Barrel/Day th from Dec 1965 to 2016, with 52 observations. The data reached an all-
time high of 829.22 Barrel/Day th in 2016 and a record low of 46.08 Barrel/Day th in
1965. Figure 1.8 shows the oil consumption in Malaysia from 207 to 2016.

16
Figure 1.8: Oil Consumption in Malaysia from 2007 to 2016.

1.5.4 Renewable Energy Resources

The most important sources of renewable energy in Malaysia are biomass and
solar and sustainable use of energy has been emphasized in the country's development
plans and supported by Government initiatives. Under the 10th Malaysia Plan, the
Government will be introducing the feed-in tariff (FiT) of 1% to be incorporated into
the electricity tariffs of consumers to support the development of renewable energy
figure 1.9 shows the chat of the renewable energy types being adopted in Malaysia

Figure 1.9. Malaysian Renewable Energy Sources

17
As a developing country, Malaysia would have to be continuously on its toes
in trying to meet the ever-increasing strongly requests for energy, either for domestic
used or exports, in the most cost-effective manner whilst ensuring sustainability of the
energy sector. To enhance the country’s competitiveness and resilience in the 21st
century, the energy sector must also be able to deliver adequate, reliable and quality
power supply. The Malaysian energy sector is still heavily contingent upon non-
renewable fuel; oil, coal and natural gas as a source of energy. These non-renewable
fuels are finite and gradually reducing and also contribute to the emission of
greenhouse gas. Malaysia is one of the ASEAN countries (Philippines, Indonesia,
Thailand and Vietnam) which are blessed with most of the types of renewable energy
sources. The implementation of various policies and programs by the government of
Malaysia has increased the awareness of the importance of the role of renewable
energy in a sustainable energy system. Apart from that, close cooperation within the
countries in this region can also further promote the use of renewable energy in order
to fulfill the demands of energy worldwide.

1.6 Environmental Impact from Energy Consumption

Malaysian is one of the fast-economic growing as well as industrial countries.


Due to fast industrialization, the overall power demands from 1990 to 2009 in
Malaysia is increased about 3 times from 1990 to 2009. As a result, the power plant
installation also increases. The power plant capacity is increased from 14,291 MW to
24,377 MW between 2000 to 2009. Figure 1.10 shows the overall demand of energy
in Malaysia.

The industrial sector also one of the major energy users in Malaysia.
Furthermore, the industrial power demands from 1990 to 2009 in Malaysia are shown
in Figure 4. In addition, power demand increasing rate of industrial sector was higher
compared to whole Malaysian demand increasing rate between 1990 and 2009.

18
Figure 1.10: Energy Demand in Malaysia from 1990 to 2009

Due to the economic crisis, the energy consumption in the industrial section
has been decreased in 2009 compared to 2008. As industrial sector is one of the major
energy consumers, this economic crisis affects the overall energy consumption in
Malaysia. The overall energy consumption is less in 2009 compared to the year of
2008

1.6.1 Energy and Emission

Energy emission is mainly depends on the fossil fuel that produces huge
amount of emissions and changes the climate. That is substantial environmental
problem which potentially leads to rises in sea levels, loss of coastal land, and
ecological shifts. The major cause of climate change is emissions of greenhouse gases.

To fulfil the energy demand, energy generation sector contributes to the


environmental degradation (i.e. emission, air pollution, acid rain, climate change etc.)
45% of electricity is consumed by industrial sector. So, about 45% of emission for
power generation are responsible the industrial sector. In Brazil about 81% of CO2
emissions by the country’s industrial sector come from energy use.

19
Emissions release by the burning of fossil fuels have a serious greenhouse
effect (i.e. acid rain, ice melting, temperature rises) on mankind More the energy used,
more the CO2 emission. Since the emissions is directly depends on the usage of fossil
fuels, so reduction of energy consumption is the direct way of control emission's
problem. The environmental impact can be tabulated in Table 1.1.

Table 1.1: Environmental Impact Due to Energy Consumption

No Renewable
Impact
Energy
Wind Energy The visibility and noise of wind turbines and their
1
impacts on wilderness areas.
Solar Energy Some materials for example arsenic and cadmium cause
health
2
Problems and safety issues for the workers as well as the
people Encountering him.
Biomass Air pollution occurs during combustion of biomass and
3
biomass-derived fuels production
Air Pollution Combustion of biomass pollutes the air and generates
4 carbon
Monoxide, nitrogen oxides and particulates.
Greenhouse Carbon dioxide is released on the air while burning the
5 Gases biomass.
Global warming becomes zero
Implication for Improper management might have harmful effect on
Agriculture and environment
Forestry Impact on biodiversity by the devastation of species
6 habitats,
More intensively managed forest is more vulnerable,
and provides excuse to exploit forest in an unsustainable
manner.

20
1.7 Sustainability Technology for Energy Recovery

Energy, often known as an engine for developed and developing countries and
as an important element to support the population growth, urbanization,
industrialization and tourism industry. Thus, Energy security is defined as how to
equitably provide the available, affordable, reliable, environmentally benign,
proactively governed and socially acceptable energy services to the end-users. The
security of the supply of energy fuels, theories about peak oil, rising prices, and energy
poverty, have become the prominent concerns among the policy makers and investors.
According to the statistical analysis conducted by the International Energy Agency, a
53% increase in global energy consumption is foreseen by 2030, consisting mainly
34.8% of crude oil, 29.2% of coal and 24.1% of natural gas Ong et. al. 2011. Thus,
these growth trends have exacerbated the challenges connected to the limitations of
energy supply, and the resulting competition of natural resources. Realizing fossil fuels
as a double-edged sword, various alternative energies have been explored to satisfy
the world energy demand while simultaneously ensuring the sustainability of the
environment. Therefore, in 2006, the National Biofuel Policy has promoted biofuel to
be used in several sector as shown in Figure 1.11.

Figure 1.11: National Biofuel Policy Malaysia 2006 with 5 Strategic Trust and Expected Benefits

21
1.7.1 Energy Recovery

In the conventional method of generating energy, energy produced by burning


fuel. One third of the energy is converted into electricity and usable energy while the
other two third which is about 67% of the energy is generated in terms of heat and goes
as waste energy. As a result, this waste energy is imposing pollution to our
environment. Thus, the new concept of energy recovery is to use the waste energy to
generate energy. In fact, as the heat goes as waste energy, this heat can be used to heat
water and create steam which turns generators creating electricity as shown in Figure
1.12 By using the energy recovery, 25 % of the waste energy is converted into
electricity, 65 is converted into steam and only 10% of the heat is lost in the process
and imposing pollution to the environment. Thus, using energy recovery to convert
this waste into useable energy will help in saving the natural resources used to generate
the energy i.e. fuel, reducing the negative impact to the environment caused by the
waste energy as the waste is reduced from 67% to 10 % and saving cost as 25 % of the
waste energy is converted into electricity.

Figure 1.12: Energy Generation & Energy Recovery

22
1.7.2 Waste to Energy Approach

Due to the tremendous population growth along with influx of foreign


workforces to major cities in Malaysia, there is an increase amount of waste generated.
As the production of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a significant problem for the
Malaysian government, increasing the rate of the production of municipal solid waste
become a serious issue that need proper waste management system. In fact, most of
the municipal solid waste generated in Malaysia are being disposed in landfill as
Malaysia yet to have the technology to handle all different kinds of wastes. However,
in the year of 2020, the Malaysian government have a plan to reduce the municipal
solid waste being disposed to landfill by 40%. Figure 1.13 shows the waste being
disposed to landfill in 2010 and the targeted waste to be disposed in 2020. In 2020 the
Malaysian government is targeting to make18 % of the waste as intermediate treatment
such as waste to energy.

Landfills In Malaysia Targeted Landfills In


(2010) Malaysia (2020)
Landfill Recyclabe Landfill Recyclabe
Treated Treated

4%
10% 18%

22% 60%

86%

Figure 1.13: Municipal Solid Waste Being Disposed to Landfill.

As most of the MSW is disposed to landfill, the anaerobic decomposition of


solid waste has caused emission of methane gas (CH4) and more potent greenhouse
gas (GHG) than carbon dioxide (CO2). On the other hand, GHG emission in waste

23
sector had achieved a 54% of increment from year 1990 to 2008. Therefore, Waste-to-
Energy is recognized as a promising alternative to overcoming waste generation
problem and a potential renewable energy (RE) source. On the other side of fence, The
utilization of MSW as a renewable energy could overcome waste disposal issues,
generate power for fossil fuel displacement and mitigate GHG emissions from waste
treatment by converting CH4 to CO2.

Waste to energy is still under development in Malaysia. Therefore, the


Malaysian government is interested in engaging waste to energy technologies to
replace the dependency of conventional landfill and reduce the GHG emission,
including landfill with biogas recovery system (LFGRS), waste incineration, and
anaerobic digestion (AD). However, as concluded by Hashim et. al. 2014, incineration
is the most economical, profitable and environmental friendly waste to energy as
alternative compare to the conventional landfill. Figure 1.14 shows Taman Beringing
Landfill site.

Figure 1.14: Taman Beringin Landfill Site.

24
1.7.3 Biodiesel in Malaysia

As the demands for energy is increasing and the depletion of fossil fuels have
promoted to search for alternative fuels that can be obtained from renewable energy
resources. Biodiesel as a renewable energy resource has drawn the attention of many
researchers and scientists because its immense potential to be part of a sustainable
energy mix in near future. As Malaysia is considered as one the largest biodiesel
producing countries, biodiesel produced from Jatropha is still in its incipient state
compared to palm oil biodiesel industry, even though great interest has been shown
lately by both the private sectors and government sectors. Attention has been paid to
the potential of using Jatropha as a source of biodiesel worldwide. Thus, as Malaysia
is located in the tropical zone, it is a good place to produce Jatropha. On the other hand,
Jatropha Curcas is one of the cheapest biodiesel feedstock and it possesses the
amicable fuel properties with higher oil contents compared to others. Figure 1.15
shows the strategic five thrust in terms of short, medium and long term run.

Figure 1.15: Malaysia National Biofuel Policy and Implementation

25
1.7.4 Biomass Energy

As the standards of life accomplished in nations are often a function of energy-


related factors, the sustainability of energy production is turning out to be a global
necessity because energy resources, in any form, are obtained from the environment,
and wastes from energy processes are typically returned back to it. The key
components of sustainable development and energy requirement go hand in hand.
Energy sustainability is recognized as the decisive factor in attaining an overall
sustainable development of a country. Renewable energy sources are sufficiently
abundant to potentially provide for all of the world's energy needs foreseen over the
next century. Thus, energy crops, excessive forest growth, and enhanced agricultural
productivity could a new source of energy as Malaysia is a leading nation in palm oil.
The Malaysian Government is keen to address the issues of energy production,
distribution and consumption. The Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water,
the Energy Commission (SuruhanjayaTenaga), and the Pusat Teknologi Hijau Negara,
formerly known as Pusat Tenaga Malaysia, are a few major bodies to make the rules
and policies. Figure 1.15 shows the timeline of technological availability in Malaysia.

Figure 1.16: Timeline of Technological Availability in Malaysia

26
1.8 Pollution Control

Malaysia implemented pollution prevention regulations focusing sustainable


development. Following are some major legislations which address the prevention of
pollution,

1.8.1 Environmental quality act 1974

Covers Air Pollution Control, Water Pollution Control, Noise Pollution


control, Prohibition of Oil & waste disposal in Malaysian Water, Self-Regulatory
Mechanism, Use of Equipment's, Control & Use of Pesticide & Fertilizer,
Environmental aspects in Urban Infrastructure & development, ODS, Gaseous
emission, Sewage, Open Burning, Industrial Effluent & Leachate Discharge,
Scheduled Waste Management, Incentives for Pollution Control, etc.

Figure 1.17: Regulations/Orders under EQA 1974

27
1.8.2 The National Policy on Environment

Integrates the three elements of sustainable development: economic, social and


cultural development and environmental conservation, formulated and approved in
2002. Eight inter-related and mutually supporting principles set to harmonize
economic development goals with environmental imperatives
1- Stewardship of the Environment
2- Conservation of the Nature's Vitality and Diversity
3- Continuous Improvement in the Quality of the Environment
4- Sustainable Use of Natural Resources
5- Integrated Decision-making
6- Role of the Private Sector
7- Commitment and Accountability
8- Active Participation in the International Community.

1.8.3 Merchant Shipping (Oil Pollution) Amendment) Act 2011

 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973 as


amended by the Protocol of 1978 (MARPOL 73/78)
 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone 29.8.1989 Layer,
1987 (Montreal Protocol)
 Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous
Wastes and Their Disposal, 1989 (Basel Convention)
 United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity, 1982 24.6.1994
(UNCBD)

1.8.4 Pollution Prevention: Existing & Planned Measures in Malaysia

 Family planning awareness programs in place.


 Introduce renewable energy policy & master plan.
 Considering to produce nuclear electricity by 2021

28
 Projects are in place to increase power generation from renewable resources, e.g.
hydro projects, bio fuel, solar power etc.
 Govt. aim to add 100,000 electric cars by 2020, deploy 25,000 public charging
stations nationwide. Awareness.
 Phased out use of incandescent lamp. Increase people awareness to consume less
energy by daily activities, i.e. increase air con temp setting, and switch off
light/fans when not in use.
 Restriction in use of plastic bags, change the composition of plastic shopping
bags.
 Focusing on more plantation
 Installation of ETP. Written approval necessary prior installation of ETP,
Incinerator, Palm & Rubber mills, etc.
 Place more number of dustbins. Increase volume of recycling & reuse.
 Fine, incentives & reward for violation, compliance & no compliance reporting.

Besides govt. organizations, like, DOE & MARDEP, various NGO’s are working
for pollution prevention & control. ASEAN’s IWRM is addressing six key water
management issues in Malaysia & taken various projects for sustainable development. All
these elements are key factors for pollution control,.
1- Water pollution management
2- Sanitation management,
3- Flood management,
4- Storm Water management,
5- Irrigation management,
6- Supply Water Management.

1.8.5 Enforcement Programs for Compliance

Only registered EIA consultant can produce EIA report, Prohibition order or stop
work order for prescribed activities, Power of investigation & Authority card, Power to

29
arrest without warrant, field inspection for air emission & effluent control, Fine increased
from RM100K to RM500K, Reward to informers.

Written permission to construct scheduled wastes treatment and disposal facilities,


crude palm oil mills and raw natural rubber processing mills, installation of incinerator, fuel
burning equipment and chimney

Use of equipment's to identify effluent discharge. Colorimeter DR390-in-situ


analysis of effluent discharge Performance Monitoring (PM) of Industrial Effluent
Treatment System (IETS) and Air Pollution Control Equipment (APC) by Industries.
Competent Person to operate IETS & APC.

1.8.6 Reporting

 ESWIS – electronic scheduled waste information system (Hazardous Waste)


 OER – online environmental reporting (effluent discharge)
 Continuous Emission Monitoring System – CEMs (air emission)
 Notification and Registration of Environmentally Hazardous Substances – EHSNR
(chemicals)
 Bunkering, Sludge disposal, Chemical cargo carriage reporting by commercial
vessels.

Figure 1.18: DOE Reporting & Monitoring System

30
1.9 Challenges for Pollution Prevention in Malaysia & Proposed Mitigation

There are some challenges that being faced not only by the government agencies
and department but exceeds to be a general issue that faced by every individual in the
society. Therefore it is imperative to have colligative work by all individuals to ease the
procedures to help protect and prevent the pollution. The following section is meant to
briefly explain those confronted issues and challenges

1.9.1 Lack of Awareness:

There is a lack of awareness within general population. Campaign not enough there
is also uncontrolled use of plastic, disposal of cooking oil to sewage system. Furthermore,
it can be noticed that citizens lacks interest in use of ecofriendly vehicles, e.g. bicycle.
Reluctant to use public transport. On the other hand, there is a lack of awareness by tourist.
Ecotourism yet to achieve professional standard. General population are not aware of the
incentives in place & how they are benefited.

1.9.2 Management Issues.

Garbage bins are less in numbers & not placed in strategic location. Garbage bins
are not separated, not color coded, thereby mixing of garbage continues. Moreover, large
number of vehicle. Illegal modification of vehicles, increase in noise & air pollution. Lack
of control on neighbor country, causing haze/air pollution

1.9.3 Monitoring Issue.

The monitor issues are embodied through Large of unregistered fishing vessel,
which does not comply with regulation, causing oil & air pollution Fishing vessel of others
countries are exploring Malaysian exclusive economic zone. Deforestation for various
reasons, like, agricultural activities, logging, urbanization, desertification of land, mining,

31
forest fire, industrial, social, palm plantation etc. Abandon use of pesticide & fertilizer, lack
of monitoring

Figure 1.19: Deforestation

1.10 Mitigation Strategies

There are some of mitigation strategies that need to be followed by every


individuals. These mitigations are summarized in the following points.
 Reduce dependency on fossil fuel & invest in development of clean energy.
 Ensure finance flow to pollution prevention projects
 Monitor carbon footprint & target reduction
 Pollution prevention, climate change & global warming issues are to be
included in school, college syllabuses.
 Invest in foresting. Reduce logging.
 Use alternate coolant sources of CFC, HCFC’s.
 Ensure installation of pollution prevention equipment’s to industries, ETP,
scrubber tower, use of heat recovery system (Exhaust gas economizer)
 Rain water harvesting
 Strict regulation implementation & monitoring to support sustainable
development.

32
 Initiate campaigns mass population awareness. Everyone should collectively
work to keep the energy consumption as low as possible.
 All new electrical appliances purchased should have energy saving rating.
 Look for maximum mileage when buying new vehicle. Try to go for EV or
hybrid vehicles.
 Use public transport or carpooling. More efforts to be put on walking and in
using bicycles for short distance travelling.
 Switch off electric appliances, lights etc. whenever possible, i.e. when not in
house, not in the room.
 Reduced use of unconventional appliances, e.g. driers, electric ovens.
 Set the air con temperature closer to outside weather. Setting too low
temperature will use more energy.
 Reduce consumption of papers by avoiding printing unless necessary.
 Reuse & recycle items whenever possible, e.g. shopping bags, cartridges etc.
 Tree plantation, rain water harvesting.

1.11 General View of Environmental ethics

 Annual growth rate is 1.5%, sustainable comparing other nations.


 Literacy rate is higher.
 Malaysia has achieved almost 100% coverage in the provision of
sanitation services
 Malaysian Govt. is aware & willing to achieve sustainable development.
Malaysia addressing various pollution issues by hand out regulations, which if
enforced properly, will be the key factor for sustainable development.
 In past 2 decades Malaysia has moved towards diversifying its economy,
therefore logging is less rewarding option than before.
 Local folk beliefs that existed in the indigenous populations has added to the
strength of the many Malaysian environmentalism movements.
 Malaysia still has a relatively high forest coverage percentage. Currently, it is
estimated that 59.9% of the total area is covered by forests.
 Organic farming & products becoming popular

33
 Various state & organizations are actively working to control the use of
plastic bags.
 General people responds to pollution prevention campaigns willingly, e.g. car
free day.

1.12 Conclusions

The relationship between population growth and environmental degradation may


appear to be rather straightforward. More people demand more resources and generate
more waste. Clearly one of the challenges of a growing population is that the mere presence
of so many people sharing a limited number of resources strains the environment. However,
when looking at the impact of human activities, the situation is more complicated due to
the wide variety of government policies, technologies, and consumption patterns
worldwide.

High levels of consumption and industrialization, inequality in wealth and land


distribution, inappropriate government policies, poverty, and inefficient technologies all
contribute to environmental decline. In fact, population may not be a root cause in
environmental decline, but rather just one factor among many that exacerbate or multiply
the negative effects.

34
REFERENCES

Chua, S.C. and Oh, T.H. (2012) Solar energy outlook in Malaysia. Renewable and
Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(1), p p. 564-574

Deforestation in Malaysia.2017. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deforestation_in_Malaysia

Department Of Statistic Malaysia (DOSM), 2016. Department of Statistics Malaysia


Press Release Population Projection (Revised), Malaysia, 2010-2040, Department of
Statistics Malaysia, Population Projection (Revised), Malaysia, 2010-2040.

Disadvantages of large population of a country In relation To development, 2016.


Available from: < https://studymoose.com/disadvantages-of-large-population-of-a-
country-in-relation-to-development-essay>. [5 December 2017].

Disadvantages of Overpopulation, 2017. Available from :<


https://essaybasics.com/disadvantages-of-overpopulation-essay-sample/ >. [5
December 2017].

Gediminas Jasionis, 2008, China Energy Recovery (OTCBB:CGYV) - An emerging


market leader. Available from: <https://www.hotstocked.com/article/894/china-
energy-recovery-otcbb-cgyv-an-emerging-market-leader.html> [ 2 December 2017].

Islam, M. R. Saidur, R, Rahim, N. A., & Solangi, K. H. (2009). Renewable Energy


Research In Malaysia, Engineering e-Transaction, 4(2), 69-72

Ithnin, Ismail; Rasidi, Julaidi. 2015. Malaysia industrial pollution prevention and
control policies and laws. Regional Forum on Environmental Compliance in Industrial
Sector.

Malaysia Oil Consumption, 2016. Available from:


<www.ceicdata.com/en/indicator/malaysia/oil-consumption>. [5 December 2017].

Ministry of Natural Resources & Environment. 2017. Acts, Rules, Regulations &
Orders. https://www.doe.gov.my/portalv1/en/tentang-jas/perundangan/akta-kaedah-
peraturan-arahan-2

35
Mofijur, M., Masjuki, H.H., Kalam, M.A., Hazrat, M.A., Liaquat, A.M., Shahabuddin,
M. and Varman, M., 2012. Prospects of biodiesel from Jatropha in
Malaysia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(7), pp.5007-5020.

Ong, H.C., Mahlia, T.M.I. and Masjuki, H.H., 2011. A review on energy scenario and
sustainable energy in Malaysia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(1),
pp.639-647.

Ozturk, M., Saba, N., Altay, V., Iqbal, R., Hakeem, K.R., Jawaid, M. and Ibrahim,
F.H., 2017. Biomass and bioenergy: An overview of the development potential in
Turkey and Malaysia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 79, pp.1285-1302.

PEC, 2012. Malaysia, Apec Energy Demand and Supply

Peng, T. N., Tho, N. S., & Pei, T. P. (2014). Population Projection for Development
Planning In Malaysia (pp. 1–5). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13398-014-0173-7.2

Population and Poverty in Asia and the Pacific 2002, Malaysia Country Report for the
Fifth Asian and Pacific Population Conference. United Nations Conference Centre,
Bangkok, Thailand.

Rahim, K.A. and Liwan, A., 2012. Oil and gas trends and implications in
Malaysia. Energy Policy, 50, pp.262-271.

Rahman, M.A. and Lee, K.T. (2006) Energy for sustainable development in Malaysia:
Energy policy and alternative energy. Energy Policy, 34(15), pp. 2388-2397

Satu, P., 2014. Malaysian Gas Association. Malaysia : Natural Gas Industry Annual
Review - 2014 Edition.

Shafie, S.M., Mahlia, T.M.I., Masjuki, H.H. and Andriyana, A., 2011. Current energy
usage and sustainable energy in Malaysia: a review. Renewable and Sustainable
Energy Reviews, 15(9), pp.4370-4377.

Tan, S., Hashim, H., Lee, C., Taib, M.R. and Yan, J., 2014. Economic and
environmental impact of waste-to-energy (WTE) alternatives for waste incineration,
landfill and anaerobic digestion. Energy procedia, 61, pp.704-708.

36
Tan, S., Hashim, H., Lee, C., Taib, M.R. and Yan, J., 2014. Economic and
environmental impact of waste-to-energy (WTE) alternatives for waste incineration,
landfill and anaerobic digestion. Energy procedia, 61, pp.704-708.

37