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Wheat

Useful tips for wheat production


October 15, 2017  Comments Off  1419

1. Moisture should be conserved during monsoon by using deep tillage technology.

2. Resistant improved wheat varieties should be planted.

3. Treat the seed with recommended fungicides to control seed borne diseases.

4. Irrigations at the time of tillering and grain formation are critical.

5. Planting must be nished before Nov. 30 to obtain maximum yield.

6. Nitrogenous and Phosphatic fertilizers should be used in a ratio of 1:1 or 1: 1-1/2 .

7. Potassium fertilizer must be used if wheat is planted after rice or sugarcane and in sandy
soils which had continuously been irrigating by tube well water.

8. Weeds must be destroyed by using chemical weedicides.


9. Harvesting should be done few days earlier in case of semi dwarf improved varieties to avoid
shattering damages. 

RECOMMENDED VARIETIES, PLANTING TIME AND SEED RATE FOR DIFFERENT


PRODUCTION ZONES.

The country has been divided into twelve different production zones. The zoning is mainly
based on disease prevalence, yield potential, cropping pattern and climatological factors
(zones are shown on the map).

It is very important that different varieties should be planted before the dates given in front of
each variety. In case planting is delayed, broadcast method of planting with 4-5 kgs more seed
rate than normal seed rate is recommended.

Certi ed seed should be used which can be obtained from Punjab Seed Corporation, Sindh
Seed Corporation, Agriculture Development Authority in NWFP.

Agricultural Department in Balochistan, Agriculture Development Corporation depots and


other seed agencies.

In other case, use only healthy seed which is obtained from healthy crop. Detail of different
zones, diseases, recommended varieties, planting time and seed rate is shown in table-1:
LAND PREPARATION

Deep ploughing should be used by sub soiler or mould board if sub soil is hard. 
2-3 ploughings are recommended where chronic weeds are present. If possible Dab method
should be used. 

Rotavator should be used in proper moisture if tractor facility is available. Soil should become
well pulverized and planker can be used for this purpose. 

Moisture conservation by using mold board in rainfed areas has been very successful in
obtaining good yield. 

In case of limited water in plains, eld should be divided into sub-plots. 

Field boundaries should be made strong. Rat holes should be closed and pruning of trees
should be done in the farm to avoid shade effects to the crop. 

METHOD OF PLANTING

Barani Areas:

Drill or poring method is recommended for planting in barani areas. Planker should not be used
if planting is done by “Pora”. All fertilizer should be applied before planting. Pre-soaking
treatment to the seed should be given for 8-12 hours if moisture is limited. Water used for this
purpose should be free of salts which otherwise can affect seed germination. 

Irrigated Areas:

Seed should not be placed more than two inches when semidwarf improved varieties are
planted. The best results have been obtained in planting by drill because uniform and proper
germination is obtained in this method. Second method of planting in “Kera” should be used in
proper moisture to obtain better results. Good results could not be achieved through broad
cast, but if there is no other solution except this one then 4-5 kgs more seed rate is
recommended in this method. Dry sowing can also be done if planting is late and irrigation can
be applied after planting. Dry sowing should only be done after December, 15 where water
availability is limited. Seed should not be put more deep in this case. 

SEED TREATMENT

Seed can be treated with Benlate, Vitavax 200 or Topson-M at the rate of 2.5 gms/kg seed or
Derosal at the rate of 1.0 gms and/or Raxil 2DC at the rate of 1.50 gms/kg seed. Seed
treatment can be done by using Drum with cover or shaking in the plastic bag. 

FERTILIZER APPLICATION

In general both nitrogenous and phosphatic fertilizers are of Primary importance to obtain
good yields of wheat crop. It has been found, through experimentation, that both N and P must
be in a proper balance in the ratio of 1:1 or at the most 1:1-1/2. Potassium sulphate should also
be used at the rate of 12-15 kgs potash/acre (1/2 bag of Potassium sulphate) when wheat is
planted after rice and sugarcane. The use of potash also becomes important in sandy weak soil
which had been continuously irrigating with tube well water. 

The whole quantity of phosphatic and half of nitrogenous fertilizer should be applied at
seeding time while the remaining half of nitrogenous fertilizer be applied with rst irrigation. In
case phosphatic fertilizer is not applied at the time of planting this can be applied with rst
irrigation. 

The whole quantity of Nitrogenous and phosphatic fertilizers should be used at planting time in
rainfed areas. If somehow nitrogenous fertilizer was not applied at planting time, this can be
applied at rst rain. PH value of the most of the soils in Punjab has increased from 8.2 which is
affecting fertilizer uptake ef ciency of the soils. GYPSUM is recommended in such affected
soils. 

ORGANIC MATTER AND GREEN MANURING

In general our soils are de cient in organic matter and this situation is getting worst day by day.
Therefore it is very important that proper crop rotation and green manure/farm yard manure
should be used in our soils. This helps in the development of plant and increases water
absorbing capacity of the soil. Root development become more vigorous. Guara and Jantar are
good crops for green manuring. Guara has produced good results in irrigated areas whereas
Jantar is recommended for saline soils and after rice. Arhar can be used for green manuring in
barani areas. 

Crop rotation for barani areas : Wheat-Fodder-Wheat 

Wheat-Fodder-Millet 
Crop rotation for plains : Wheat-Cotton-Sugarcane 

Wheat-Berseem-Cotton. 

Depending on soil conditions, 8-10 cart load of well rotten farm yard manure should be used. 

IRRIGATION

Wheat plant has two critical stages for its water requirements. The rst is at tillering stage
which starts about a week after emergence. The rst irrigation should therefore, be applied not
later than 12-18 days after seeding. In rice growing areas the sub-soil is usually saturated with
moisture as moisture retention power of the soil is high. The rst irrigation in these areas
should be delayed as long as possible. In many cases it may even be more than a month after
emergence. 

The second critical stage is between anthesis and grain formation when irrigation is necessary.
The remaining irrigations depending on rainfall should be well distributed between different
growth stages. Generally 4-6 irrigations are applied to the wheat crop. The irrigation
requirements in case of semi dwarf improved varieties is at the following growth stages.

1. At crown root initiation. 

2. Tillering stage 

3. Late jointing stage. 

4. At owering 

5. Grain formation 

6. Dough stage. 

Among above mentioned stages, three stages are very critical.

1. Crown root initiation. 

2. Boot stage. 
3. Milk and dough stages.

Depending upon the availability of water following irrigation schedule can be applied. 

Four irrigations. 
1. Crown root initiation. 

2. Tiller completion. 

3. Booting Stage. 

4. Milk stage. 

Five irrigations. 
1. Crown root initiation. 

2. Tiller completion. 

3. Late jointing. 

4. Flowering stage. 

5. Milk stage. 

Six Irrigations. 
1. Crown root initiation. 

2. Tiller completion. 

3. Late jointing. 

4. Flowering stage. 

5. Milk stage. 

6. Dough stage. 
Limited irrigation. 

One irrigation. 1. Crown root initiation. 

Two irrigations 
1. Crown root initiation. 

2. Boot stage. 

Three irrigation 
1. Crown root initiation. 

2. Boot stage. 

3. Milk stage. 

WEED CONTROL

Weeds can signi cantly reduce wheat yield. Although crop rotation can reduce the population
of weeds, a large amount of weed seeds still remains in the elds. For better control, barharrow
and weeding should be done. Weeding become more easy if wheat is grown on seed beds 45
cm apart. The distance between two lines on a seed should be 15 cm. This method of planting
does not affect plant population and wheat yield per acre. Other method of weed control is
used of chemical weedicides. Weeds should be removed from the elds within 4-6 weeks of
seeding. Agriculture experts have recommended the following weedicides mentioned in Table-
4. Recommended dose should be applied with 120 liters of water after rst irrigation at proper
moisture. If sprayer is not available at proper time then all the powdry weedicides could be
applied with sand at proper moisture after rst irrigation or mixed with urea and then irrigate.

HARVESTING/THRESHING AND STORAGE

1. Clean parts of eld where crop is not lodged should be selected to keep as seed. Harvesting
and threshing of that eld should be done separately to avoid any mixture. 

2. Harvesting should be done 2-3 days earlier in case of semi dwarf improved varieties. 

3. Harvesting should be done when grain moisture is around 16-17 percent. 


4. Grain should be dried properly to bring down moisture at 9-10 percent before storage. 

5. If possible use thresher or combine to be more ef cient and avoid losses. 

6. Seed should be stored in proper clean stores to avoid insect damage. Fumigation should be
done in the seed stores. 

7. Use clean bags for storage. 

Resource Person:
Dr. Nafees Sadiq Kisana National Coordinator 

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