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TECHNICAL REPORT

Client : Det Norske Veritas Classification A/S

Title of Report : DNV GUIDELINES FOR VIBRATION


EVALUATION

Report No. : 95-0421

DET NORSKE VERITAS AS


DET NORSKE VERITAS
REPORT

Date Dept. Project No Type of Report


95-12-04 DSO263 263933 Technical
Approved by Client, Sponsor Client's ref.
for Det Norske Veritas Classification AS
Det Norske Veritas Classification A/S

Einar Brubakk
Head of Section
Summary
In connection with trouble shooting and general vibration measurements, evaluation of
the vibration severity is an essential part of the work. In order to achieve uniform
evaluation of the vibrations within DNV, the Noise and Vibration group in Veritas Marine
Services has put forward vibration guidelines for human comfort as well as mechanical
vibration. Regarding human comfort it is referred to DNV Comfort Class part 5, chapter
12.

The different recommended criteria presented herein are based on an evaluation of


available criteria world-wide and not least the DNV-experience gained through
numerous full scale measurements onboard ships, offshore installations and in
landbased industry.

Extracts of some of the corresponding international standards are given in Appendices.

DNVC Report No. Subject Group 4 Indexing terms


95-0421 H5
Title of Report
VIBRATION CRITERIA

DNV GUIDELINES FOR VIBRATION MACHINERY

EVALUATION STRUCTURE

ELECTRONICS

Distribution statement:

No distribution without permission from the Limited distribution within Unrestricted


responsible department / client Det Norske Veritas Classification AS X
Work carried out by Work verified by

Jon Erik Røren Hans A. Smogeli


Date of last revision Rev. No. Number of pages
95.09.25 1
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DIVISION SHIP AND OFFSHORE


DET NORSKE VERITAS CLASSIFICATION AS, VERITASVEIEN 1, N-1322 HØVIK, NORWAY Tel. +47 67 57 99 00 Telefax +47 67 57 99 11
Form No.: 40.59a Issue: February 93
Det norske Veritas Classification A/S Page 1
Report no. 95-0421

CONTENTS PAGE

1. INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 2

2. MEASUREMENTS AND ANALYSIS ...................................................................... 2

3. ACCOMMODATION, PUBLIC AREAS AND WORK SPACES ......................... 3

4. MECHANICAL VIBRATION ................................................................................... 6

4.1 Shafting .................................................................................................................. 6

4.2 Machinery.............................................................................................................. 7

5. ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTS ............................................................................ 16

6. STEEL AND ALUMINUM STRUCTURE ............................................................. 18

Appendix A: Extracts of international guidelines and recommendations on human comfort


Appendix B: Extracts of international machinery criteria
Appendix C: Extracts of international criteria for structural vibrations
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1. INTRODUCTION

In connection with trouble shooting and general vibration measurements, evaluation of the
vibration severity is an essential part of the work. Usually international recommendations,
guidelines and own experience from full-scale measurements are utilized by DNV when
vibration levels are assessed.

The three main reasons for evaluating shipboard vibration are :

• Vibration may result in annoyance and discomfort to the crew and passengers.

• Vibration may cause fatigue damage to important structural elements in the ship.

• Vibration may seriously impair the proper functioning of essential machinery and
equipment.

Generally speaking shipboard vibration may result in annoyance to the crew before it affects
the reliability of equipment or results in structural or mechanical failure of structural or
mechanical components.

Over the years a large number of proposals for criteria or guidelines have been put forward.
Sometimes such proposals are unclear with regard to parameters entailed, range of application
and conditions catered for in the guidelines. Hence, very often the criteria are used in
circumstances for which they were never intended. Thus, the need for careful study of the
scope and application of a criterion cannot be overemphasized.

In order to achieve uniform evaluation of the vibrations within DNV, the Noise and Vibration
group in Veritas Marine Services has put forward vibration guidelines for human comfort as
well as mechanical vibration. The different recommended criteria presented herein are based
on an evaluation of available criteria world-wide and not least the DNV-experience gained
through numerous full scale vibration measurements onboard ships, offshore installations and
in landbased industry.

2. MEASUREMENTS AND ANALYSIS

The instrumentation to be used for the measurements should be of an electronically type. The
signal may be stored on tape, analyzed directly by means of a FFT-analyzer, or by means of
PC-based equipment.

Usually the results should be presented in the frequency domain (frequency spectra). The
analysis is to be accomplished as follows:
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* Frequency range in Hz according to the relevant criteria to be applied.


* At least 400 spectral lines.
* Window function which gives an accurate estimate of the amplitude value of the
single peaks in the frequency spectra (for instance flat top window).
* The duration of the measurements shall be long enough to ensure reasonable
statistical precision and to ensure thet the vibration is typical of the exposures which
are beeing assessed. Usually the vibration recordings should be averaged over a
time period of approximately 60 seconds.

Note! When the instantaneous magnitude of the vibration signal varies quite much due to
f. inst. beating, it is recommended to evaluate typical high vibration amplitudes of the “raw-
signal” together with the averaged frequency spectra.

The results should preferably be presented as vibration velocities and in peak single
amplitude in order to comply with the criteria recommended by DNVC. If RMS (Root Mean
Square) are measured, each frequency component may be converted to peak amplitude by
multiplication of 2 .

Integrators may be used for conversions of velocity signals to displacement, or acceleration


signals to velocity or displacement.

3. ACCOMMODATION, PUBLIC AREAS AND WORKSPACES

Regarding human comfort reference is made to DNV’s Rules for Classification of Ships, part
5, chapter 12 Comfort Class. An extract of the Comfort class is given below.

The DNV recommended criteria apply to vibrations in vertical, transverse and longitudinal
direction and are given in our rules as comfort class criteria. It should be noted that ISO
6954 “ Mechanical vibration and shock - Guidelines for the overall evaluation of
vibration in merchant ships” defines a conversion factor to be multiplied with the time
averaged peak values. The obtained “max. repetitive value” should be compared with the
given limits. In the human exposure criteria tabulated below, the time averaged peak values
should be compared directly to the given limits, since a conversion factor is already
incorporated in the limits. The specified vibration levels apply to the maximum single
frequency component of vertical, longitudinal and transverse vibration which is to be assessed
separately.

It should further be noted that the vibration tests should be conducted in a depth of water not
less than three times the draught of the ship for vessels which are normally operated in deep
waters. For ships to be operated in shallow waters, the tests are to be accomplished at relevant
depth of water. The tests should preferably be performed in quiet sea (Sea state 3 or less) and
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with rudder angle about 0 degrees ± 2 degrees (minimum rudder action is recommended). The
measurements should be taken with the vessel proceeding ahead at constant speed and course.
The measuring positions are to be selected such as to give a representative description of the
global and local vibrations. Thus, for ships with the accommodation placed in a deck house,
transverse vibrations should be recorded at the front and aft end, and longitudinal vibration at
the Port and SB side of the deck house at each level. Additionally, vibrations in cabins should
be taken at the floor in the center of the room and shall reflect the vibration of the steel
structure. For larger spaces ( public rooms, messes, recreation areas, etc. ) it may be necessary
to distribute a number of measuring positions.

The tabulated criteria are divided into three groups depending on the level of comfort
achieved, i.e. comfort rating number (crn) 1,2 and 3, where crn (1) represents the highest
comfort level and crn (3) lowest acceptable level of comfort.

The vibration criteria for different types of vessels are shown in Tables 3.1-3.4.

Table 3.1 Cargo ships

Crew accommodation and work places


Vibr. level in mm/s peak for single frequency components between 5 and 100 Hz *
comfort rating number
Locations (crn)
1 2 3
Cabins 2.5 3.5 5.0
Mess/recreation rooms 2.5 3.5 5.0
Offices 2.5 3.5 5.0
Navigation Bridge 2.5 3.5 5.0
Control rooms 3.5 4.5 6.0
Work places 3.5 4.5 6.0

* For frequencies below 5 Hz the requirements follow constant acceleration curves


corresponding to the acceleration at 5 Hz.
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Table 3.2 Passenger ships

Passenger Accommodation

Vibr. level in mm/s peak for single frequency components between 5 and 100 Hz *
comfort rating number
Locations (crn)
1 2 3
Passenger top grade cabins 1.5 2.0 2.5
Passenger cabins, standard 1.5 2.5 4.0
Public Spaces 1.5 2.5 4.0
Open decks recreation 2.5 3.5 5.0

* For frequencies below 5 Hz the requirements follow constant acceleration curves


corresponding to the acceleration at 5 Hz.

Table 3.3 High Speed Light Craft

Vibr. level in mm/s peak for single frequency components between 5 and 100 Hz *
comfort rating number
Locations (crn)
1 2 3
Passenger localities 2.0 3.5 5.0
Navigation Bridge 2.0 3.5 5.0
Offices 2.0 3.5 5.0
Controll Rooms 3.0 4.5 6.0

* For frequencies below 5 Hz the requirements follow constant acceleration curves


corresponding to the acceleration at 5 Hz.
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Table 3.4 Yacht


Owner and Guest Areas
Vibr. level in mm/s peak for single frequency components between 5 and 100 Hz *
comfort rating number
Locations (crn)
In harbor cond. Transit cond.
1 2 3 1 2 3
Accommodation 0.5 1.0 2.0 1.0 2.0 3.0
Outdoor Recreation Areas 0.5 1.0 2.0 2.0 3.0 4.0
Navigation Bridge - - - 1.5 2.5 4.0

* For frequencies below 5 Hz the requirements follow constant acceleration curves


corresponding to the acceleration at 5 Hz.

4. MECHANICAL VIBRATION

Regarding machines, measurements will usually be taken on exposed parts that are normally
accessible. Care shall be taken to ensure that measurements reasonably represent the vibration
of f.inst. the bearing housings and do not include any local resonances or amplification. The
locations and directions of vibration measurements must be such that they provide adequate
sensitivity to the machine dynamic forces.

4.1 Shafting

4.1.1 Shaftline

The axial, whirling and torsional vibrations of the shafting are described in DNV’s Rules for
Classification of Ships.

According to these rules torsional vibration calculations are to be submitted for:

• all propulsion installations


• all auxiliary machinery systems of more than 200 kW, which include reciprocating
machinery and/or propeller

The calculations should include frequency tables and vector summations for all relevant
vibration modes and orders. Furthermore, the vibratory torques (stresses) for all significant
orders are to be calculated. If necessary, synthesis of all significant vibratory torque
components (orders) at different speeds in the actual range are to be made. For diesel engine
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installations the torsional vibrations in the system are to be considered also with one cylinder
misfiring (no fuel injection).

With regard to axial and whirling vibrations it may be required to carry out calculations. As a
minimum, such calculations should include natural frequency tables for all critical vibration
modes.

Speed ranges where unacceptable torsional, whirling and axial vibrations are detected are to
be barred for continuous operation in accordance with DNV’s Rules for Classification of
Ships. However, it should not be any barred speed range for normal propulsion driving
conditions in the operational speed above 80 % of the full power RPM.

4.1.1 Shaft line bearings

The following criteria should be used for shaft line bearings (including stern tube) as shown
in Fig. 4.1:

- Vibration levels recommended to be below:

Displacement 0.4 mm peak (1 - 2.0 Hz)

Velocity 5 mm/s peak (2.0 - 100 Hz)

- Damage probable for vibrations above:

Displacement 0.8 mm peak (1 - 2.0 Hz)

Velocity 10 mm/s peak (2.0 - 100 Hz)

The vibrations shall be measured horizontally on the bearing housing in height with the shaft
center as well as in vertical direction.

4.2 Machinery

Malfunction of engines and equipment is often caused by vibrations. When applying


guidelines one should be aware of that vibration of machinery/equipment may be divided in
two categories:

· Vibration excited by a source within the machinery/equipment itself.


· Vibration impressed on the machinery/equipment from external sources.

A number of guidelines have been issued by ISO and machinery manufacturers dealing with
the measurements and evaluation of machinery vibrations as shown in Appendix B. The
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vibration criteria put forward by DNV below are based on an evaluation of these criteria and
not least experience gained through a lot of shipboard vibration measurements.

Generally speaking, the measurements should be taken with the machine at normal operating
temperatures. Furthermore, the assessment criteria given below apply to all operating speeds
and loads provided the running conditions are stable.

4.2.1 Large bore engines.

As visualized in Figs. 4.2 and 4.3 the vibration limits are stricter in vertical and longitudinal
direction than transverse direction. It should further be noted that the criteria are valid for
vibrations measured fore and aft on top of the A-frame for internally and externally excited
vibrations. The following vibration limits are put forward:

Transversely (Fig. 4.2):

- Vibration levels recommended to be below:

Displacement 1.0 mm peak (1 - 2.4 Hz)

Velocity 15 mm/s peak (2.4 - 100 Hz)

- Damage probable for vibrations above:

Displacement 2.0 mm peak (1 - 2.4 Hz)

Velocity 30 mm/s peak (2.4 - 53.1 Hz)

Acceleration 104 mm/s2 peak (53.1 - 100 Hz)

Vertically and longitudinally (Fig. 4.3):

- Vibration levels recommended to be below:

Displacement 0.5 mm peak (1 - 2.4 Hz)

Velocity 8 mm/s peak (2.4 - 100 Hz)

- Damage probable for vibrations above:

Displacement 1.0 mm peak (1 - 2.4 Hz)

Velocity 15 mm/s peak (2.4 - 100 Hz)


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The radial crank forces of an engine will deform the crank-pin and webs and thus give axial
deformation of the whole crankshaft. Generally, only axial vibrations with zero node are of
interest. Maximum permissible displacement amplitude at the crankshaft fore end originating
from axial vibrations ( 0 node ) may be calculated by the following formula:

d = 3 ·Z ·B ·10-4 (± mm)

where: d = displacement amplitude


Z = no of cylinders
B = bore diameter in mm

If the vibration velocity is measured, the displacement is calculated as follows for one single
frequency component:

d = v/(2 · π · f) (± mm)

where v = velocity as peak amplitude (± mm/s)


f = frequency of the relevant vibration component (Hz)

4.2.2 Medium speed Engines

The vibration limits visualized in Fig. 4.4 apply both for rigidly and elastically mounted
engines. It should further be noted that the criteria are valid for vibrations measured on the
engine in cylinder height and for internal as well as external excited vibrations. According to
Fig. 4.4 the following vibration criteria should be applied:

- Vibration levels recommended to be below:

Displacement 0.5 mm peak (1 - 4.8 Hz)

Velocity 15 mm/s peak (4.8 - 100 Hz)

- Damage probable for vibrations above:

Displacement 1.0 mm peak (1 - 4.8 Hz)

Velocity 30 mm/s peak (4.8 - 53.1 Hz)

Acceleration 104 mm/s2 peak (53.1 - 100 Hz)

Note! Machines fitted with ball or roller bearings are sensitive to the impressed vibration
environment at standstill.
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4.2.3 Medium and slow speed engine turbochargers

Regarding the turbochargers higher vibrations are tolerated as depicted in Fig. 4.5. It should
be noted that manufacturers usually allow even higher vibration levels often in a range as
high as 0.5 · 103 - 104 mm/s2. However, in order to avoid detrimental effects to turbine
connected airpipes, exhaust pipes etc. the DNV recommended vibration levels are somewhat
stricter. Thus, from a fatigue point of view it is recommended to use the following vibration
criteria:

- Vibration levels recommended to be below:

Displacement 1.0 mm peak (3 - 4.8 Hz)

Velocity 30 mm/s peak (4.8 - 26.5 Hz)

Acceleration 5 . 103 mm/s2 peak (26.5 - 300 Hz)

- Damage probable for vibrations above:

Displacement 2.0 mm peak (3 - 4.8 Hz)

Velocity 60 mm/s peak (4.8 - 26.5 Hz)

Acceleration 104 mm/s2 peak (26.5 - 300 Hz)

4.2.4 Diesel driven generators

Considering the unit as a whole, the overall vibration level excited by sources within the unit
would be dominated by that from the main engine. The generator, however, being a rotational
symmetric body, is an item producing within itself a low vibration level.

For shipboard application the generator must be able to withstand the vibration imposed by
the diesel drive and from outside sources such as main engine and propeller excited vibration.
Taking these factors into consideration, the vibration criteria for the generator part of the
diesel generator set should be as shown in Fig. 4.6:

- Vibration levels recommended to be below:

Displacement 0.5 mm peak (1 - 3.2 Hz)

Velocity 10 mm/s peak (3.2 - 100 Hz)


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- Damage probable for vibrations above:

Displacement 1.0 mm peak (1 - 3.2 Hz)

Velocity 20 mm/s peak (3.2 - 79.6 Hz)

Acceleration 104 mm/s2 peak (79.6 - 100 Hz)

Note! The vibration levels refer to the vibration levels observed fore and aft on the generator
bearings. Furthermore, the guidelines are applicable both for rigidly and elastically mounted
diesel generator sets. Based on our experience 1st order vibrations above 10 mm/s peak
should be investigated.

The vibrations of the driving diesel engine should be evaluated in accordance with
Fig. 4.4.

4.2.5 Turbine driven generators

As mentioned above, the generator produces low vibrations within itself. The same applies to
the turbine which also is a rotational symmetric body. Thus the criteria given below for the
internally excited vibrations are valid for the turbine as well as the turbine driven generator.
In addition it is also advisable to use the same limits when evaluating externally imposed
vibrations onboard ship from the propeller.

a) Rigidly mounted units (ref.: Fig. 4.7):

Vibration severity; internally excited vibrations

- Vibration levels recommended to be below:

Displacement 0.4 mm peak (1 - 2.0 Hz)

Velocity 5 mm/s peak (2.0 - 100 Hz)

- Damage probable for vibrations above:

Displacement 0.8 mm peak (1 - 2.0 Hz)

Velocity 10 mm/s peak (2.0 - 100 Hz)


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b) Elastically mounted units (ref.: Fig. 4.8):

Vibration severity; internally excited vibrations

- Vibration levels recommended to be below:

Displacement 0.5 mm peak (1 - 3.2 Hz)

Velocity 10 mm/s peak (3.2 - 79.6 Hz)

Acceleration 104 mm/s2 peak (79.6 - 100 Hz)

- Damage probable for vibrations above:

Displacement 1.0 mm peak (1 - 2.4 Hz)

Velocity 15 mm/s peak (2.4 - 100 Hz)

Note! In both cases the vibration levels refer to measurement positions on the bearing-houses
and bearing pedestals.

It should also be noted that the vibrations of the driving turbine are to be evaluated in
accordance with Fig. 4.9.

4.2.6 Turbines

The recommended vibration criteria applicable for turbines are visualized in Fig. 4.9 both for
rigidly and elastically mounted units as follows:

- Vibration levels recommended to be below:

Velocity 5 mm/s peak (5 - 1000 Hz)

- Damage probable for vibrations above:

Velocity 10 mm/s peak (5 - 1000 Hz)

Note! The vibration levels are applicable both for externally and internally vibrations
measured on the bearings.
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4.2.7 Gears

Concerning gears the relevant vibration criteria are shown in Fig. 4.10 as follows:

- Vibration levels recommended to be below:

Velocity 5 mm/s peak (5 - 1000 Hz)

- Damage probable for vibrations above:

Velocity 10 mm/s peak (5 - 1000 Hz)

Note! The vibration levels are applicable both for externally and internally excited vibrations
measured on the bearings.

4.2.8 Electrical motors, pumps, separators and fans

The criteria visualized in Fig. Nos. 4.11 and 4.12 are applicable to the following types of
machinery:

• Electrical motors
• Fuel and lubricating oil separators
• Hydraulic centrifugal pumps
• Centrifugal and rotary screw pumps (vertical pumps with height up to 2.0 m and
horizontal pumps).
• Fans

The vibration criteria recommended for the internally excited vibrations are as follows (ref.:
Fig. 4.11):

- Vibration levels recommended to be below:

Displacement 0.4 mm peak (1 - 2.0 Hz)

Velocity 5 mm/s peak (2.0 - 100 Hz)

- Damage probable for vibrations above:

Displacement 0.8 mm peak (1 - 2.0 Hz)

Velocity 10 mm/s peak (2.0 - 100 Hz)


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The corresponding vibration criteria applicable for the externally excited vibrations are as
follows (ref.: Fig. 4.12):

- Vibration levels recommended to be below:

Displacement 0.5 mm peak (1 - 2.4 Hz)

Velocity 8 mm/s peak (2.4 - 100 Hz)

- Damage probable for vibrations above:

Displacement 1.0 mm peak (1 - 2.4 Hz)

Velocity 15 mm/s peak (2.4 - 100 Hz)

The measuring transducers should be mounted in positions close to the bearings in orthogonal
directions.

4.2.9 Compressors

For internally as well as externally excited vibrations for a fixed mounted screw type
compressor the vibration criteria should be as follows (ref.: Fig. 4.13):

- Vibration levels recommended to be below:

Displacement 0.4 mm peak (1 - 2.0 Hz)

Velocity 5 mm/s peak (2.0 - 100 Hz)

- Damage probable for vibrations above:

Displacement 0.8 mm peak (1 - 2.0 Hz)

Velocity 10 mm/s peak (2.0 - 100 Hz)

For internally as well as externally excited vibrations for an elastically mounted screw type
compressor the vibration criteria should be as follows (ref.: Fig. 4.14):

- Vibration levels recommended to be below:

Displacement 0.5 mm peak (1 - 3.2 Hz)

Velocity 10 mm/s peak (3.2 - 100 Hz)


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- Damage probable for vibrations above:

Displacement 1.0 mm peak (1 - 3.2 Hz)

Velocity 20 mm/s peak (3.2 - 79.6 Hz)

Acceleration 104 mm/s2 peak (79.6 - 100 Hz)

A reciprocating compressor may tolerate higher vibration levels; i.e. the following criteria
should be applied both for rigidly and elastically mounted compressors
(ref.: Fig. 4.15):

- Vibration levels recommended to be below:

Displacement 0.5 mm peak (1 - 3.2 Hz)

Velocity 15 mm/s peak (3.2 - 100 Hz)

- Damage probable for vibrations above:

Displacement 1.0 mm peak (1 - 4.8 Hz)

Velocity 30 mm/s peak (4.8 - 53.1 Hz)

Acceleration 104 mm/s2 peak (53.1 - 100 Hz)

In both cases the vibration levels refer to measurement positions on the bearing-houses and
bearing pedestals for horizontally mounted compressors. In case of vertical or inclined
machines, the locations that give maximum readings shall be recorded.

4.2.9 Boilers

The recommended vibration criteria for boilers are visualized in Fig. 4.16 as follows:

- Vibration levels recommended to be below:

Displacement 1.0 mm peak (1 - 4.8 Hz)

Velocity 30 mm/s peak (4.8 - 100 Hz)


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- Damage probable for vibrations above:

Displacement 2.0 mm peak (1 - 4.8 Hz)

Velocity 60 mm/s peak (4.8 - 100 Hz)

Note! The criteria above are valid for vibrations measured in stiff positions such as lifting
ears and pipe/flange connections.

4.2.10 Incinerators

In order to avoid loosening and cracks of the concrete structure inside the incinerator the
criteria should be as follows according to our experience ( ref. Fig. 4.16):

- Vibration levels recommended to be below:

Displacement 0.5 mm peak (1 - 3.2 Hz)

Velocity 10 m/s peak (3.2 - 100 Hz)

- Damage probable for vibrations above:

Displacement 1.0 mm peak (1 - 3.2 Hz)

Velocity 20 mm/s peak (3.2 - 79.6 Hz)

Acceleration 104 mm/s2 peak (79.6 - 100 Hz)

The vibrations to be measured in typical positions on the top and bottom of the incinerator
steel structure in the orthogonal directions.

5. ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTS

In order to assure proper working of electronic instruments as well as electronic equipment in


control panels etc. it is advised to apply the different types of vibration criteria shown in Figs.
5.1 - 5.3. Based on our experience the vibration limits should be different for unlike type of
supporting structure onboard a vessel. Thus, the criteria are put forward for equipment
mounted on bulkheads, machinery and masts as follows:
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Bulkhead mounted electronic instruments and electronic equipment (ref. Fig. 5.1):

- Vibration levels recommended to be below:

Displacement 0.5 mm peak (1 - 3.2 Hz)

Velocity 10 mm/s peak (3.2 - 100 Hz)

- Damage probable for vibrations above:

Displacement 1.0 mm peak (1 - 3.2 Hz)

Velocity 20 mm/s peak (3.2 - 100 Hz)

Machinery mounted electronic instruments and electronic equipment (ref. Fig. 5.2):

- Vibration levels recommended to be below:

Displacement 0.5 mm peak (1 - 4.8 Hz)

Velocity 15 mm/s peak (4.8 - 100 Hz)

- Damage probable for vibrations above:

Displacement 1.0 mm peak (1 - 4.8 Hz)

Velocity 30 mm/s peak (4.8 - 100 Hz)

Mast mounted electronic instruments and electronic equipment (ref. Fig. 5.3):

- Vibration levels recommended to be below:

Displacement 1.0 mm peak (1 - 3.2 Hz)

Velocity 20 mm/s peak (3.2 - 100 Hz)

- Damage probable for vibrations above:

Displacement 2.0 mm peak (1 - 3.2 Hz)

Velocity 40 mm/s peak (3.2 - 100 Hz)


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6. STEEL AND ALUMINUM STRUCTURE

The actual excited vibration level depends on

· Magnitude of excitation force.


· Presence of resonance condition.
· Damping of structure.

According to our knowledge there are very few guidelines available on structural vibrations.
Extracts of two guidelines are shown in Appendix C; namely Lloyd’s Register of Shipping
and USSR Sanitary Rules for Seagoing vessels.

Hence, the criterion put forward by DNV is mainly based on an evaluation of full-scale
measurements and especially vibration of panels relative to their stiffened boundaries, mast
and piping vibrations. Thus, the assessment criteria are restricted to locally magnified
vibrations of steel structural elements relative to the boundaries. It should further be noted
that due to the complexity of structural vibrations causing fatigue cracks, a broad stippled
zone to cater for the wide variations encountered with regard to:

· Stress concentration factor; i.e. structural configuration, geometry and weld details.
· Environment such as presence of corrosive medium.
· Workmanship.
· Vibration mode.

The structural vibration criteria are displayed in Fig. 6.1 and 6.2 for steel and aluminum with
vibration severities as follows:

Steel structure (Fig. 6.1):

- Vibration levels recommended to be below:

Displacement 1.0 mm peak (1 - 4.8 Hz)

Velocity 30 mm/s peak (4.8 - 100 Hz)

- Damage probable for vibrations above:

Displacement 2.0 mm peak (1 - 4.8 Hz)

Velocity 60 mm/s peak (4.8 - 100 Hz)


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Aluminum structure (Fig. 6.2):

- Vibration levels recommended to be below:

Displacement 0.5 mm peak (1 - 3.2 Hz)

Velocity 10 mm/s peak (3.2 - 100 Hz)

- Damage probable for vibrations above:

Displacement 1.0 mm peak (1 - 3.2 Hz)

Velocity 20 mm/s peak (3.2 - 100 Hz)

Alternatively, structural vibrations may be assessed by dynamic strain measurements in


conjunction with relevant fatigue data.

With regard to a guidance on the acceptability of hull girder vibration with respect to fatigue
problems, no simple criteria are given. However, the comfort limits given above in section 3
will restrict hull girder vibration amplitudes to lower values than those likely to cause
structural problems.

The area most frequently suffering from fatigue damage is the structure adjacent to the
propeller, that is, the aftpeak tank. Based on a survey of observed fatigue cracks and
corresponding dynamic propeller pressure impulses on the hull plating the following two
recommended upper limits are proposed:

1) The total dynamic pressure impulse of blade frequency should be

∆Ρz < 8000 N/m2

2) The total RMS-value of the pressure impulses should be

∆Ρtot < 12000 N/m2