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March 2018 Volume 1251 no. 3

Cover Story
32 Part 1 Rotating Machines: Digital Technologies to
Enable Predictive Maintenance Predictive maintenance for
rotating machines is gaining prominence as plant operators embrace analytics
and learn how to approach their operating benchmarks
38 Part 2 Guidelines for Designing a
Compressed Air System With the proper knowledge.
engineers can work alongside compressor manufacturers to
ensure that an optimal air compression system is installed

In the News
5 Chementator
Catalytic conversion of sugars to acrylonitrile; Highly selective
membrane mimics biological ion channels; A more direct
chemical route to ketones; Sio-based caprolactam joint
development project underway; An explosive way to make
porous organic networks; and more
10 Business News
Air Uquide inaugurates CO2-recovery plant in Ontario: Arkema to increase
polyamide 12 production in China; BASF to expand production of alkyl
polyglucosides in Ohio and China; Johnson Matthey sells battery systems
business to Cummins; and more
12 Newsfront Solar ChemiStry Heats Up
Major efforts are underway to develop new process technology for making
chemicals using sunlight and the products of combustion
17 Newsfront Clearing the Air Modern air-filtration systems provide
more efficient dust collection and assist with air quality compliance

Technical and Practical

30 Facts at your Fingertips Industrial Combustion
Products This one-page reference provides information on common
byproducts of industrial combustion
31 Technology Profile Isopropanol Production from
Propylene This process description outlines a common commercial
route to isopropanol from propylene
44 Feature Report Part 1 Pressure-Relief System
Design: Developments and Deficiencies Areas of recent
activity for pressure-relief systems include new calculation methods and
updates to existing codes and standards. Included here is an overview of recent
developments and a look at the results from a study of pressure-relief system
deficiencies and solutions
52 Feature Report Part 2 Sizing Pressure-Relief Valves
for Two-Phase Flow Several methods are available for sizing two­
phase pressure-relief valves (PRVs). Here. the API 520 homogeneous direct
integration method is compared to a potentially simpler alternative that does not
require integration


56 Environmental Manager Understanding New PPE
Regulations The new E.U. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Regulation explained, and what it means for the chemical process industries

Equipment and Services

21 Focus on Process Control Hardware
Wireless adapter enables lIoT for hazardous areas; A controller for
wastewater-treatment applications; Measure pipeline flow rates with flow
computer and terminal; Wired network bridge enables remote troubleshooting;
Wireless operating panel with multi-touch and safety functions; and more

25 New Products
Throttling valves provide dependable shutoff; These blenders now feature
added operator safety; Analyze emissions for regulatory and maintenance
purposes; New check valves are compliant with NACE specifications; A
~ cybersecurity platform for multi-vendor automation systems; Monitor pressure
21 and temperature in refrigerant lines; and more

3 Editor's Page A plug for 'big science'
Recent developments in spaceflight and solar chemistry illustrate that progress
on "big science" projects requires three ingredients: a clear vision; talented
workers; and funding
64 Economic Indicators

59 Hot Products
60 Classified
62 Complimentary Subscription Application
63 Adlndex

Chemical Connections
Follow @ChemEngMag on Twitter
Join the Chemical Engineering Magazine
Linkedln Group
(~ Visit us on www.chemengonline.com for more articles,
Latest News, Webinars, Test your Knowledge Quizzes,
Bookshelf and more

Coming in April
Look for: Feature Reports on Solids Processing; and Hygienic Processing;
A Focus on Pumps; A Facts at your Fingertips on Corrosion; An
Environmental Manager article on Raring; News Articles on
Level Measurement and Control; and Lithium Processing; a Show Preview
for Interphex 2018; New Products; and much more
Cover design: Rob Hudgins


Editor's Page
A plug for 'big science'
ne of the first experiments I ever co.nducted in my basement

Edil«1alllhclot Gt&phic Designer
IIO!ow!IdCdll!mOOlJOllline.com rIludglns@acoes.slntel.com
chemistry lab was to split water into hydrogen and oxygen,
GERALD ONDREY .mwMl) PRODUCTION using the transformer from my train set as the power sup­
SenIor Edl."
good~engonilB.com SOPHIE CHAN-WOOD ply and platinum ribbon strips as electrodes. Although most
sc~mct.com CE readers have at least seen this demonstrated in their elementary
SeniOr Edi." INFORMATION school days, for me, the excitement was not the mini "explosion" that
~ngon5ne.com SERVICES occurs when you light the H2 with a match, or the just-extinguished
MARY PAGE BAILEY CHARLES SANDS match bursting into flame in the 02, but the observation that the volume
Associate EditDf DIrector of ~iIaIlleYeIopmenl
mballe)Odlemeogon1toe.com ~ntel.cam ratio of H2 to 02 was two. Perhaps this elegant demonstration of water's
composition was a spark that led me to go into science in the first place.
At that period in my life, I was also glued to the black-and-white
ma~ SSIleIIey@cIl~ television screen watching the Apollo space missions. So enthralled
AUDIENCE CHARLES BUTCHER (I.IJt) was I with these endeavors, that I had pictures of the moon launches
DeveLOPMENT cbIJld1eiCche~lne.com and landings on my bedroom wall. Last month, some of this child-like
PAU L S. GRAD INJS1RAUAJ enthusiasm returned, for two reasons. First, the February 6 launch of
the Falcon Heavy in itself was awe inspiring, but when the two rocket
boosters returned to earth and landed almost simultaneously in an
SenIor MaIkeIMlg r.tan3ger upright position, I was astonished at that engineering achievement. It
JOY LEPREE IllW BSEY) reminded me of science-fiction movies from the 1950s.
Fu~mManaQer Secondly, working on this month's Newsfront on solar chemistry
gseverine@accessintet.c:om (pp. 12-16) reminded me of the thrill of watching bubbles of H2 and
DANIELLE ZABORSKI O2 form on the electrodes of my basement electrolyzer. Yes, this pro­
lisl Sales: Merit D1reCI.(914) 3li8- 1090 cess is so simple, that even a child can do it - but as a child, I was
ignorant about the engineering and economic factors that are neces­
sary to make this process feasible on a large scale.
Nevertheless, these two events - the Falcon Heavy Test Flight and
Jenike&Johanson.lnc. Validation Estmating uc writing about the "big science" projects related to solar chemistry that
are going on at government research institutes, universities and in­
Mb<Tech.1nc. AJorCorp. dustry - bring home important observations I made.
To do some really exciting science requires three things: a vision,
HEADQUARTERS educated people and money. In the space race of the 1960s, every­
40 wal StreeI. 5CIIl noor. New Yot1<.IfY 10005, U.s.
TeI:212-621-4900 thing was paid for by the governments involved (ultimately, the tax
payers), whereas much of the Falcon Heavy launch was a private
ZeiIweg 44. 0·6(1439 Fr.WiIdtltamMaII1. GemIany
venture of a man with a vision - Elon Musk, the CEO of SpaceX and
Tet 4g.sg.9573-82!16
Tesla. In both cases, thousands of talented scientists and engineers
were employed.
TeI:847-564-9290 With regards to the big-science projects mentioned in this month's
FalC847-5&1-9453 Newsfront article, the same three requirements seem to be present:
FLlliUI1lIIlI M3Rager: P.O.8<»t3583.
e~: cheme.lQOameIja.com
countries (and industrial partners) with the vision to plan for the future;
funding necessary to carry out the research and development that is
needed; and thousands of talented scientists, materials chemists and
engineers, who are being employed in some very exciting projects.
Imagine the enthusiasm that is inspiring the next generation of engi­
ACCESS INTELLIGENCE, LLC neers when their school trips take them to Sandia National Labora­
DON PAZOUR JONATHAN RAY tories in Albuquerque, or the German Aerospace Center in Cologne
Q-ief ExecuIive OlflCel Vice Presideill. 0ig11al
to see water being split at temperatures up to 1AOO°C using just
HEATHER FARLEY MICHAEL KRAUS concentrated sunlight and some minerals (a gross oversimplification).
Q-ief 0peraWIg Ofa Vice Presldeill.
Ptoduotion. 0igI1aI MEda&~ So, I applaud those governments (and in some cases, at least indi­
EMeutJ.e Vice PrtlSidelll GERALD STASKO vidual states and cities) that continue to fund indus­
& ChiefAnancial Oftlcet VIce PresldemlCorpor.ne Cor1roIIer
try-academic "big science" projects for conducting
basic research that eventually will lead to commer­
cial applications - in this case, producing fuels and
chemicals without coal, petroleum or gas. Judging
SrilrVic:e PresldenI&GroupP\JliW1er
Aetospace. Enefgy. HeaJIf1care
from the progress being made in solar chemistry,
Musk's vision of sending human colonies to Mars
SrilrVic:e PresIden~ may be an option, but not a necessity. •
Ctief lnIonnalionOfficer Gerald Ondrey, Senior Editor



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Catalytic conversion of sugars to acrylonitrile
crylonitrile (ACN) -
£1= Editedby:

A a precursor in nearly
all carbon fibers
- is typically pro­
duced from propylene and
ammonia, but a new method
1t -t:.:) (
Biomass Cs, Cs sugars
Mixed glycol stream
~ -
Acetonitrile '\ Gerald Ondrey

Researchersfrom the group
of professor Miho Yamauchi
uses biomass-derived sec­
ond-generation sugars. The -,\~-----,
~, -----
-, Feedback on
at the International Institute
for Carbon-Neutral Energy
process was developed by impurity level Research (12CNER)of Ky­
Southern Research (Dur- ushu University (Fukuoka
ham, N.C.; www.southern­ City, Ito Campus, 12cner.
R1 '" HydrocracKing of sugar
research.org) and seeks to R2 = Dehydration of glycerol to acrolein to C2. C3 diolsltltolS k,yushu-u.ac.jp) have fab­
Carbon fiber ricated a liquid flow-type
provide a more sustainable R3 = Arnmoxldalton of acrolein to acrylonitrile tACH)
drop-in source of ACN. In s-i to S-3 = Separation trains electrolyzer that can con­
tinuously produce an alco­
this three-step process (dia-
hol from a carboxylic acid
gram), aqueous lignocellulosic sugars are configuration. Very minor changes in reac­ using a polymer electrolyte.
converted to multifunctional alcohols, which tion conditions can yield the same product Dubbed PEAEC (polymer
undergo dehydration to acrolein before a final slate," explains Amit Goyal, project manager. electrolyte alcohol electro­
ammoxidation step to yield ACN. This contin­ Typically, says Goyal, the catalysts used synthesis cell), the system
uous fixed-bed process has a small footprint for these types of sugar conversions are has been shown to produce
that would fit well into chemical-processing very unstable, especially in aqueous condi­ glycolic acid from oxalic acid
sites while utilizing a versatile feedstock, says tions, but the catalyst system developed by using a parous Ti02 (ana­
Bill Grieco, vice president of energy and en­ Southern Research boasts longterm stability tase)catalyst,
vironmental activities at Southern Research. over a wide range of operating conditions. The oatalyst is directly
"We see high selectivity and high conver­ Another benefit is the ability of the system grown on a Ti mesh criO~
Ti-M) or Ti fell (Ti°iTi-F),
sion in this process without the downstream to handle feedstock impurities. "We have which is used as the cath­
separations that biological processes typically tested several organiC and inorganic impuri­ ode. The anode - Ir02 sup­
have to deal with," he explains. Each reaction ties at different levels to make sure the cata­ ported on a gas-diffusion
step uses a heterogeneous catalyst; the first lyst stability is not compromised, while still carbon electrode (Ir02"C) -
two steps involve newly developed catalysts, meeting product specifications," says Goyal. is separated from the cath­
and the third step uses an established cata­ The team has demonstrated continuous ode by a Nafion 117 mem­
lyst that has been adapted to accommodate production of a few grams of ACN per hour, brane. With this assembly,
this particular process. and a pilot plant, slated for completion in a maximum energy con­
The team has evaluated the process using October 2018, will expand production to the version efficiency of 49.6%
was observed, and a 99.8%
a wide range of sugar feedstocks. "Basi­ kilogram scale. The produced ACN is vali­
continuous conversion of
cally, it doesn't matter what blend of sug­ dated by Cytec, a Solvay group company
oxalic acid was achieved at
ars we use. There is no change in catalyst (Greenville, S.C.; www.cytec.com). room temperature.
Because glycolic acid is a
stable compound with high
A more direct chemical route to ketones energy denSity.it is a prom­
ising candidate for use in
sing a simple, ligand-free palladium rect methods required stoichiometric amounts energy storage and trans­

U catalyst system, researchers at

McGill University (Montreal, Que.,
Canada; www.mcgill.ca) have dem-
onstrated that metal carbonylation - a core
chemical reaction for many industrial prod­
of synthetic building blocks and created more
chemical waste, explains Bruce Arndtsen,
McGill chemistry professor.This reaction is run
at relativelymild conditions - pressures of 4
atm and temperatures around 1QO-130°C.
port. This electrochemical
system offers a possible
way to store excess wind or
solar electricity.

ucts - can be used to synthesize ketones Since metal-catatyzed carbonylation is already HAFNIUM OXIDES
directly from hydrocarbons. The most com­ a well-established core chemical platform, this AustralianStrategiCMinerals
mon method for syntheSizing ketones is the process should be well suited for scaleup, Ltd., a wholly owned sub­
Friedel-Crafts reaction, which requires several mentions Arndtsen. The team has used a ho­ sidiary of Alkane Resources
energy-intensive preliminary steps to build up mogenous catalyst for their work thus far, but Ltd. (Perth. Western Aus­
the required reactive acylating agents. The the simplicity of the system (no catalyst ligands ralia; www.alkane.com.au).
key to McGill's new route is the formation of a are required)may make the process amenable has developed high-purity
highly potent electrophile species from carbon (99.8%) hafnium dioxide
to heterogeneous catalysis as well, he points
(Hf02) products and 99.9%
monoxide itself, which can promote the syn­ out. Investigating potential heterogeneous
(Hf+Zrj02' Hafnium dioxide
thesis of ketone compounds from commonly catalyst systems will be a next step of the re­ is a precursor for metallic
available hydrocarbons, such as benzene. Al­ search. and will be important in scaling up the hafnium used in superalloys
though ketone synthesis via carbonylation has technology,since it would lend itself to catalyst
been previously demonstrated, these less-di- recovery and lower overallcosts. (continues on p. 6)


and other aerospace alloys. A push for 'green' steel
The products were obtained
by a proprietary process at

st month. the so­

Blast furnace route Hybritroute
the demonstration pilot plant
ailed Hybrit initia­
at the Australian Nuclear Sci­
ve (www.hybrit
ence and Technology Orga­
nization (ANSTO; Sydney:
www.aosto.gov.au). Process was given the go-ahead to ~ Iron()fe :::.I
development, including im­ build a pilot plant for mak- Fossilfuels~ ~.:~~.~. ;.~ ••~.~... f- Non·lossilluels
proved metal recovery, water ing fossil-free steel. The an­ Pelletizing
•·.·.Ironore Ironore •••••
recycling and value engineer­ nouncement follows a pre­ Coal
ing. arecontinuing on theplant feasibility study conducted
atANSTO and through a front­ by Swedish partners SSAS ~eplant
end engineeringand design. AS (Stockholm; www.ssab.
The mineral containing haf­ com), LKAS (Lulea; www.
•• pellets pellets ••

nium and zirconium.eudlaJyte. Ironmaking
Ikab.com) and Vattenfall AS
originatesfrom the company's
Dubbo Zirconia Project. a (Solna; www.vattenfall.com).
large in-ground resource of The partners are looking to
zirconium. hafnium. niobium. invest SEK20 million (about
tantalum and yttrium. located $2.5 million) to plan and de­
Steelmaking Spo~ge I
25 km south of tbe city of sign the pilot plant in Northern
Dubbo, about 400 km from Sweden. The Swedish Energy Iron.J,
Sydney, in Central West New Agency will finance parts of f- Saap
South Wales. the project, and the initiative
The process flowsheet (see f--~
- which could reduce Swe­
online at www.chemengon­
line.com) for the Dubbo Proj­
den's total CO2 emissions by SSA8

ect consists of a sulfuric acid 10% (and those of Finland by

leach followed by solvent ex­ 7%), is said to be crucial if the country is to struction starting as soon as this summer.
traction separation. chemical meet its goals of the Paris Agreement. The goal is to have a totally fossil-free pro­
recovery and refining to pro­ Currently, coal and coke, which are cess for steel production by 2035.
duce zirconium. hafnium. nio­ shipped to Sweden from Australia and other SSAB aims to cut its joint CO2 emissions in
bium and rare earth elements. places, are used to reduce iron ore into iron Sweden by 25% by as early as 2025, through
The Dubbo Project repre­ (diagram, left). The idea behind Hybrit is to conversion of the blast furnace in Oxeiosuno,
sents a unique source of haf­ use H2 instead, which has been produced Sweden. Between 2030-2040, the aim is to
nium that is independent of all with electricity from fossil-free Swedish also convert the blast furnaces in Lulea, Swe­
tra.ditionalmarkets, including
sources (diagram, right). den and Raahe, Rnland to eliminate most of
China. According to Alkane,
the Dubbo Project is the most The pilot plant will be built in Lulea using the remaining CO2 emissions and to attain the
advanced poly-metallic proj­ iron ore deposits from Norrbotten, with con- target of being fossil-free by 2045.
ect of its kind outside China.
It has a potential mine life of
more than 70 years. Start­ A bio-based caprolactam joint-development
up volumes of production at project is now underway
Australian Strategic Minerals'
processing plant wmbe about st month, Genomatica (San Diego, the process, which will use sugars from a va­

25tonlyr of HImetal (30tonlyr
Calif.; www.genomatica.com) and riety of sources as the feedstock.
of Hf021. Full plant capacity is
Aquafil (Trento, Italy; www.aquafil. Aquafil is a leading producer of nylon with
estimated at 200 lon/yr.
om) announced a partnership to expertise in converting caprolactam to the
NEW FCC CATALYST commercialize a Genomatica process for synthetic polymer nylon-6. The company
making caprolactam derived from renewable is focused on developing more sustainable
Lastmonth. BASFSE(Ludwig­
shafen. Germany; www.basf.
feedstocks, rather than from petroleum. The processes for making the material, which
com) commercially launched cyclic amide caprolactam is a key intermedi­ has widespread use in apparel, carpeting
8oroftex. the latest evolution ate for the production of nylon. and other markets. In work that is comple­
of its residuum (resid) Oil fluid The two partners are advancing Ge­ mentary to its project with Genomatica,
catalytic cracking (FCC)cata­ nomatica's Geno CPL process, with the goal Aquafil is also working on a process known
lysts for the petroleum-refining of arriving at a fully commercial process for as the Econyl Regeneration System to pro­
sector. 8oroftex is based on making high-quality, bio-based caprolactam duce nylon from regenerated waste.
BASF's Boron-Based Tech­ with economics that are competitive with Genomatica has previously developed
nology (BBT).and is designed conventional caprolactam. Genomatica has processes for other bio-based chemicals,
to optimize refiners' bottoms
not yet commented on commercialization such as 1,4-butane diol (SDO) - for which
upgrading and distillate yields
by providing maximum nickel
timelines and specific cost targets. it was the winner of the 2013 Kirkpatrick
contamination passivation. An important element of the process is a Chemical Engineering Achievement Award
high-yield microorganism being engineered (Chem. Eng., November 2013, pp. 15-19)
(Continueson p. 8) by Genomatica for the fermentation step of - 1,3-butylene glycol (SG) and butadiene.


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SOLARH2 These highly selective membranes mimic
Researchers at the University of biological ion channels

Twenle's (the Nethet1ands; www. eW membranes
utwente.nl) MESA+ Institute for
developed.at Tufts
Nanotechnology research insti­ University (Med­
tute have developed a system for
ford, Mass.;www.
mal<inghydrogen from water and Methanol
sunlight, without precious-metal
tufts.edu) can effectively
catalysts. The device consists of separate similar chemicals
photocathodes made of silicone based on not only size but
microwires (less than O.l-mm on electrostatic charge.
long), with tips coated with a NI­ "Currently, there are no
Mo catalyst. Photons are collected commercial membranes
between the microwires, and the that are designed to sepa- • COOH.tunctlooal
photocnernlcal conversion to H2 rate organic molecules of
takes place at the tips. This decou­ similar size but different • RuOfinated groups
piing of the location of light absorp­
chemical structure." ex-
tion and reaction, combined with
optimizing the density and length
plainsAyse Asatekin, a chemical and bio­ ion channels that regulatethe transport of
of the microwires, enabled the sci­ logical engineeringprofessor at Tufts. The chemicals in cell membranes. "Instead of
entists to achieve a maximum con­ membranesare created by coating a spe­ using complex top-down methods to cre­
version efficlency Qight-to-H2) of cialtypolymersolution- a randomcopoly­ ate these very small pores, we designed
10.8% - the highest reported for mer of fluorinatedmethacrylateand meth­ a polymer that will create them naturally
aSi-baseddevice. The study is de­ acrylicacid dissolvedin methanol- onto a due to its structure," says Asatekin. While
scribed in a recent issue of Nature commerciallyavailableporous membrane. other membranes have achieved simi­
Energy (Seealso "Solar Chemistry The polymeris synthesizedin a singlestep larly sized functionalized nanopores, the
Heats Up," on pp. 12-16).
via free-radicalpolymerization,which is an membrane preparation methods were
easilyscalableprocess, explainsAsatekin. more complex and the resulting mem­
CO2 HYDROGENATION She believes that this membrane-prepa­ branes sufferedfrom low porosity making
Researchers from Utrecht Univer­ ration process could be readilyscaled up them more challenging to scale up, she
sity (the Netherlands; www.uu.nl).
and adapted for commercial roll-to-roll adds. Due to the highly functional nano­
in collaboration with 8ASF, Lehigh
manufacturingprocesses,enablingit to be structure, the team observed extremely
University and the synchrotron
facilities at the Paul Scherrer In­
installedinto existing production sites with high levels of selectivity between similar­
stitute, have found a way to study little modification. sized organic compounds that were dif­
in detall the conversion of CO2 What sets these membranes apart is ferentiatedby charge. The applicationsfor
into methane. and to determine the self-assemblyof the polymer in solu­ such selective separations include purify­
the perfect size for the catalytic tion to create micelles that form charged ing pharmaceutical ingredients, such as
silica-supported nickel nanodu­ nanopores 1-3 nm in size (diagram).This amino acids and antibiotics. and also blo­
sters. Described in a recent issue enables a functionalized nanostructure fuels-manufacturing processes that use
of Nature Gataljtsis. the research­ that mimics biological pores. such as the emerging solvents. such as ionic liquids.
ers found that NI particles exhibit
optimal catalytiC activity at a size
of 2.5 nm. They also found that a
specifIC architecture of these tiny
Wastewater treatment with peracetic acid
nickel particles facilitates the acti­
n what is said to be the largestmunicipal The application of PAAis accomplished

vation of CO2, This basic research
is expected to further the under­ wastewater application using perace­ by metering skids engineered by Stan­
standing of CO2 reduction, which tic acid (PAA)disinfectant to date, the tec Engineering (Edmonton, Alta.; www.
is important for developing new Metro WastewaterReclamationDistrict stantec.com). The skids contain peristal­
catalysts for making renewable in Denver,Colo. recentlybegandisinfecting tic pumps with specially designed tub­
synthesis gas (syngas; H2 + CO) wastewatereffluentwith a PAAformulation ing made from Teflonand silicone. Enviro
and liquid fuels.
from Enviro Tech Chemical Services, Inc. Techinstalled plastic storage tanks for the
(Modesto, Calif.; www.envirotech.com) PAAsystem that feature a proprietaryme­
METALS FROM ASH known as PeragreenWIN. dium-density polyethylene liner with high
SUEZ S.A. (PariS, France; www. PAA is a disinfectant alternative to so­ chemical resistance.
suez.com) plans to build the dium hypochlorite that allows users to The new bulk delivery and dosing sys­
first plant to use the company's
avoid permitting and regulatory issues tem at the Denver wastewater plant has
proprietary Valomet process to
recover non-ferrous metals from
associated with toxic halogenated by­ a capacity of more than 30,000 gal of
bottom ash, the residue left be­ products from chlorine-containing dis­ PAA solution. The wastewater treatment
hind In waste-Io-energy plants. infectants. While it is more expensive system is capable of handling 220 mil­
The new plant will be built in the than sodium hypochlorite. PAA is a more lion galld with a daily average flow of
port area of Ghent, Belgium, with potent oxidizer, so it can reduce overall 146 million galld, Enviro Tech says. The
€1-million funding support from chemical use. PeragreenWW is an equi­ company has been supplying the food
the Flemish government. librium 15% PAA solution that is stabi­ industry with PAA and other disinfection
(Continues 011 p. 9) lized in a proprietary formulation. products since 1991.
A promising catalyst for SUEZ produces new raw mate­
low-temperature ammonia synthesis rials and alternative energy from
waste, but also from bottom ash.
esearchers led by professor core-shell structures are self-organized

Now, using the internally devel­
Hideo Honoso at Tokyo Institute onto a Ba-Ca(NH2h support with 3.3-nm oped Valomet process, the com­
of Technology (yokohama City, dia. during H2 pretreatment at 500 DC. pany will also recover fine, 1100-
Japan; www.titech.ac.jp) have The support material is simultaneously ferrous metal particles (up to 20
discovered a new catalyst that enhances converted into a mesoporous structure mm in size) from bottom ash. In
the efficacy of NH3 synthesis by two or­ with a high surface area (> 100 m2/g) , November 2015, a pilot project
ders of magnitude over that of a conven­ which is higher than 17 m2/g of the raw began in Ghent in whic11metal con­
centrates from bottom ash were
tional Ru catalyst at temperatures below Ba-Ca(NH2)2 support materials. These
processed and separated. Over
300DC. Furthermore, the developed cata­ self-organized nanostructures account a one-year trial period, SUEZ ex­
lysts are said to be superior to the wustite­ for the high catalytic performance in low­ tracted around 1,300 metric tons
based iron catalyst, which is known as a temperature NH3 synthesis. of fine metal particles. whic11were
highly active industrial catalyst at low tem­ In laboratory trials, the RulBa-Ca(NH2)2 then returned to the production
peratures and pressures. catalyst performed NH3 synthesis with process, through foundries and
The catalyst is composed of self-or­ turnover velocity of 7.5 mmoVg·h at 250°C melal refineries. This pilot project
ganized ruthenium-barium core-shell and 9 atm, well above that achieved by recoveree aluminum and denser
nanoparticles on a mesoporous calcium industrial iron-based catalysts (2.2 mmoll non-ferrous metals, such as cop­
g·h) and conventional Ru-based (Cs-Rul per, lead and zinc.
amide matrix, Ru/Ba-Ca(NH2)2' To make
The nf'!'N faclrlty,which IS expected
the catalyst, nanometer-sized Ru-Ba MgO) catalyst (0.072 mmol/g·h).
to be operational by the end of this
year, represents a tenfold scaleup,
and will have thecapacity to process
'One-pot' synthesis of conjugated polyenes up to 12,000 m.t.lyr by 2019. The
materials processed will come from

e research group of professor At room temperature, the new synthe­ European countries, including Bel­
Masafumi Hirando at Tokyo Univer­ sis approach directly produces conju­ gium, France, the UK and Poland.
ity of Agriculture and Technology gated tetraenes with 85% yield by react­
(TUAT; Koganei City, Japan; www. ing 1,3-butadiene over a Ru(O) catalyst HANDY ANALYSIS
tuat.ac.jp) has performed the world's first containing two internal alkyne ligands. The Researchers at the Fraunhofer
one-pot synthesis of conjugated polyenes, stoichiometric reaction of [Ru(,,4-cisoid- Institute for Integrated Circuits
which normally require at least seven steps 1,3-butadiene)(,,4-1,5-COD)(NCMe)] with (liS; Erlangen, Germany; www.iis.
by conventional methods. This shortens two equivalents of 3-hexyne produces a fraunhOfer.de),in cooperation with
the synthesis time from around a week to tetraene complex of Ru(O), [Ru{3-6-,,4- CapSenze Siosystems AS (Lund,
as little as 30 minutes. Waste generation (3E,5E,7E,9E)-4,9-diethyldodeca-3,5,7, 9- Sweden; www.capsenzw.se) have
developed a mob~e measuring
is virtually eliminated due to the hydrogen tetraene}(,,4-1,5-COD)(NCMe)], in 98%
device that can quickly and reliably
transfer reaction, which enables regio- and yield. When exposed to 1,3-butadiene. detect the presenoeof biochemical
stereo-selective reactions for making pre­ the conjugated tetraene ligand is released substancesinliquid$,suchasdrink­
cursors for electronics chemicals, vitamins with 92% yield. The study is described in a ing water or juices. The matchbox­
and pharmaceuticals. recent issue of Organometallics. sized device, which integrates a
biosensor developed by CepSenze
and an optimized evaluation circuit
An explosive way to make from liS, Is able to perlorm mea­
surements in a couple of minutes,
porous organic networks compared to the time-consuming
process of sending samples to
team from Ulsan National Institute and one water molecule are regularly po­

laboratories for analysis.
of SCienceand Technology (Ulsan, sitioned in the HEA crystal lattice. The ac­ Supplying measurement data In
South Korea; www.unist.ac.kr). etone and water molecules play a role as the oleo- to temtomole (10-12 to
ed by professor Jong-Beom primer to trigger explosion. Solid-organic 10-15 moVL) range, the six differ­
Baek has introduced a synthetic method­ materials can easily melt when heat is ap­ ent sensors of the biosensor sys­
ology for fabricating a three-dimensional plied. However, the newly-developed HEA tem allow simultaneous detection
porous organic network with a high spe­ single crystals trigger explosive Bergman of six different substances. Differ­
cific surface area via a solid-state explo­ reactions and quickly changes to 3-D po­ ent sensor coatings, depending
sion of organic single crystals containing rous materials when heat is applied, with­ on the substance to be detected,
are used to determine the pres­
primer molecules. The method involves out the presence of solvents and catalysts.
ence of unwanted substances In
the Bergman reaction (cyclo-aromatiza­ The polyHEAobtained is a porous material
foodstuffs and animal feed. The
tion) of 2,3.6.7. 14, 15-hexaethynyl-9,10- with specifiCsurface area of 1,176 m2/g dis­ biosensor system is a highly sen­
dihydro-9,10-{1,2}benzenoanthracene playing unusual sorption capacity for CO2, sitive device thai can identify, with
(HEA), which is a self-polymerizable tri­ The team's method could pave the way for the corresponding sensor coat­
functional (M3) building block with three designing and synthesizing molecules suit­ ing, the presence of biochemical
enedyne groups (containing a double bond able for the solid-state formation of other substances, such as hormones,
and two triple bonds). X-ray diffraction porous organic networks for applications pesticides and mycotoxins in ex­
suggested that two acetone molecules beyond those of liquid-phase processes. • tremely low concentrations. 0


Business News
LINEUP Plant Watch Arkema to increase polyamide 12
Air Liquide inaugurates production in China
ADNOC February 6, 2018 - Arkema (Colombes,
CO2-recovery plant in Ontario
AlRUOUIDE February 12, 2018 - Air Liquide Canada, France;www.arkema.com) plansto increaseits
a subsidiary of the Air Liquide Group (Paris, production capacity for polyamide 12 polymers
France; www.airliquide.com). inaugurated by 25%. This new capacity will be added at
ARKEMA a carbon dioxide (C02) recovery plant in Arkema's Changshu platform in China and is
BASF Johnstown, Ontario. The plant is capable of expected to come onstream by mid-2020.
producing over 200 metric tons (m.t.) per day
CB&I of medical-grade CO2, Chandra Asri breaks ground
--- for new polyethylene plant
Sabic announces expansion plans in February 5, 2018 - PT Chandra Asri
CLARIANT Singapore and the Netherlands Petrochemical Tbk (CAP; Jakarta, Indonesia;
CUMMINS February12,2018 - The Saudi BasicIndustries www.chandra-asri.com) broke ground for a
Corp. (Sabic; Riyadh;www.sabic.com) plans to new 400,000-m.t./yr polyethylene (PE)plant
DSM in Cilegon, Banten, Indonesia. The total
Increaseglobal capacity for high-performance
EVONIK engineeringthermoplastic materialsinAsia and investment cost for the project is estimated
the Netherlands. The planned new production to be around $350 million. The completion of
HENKEL the project is scheduled for the end of 2019,
facility in Singapore is expected to go online in
INVISTA the first half of 2021 . The company also plans with operations commencing in early 2020.
--- to recommission operations at its Bergen op
Zoom resinplant in the Netherlandsto produce BASF to expand production of alkyl
KANEKA polyphenylene ether in 2019. polyglucosides in Ohio and China
February 1, 2018 - BASF SE (Ludwigshafen,
KBR Germany; www.basf.com) will increase
KBR awarded contract for new
MEXICHEM polycarbonate plant in China its global production capacity for alkyl
SABIC February9, 2018 - KBR, Inc. (Houston; www. polyglucosides with two production expansion
kbr.com) will provide proprietary phosgene­ projectsat sitesinCincinnati,Ohio,and Jinshan,
SAMSUNG ENGINEERING based interfacial polycarbonate technology, China. The Cincinnati unit is scheduled to
SASOL basic engineering design and proprietary come online in 2018, and the Jinshan unit is
equipment supply to Cangzhou Dahua planned to start up in 2019.
SOLVAY New Materials Co. (CDNM) for a new
1OO,OOO-m.t.lyrsingle-train polycarbonate Air Liquide starts up world-scale
plant inCangzhou City,China.CDNM intends to oxygen plant at Sasol's Secunda site
further expand production to 200,000 m.t.tyr. February 1, 2018 - Air Liquide started up
what is said to be the world's largest oxygen
Samsung-CB&I joint venture wins EPC production unit at Sasol Ltd. 's (Johannesburg,
contract for Adnoc refinery upgrade South Africa;www.sasol.com) site in Secunda,
February 8, 2018 - The Abu Dhabi National South Africa. Air Liquide invested around €200
Oil Co. (Adnoc; www.adnoc.com) announced millionfor the construction of this airseparation
that a joint venture (JV) between Samsung unit, which has a total production capacity of
Engineering Ltd. (Seoul, South Korea; www. 5,000 m.t./d of oxygen.
samsungengineering.com) and CB&I (The
Woodlands, Tex.;www.cbLcom) was awarded BASF to double MDI production
the engineering,procurement and construction capacity in Geismar
(EPC) contract for a $3.1-billion upgrade February 1, 2018 - BASF will start the
project at Adnoc's Ruwais petroleum refinery. construction of a new methylene diphenyl
The refinery modifications, scheduled to be diisocyanate (MDI) synthesis unit at the
completed by the end of 2022, will enable the company's site in Geismar, La. in the second
Ruwais Refinery-West complex to process up quarter of 2018. The new plant will double
to 420,000 barrels per day (bbVd)of crude oil. BASF's annual MDI capacity in Geismar from
300,000 m.t.lyr to nearly 600,000 m.t./yr.
Henkel begins construction of
aerospace materials plant in Spain Solvay to expand production of
February 7, 2018 - Henkel AG & Co. KGaA sodium bicarbonate in Rheinberg
(DUsseldorf, Germany;www.henkel.com)began January 31, 2018 - Solvay S.A. (Brussels,
construction of a new plant for aerospace Belgium; www.solvay.com)will invest €6 million
materials at its site in Montornes del Valles, to expand sodium bicarbonate production
Spain. The facility will include new buildings capacityat ItssiteinRheinberg,Germany.Startup
Look for more and equipment for expanded production of the expanded facility is planned by the
latest news on capacities to support industry trends, such end of 2018. Solvay also produces sodium
chemengonline.com as lightweighting and automation. bicarbonate in Torrelavega, Spain.
Mergers & Acquisitions
Aquafil to acquire Invista's
Asia Pacific nylon 6 business
February 6, 2018 - Aquafil S.p.A. (Arco, Italy; www.aquafil.
com) has signed an agreement with Invista (Wichita, Kan.;
www.invista.com}toacquire assets related to Invista's nylon
6 business activities in Asia. The assets to be acquired
concern Invista's business for polyamide 6 fiber in the Asia
Pacific region, which has a turnover of about $50 million.
Closing of the acquisition is expected by the end of March. When it has to work.
Johnson Matthey sells battery
systems business to Cummins
Thefirst time ...
January 31, 2018 - Cummins Inc. (Columbus, Ind.; www.
cummins. com) acquired Johnson Matthey's (London; www.
matt hey.com) U.K. automotive-battery systems business,
every time.
which specializes in high-voltage automotive-grade battery From Arsenic to Zirconium Tetrachloride ...
systems. As part of the acquisition, Cummins and Johnson
Matthey also agreed to collaborate on the development of we scrub gasses others won't touch!
high-energy battery materials for commercial applications. I
Aerospace HCL/CL2
Kaneka acquires Henkel's Agriculture HF I HBr
benzoxazine composites business Chemical S02
January 31. 2018 - Henkel and Kaneka Corp. 's (Tokyo, Cement NH3
FertJlI%er NOx
Japan; www.kaneka.com) wholly owned subsidiary, Fibers H2S
KanekaAerospace, LLC{KAE; San Francisco, Calif.), have Food ETO IPO
finalizedthe transfer of commercial rights, technologies and HVAC Si02
Medical SiCL3
patents of Henkel's benzoxazine-based high-performance Petrochemical Mists
composites business to KAE. Included in the acquisition Pharmaceutical Dust
are benzoxazine-based prepregs, film adhesives and Pulp & Paper Particulate
semIconductor Phosgene
infusion resins. Textile VOC's
Evonik and DSM officially
launch Veramaris [oint venture
January 30, 2018 - Royal DSM N.v. (Heerlen, the
C ,
Netherlands; www.dsm.com) and Evonik Industries AG ....... ._".,

(Essen, Germany; www.evonik.com) have established a
" ..
new company. Veramaris V.O.F. (www.veramaris.com).
for the production of omega-3 fatty acids from natural
marine algae. The 50-50 JV is headquartered at the DSM
Biotech Campus in Delft, the Netherlands. Veramaris is
currently constructing a $200-million production facility
in Blair, Nebraska, with commercial production expected
to commence in 2019.
Sabic acquires 24.99%
<} f±i q" ill

stake in Clariant
January 25. 2018 - Sabic has acquired a 24.99% stake
.. .....
~, FT f~E \
in Clariant (Muttenz, Switzerland: www.clariant.com).This I I

, ~"

acquisition makes Sabic the largest Clariant shareholder.
.~.., , ,
Sabic is currently a partner of Clariant in the U.S.-based
catalyst JV Scientific Design Company. Inc. (~ """"",..."

Mexichem acquires
Pennsylvania-based specialty PVC producer l;~ ~
January 23.2018 - Mexichem S.A.B. de C.v. (Tlalnepantla. s t "I
t... .!_

Mexico; www.mexichem.com) has acquired Sylvin

Technologies Inc., a specialty polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
compounds manufacturer based in Denver. Pa.• for an
enterprise value of $39 million. Mexichem will consolidate
Sylvin under the company's Vinyl business group as part
of its Compounds business unit. •
Mary Page Bailey

Solar Chemistry Heats Up

Major efforts are underway to develop new process technology for making chemicals using
sunlight and the products of combustion

oone can deny that the making ammonia, liquid

N sun provides more than

enough energy to supply
the world's energy and
materials needs. After all, Mother
Nature has been using sunlight for
fuels, alcohols and more
(see Table 1; a more com­
prehensive table can be
found in the online ver­
sion of this article at www.
millennia, making a myriad of chemi­ chemengonline.com).
cals from carbon dioxide and water
via photosynthesis. And the fact is, Understand the limits
fossil fuels are the remnants of sun­ When it comes to mak­
to-chemical production, which hu­ ing chemicals from CO2,
mans have been exploiting for the water and sunlight, there
last few centuries as alternatives are basically three pos­
to the biomass that our ancestors sibilities, explains Chris­
used for cooking and heating needs. tian Sattler, head of solar FIGURE1. In order to accelerate the design of reactors for per­
As the energy demands of the chemical engineering at forming solar chemistry, solar simulators are being used. Simula­
human species continue to grow, the German Aerospace tors enable scientists to work during cloudy days or at night, and
avoid the costly infrastructure needed for solar towers. Shown
due to both population growth and Center (DLR; Cologne, here is DLR'sSynJight- the world's largest solar simulator -
usage, it doesn't take more than a Germany; www.dlr.de). that started operating last March in JliJich, Germany
back-of-the-envelope calculation to Sunlight can be used as
show that eventually, our reliance on photons for photosynthesis; it can be and it has to be multiplied with the
fossil fuels will come to an end - it's transformed in photovoltaic (PV)cells efficiency of the chemical process,
simply a question of when. After all, into electrons, and then used in elec­ which gives a rather low number.
there is only a finite amount of coal, trochemical processes; or it could be Therefore, from a large-scale indus­
gas and petroleum. And in the last used as heat in thermochemical pro­ trial point of view, it makes sense to
few decades, most of the conscien­ cesses. "There is no contradiction, concentrate solar radiation - either
tious scientific and industrial com­ but actually a synergy between the in the form of heat or of electricity -
munity have realized that something different routes," says Sattler, adding to use it in chemical processes. This
needs to be done to slow down the that "this is the reason why we have makes compact reactors with high
release of CO2 into the atmosphere. a very successful joint solar-fuels throughput possible," he says.
Planning for future generations, ef­ topic in the Helmholtz Renewable
forts around the world are growing Energy program [www.helmholtz.de) Splitting water
to ween our current dependence on between the three routes." The electrolysis of water into H2 and
fossil resources by taking advantage For industrial applications, a basic O2 has been used industrially for
of the ever-present sunshine flood­ principle needs to be taken into ac­ many years, especially in regions of
ing some part of the planet every day. count seriously, Sattler continues: the world where electricity has been
Although the energy sector tends to "Solar radiation is a rather diluted inexpensive (such as that from nu­
receive the most headline-grabbing energy source, whereas the pro­ clear or hydroelectric plants). Now,
attention about solar power, there duced fuels or chemicals have a very as the cost of PV technology has
is another less well known, but very high energy density. Therefore, from dropped, solar-based renewable H2
active pursuit for using sunlight, CO2 a chemical point of view, if sunlight production is making its way into the
and water for manufacturing chemi­ is not concentrated to higher energy chemical process industries (CPI),in­
cals (Figure 1). This article is a mod­ densities, the amount of product per cluding petroleum refineries. In Janu­
est attempt to highlight some of these irradiated reactor surface is limited to ary, for example, Royal Dutch Shell
activities, which are making progress far less than 1 kW/m2. This amount Pic (The Hague, the Netherlands;
towards the production of renew­ of energy is not available for photo­ www.shell.com) and ITM Power
able H2 and synthesis gas (syngas; chemical processes, but only a frac­ (Sheffield, U.K.; www.itm-power.
H2 and CO), which is then used for tion of it with the right wavelengths com) announced plans to build the


world's largest water-electrolysis Among the AWS technologies under ical cycles for H2 production to be
plant to produce H2 for use in Shell's investigation are low-temperature commercially viable, and to ad­
Rheinland Refinery in Wessling, Ger­ anion-exchange membrane (AEM) vance STCH'stechnology readiness
many. When the 10-MW "Refhyne" and proton-exchange membrane level through R&D efforts focused
plant starts up in 2020, it will pro­ (PEM) electrolysis, high-temperature on materials and reactor design,
duce 1,300 metric ton (m.t.) per year electrolysis, photoelectrochemical says project lead Anthony McDaniel
of H2 using renewable electricity. (PEG) pathways and solar thermo­ at Sandia. "Two-step, non-volatile
Meanwhile, there is an ongoing ef­ chemical (STCH) water splitting, metal-oxide cycles are currently
fort to develop alternative methods of Last November, Proton On­ the thermochemistry of choice. To­
making H2 from water, by so-called Site (Wallingford, Conn.: www. gether with DLR (a subcontractor
advanced water-splitting (AWS) protononsite.com) received around to Sandia on one particular proj­
technologies. One (of many) such $1.8 million in a cooperative agree­ ect), the team developed a 3-kWth-
initiatives is the HydroGEN Energy ment award to lead the DOE's AWS scaled prototype and successfully
Materials Network (EMN) consortium Benchmarking Project with the Hy­ demonstrated Sandia's moving
(www.h2awsm.org), which is led by droGEN EMN consortium. The goal particle bed, solar-thermochemical
the U.S. Dept. of Energy's (DOE; is to speed the discovery and de­ reactor technology," says McDaniel.
Washington, D.C.; www.energy.gov) velopment of efficient, durable and ''The project with DLR [called
National Renewable Energy Labora­ low-cost AWS materials capable of HEST-HYin Table1] was comprised
tory (Golden, Colo.; www.nrel.gov), meeting DOE's long-term H2-pro­ of three main tasks: discovery of
and includes the Lawrence Berke­ duction goal of less than $2/kg. redox active materials; reactor pro­
ley National Laboratory (Calif.; www. Looking at STCH, for example, totype design and demonstration;
Ibl.gov), Sandia National Laborato­ the Fuel Cell Technologies Office and building a high-fidelity model
ries (Livermore, Calif.; www.sandia. withinDOE(https:llenergy.gov/eere/ to predict performance of a large­
gov), Lawrence Livermore National fuelcells/fu el- cell- technologies­ scale plant (targeting 100 kg/d H2
Laboratory (Calif.; www.llnl.gov) and office) has funded Sandia National production)," explains McDaniel.
Savanna River National Laboratory Laboratoriesfor manyyears to verify "And while the optimal material still
(Jackson, S.C.; www.srnl.doe.gov). the potential for solar-thermochem- eludes us, the project did complete

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For details visit adlinks.chemengonline.com/70304.04


European Regional Develop­
ment Fund (EFRE), EFRE.
Rheinische Fachhoch­ EFRE
schule Kiiln, Stausberg NRW
& Vosding GmbH, AWS-

Synthesize liquid hydrocarbons from High-flux solar-concentrating subsystem E.U.'s Horizon 2020 Frame­
H20 and CO2•via formation of syngas constructed at IMDEA Energia in Madrid, work Program
and subsequent FIScher·Tropsch Spain

Hydrosol: Solar ther­ Using solar-thermal energy (at 800- Three reactors have been built, each with E.U.'s Horizon 2020 Frame-
mochemical water 1.400°C) to make H2from reaction of a thermal capacity of 250 kW work Program
water with metal oxides

CEA,HyGearB.V., VTT, Decompositionof steam by a A 3-kWe pressurized HTEwas designed, EuropeanCommission

Engle. HTceramixS.A., combination of electrical and high- built and operated (FCH-JU)
SolidPower temperature (70o-aOO°C)heat into
carbon-free H2and O2

solar-thermal energy to has the potential to save two Frame-

perform the calcination step used thirds of the energy requirements needed
in the lime. phosphate and cement by conventional calcination processes

Using sulfur to store energy in an Demonstration operation of an integrated INEA(European

S-S02-H~04 cycle (for more infor­ pilot unit is planned for the last project and Horizon 2020 Frame­
mation, see Chem. Eng.•June 2017. year at the DLRJiilich Solar Power Tower work Program
p. 10) facility

Making nitrogen fertilizers via a will be placed on the ther­

Haber-Boschprocess in which the H2 mochemical air-separation process for
is derived from water splitting. and producing N2
the N2 from a solar-thermochemical

A solar-powered pilot-scale rotary kiln GermanFederal Ministry

built and tested of Education and Research

Zurich. Karlsruhe focus was to develop metal-oxide­ Inniative and Networking

Institute of Technology. based redox materials for the production Fund. HelmholtzAssn. of
Technical University of of H2• and then make fuels from water GermanResearchCenters
Clausthal and CO2

Sandia Nationallabora- Todevelop new methods and reac- Part of DOE-funded STCH(solar ther­ U.S. Dept.of Energy
tories. ColoradoSchool of tors for operating thermochemical mochemical hydrogen) project at Sandia.
Mines, Northwestern Uni- looping cycles to make H2by splitting Negotiationsare underway for follow-up
versity. Stanford Univer- project
sity. Bucknell University,

prototype construction and ac­ developmentcommunity and key to "Onpaper,PEGandSTGHpromise

complish the demonstration," he high efficiency operation," he says. to dramaticallyincreasethe system
adds. The high-fidelity plant model Although this specific project was efficiency(DOEtechnology develop­
is currently being used to conduct completed last year, the materials ment targets >25%)," McDanielcon­
detailed technoeconomic stud­ work continues through the DOE­ tinues. "I favor the STCH approach
ies of the STGH process. Regard­ funded HydroGENconsortium. because it has the theoretical po­
ing the moving particle-bed reac­ That said, a key metric that drives tential to achievea high solar-to-fuel
tor, McDaniel says that Sandia's the developmentof PEGand STGHis conversion efficiency.Concentrated
concepts embodies spatial and the sOlar-to-H2conversionefficiency solar utilizes the full spectrum (not
temporal separation of pressure, - "essentiallychallengingourselves selectivelyabsorbing photosystems)
temperature and reaction prod­ to dramaticallyoutdo Mother Nature, and convertsthermalenergydirectly
ucts, as well as continuous on-sun and in fact, outdo a conventional into fuel (that is, a reduced oxide)
operation. "These design attributes electrolyzer (-10% sotar-to-H, effi­ without incurring serial inefficiencies
are a significant departure from the ciency when coupled to a Si-based associated with the photon-to-elec­
traditional norms of this technology PVsystem)."says McDaniel. tron intermediatestep."
"In comparing PEC to STCH from Concentrated solar radiation the Greek energy-supply company
a technology development perspec­ HellenicPetroleum.DLR is predomi­
tive, they each face different chal­ nantly responsible for the develop­
lenges," says McDaniel. The best ment of the reactor, which uses so­
PEC chip ever devised so far oper­ lar-thermalenergyto make H2by the
ates at -16% solar-to-fuel conver­ reactionof H20with metal oxides at
sion efficiency. But, McDainel points temperaturesof 800-1.400°C. "This
out, it is a small device, producing is not a laboratory experiment any­
a few Watts of H2, that degrades more,but it is also no industrialdem­
rapidly. The largest STCH process onstration,"says DLR'sSattler."The
demonstrated is 100 kW (with 750 next step will be to furtherscale it up
kW in the Hydrosol Plant endeavor, into the megawatt range, which will
described below), and operates con­ be expensive,"he adds.
tinuously for weeks - but at a much _ Oxygen evolution hall·cycle
- Fuel production half·cycle
lower solar-to-fuel conversion effi­ Solar-thermochemical syngas
FIGURE 2. ASpart of the Solar-Jet project, this
ciency. The highest STCH process
solar-thermochemical reactor developed at ETH
While H2 is an important chemical
efficiency demonstrated thus far is Zurich, sucessfully demonstrated the ability to in itself, as well as an energy car­
5.25% at 4 kW. "So, PEC wins on produce syngas, from which kerosene Oetfuel) rier that can be, and increasinglyis
demonstrated efficiency and STCH was made via F-T synthesis being used to power fuel-celldriven
wins on demonstrated scalability. (PSA)in southern Spain to become vehicles, syngas is the key building
At the moment, DOE is betting on the world's largest solar-chemical block when it comes to produc­
both," McDaniel says. installation for producing H2. The ing basic chemicals. And this is an
Meanwhile, the Hydrosol Plant plant is the culmination of an inter­ area where the power of the sun is
project started up last November national project coordinated by the literally heating up interest. In addi­
at CIEMAT's (Centro de Investiga­ Greek Aerosol and ParticleTechnol­ tion to the Hydrosolprojects, DLRis
ciones Energeticas, Medioambien­ ogy Laboratory,in collaborationwith active in a number of projectsaimed
tales y Tecnol6gicas; www.ciemat. Germany's DLR, Spanish CIEMAT, at producingsyngas,fuelsand other
es) Plataforma Solar de Almeria the Dutch company HyGear, and chemicals by solar-thermochemical

For details visit adllnks.chemengonline.comf70304-16 For details visit adllnks.chemengonllne.comf70304-02 15 iIIIIIIIII
n January, Siemens AG (Munich; www.siemens.com) and Evonik the conversion of PV electricity, CO:! and water to the desired alcohols

I Industries AG (Essen, both Germany; www.evonik.com) started

the Rheticus project - a two-year project to use electricity from
renewable sources and bacteria to convert CO2 and water into
achieved close to 100% Faradicefficieocy.Evoniksays that artificialpho­
tosynthesis is closer than expected with this scalable hybrid system.
Meanwhile, researchers around the world are regularly reporting new
specialty chemicals, such as butanol and hexanol. With €2.8 mil­ "breakthroughs" in catalyst development targeting the steps of artifi­
lion funding from the Federal Ministry of Education and Research cial photosynthesis - either H2 production or CO2 reduction, or ooth
(BMBF; Bonn and Bertin, Germany; www.bmbf.de). the companies simultaneously. These efforts are often reported in the Chementator
plan to bring a test plant onstream by 2021 at Evonik's site in Mart, pages of this magazine. For example, researchers from the National
Germany. After that. the next step could be a plant with a produc­ University of Singapore (www.nus.edu.sg) have developed a proto­
tion capacity of 20,000 m.t.lyr, says Evonik. type device that uses artificial photosynthesis to produce ethylene
In the Rheticus project. syngas will be produced electrolytically (using using only sunlight, water and CO2, at room temperature and pressure
electricity generated by renewable sources. such as photovoltalc (pv) (Chern. Eng., January 2018, p. 7). Another example can be found in
cellsor wind generators) by the reduction of ~ into syngas at the cath­ this month's Chementator Briefs on p. 8, which mentions the findings
ode, while water Is split into O2 and H+ ions at the anode. The syngas of a recent study for makin!!Jsolar H2 In an intemational colaboration
will then be fermented Into alcohols using aerobic micrOOl'ganisms.The led by the University of Twente's MESA+ Institute.
complete process has been demonstrated at small scale, as described Meanwhile, progress continues at the Joint Center for Mificial Pho­
in a Nature catalysis article published in January. In that study. a PV tosysthesis (JCAP; www.solarfuelshub.org). which was established in
module supplied the electricity (480 mA per 10 cm2 at 3.7 V) operat­ 2010 by the DOE, and Is the U.S.'s largest research program dedi­
ing at 11% conversion efficiency, The electrolyzer used a commercial cated to advance artificial-fuels generation science and technology.
Ag-based gas-diffusion electrode (GDE)from Covestro AG (Leveri<usen, The second phase of this program started in 2015. with the focus on
Germany; www.coversto.com) for the cathode, and an indium/mixed­ solar CO2-reduction to fuels. JCAP is led by the california Institute
metal-oxide-coated titanium plate from ElectroCel AlS (Tarm,Deornart<; of Technology (Pasadena; www.caitech.edu). in partnership with the
www.electrocell.com) for the anode. When coupled to a fermentation Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Other partners include the
module, the syngas from the electroiyzer is metabofized into butanol University of California at Irvine and San Diego. and the SLAC National
and hexanol with high carbon selectMty. The study demonstrated that Accelerator Laboratory. operated by Stanford University. 0

methods (Table 1). "Some of these synthesis into kerosene. securing economic competitiveness,
are far beyond laboratory scale," "In the framework of the Solar­ says Furler, the co-founder and CEO
says Sattler. Jet project, we have experimentally of Sunredox. ENI and Synhelion
For example, as part of the Sun­ demonstrated at laboratory-scale signed a cooperation agreement in
to-Liquid project (www.sun-to-liquid. the entire production chain to re­ June 2017 for this purpose. "We are
eu), a small solar tower system was newable jet fuel (kerosene) via solar targeting the first 20-MW pilot plant
built at IMOEA Energfa at Mostoles thermochemical splitting of water by 2023 and the commercial phase
Technology Park, near Madrid, in and CO2,'' says Philipp Furler, a re­ by 2025," he says.
2016. This high-flux solar-concen­ search associate at ETH Zurich and Furler points out three main advan­
trating subsystem consists of an operating agent for solar chemistry tages of the thermochemical route to
ultra-modular solar heliostat central research of the International Energy renewable fuels compared to alter­
receiver that provides intense solar Agency's (Paris, France; www.iea. native approaches. Firstly, the ther­
radiation for high-temperature ap­ org) technology program, Solar­ mochemical route uses the entire
plications beyond the capabilities PACES. "If coupled to CO2-capture solar spectrum and bypasses critical
of current commercial concentrated from atmospheric air, such kerosene energy conversion stages, such as
solar power (CSP) installations. The has zero net CO2 emissions and can electricity generation, electrolySiS,or
heliostat field consists of 169 small be certified for commercial aviation reverse-water-gas-shift and thus can
size heliostats (1.9 m x 1.6 m). by minor addendum to the existing exceed the energy conversion effi­
When all heliostats are aligned, it is 07566 specification for synthesized ciencies of alternative processes and
possible to fulfil the specified flux hydrocarbons. Furthermore, we become cheaper. Secondly, it is ap­
above 2,500 kW/m2 for at least 50 boosted the reactor energy-conver­ plied in desert regions with high direct
kW and an aperture of 16 cm, with a sion efficiency by a factor of 13 to a normal irradiance (ONI),whereas fuels
peak flux of 3,000 kW/m2. A reliable record 5.25%. Within Sun-to-Liquid, derived from biomass use valuable
road map for competitive crop-in fuel we are now scaling up the process agricultural land and suffer from low
production from water, carbon diox­ to a solar-tower," says Furler. energy-conversion efficiencies (typi­
ide and solar energy will be estab­ In parallel, Sunredox - a spinoff cally below 1%) resultingin critical land
lished in the project. company of ETH Zurich - jOintly footprint. Thirdly, it can be combined
The E.U.-funded Sun-to-Liquid with Synhelion (Switzerland; www. with inexpensive thermal-energy stor­
project is the followup to a prede­ synhelion.com) and Eni S.p.A (Rome, age solutions, suoh as a packed bed
cessor project, Solar-Jet, in which Italy; www.eni.com) are working in of rocks ($15lkWh), to enable continu­
a solar reactor developed at ETH close collaboration to further de­ ous and uninterrupted 24(1 operation
Zurich (Switzerland; www.prec.ethz. velop and scale-up the solar chemi­ of the plant, regardless of the sunlight
ch) was successfully operated for cal technology to the megawatt size intermittency. In contrast, approaches
splitting H20 and CO2 to produce over the next years, with the goal of based on electricity lack inexpensive
syngas, which was subsequently reaching solar-to-fuel energy con­ storage solutions, says Furler. •
converted via Rscher-Tropsch (F-T) version efficiencies beyond 20% for Gerald Ondrey

Clearing the Air

Modern air-filtration systems provide more-efficient dust collection and
assist with air quality compliance
ir-filtrationand dust­ cessors work with presents IN BRIEF

A collection systems
are the go-to gear
for protecting em­
ployeesand equipment from
dust exposure and for com­
a risk of explosion or com­ THE NECESSllY OF AlR
bustibility, so collecting and
controlling combustible dust
helps protect from these haz­
ards," Haynamsays.
plying with air-quality,safety While air-filtration and REDUCING OPERATING
and combustible-dust regu­ dust-collection systems are COSTS
lations enforced by local, nothing new for chemical
state and federal authorities. processors, problems arise
Despite the necessityof the when existingequipment can
equipment, many proces­ no longer keep up with cur­
sors use legacy systems rent standards or processes.
that no longerfunction at the "There are two issues we
highest levels of filtration or often see. Rrst, a lot of facili­
energy efficiency or, worse, ties havelegacysystemsthat
do not meet National Fire aren't properly protected ac­
Protection Agency (NFPA; cordingto current NFPAstan­
Quincy, Mass.; www.nfpa. dards, which is a problem
org) guidelines for combus­ in the chemical industry be­
tible dusts. Clearly,these are causethey often handlemore
very big concerns in chemi­ exotic dusts with higher ex­
cal process industries (CPI). plosivity ratings, says Steve

For this reason, updating to McConnell,global director of

more modern equipment filtration with Schenck Pro­
may be in order. However, cess (KansasCity,Mo.; www.
because every dust, every schenckprocess.com).
facility and every process is "The second issue is that
different,there'sa lot to con­ a lot of legacy systems have
FIGURE1. The Downflo Evolution (DFE)
sider when evaluatinga new combines t fbi d t
gone ou 0 a ance ue 0
the latest in filtration tech-
dust collectionsystem. changes in the process or
nologies in a dust collector that allows
u1itizatlonof a variety of mitigation the addition of new ductwork
The necessity of air equipment strategies and pick-up points. The sys-
filtration tem was likely designed and working cor­
"Most of the systems we sell are related to rectly initially,but alterationsmay cause the
improvingair qualityand protectingemploy­ collectionsystem to become problematicin
ees from exposure to contaminated air or that it is no longer collecting the dust in an
direct exposure to the contaminant being efficientmanner."
collected," says Travis Haynam with Parker Upgrading the system may seem like an
Hannifin'sIndustrial Gas and FiltrationDivi­ obvious step, but experts say selecting air­
sion (Lancaster, N.Y.; www.parker.com). filtration equipment is anything but simple.
"Asset protection - protecting process For this reason, many equipment providers,
equipment from dust that may cause corro­ includingSchenck,haveengineeringgroups
sion or get inside bearings or moving parts thatwillassistprocessorsindeterminingwhat
of the machineryand cause abnormalwear theyneed to protect employeesand facilities
or prematurefailure - is another factor in from dust. "Our dust-collection engineering
employing a dust collection system. And, group includes industrial ventilation design
certainly,a lot of the materialchemical pro- specialistswith experiencein ductwork de-


FIGURE 2. V-Sank style fillers, such as Camfil's
Durafil ES, are excellent for systems with varying
or low airflow, have high dirt-loading capacity for
long life and are available in efficiencies of MERV
11,13 and 14, or ePM2.5 and ePM1

sign and dust collection systems," FIGURE3. To reduce energy usage, Schenck offers its MCF PowerSaverdust collector, which can save up
to 50% of operational costs by using medium-pressure air for the cleaning cycle
says McConnell. "They analyze the
health of existing systems, look at ysis portion of the standard is new process is the dust hazard analysis.
maintenance schedules, provide a and because prevention and protec­ For any facility with dust, they need to
complete ductwork and airilow de­ tion can take different forms for each determine any risks associated with
sign analysis and offer recommenda­ facility, many processors aren't sure their dust, such as whether the dust
tions for existing systems that aren't what equipment they need to keep is explosive, flammable or toxic, and
working properly and aren't NFPA employees and facilities safe. if it has the potential to cause a reac­
compliant, as well as for upfront de­ "Our customers ask for the 'easy tion if combined with another type of
sign of new systems." button' solution, but the challenge dust. This typically requires sending
Experts agree that having this type with combustible dusts is that there dusts out for testing. If it is deter­
of engineering study is necessary to is no 'easy button, ...says Karen Wear, mined that a dust is combustible or
find the system that will work most market manager with Donaldson explosive, further testing is needed
efficiently and meet the specific dust (Bloomington, Minn.; www.donaldson. to determine the explosibility sever­
collection needs of each facility. And, com). "Each processor needs to work ity and other factors. Understanding
the two most-asked questions dur­ through individual needs and hazards these parameters can then guide
ing these studies are how to handle to find a solution to the combustible processors in the selection of dust
combustible dusts and how to lower dust issue that best works for them." collection and the necessary mitiga­
the overall cost of the system while In a nutshell, NFPA 652 requires a tion and protection equipment."
providing the most efficient filtration. dust hazard analysis and risk assess­ If combustible dust is found to be
ment for each process that handles an issue, selection of equipment,
Handling combustible dusts or creates combustible dust for both says Wear, should include options for
Combustible dusts have become new and existing installations by Oc­ mitigation and protection for both fire
one of the biggest concerns for in­ tober 2018. Following analysis that and explosion risks. Mitigation refers
dustry over the last few years due determines where combustible dust is to equipment that helps reduce the
to some large, dust -related explo­ an issue, mitigation of, and protection potential for a fire or explosion from
sions. These incidents have spurred from, hazards becomes necessary. occurring and protection refers to
initiatives such as the Occupational "We are not experts on combus­ equipment that reduces the damage
Safety and Health Administration's tible dust mitigation, but we can help risks to employees, equipment and
(OSHA; Washington, D.C.; www. customers through the process of the facility, if an event does occur.
osha.gov) 2008 Combustible Dust determining what they may need. To Mitigation and prevention equip­
National Emphasis Program; and better explain what is necessary, we ment might include spark arrestors
NFPA's recent 652 Standard on the created a Combustible Dust Road­ or spark-abatement systems that
Fundamentals of Combustible Dust map that guides users through the would detect and douse a spark with
(2016 edition). While the NFPA stan­ process of determining which type of fluid, or inerting systems that would
dards aren't necessarily law, they can collection, mitigation and protection blanket the spark with a material to
be enforced as such on a regional equipment they may want to con­ inert the spark before a fire could
basis, if adopted. NFPA 652 was de­ Sider," says Wear (this Roadmap can take place in the collector.
veloped to promote hazard analysis, be found at the end of the online ver­ Protection equipment usually in­
awareness, prevention and protec­ sion of this article at www.chemen­ cludes technologies that minimize
tion, but because the hazard-anal- gonline.com). "The first step in the the effects if an event does occur,


such as isolation systems, fire sup­ gation equipment strategies," notes creased reliability.
pression systems and explosion Wear. "The filtration technology is "After the basics of how to cap­
vents or explosion suppression sys­ important because it must be as ef­ ture the particle, keep it captured
tems. Location of the dust collec­ fective as possible in removing the and dispose of it, as well as meeting
tion system - whether it is indoors dust from the airstream, especially any combustible-dust standards,
or out - is also a factor in selecting when collecting toxic or reactive comes the important issue of total
mitigation equipment. dusts, while at the same time allow­ cost of ownership," says Greg Car­
While combustible dust hasn't ing the majority of available mitiga­ michael, vice president of sales with
created major changes in dust­ tion options to be applied." RoboVent (Sterling Heights, Mich.;
collector design, it has made users Wear stresses that it is important www.robovent.com). "Energy ef­
aware that the dust collector is not to work with a knowledgeable em­ ficiency, filter life and maintenance
the only piece of equipment they ployee safety and health professional costs all factor in here and they are
need to consider. "Customers realize and an industrial ventilation designer often all tied together."
they can't just buy a new base-level who understand the applicable stan­ For example, filters that last longer
dust collector and meet the require­ dards and regulations, as well as the in the system typically use less en­
ments for combustible dust," says unique process and facility require­ ergy, says Charlie Seyffer, manager
Wear. "Additional equipment may be ments, to ensure nuisance dusts are of technical materials with Camfil
needed to meet the mitigation strat­ managed safely and effectively. USA (Riverdale,N.J.; www.camfil.us).
egy they have mapped out." "One of the biggest expenses is hav­
However, having a base technol­ Reducing operating costs ing to change filters. Not only is there
ogy that can support combustible Not only does dust -collection equip­ the cost of purchasing new filters, but
dust equipment options is a must. ment cost money upfront, but air­ there is also a cost associated with
For this reason, Donaldson offers its filtration systems are notoriously the labor, so longer-lasting filters are
Downflo Evolution (DFE)dust collec­ expensive to operate and maintain. usually in demand. Also important is
tor (Figure 1). ''The DFE provides a Experts suggest seeking out mod­ the amount of energy a filter will use."
combination of the latest in filtration ern technologies that work toward To meet these needs, filter manu­
technology in a dust collector that reducing these costs via greater en­ facturers work toward configuring
allows utilization of a variety of rniti- ergy and filtration efficiencies and in- filters to keep resistance down and


• No holes in tanks or pipes • Power changes reflect viscosity changes
• Away trom sensilive processes • Good batches will fit the normal ·profile" for
that product
• Onesize adjusts to motors, trom II
small up to 150hp 20

• Works on 3 phase, fixed or variable 18

frequency,DCand single phase power 16

• 10 times more sensitive than
just senSingamps 10

- BEGIN 1l1Gi4
• For meters, controllers, computers SPUD MIX
4-20 milliamps 0-10 volts



For details visit adlinks.chemengonline.com!70304.15


FIGURE 4. Parker's OustHog SFC dust collection FIGURE5. RoboVent'seTelllntelligent Controls eliminate maintenance efforts where they aren't needed
units employ a pulse cleaning technology that and help processors move toward predictive maintenance
"pulses off" dust from the filter
Connell says: "Dust collectors usually cost of ownership, explains Rob­
provide increased media area for lon­ use compressed air to dean the filters, oVent's Carmichael. Smart controls
ger life, he says. Camfil offers Hi-Flo which is a notorious energy hog." To and the emerging industrial internet
ES filters, which use 27 to 50% less reduce energy usage, Schenck offers of things (1I0T)are helping to accom­
energy than competitive filters and its MCF PowerSaver dust collector, plish that. RoboVent's eTelllntelligent
offer 25 to 50% longer life compared which can save up to 50% of opera­ Controls eliminate maintenance ef­
to competitive rigid filters. These tional costs by using medium-pressure forts where they aren't needed and
high-efficiency pocket filters offer a air for the cleaningcycle (Rgure3). The help processors move toward pre­
unique configuration and high-loft, integrated blower provides the 0.49 dictive maintenance (Figure 5). The
air-laid microfiber glass media for op­ bar, medium-pressure air for cleaning, control system predicts how much
timal performance. Small fiber diam­ which eliminates the need for plant life is left in filters and when tasks
eter and uniform lofting provide uni­ compressed air in the filter."Having its should be performed based on sys­
form capture of submicron particles own positive-displacementblower sup­ tem use patterns. An available cloud­
and low resistance to airflow, which ply cleaningair boosts energyefficiency based application provides visibil­
increases energy efficiency. becauseyou are using lesshorsepower ity for all dust collection equipment
The company's Durafil ES provides for cleaningcycles," he explains. within multiple facilities or on a single
an "energy-optimized" fitterdesign that Parker is also changing up the way application. And, eTell is able to learn
makes it possible to save 30 to 40% filters are cleaned in an effort to re­ the system and the processes and
more energy than standard V-shaped duce energy usage. The company's make realtime adjustments to save
filters and 30 to 50% versus other fi­ DustHog SFC dust collection units energy and extend filter life.
nal-filter-product designs. The curved employ a pulse-cleaning technology While air-filtration and dust-col­
form of the air inlet and outlet provides that "pulses off' dust from the filter lection systems are often viewed
greater open area than other V-shaped (Rgure 4). Using an optimized nozzle as necessary operating expenses,
filters, resulting in a lower pressure­ and venturi, air is pulsed at a pre­ updating them to meet current stan­
drop profile. In addition, the media cisely calculated distance through dards and enhance energy efficiency
packs use a newly developed height­ an unobstructed airway. The result while reducing operating costs can
to-pleat spacing ratio that works in is increased pulse-cleaning energy provide financial benefits, says Park­
conjunction with the radial inlet and with lower pressure drop and longer er's Haynam. "If the current system
outlet to minimize pressure drop. The cartridge life. Because fewer pulses is causing problems, replacing it will
pleat separators ensure plated stability are needed to clean the filters, less provide payback through energy
to provide continual low-energy usage compressed air is used and filter life savings, reduced risk or less mainte­
performance. And, the Energy Saver is increased because there is less nance," he says. "In addition to those
media is designed with a fiber struc­ stress on the filter media. benefits, there is the benefit of having
ture that maximizes filter life (Rgure 2). In addition to extending filter life a cleaner facility, which will improve
The method by which the collector and reducing energy costs, better the process as well as employee
cleans the filter is another factor affect­ management of maintenance activi­ health and wellness." •
ing energy efficiency. Schenck's Mc- ties is another way to lower the total JoyLePree

Process Control Hardware

Wired network bridge enables control of chemical metering pumps
remote troubleshooting and valvesin a broad rangeof water­
This company has added the treatment applications. With easy,
PLX35-NB2 Network Bridge to its icon-based programming on the
slate of Secure RemoteAccess so­ largetouchscreendisplay,the W900
lutions. This wired solution can help can be configuredto control multiple
system integrators, machine build­ outputs using one of many pre-en­
ers, or anyone who wants to cut gineered algorithms. Four I/O slots
down on unnecessary travel time permit exceptionalflexibilityto utilize
for minor fixes by allowing them to almost any type of sensor, includ­
troubleshoottheir remoteequipment ing pH/ORP (oxidation-reduction
from anywhere in the world. The potential), conductivity, disinfection,
Network Bridgejoins the company's fluorescence,temperature,level and
Industrial Cellular Gateway. Both flow, to name a few. Internet con­
solutions' remote connections are nectivity lets users maintain control
handled through ProSoft Connect via remote access. - Wafchem,
(photo),a secure, cloud-native plat­ fwafi America Inc., Holliston, Mass.
form designed to help users realize www.walchem.com
benefits from the industrial internet
of things (11011. - ProSoft Technol­ Measure pipeline flowrates with
ogy, Bakersfield, ce« this flow computer and terminal
www.prosoft-technology.com The Y-Flow product family consists
of the Y-FlowYFFC (field flow corn­
Wireless adapter enables 1I0T puter; photo) and Y-Flow YRTU
for hazardous areas (remote terminal unit). The Y-Flow
The new THUMAdapter (photo)has YFFC is a low-power, orifice-flow
been certifiedas explosion-prooffor computer designed to measure
in U.S. and Canada. The wireless AGA 3 (AmericanGas Assn.) orifice
adapter,designedto operate in haz­ gas flow and the Y-Flow YRTU is a
ardous areas, retrievesvaluableand low-power remote terminal unit de­
formerly stranded data to provide signed to measurevarious complex

insightfor plannedmaintenanceand AGA gas flow calculations, as well YOKI:JGA'NA •
avoid costly unplanned shutdowns. as remote control applications.The
The device converts a wired HART Y-FlowYFFC utilizesthe company's
signal to WirelessHART,and trans­ EJX910A multivariable transmitter
mits the wirelessdata to a Gateway. capsule and communication board. .'I!
The Gateway connects to the host The multivariablecapsule and com­
systems via an industry-standard municationboard are integratedinto
wired connection, usually Modbus the flow computer as a single unit,
or Ethernet.The diagnosticand pro­ thus reducing the cost of owner­
cess data accessed by the THUM ship and providing an accurate and
Adapter provides users with insight precise measurement. The Y-Flow
to their processand helpsthem plan YRTU allows an external turbine
maintenance to avoid unplanned meter,ultrasonicmeter,multivariable
shutdowns. The THUM Adapter transmittersand Coriolismeterto be
connectsdirectlyonto HARTdevices connectedto measurecomplexAGA
via threaded conduits, removmqthe gas flow calculations. - Yokogawa
need for a barrier.- Emerson Auto­ Corp. of America, Newnan, Ga.
mation Solutions, Shakopee, Minn. www.yokogawa.com
... ~ - ~-
www.emerson.com/wireless-thum :~·CbNNECT
••• j~
G:.. I '!I!II ~
Wireless operating panel with 0--
A controller for wastewater­ multi-touch & safety functions :::.
treatment applications The wireless handheld panel HGW
Introduced last year, the W900 Se­ 1033 (photo, p. 22) enables data l!
ries Controller(photo)enables pow­ transfer without long cables in pro­
erful programming for complete duction sites. The mobile panel has
Note:For more Information, circle the 3·digit number on p. 62, or use the website deslgllilUon.
a 10.1-in. multitouch display (PCT) Local and remote status indication
that is suitable for industrial ap­ simplifies maintenance. Some mod­
plications and offers a wide range ules in the Termitrab Complete line
of visualization options and an in­ come in a pluggable format. The user
tuitive operating concept. As with can easily remove and replace de­
function-oriented data, safety data vices without having to undo or redo
are transmitted via the standard connection wiring, saving valuable
WLAN network, but according to time. The pluggable versions can be
the Black Channel Principle. With tested using the mobile test laboratory
the wireless HMI (human-machine CheckMaster 2. The SPDs are avail­
interface), the machine operator able with Push-in connection tech­
can flexibly select the inspection nology or screw connection. Eight
points and operate multiple ma­ variants are triple-rated for hazardous
chines, robots or system units at locations (IEC Ex, ATEX and Class
the same time with only one panel. I, Division 2). A knife-disconnection
For this purpose, a safe seven­ option makes testing and evaluation
segment display for machine iden­ more convenient. - Phoenix Contact
tification is integrated. A dual-core USA, Middletown, Pa.
EDGE2 Technology processor pro­ www.phoenixcontact.com/ttc
vides the necessary visualization
power. - Sigmatek GmbH & Co. Modems now integrated into
KG, Lamprechtshausen, Austria HART product line
www.sigmatek-automation.com Viator HART modems, previously
marketed under Peppert-Fuchs
This CNC features MACTek Inc., is now a Pepper1+Fuchs
intuitive touchscreen operation branded product. The official integra­
The M80W computer numerical tion of the Viator portfolio means that
controller (CNC; photo) is this com­ it now has the power of this compa­
pany's latest addition to its industry­ ny's distribution network, making Via­
proven M8 Series CNCs. The M80W tor globally available and supported.
features a touchscreen Windows­ Bluetooth, RS-232, USB, and USB
based display that is separate from with PowerXpress Viator models are
the control unit, providing expand­ available, including a Bluetooth model
ability and flexibility. Incorporating that is designed for use in hazardous
the latest operating system and slim locations. HART networks bridge the
personal computer, the M80W in­ long distances between the plant
cludes two expansion slots for 32 and the field, offering cost-effective
GB SD cards, allowing OEMs and solutions for data acquisition. Mea­
end users to add up to 64 GB more sured values are available on a regu­
memory for even greater flexibility. lar basis, leading to increased quality
The new M80W CNC was designed and more economical operation of
for the automotive and machine-tool process plants. - Pepperl+Fuchs,
industries, and is especially useful Twinsburg, Ohio
for applications such as turning cen­ www.pepperl-fuchs.com
ters, machining centers, lathes and
mills. - M;tsubishi Electric Automa­ Cabinet cooler now certified
tion, Inc., Vernon Hills, III. for hazardous locations
http://us.mitsubishielectric.com The ProtEX Vortec AlC line of cabi­
net coolers (photo) has been granted
Space-saving surge protection certification for Class I, Division 1,
with these thin modules Groups A, B, C and D; Class II, Divi­
With modules starting at just 3.5-mm sion 1, Groups F and G; and Class
wide, the new Termitrab Complete III, after extensive review by Under­
surge-protective devices (SPDs; writer's Laboratories (UL). The new
photo) can protect up to 572 signals UL Classiftcatton is on top of the
on 1 m of DIN rail. In addition to this existing ATEX Certification for Zones
ultra-narrow option, the company's 1 and 21, which complies with the
newest SPD line includes variants latest EN ISO 80079 36:2016 stan­
that meet many specific measure­ dard. The unique combination of UL
ment and control needs. The range Classification (UL Rle E356284) and
includes SPDs that use optical moni­ ATEX Certification greatly expands
tOringcapabilities to troubleshoot and the industries and locations where
diagnose a system from any location. Vortec enclosure coolers can be


used. The new ProtEX models are the assessment. The certification
small, easily installed and requirerecognizes the integrity of both the
minimal maintenance costs. In ad­ PLC and its development lifecycle,
and includes rigorous communica­
dition. they are certified for ambient
temperatures up to 175°F, which tion robustness testing, as well as
is significantly greater than most functional and software-develop­
hazardous-area-rated ment security assessments. Con­
Freon air
conditioners. With dual ATEX and trolEdge PLC is said to be the first
PLC to be awarded the ISASecure
UL certification, these coolers pro­
vide an economical alternative to Level 2 certification, which builds
on the Level 1 capabilities by pro­
large, heavy air conditioners, which
are expensive to purchase and to viding additional security features,
maintain, says the company. These such as the confidentiality and in­
Vortec models offer 900-, 1,500-, tegrity of data at rest and in motion,
2,500- or 5,000-Btulh cooling ca­ detection of unauthorized changes
and additional protection against
pacity to suit the differing needs of
each enclosure and facility. - ITW Denial of Service attacks. The
Vortec, Cincinnati, Ohio ISASecure-compliant controller
www.vortec.com has advanced features, including
a secure boot capability to prevent
This PLe is first to be awarded uploading of unauthorized software
critical certification and a built-in firewall. PLC com­
Last August, the ControlEdge pro­ munication can also be secured
grammable logic controller (PLC; using IPSec to prevent man-in­
photo) received ISASecure Em­ the-middle attacks and unauthor­
bedded Device Security Assur­ ized access. - Honeywell Process
ance (EDSA) Level 2 certification Solutions, Houston
by exida, the ISO 17065 accredited www.honeywellprocess.com
certification body who conducted

For details visit adlinks.chemengonline.com/70304·12

A small, yet powerful - and design, these housings weigh almost
smart - PLC 15% less than other Ex d enclosures
The MicroSmart FC6A Plus (photo) on the market, says the company.
is a powerful PLC, with up to 2.060 They are universally applicable as
local I/Os. With its expanded I/O ca­ terminal boxes, as machine- or
pacity, the FC6A Plus can control and motor-control units or as distribu­
monitor the largest machines or entire tion boxes. The enclosures can be
small-scale manufacturing facilities, a individually equipped with operat­
capability seldom found in a micro ing elements and signaling devices.
PLC, says the company. To ensure Flameproof cable glands of Ex d
high-level performance with this ex­ type protection are available for di­
panded I/O count, basic instructions rect cable entry into the enclosures.
can be executed in the extremely fast With IP66 degree of protection and
speed of 21 ns, and program mem­ a wide temperature range from -60
ory is 800 kB (100 K steps), much to 70°C (on request, up to + 130°C),
larger than other micro PLCs. These the enclosures are suitable for world­
capabilities are combined with exten­ wide use in industries such as ma­
sive data memory, more than double chine building, offshore applications.
the capacity of a typical micro PLC. chemical, pharmaceutical and others
These features allow the FC6A Plus where explosion-protected equip­
to handle large programs with com­ ment are mandated to comply with
plex control requirements, such as international standards. - R. Stahl,
PID. flow totalization and recipes. Two Waldenburg, Germany
models are available, each with 24-V www.r-stahl.com
d.c. input power. The 16 1/0 model
has eight inputs and eight relay or An economicallPC for
transistor outputs. The 32 I/O model industrial applications
has 16 inputs and 16 transistor out­ This company is now offering an
puts. Each model also includes an economical, basic panel PC, Si­
Integral ~10-V d.c. analog input with matic IPC377E (photo). The Simatic
12-bit resolution. Each model can ac­ IPC377E Basic Panel PC is based
commodate up to three plug-in dis­ on Intel Celeron processor tech­
crete, analog, serial communication nology and represents a new IPC
or Bluetooth cartridges. Each dis­ platform that has been specifically
crete cartridge has four discrete I/O developed to optimize cost for PC­
points, either four inputs or four out­ based applications in the industrial
puts. Each analog cartridge has two and industry-related environments.
analog I/O points, either two inputs or The Simatic IPC377E combines
two outputs. Up to 63 I/O expansion the openness and performance of
modules can be added. This gives the an industrial PC with a long-lasting,
FC6A Plus the capability to handle up robust display with anti-glare glass
to 2,060 I/Os with a maximum of 511 front, analog-resistive with single­
analog I/0s. - IDEC Corp., Sunny­ touch operation, scratch proof and
vale, Calif. resistant to chemicals. The display
www.idec.com/usa is available in three sizes: 12-, 15-
or 19-in. diagonal screen. The Si­
Compact EX-d enclosures for matte IPC377E Panel PC provides a
control and terminal boxes preconfigured, turnkey solution well
This company's ATEX- and IECEx­ suited for all industrial applications,
certified empty housings (photo). especially for economical imple­
with explosion protection type Ex mentation of HMI (human-machine
d. enable highly flexible structuring interface) applications, the acquisi­
of terminal and control boxes. The tion and networking of production
enclosures are suitable for applica­ and energy data in production envi­
tions in Zone 1, 2. 21 or 22, for both ronments, such as assembly work­
gas- and dust-hazardous environ­ stations, warehouses and logistics
ments. Series 8250 includes cost­ systems, or for standard applica­
effective housings with sizes from tions in the image-processing field.
250 x 150 x 110 mm up to 540 x It is easy to integrate into existing
360 x 300 mm. Made of seawater­ machines and plant concepts. -
resistant aluminum, the enclosures Siemens AG, Munich, Germany
are corrosion resistant, reliable and
durable. Thanks to their innovative

Gerald Ondrey
New Products
Throttling valves provide gines, turbines, furnaces and other
dependable shutoff combustion applications. Features
Clampseal throttling valves (photo) new to this model include NO and
are well suited for severe-serviceap­ N02 sensors for True NOx measure­
plicationsthat requirerepeatableflow ments,a new displayscreenand key­
control and shutoff. The valves are pad deSign, easier filter replacement
available in 0.5- through 4-in. sizes and inspection and an expanded in­
with a varietyof standardforging ma­ ternal memorywith capacity for up to
terials.The valves' venturi is an inte­ 2,000 tests. The E8500 PLUS is also
gral part of the removableseat. Both equipped with a new sample-condi­
the seat and the stem assemblyare tioning system for low NOx and S02
easilychanged inlinein the event of a scenarios. The analyzerhas electro­
flow characteristic change or exces­ chemical sensors for O2, CO, NO,
sive corrosion or erosion.The orifice N02, S02 and H2S and now also has
is sized to keep fluid velocity across an option for sensingvolatile organic
the seat below damaging levels.The compounds(VOCs).- E Instruments
exit orifice angle is deslqned to mini­ International, Langhorne, Pa.
mize downstream piping erosionand www.e-inst.com
noise.The pressure-sealbonnet pro­
vides service access with no need New check valves are compliant
to cut welds or replace seal rings or with NACE specifications
gaskets. - Conval, Somers, Conn. This company'sZero LeakCheck line
www.conval.com of check valves (photo)now includes
new valve configurations that are
These blenders now feature manufacturedentirely from materials
added operator safety that are compliant with the National
This company now offers protective Association of Corrosion Engineers
light curtains for its tumble blenders (NACE) specification MR0175/1S0
(photo) to provide automatic safety 15156. They also feature custom
shutoffwheneveran operatorcrosses polymericvalve seats that ensure no
a defined security boundary. Due to leakage of fluids at pressures up to
the natureof the rotatingmixchamber, 15,000 psi (differential)and at tem­
a safetyrailingis suppliedas standard peratures up to 4000F.The valves ChI»1osRoss&Soo
on these blenders, and the addition are also self-retained without the
of optional light curtains further im­ need for O-rings, facilitated by the
proves operator safety.The blenders use of a locking end that securely
are also equipped with an explosion­ locks the valves in place and pre­
proof brake motor, a 50-psig heating vents any bypass leakage.Available
and coolingjacket and a NEMA-rated with diameters from 0.187 to 0.500
control panel with a purge system in. (4.75 to 12.7 mm), configurations
suited for Class 1, Div. 1 hazardous may also include integrated safety
locations. Standard blender mod­ screens or restrictors for added
els are rated for bulk densities up to protection and performance. These
125 Ib/ft3, and specialty designs are NACE-compliant valves are use­
available for higher densities. These ful in applications that require zero
blenders are designed for batch op­ leakageat high differentialpressures
erations that require the dispersion in high-temperature, corrosive en­
of extremely small components and vironments. - Lee Products Ltd.,
low-shear intensity. - Charles Ross Gerrards Cross, u«.
& Son Co., Hauppauge, N. Y. www.leeproducts.co.uk
A 'one-size-fits-all' frame makes
Analyze emissions for regulatory this pump simple to maintain
and maintenance purposes The model 1400 horizontal-endsuc­
The new E8500 PLUS emissions tion pump (photo, p. 26) features a
analyzer (photo) is a portable tool heavy-duty cast-iron frame design
for emissionsmonitoring and testing that incorporates integrallycast sup­
designed for regulatory and main­ port and ribbed mounting feet, and
tenance use in boilers, burners, en- fits all pump sizes. The frame has a


back pull-out design feature that al­ designed to meet the standards of
lows for easy inspection, service and biotechnologyand pharmaceuticalap­
maintenance without disturbing the plications.Valvesare packaged to en­
piping to the pump, The pump has sure full traceability and are available
external impelleradjustment. and the in high-alloy materials, such as Has­
semi-open impeller design accom­ telloy C22 and AL6XN. These alloys
modates passage of solids or fines, help to meet demands for corrosion
All impellers have balance holes near resistance against aggressive media,
the hub, which reduce thrust load and including buffer solutions, cleaning
pressure in the packing or seal area, liquids, high-salt solutions and more.
Wiping vanes reduce axialloadingand Unique Mixproof valves are also suit­
prevent dirt from entering the sealing able for use with hygienic products
area. Packing or various mechanical that contain high chloride concentra­
seal arrangements are available as tions or low pH levels. - Affa Laval
standard options. Requirements for AB, Lund, Sweden
pumping clear and corrosive liquids www.alfalaval.com
can be satisfied with capacities up
to 3,600 gal/min, heads up to 275 ft A cybersecurity platform for
and temperaturesas highas 250°F. - multi-vendor automation systems
Vertiflo Pump Co., Cincinnati, Ohio This company's Cyber Integrity 6,0
www.vertiflopump.com platform now includes continuous
vulnerability management, providing
A volumetric screw feeder immediate, comprehensive visibility
for confined workspaces into vulnerability risk within industrial
The new Model VMF-90A volumetric process control networks. Cyber In­
screw feeder (photo) is designed for tegrity works across the multi-vendor
automated additive dosing in water automation environment, providing
treatment and chemical processes, foundational cybersecurity, enterprise
Thisnew model is simplifiedcompared scalabilityand platformindependence.
to previous models and offers more It also automates internaland regula­
flexibility for installation in confined tory compliancereporting.The system
workspaces. Integratingthe VMF-90A enables users to gather and maintain
into existing feeder systems typically an inventory of traditional and propri­
requires little or no redesigning.even etary operational technology assets,
wherethereis limitedinstallationspace, determine baselines and monitor for
saysthecompany.Forteedingdrypow­ unauthorizedchangesto cyber config­
dered or pelletizedmaterials,the VMF- urations and implement programs for
90A feederachievesfeedratesof up to system backup and recovery. Users
10.19 ft31h.The unit uses gravimetriC can also automate an enterprise-wide
feeding enhanced with a built-in me­ continuous vulnerability- and patch­
chanical cam-actuated hopper agita­ managementprocess - PAS Global,
tor. The agitator continuallyconditions LLC, Houston
the material being added to promote www.pas.com
uniform flow, a feature that is particu­
larlyusefulwhen workingwith materials Monitor pressure and
that tend to clump, Also availableis an temperature in refrigerant lines
optional"Ioss-in-weight"weighingsys­ The new TDWLB-LC series wireless
tem for applications where enhanced transducer (photo) is designed for
precisionis required.This option com­ use with sensors installed on refrig­
prises an integrated precision scale erant lines to monitor both pressure
with four load cells and a digital scale and temperature,and ensure that the
controller,- Scaletron Industries Ltd., proper amount of refrigerantis in the
Plumsteadville, Pa, system and it is running efficiently.
www.scaletronscales.com Users can configure sensor nomen­
clatureand set high or low alarmsin a
High-alloyed valves are designed free mobile app, as well as view sub­
for use with aggressive liquids coolingand superheatingcalculations.
The UltraPuremodel (photo)from the Data can be viewed remotely with a
Unique Mixproof valve product line is wirelessgateway companion product.
The device is very lightweight, due to tion, reducing waste and eliminating
its composite material of construc­ operator exposureto chemicals.The
tion. The TDWLB-LC transducer of­ pump's user interface provides con­
fers resolution and noise immunity, trol via manual,4-20-mA, contact or
while using very little power, says Profibus control. - Watson-Marlow
the company. - Transducers Direct, Ruid Technology Group (WMFTG),
Cincinnati, Ohio Cornwall, U.K.
www.transducersdirect.com www.wmftg.com

Use this peristaltic pump in These tube fittings drastically

disinfection applications increase working pressures
The new Qdos 20 peristaltic pump The Gyrolok XP system of tube fit­
(photo) was developed for meter­ tings (photo) is specificallydesigned
ing sodium hypochlorite in disinfec­ to address the challengesof assem­
tion applicationswith flowrates up to bling fittings onto a wide range of
20 L.Jh at a maximum pressure of corrosion-resistant,heavy-wallsmall­
7 bars.The Qdos 20 peristalticpump bore tubes. These fittings can grip
technology uses two tube channels heavier wall tubes, which is said to
where the channelsare operated out increaseworking pressuresby up to
of phase. The Qdos 20 reduces pul­ 80% over conventionaltube fittings,
sations via alternate tube compres­ allowing XP fittings to be used on
sions, ensuringpulsation is balanced tubing with higher pressure ranges,
out. This results in almost continual including exotic alloy tubing used in
positive fluid displacement and con­ severe-service applications. Simpli­
sistentmeteringof chemicalsinto the fied installationhelps to ensure that
process. The contained pumphead fittings cannot be overtightened.The
design features integral leak detec- fittings have been validated in sys-

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tems using a varietyof austeniticand configurations are available to suit a
high-performancealloys, over a wide manydifferentrequirements,including
rangeof tubing sizesand thicknesses. flanged,wafer,reducer,dualand quad
Key applications for these fittings in­ meterbody styles,supporting installa­
clude process instrumentation,sour­ tions in lines up to 12-in. in diameter.
gas and other high-corrosion pro­ Per an accredited third-party assess­
cesses, chemical injection, sampling ment, a single Rosemount8800 Vor­
systems and hydrogen processing. tex meter may be used in processes
- HOKE, a division of Circor Instru­ requiring up to SIL 2 protection. The
mentation, Spartanburg, S. C. Dual Vortexmeter is capable of up to
www.hoke.com SIL 3 and offers a simple drop-in so­
lution to reduce installationcosts.
Wireless instruments that Emerson, St. Louis, Mo.
never need new batteries www.emerson.com/vortex
This company has developed Wire­
lessHART instrumentation devices Pressure gages with enhanced
(photo) with batteries that are ex­ protection against vibration
pected to last the entirelifeof the de­ This company's 100es small-footprint
vice. The batteries are engineeredto pressuregages are availablein diam­
minimize energy usage based on an etersof 40 or 50 mm. A NEMA4/1P66
in-depth microsecond-by-microsec­ water-ingressrating and a stainless­
ond analysis of a unit's power con­ steelcase allowthe 100es to be used
sumption.Thisavoidsthe requirement outdoors or in harsh environments
that maintenancepersonnel conduct wherecorrosionresistanceis required.
battery-replacementtasks, which can Uquid fill, or the company's patented
be especiallyburdensome in remote FlutterGuardmovement-enhancement
or hazardous areas. Battery-replace­ option, protect the gage and make it
ment tasks also proveto be time-con­ easier to read in high-vibrationinstal­
suming over the lifetime of an asset, lations. Reading errors are reduced
especially in plants that have hun­ due to the presence of a "zero box"
dreds or thousands of WirelessHART insteadof conventionaldialpins,which
instruments. Longer-lasting batteries ensures integrity and system control.
also eliminate the risk of shutdown The 1008Smodelis availablein ranges
if dead batteries are not proactively up to 20,000 psi. - Ashcroft Inc.,
replaced. The instruments equipped Stratford, Conn.
with these new batteries include de­ www.ashcroft.com
vices that provide critical information
on temperature, pressure, flow and A new release of this pipeline­
humidity. - Adaptive Wireless Solu­ management application
tions, Hudson, Mass. This company has released Enter­
www.adaptive-wireless.com prise Pipeline Management Solution
(EPMS) R1.03, the latest version of
Enhance plant safety with its enterprise-level pipeline applica­
new SIL-certified flowmeters tions suite (photo).Developedfor de­
Facilities with safety instrumented ployment in the pipeline operations
systems can now take advantage management environment, EPMS
of the new SIL (safety integrity level) supplementsa core SCADA platform
2/3 functional safety certification of with specific gas and liquid applica­
the Rosemount8800 Vortex flowme­ tions that enable a pipeline operator
ters (photo), per IEC 61508, which to managedeliverycontracts and as­
can help mitigate risk, enhance plant sociated logistics in a safe, cost ef­
safety and protect personnel. The fective and efficient manner. Among
non-clog Rosemount 8800 Vortex the new functionality is enhanced
portfolio offers safety and reliability interface management. When transi­
features, such as online removable tioning from one product to another
sensorsto reduce process downtime in a pipeline, a trans-mix that is of a
and a critical process valve for ag­ certainvolumeand that variesin qual­
gressiveapplications,which increases ity will be formed at the interfacebe­
personnelsafety by preventingexpo­ tween the adjacentfluids.With EPMS
sure to hazardousfluids. A variety of R1.03, multipleproduct cuts from the
same interface can be performed. under harsh conditions. The new
for the easy management of qual­ switch model is primarily used for
ity gradations. Furthermore. the use the protection of plants and end de­
of product density meters to detect vices against overheating. - WIKA
variations in interface quality based Alexander Wiegand SE & Co. KG,
on color and sulfur content is now Klingenberg, Germany
supported. The new release also of­ www.wika.de
fers enhanced batch management.
For greater flexibility. continuity andDurable LED light fittings with
energy efficiency. EPMS R1.03 sup­ universal mounting options
ports side-stream injection and strip­ These LED pendant light fittings
ping as a product batch passes an (photo) have various installationop­
tions for worldwide use in Zones 2,
intermediate delivery or receiving site.
- Yokogawa Corp., Tokyo, Japan 21 and 22. The new 6470 pendant
www.yokogawa.com light fittings are suitable for general
lighting in chemical, oil-and-gas and
Intelligent blower controller other industries, due to the efficient
delivers energy efficiency lighting and mounting options. Dif­
The Sigma Air Manager (SAM) 4.0 ferent cover variants enable installa­
(photo) is a core control compo­ tion as ceiling, wall, pole or pendant
nent of a blower station and en­ light fitting for uniform illuminationof
ables users to take advantage of production halls, storage facilities or
Industry 4.0 services. It acts as the pathways.The lightshavea highopti­
central controller and controls indi­ cal efficiencyand provide a luminous
vidual machines with maximum ef­ flux of 8,000 lumens, with a power
ficiency while precisely adjusting the consumption of 65 W. The luminous
flow capacity to match flowrate de­ intensity distribution of the low-glare
mand. The only required input from light fittingscan be variedby meansof
the process control system is the differentreflectors.Thesearepowder­
desired differentialpressurevalue - coated enclosuresmadeof saltwater­
the SAM 4.0 then ensures optimal resistantaluminumand the lens con­
control of all blowers. Partial-load sists of toughenedglass. - R. Stahl,
bridging and individualsolutions are Waldenburg, Germany
therefore obsolete. along with com­ www.r-stahl.com
plicated setups. Now. all applications
are supplied by one central blower Silicone hose assemblies for
station with a master controller that hygienic applications
analyses operating data in seconds The new ElaSilrangeof siliconehoses
and simulates various scenarios in (photo)is suitablefor high-media-pu­
order to select the most efficient rity requirementsand is easyto clean.
solution.- KaeserKompressorenSE, Typicalapplicationsinclude ultrafiltra­
Coburg, Germany tion, fermentation, ultrapure water
www.kaeser.com production, WFI (water for injection)
and use as a transfer hose. ElaSil
This new bimetal temperature conforms to FDA and USP Class VI
switch has UL approval and meetsthe 3-A SanitaryStandard.
The new model TFS135bimetaltem­ The homogeneous hose construc­
perature switch (photo) has been tion consists of a smooth lining and
designed for a wide range of appli­ cover of platinum-cured,translucent,
cations. It is suitable for switching phthalate-free silicone and exhibits
voltages of up to 250 V a.c. (2.5 A) a combination of high flexibilityand
and has a UL approval (cURus) for kink resistance throughout the tem­
the North American market. The perature range from -60 to 200°C.
TFS135 conforms to the E.U. low­ Hose sizes of ON 13 to 102 mm are
voltage directive. It has been de­ available, along with a large range
signed for switching temperaturesof of commonly used hose fittings.
50-130°C. selectablein stages of 5K - Elaf/ex-Gummi Ehlers GmbH,
and set permanentlyon delivery.With Hamburg, Germany
a vibration resistanceof up to 10 g, www.elaflex.de/elasil •
the TFS135 operates reliably even Mary Page Bailey and Gerald Ondrey


Facts At Your Fingertips
Industrial Combustion Products
Department Editor: Scott Jenkins

chemical process industries ronmental Protection Agency (EPA) MAJOR PROCESSES INVOLVING
CPI) operations involving com­ requires control of NOx in combus­ COMBUSTION
ustion need to be concerned tion, because NOx reacts with organ­
Combustion healing temperatures range
with the errssston of combustion ic vapors in the presence of sunlight
from 400-500K for bread bakIng and paint
products, due to their potential envi­ to produce ground-level ozone. The drying, to 2.000K for oement and steel
ronmental and health impacts, This low-cost way to limit NOx is to do making.
one-page reference provides informa­ so upstream in the combustion pro­ • Metal melting
tion about several of the most com­ cess, for instance, via 10w-NOx burn­ • Metal heat treating
mon combustion byproducts from ers, and low-oxygen firing systems. • Ouring and forming
industrial heating processes, In a flame, NOx can be formed by • Drying
• Calcining
Combustion provides heat for many three different processes to generate
• Clay firing
industrial processes and accounts thermal NOx, fuel NOx and prompt • Agglomeration
for over 80% of the power used by NOx' Thermal NOx is produced at • Glass melting
turbines to generate electricity, The high temperatures by elementary re­ • Auld heating
listing in the box shows several op­ actions of the Zeldovich mechanism. • Distillation
erations within the CPI where com­ Fuel NOx is produced from com­ • Food production
• Ore roasting
bustion is used, Modern industrial bustion of nitrogen-containing fuel
combustion - both for process heat components. Fuel-generated NOx
and power generation - is charac­ can be avoided by using fuels with­ ticles are dust from roads or black
terized by an increasingly diverse fuel out significant quantities of nitrogen­ carbon (soot).
supply and a greater need to reduce containing compounds. • "Secondary" particles are formed
potentially polluting emissions, Prompt NOx is produced by radical in the atmosphere from primary
reactions in the flame. In most com­ gaseous emissions. Examples of
Combustion products bustion systems, thermal NOx is the secondary particles are sulfates
The following sections discuss some dominant production channel, and formed from S02 emissions from
of the main potential pollutants that NOx emissions can be controlled by power plants and industrial fa­
result from the combustion of fossil limiting the flame temperature. cilities; nitrates formed from NOx
fuels in an industrial setting, Sulfur byproducts. Sulfur dioxide emissions from power plants, au­
Carbon dioxide. CO2 is the princi­ (S02), belongs to the family of sulfur tomobiles, and other combustion
pal product from the combustion of oxide gases (SOx), These gases dis­ sources; and carbon formed from
fossil fuels, It is a colorless, odorless solve easily in water. Sulfur is preva­ organic gas emissions from vehi­
gas with a density greater than air. lent in all raw materials, including cles and industrial facilities.
For each pound of carbon burned in crude oil, coal, and ores that contain Some particles are large enough to
a CPI process, 3,67 Ib of C02 is re­ common metals, such as aluminum, be seen as dust or dirt. Others are so
leased, CO2 is a greenhouse gas, and copper, zinc, lead and iron. small they can be detected only with
is present in the earth's atmosphere SOx gases are formed when fuel an electron microscope.
at concentrations around 400 parts containing sulfur, such as coal and • PM2,5 describes the "fine" par­
per million (ppm), Its IDLH Qmmedi­ oil, is burned, and when gasoline is ticles that are less than or equal to
ately dangerous to life and health) extracted from oil, or metals are ex­ 2.5 urn in diameter
concentration is 40,000 ppm tracted from ore. S02 dissolves in • "Coarse fraction" particles are
Carbon monoxide. CO is a colorless, water vapor to form acid and inter­ greater than 2.5 IJm, but less than
odorless gas that is formed when car­ acts with other gases and particles or equal to 10 IJm in diameter
bon in fuel is not burned completely. in the air to form sulfates and other • PM 10 refers to all particles less
Adverse health effects can occur at products that can be harmful to hu­ than or equal to 10 IJmin diameter
CO concentrations as low as 10 ppm mans and the environment. (about one-seventh the diameter
with prolonged exposure. In the at­ Particulate matter. Particulate mat­ of a human hair) •
mosphere, CO can be a component ter (PM) is the general term used to
of smog. describe a mixture of solid particles References
Oxides of nitrogen (NOx).Oxides of and liquid droplets found in the air. 1. BauI<al. c., 'IOOUSI/ialCombusbon~~on and ConITOI,'
nitrogen (primarily NO and N02) form PM can either be emitted directly or T~ and Frms. 2003,
2 McGa,t1atl. T.. Air·PoiIUliOnConltol: Assessing the Op.
when fuel is burned at high tem­ formed in the atmosphere. Different tions. {])em, BIg,. August 2011. pp, 62-70.
peratures, The primary sources of sources of particles include: 3. Dutton,J., Energy ConservaIiOll and ErMronmenlai
NOx include motor vehicles, power • "Primary" particles are formed Protedion. Lessoo 4, ()Vle course malerials.Penn
generation facilities and other indus­ from combustion sources and Slate ~erS11y, accessed trom' Vt'Mv,e edlJcallOn.psu.
edulegee 102
trial sites, as well as commercial and are emitted directly into the atmo­ 4 Uttlejohn, 0 et ai, Burner Design 101Fuel F1ellibiity and
residential sources. The U,S. Envi- sphere, Examples of primary par- EffICiency, Oleffl. Eng,. May 2011. pp, 44-47.
Technology Profile
Isopropanol Production from Propylene
By Intratec Solutions
Propylene Propylene
sopropanol (iSOP. ropyl alcohol) is

I among the most commonly pro­

duced lower alcohols - ranked
third in commercial production be-
hind methanol and ethanol. Isopropyl
alcohol is used as a chemical interme­ Acetone

diate for compounds such as methyl

FIGURE2. There are several possible productlon routes to Isopropanol
isobutyl carbinol, methyl isobutyl ke­
tone and isopropyl acetate, as well effluent, comprising dilute sulfuric Production pathways
as in personal care and household acid, is reconcentrated and recycled The main raw materials for isopro­
products, pharmaceuticals, coatings to the absorber reactor. panol manufacture are propylene
and ink solvents, and as a processing Propylene recovery. The absorber and acetone (Figure 2). Propylene
solvent, among other uses. off-gas, containing unreacted propyl­ is reacted with water directly, or in­
ene, propane and byproduct vapors, directly (process described above),
The process is scrubbed with a caustic solution to to form isopropanol. Acetone, in
The following paragraphs describe a neutralize any entrained sulfuric acid turn, passes through a hydrogena­
typical indirect propylene-hydration and recover sulfates or ether, which tion process.
process for the production of isopro­ may also be entrained in the vapor.
panol. In this process, refinery-grade The off-gas from the scrubber is Economic performance
(RG) propylene reacts with sulfuric sent to the propylene column, where The total operating cost (raw materi­
acid to form isopropyl alcohol sul­ propylene raw material is separated als, utilities, fixed costs and depre­
fates, which are then reacted with from propane and recycled to the ciation costs) estimated to produce
water to form isopropanol (Figure 1). absorber reactor. isopropanol was about $1,480 per
Reaction. RG propylene gas is fed Purification. The crude isopropanol ton of isopropanol in the first quarter
to the absorber reactor, where it is from both the caustic scrubber and of 2014. The analysis was based on
absorbed by sulfuric acid, forming the stripper reactor are directed to a plant constructed in the U.S. with
isopropyl hydrogen sulfate and di­ an ether separation step, where di­ capacity to produce 200,000 metric
isopropyl sulfate. The liquid stream isopropyl ether (generated in side tons per year of isopropanol.
containing the sulfates formed in the reactions) is separated and recycled This column is based on "Isopropyl
first step is fed to the stripper reac­ to the absorber reactor to react with Alcohol Production from RG Propylene
tor. Steam is fed to the stripper to sulfuric acid, forming sulfate and - Cost Analysis," a report published
hydrolyze the sulfates and gener­ isopropanol. The ether-free crude by Intratec. It can be found at www.
ate isopropanol, which is flashed isopropanol is transferred to the intratec.uslanalysislisopropyl-alcohol-
as the vapor product. This gaseous alcohol column for removal of high­ production-cost. •
stream is scrubbed with a caustic boiling impurities. The overheads Editedby Scott Jenkins
solution to neutralize any residual product from the alcohol column
acid. This results in a liquid stream comprises an azeotropic mixture of Editor's note: The <Xlfltenl for this coIlJM IS supplied
by Intlalec SolJ1IO!lS LLC (Houston; v.w.v.intlalec.us)and
of crude isopropanol that is routed isopropanol and water. Finally, dry e<iledby Chemical fngJneetilg. The analyses and models
to the isopropanol purification sec­ isopropanol is produced after de­ presented ae prepared on the basis of pubIdJ avaiable
and non·conf1denool information. The con1elll represents
tion. Any uncondensed vapors are hydration by means of azeotropic
the opnoos oIlnttalec ooIy Mole IlformatlOl1 about the
compressed and recycled to the distillation using di-isopropyl ether methodology for preparing analysis can be 1ouOO. along willl
absorber reactor. The stripper liquid as an azeotroping agent. Ielms of use.at W.JNI inllatec.wche.

Off-gas 1. Absorber reactor

2. Stripper reactor
3. Acid reconcentration
4. Caustic scrubber
5. Popylene column
Caustic 6. Crude isopropanol tank
solution -.,..--~~ 7. Ether separation
8. Alcohol column
9. Drying
Isopropanol 10. Steam boiler
propylene ~_I'--'I 11. Cooling tower

ST Steam
CW COOlingwater

Wast~water CW -{j ®
FIGURE1. The diagram shows the productlon of isopropanol from refinery-grade propylene via Indirect hydratlon
Cover Story
Part 1

Rotating Machines: Digital

Technologies to Enable
Predictive Maintenance
Predictive maintenance for rotating machinery is gaining prominence as plant
operators embrace analytics and learn how to approach their operating benchmarks
Diego Pareschi otating ma­

R chines, such
as motors,
sors, pumps and tur­
bines, are critically im­
PREDICTVE portant componentsof
plant operations, and
must perform reliably
and efficiently at all
REMOTE MONITORING times. However, given
DATA ANALYTICS ADDS the high pressuresand
POWER harsh environments
in which these ma­
chines operate, equip­
ment failures are all
too common.
To keep equipment
running for as long
as possible, compa­
nies must invest in
maintenance. Histori­
cally, many aspects
of these maintenance
tasks were less than
ideal, but few alterna­
tives existed. In many
cases, Simple visual
inspection was used
to determine equip­
ment condition. Often,
plant managers ran
equipment until failure
instead of perform-
FIGURE1. Advances in digitalization and connectivity have helped usher in more proactive
ing preventive main- maintenance practices
tenanoe. This reactive
maintenanceapproach results in unsched­ nance strategies, statistical trend data and
uleddowntime, higherlaborcosts and faster analysisare used to determine the optimal
deteriorationof assets. intervals for servicing equipment. The big­
In order to avoid these costly scenarios. gest challenge with this approach is that it
manycompaniesbeganto embracepreven­ is time-based. Equipment is inspected and
tive maintenance. With preventive mainte- addressed at regular intervals regardless
FIGURE3. Handhelddevices,
which enable more effective
remote-monitoring programs,
are becoming more widely
used In the CPI

FIGURE2. There are many Important factors to consider when

configuring wired and wireless instruments on different types
of rotating machinery

of a truly identified need to do so. It is thus

possible to induce failureby tamperingwith
equipment more often than necessary. In
some cases, equipment is replacedwithout
assessingits remaininglifeor current perfor­
mance. Some of these challengesare being oil pressure.
addressed through advanced digital tech­ Because bearings are extremely critical
nologies that can better predict and diag­ components of rotating machines, sen­
nose anomalous equipment behavior (Fig­ sors are frequently installed directly on the
ure 1). Table 1 summarizesthe evolution of bearing to measure vibration and bearing
maintenancepractices typically used in the surface temperature. Other sensors are in­
chemical process industries(CPI).This arti­ stalled on the machine housing to capture
cle examinesthe benefitsof predictivemain­ overall vibrations, and in the case of elec­
tenance strategies for rotating machinery trical motors, to measure critical electrical
and also provides guidance in configuring parameters,such as voltages and currents.
data-analyticsplatforms and organizingop­ Wired instrumentationalso is used in less
erationalbenchmarksfor rotatingmachinery. critical equipment, but this is uneconomi­
cal, so monitoring is often limited to high­
The move to predictive and medium-criticality machines. Wired
With vast computational power and the
advent of low-cost sensors, preventive
maintenance is transitioning into predictive
maintenance.Predictive,or condition-based Preventive
maintenance,as it is also called, identifies
issues in equipment before they present
serious risks to plant operations or person­ PredicUve Condition-basedmonitoring
nel. In a predictive maintenanceapproach,
plant managersuse evidence-of-faultto de­
termine how to maintainequipment or even
Sub-system Actual failure Failure Actual down- failure conse- Total
when to replace it. Accurate information on rate per year (f) rate time hours per quences down- risk
equipment condition enablescompanies to ranges failure time hour ranges
minimize failure risks, reduce maintenance Compressor, 0.22 1-0.1 lIyr 24 10-100 Serious
costs and maximizeasset availability. combustion
Critical equipment that can cause a shut­ turbine
down or other loss of production in the Fire 0.24 H).1I1yr 1 0-10 Medium
event of a failure are typically outfitted with I protection
instrumentation, such as continuous vibra­ Generator 0.72 1-0.1 f/yr 45 10-100 Serious
lube oil 0.25 1-0.1 flyr 13 10-100 Serious
tion probes. accelerometers. displacement
transducers, phase detectors and speed Fuel gas 0.25 1-0.1 f/yr 30 10-100 Serious
load gear 0.20 1-0.1 f/yr 2 0-10 Medium
detectors (Figure2). They also are outfitted Vibration 0.20 1-0.1 f/yr 117 100-1,000 High
with pressureand temperaturetransducers monitor
that measure conditions that change more Control 0.68 1-0.1 f/yr 40 10-100 Serious
slowly, such as bearing temperature or system


Service centers provide
subject matters experts'
support and consultancy

Third'party Expert support ----- Service centers

service center
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Related .r">.
data ---<-J

/ Data management

I Optimization and advanced
machine conllol
"local CloUd" lor I" "I
condition monitoring w.J. =-
n:::m Reid service

/ Wired and wireless InslrumenlBtion

Machine control
and protection ~
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/ Electrical
Drive Motor Pump/compressor Do-og Do-og ~
FIGURE 4. An effective pnedictive maintenance strategy includes connectivity between many operatlonallevels and devices

sensors allow for continuous machine machine, while wireless sensors are
monitoring, while wireless sensors good for monitoring overall machine
measure machine status periodically condition. Moreover,wired sensors can
(for instance, once per hour). Wired in­ capture some types of signals and in­
struments are better for protecting the formation not achievablewirelessly.
However, unlike in years past, the
cost of wireless sensors is decreasing
significantly,and they are also becom­
ing easier to install, so they now pro­
vide a suitablesolution for low-criticality
equipment. The most common sensors
measure vibrations (accelerometers),
surface temperatures and magnetic
fields. Prior to wireless technologies,
the onlyway to obtain those signalswas
to installdedicated probes on the elec­
trical feeding lines, but this is expen­
sive, and therefore, uncommon for low­
criticality machines.

Failures lead to downtime

Rotatingmachinesusuallyoperate from
1 to 10,000 rpm and withstand high
pressures and temperatures. These
factors, combined with centrifugal and
centripetalforces, increasewear that will
inevitablyleadto failure.Thiscould mean
several days or weeks of lost produc­
tion and millionsof dollars in downtime
•..c 7
and repaircosts. Toillustratethis point, a
risk-assessmentstudy for a gas turbine
(Table2) shows that turbine sub-system

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til failurepresentsseriousrisk of significant
downtime [1). A 22% failure rate of the
compressor, combustion chamber and
turbine sub-systems caused an aver­
the USA D) VALVE age downtime of 24 hours per failure.
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But each individual failure could cause 10 to
100 hours of downtime, leading to significant
production losses,

Remote monitoring
The most common technologies used in
predictive maintenance of rotating machines
are infrared thermography, ultrasound anal­ through physicaltes1ing,
ysis, motor-current signature analysis, oil
analysis, partial discharge and vibration
analysis, All of these methods use evidence­ Determines the condition a mechanical system under various
of-fault to determine the maintenance re­ operating conditions by evaluating mechanical vibration, A change in
quirements, Table 3 provides details of vibration amplitude at speoific frequencies can indicate a change in
these technologies,
Although predictive maintenance provides
information for timing maintenance activi­
ties accurately, it has limitations, Acquiring
data using a handheld device (a common
practice) is labor-intensive and takes people Monitors when compres­
sor measurements have
away from other more productive activities, deviated from factory set ~~~~~!!Q~~!QJ!!!L!!~~-------l
It is also difficult to gather data from equip­ values
ment that is in hard-to-reach areas, or areas
that pose a danger to the person collecting
the data, Fouling Fouling
However, advances in wireless technology Monitors the accumula­ Systems and methods for measuring fouling in a gas-turbine com­
(including a significant drop in deployment tion of unwanted mate­ pressor include a conductivity resistance sensor disposed in a com­
costs) and secure wireless communications rial on solid surfaces, pressor inlet mouth, The degree of oompressor fouling is correlated
which can affect equip­ to changes in resistance measured by the conductivity resistance
allow engineers to monitor equipment re­ ment function sensor, Measurements of resistance changes are converted into indi­
motely (Figure 3), Data can be automatically of the
collected even from the most inaccessible Surge limit Surge
sites, and remotely monitored from any­ Monitors if the com­ Surge occurs when the peak head capability of a compressor is
pressor is wOl1<ingtoo reached and flow is reduced, When a compressor approaches its
where in the world, close to the surge limit surge limit, some Ofits components ( for example, diffusers and im­
This represents a great cost-reduction op­ in a way that causes pellers) may start to operate in stall mode
portunity, as personnel no longer need to undesired activation of
the anti-surge control
spend valuable time physically visiting and system or excessive gas
interfacing with every asset to gather data,
It also has a positive impact on safety, since Anti-surge valve Stiction
remote monitoring allows personnel to avoid performa nee Analyzes the response time of the valve to evaluate if the valve
Monitors if the anti-surge would be able to protect the compressor from a fas1-surge event. In
dangerous areas of the plant.
control valve is working ~~~~~~~J!Q!!J!!.!~~!.Qt!~~~~~~W
Data analytics adds power
While remote monitoring is an exciting ad­
vancement, robust data collection and an­
alytics make predictive maintenance truly
powerful. Data analytics enables the ac­
curate modeling of conditions and factors
that lead to equipment failure, thus allow­
ing plant engineers to stay ahead of prob­
lems before they happen, The following is
a hierarchy for remote monitoring and data
analytics that is currently being used in some Compressor control Oscillating controllers
operation Detects when the controllers are interfering with each other, causing
CPI plants: Monitors that the
• Field level: Sensors that collect basic data, compressor controllers Tuning problems
such as current, temperature and torque, (anti-surge, performance Detects when the controllers are tuned inadequately, leading to slow
on equipment and send it to an onsite edge control and load-sharing or too fast response, can lead to poor response to selpoint changes
control) are working
device, An edge device, such as a router or properly and can ensure
multiplexer, serves as an entry portal into the protection level for
core networks which they were
• Edge device: Data streams from sen-


sors are aggregatedand analyzed services across sites. This allows data. but it can be difficult to extract
by sophisticated software algo­ for collaboration between sites, useful and directive information and
rithms to identify, categorize and headquartersand suppliers, lead­ present it as easy-to-understand
prioritize issues. Plant-wide solu­ ing to better-informed decision­ data analytics for appropriate ac­
tions for condition monitoring are making.Informationis also usedto tions. A robust data-analytics plat­
implemented, leading to realtime support field services form is necessary to provide users
optimizationinSights While deploying remote monitor­ with the insights to resolve issues
• Cloud: Datafrom differentsites are ing is challenging,figuring out what before they become problems and
aggregated into remote service to do with all the data is even more must be part of a larger network of
centers and used by subject mat­ challenging.Suppliersare inundating devices and services (Figure 4). The
ter experts to provide advanced producers with remotely monitored following questions are among those
---------------------------, that will be addressed by a well-de­
signed data-analytics platform:
• What are the key performance
indicators (KPls) that should be
monitored for rotating machines?
• How should they be categorized
and displayed so that users can
quickly turn raw information into
• Which KPls have the highest im­
pact on equipment and. therefore.
process performance?
• How are benchmarks used to cal­
culate ideal performance levels?
• How should deviation from ide­
al performance be analyzed so
that mitigating actions can be
• What kind of notifications should
be sent to alert users when there
is a problem?
These same technologies can be
applied beyond rotating machinery
to other equipment types. For non­
critical assets, predictive analytics
capabilities are more often used to
re-think maintenance intervals; for
example, how often to perform cer­
tain maintenance activities based
on actual machine usage instead
of time-based intervals. Due to the
large volume of equipment in a typi­
cal CPI plant, these seeminglysmall
changes can prove to be quite
valuable. Multiplied over thousands
of assets, those savings in mainte­
nance costs quickly become signifi­
cant. Evenmore significantis avoid­
ing production downtime. Keeping
production running, incremental
margins increasingand orders filled
are crucial.

Organized KPI data get results

Data-analyticsplatforms must auto­
maticallyidentify,categorizeand pri­
oritize KPls so that the most impor­
tant issues by severityand criticality
For details visit adlinks.chemengonline.com/70304·13
are addressed first by operational is typically to verify the status of
decision-makers. Table 4 provides the control system and re-tune it
some examples of specific KPls for • If the KPI is related to the pro­
rotating equipment. cess performance of the machine,
The goal is to give operators an then the action is in the hands of
unambiguous view of which issues the process engineers and op­
require immediate attention, which erators, who will decide the best
can be monitored, and which are way to ensure the optimal perfor­
less important but may require atten­ mance of the process surrounding
tion at a later time. This way, in a few the machine
quick views, operators can see criti­
cal issues and make important de­
cisions on how to address them. In
this scenario, KPls are categorized
into four groups: Data-analytics platforms must automatically identify,
• Process: Information regarding the categorize and prioritize KPls so that the most important
thermodynamic performance of
the process machine issues by severity and criticality are addressed first
• Mechanical: Information regarding
the mechanical condition of rotat­
ing equipment
• Electrical: Information regarding the
condition of electrical equipment, Establishing a predictive main­
including auxiliarysystems, such as tenance program for rotating ma­
switchgears and transformers chines requires a systematic and
• Control: Information regarding methodical approach that takes
performance of the machine con­ into account maintenance strate­
trol system, including instrumenta­ gies that include remote monitor­
tion and actuators ing, robust data analytics and,
What operators should get from most importantly, qualified per­
these systems is a time-series analy­ sonnel who can turn informa­
sis that shows spikes (such as anti­ tion into actionable insights that
surge control change between 2:30 lead to lower costs, improved
and 3:00 pm), indicating high devia­ productivity and higher overall
tion from optimal control limits. This plant performance. •
information prompts the operator to Edited by Mary Page Bailey
look more closely to determine the
root cause of the deviation and take References
necessary action. 1. Wassan. R.K., MaJid. M.A.. Mokhtar A.A.. Risk Matnx
Data-analytics systems also Model 101 Rolatlllg EqlJ'jll11Ei1'11,MAlEC Web of Confer·
eoces Vol. 13. No. 03006. 2014.
should alert plant operations via
2. Hashemian. H.M.. Wireless Sensors 10( Predictive
email or text when KPls exceed set Malntermce of Rotating ElJjpment tn Research Reac·
limits, helping them stay informed lOIS,Am<IIS 01NudetJr Energy. Vol. 38. pp 665-Q80.
of issues even when they are away 2011.
from the site. This promotes faster
resolution of problems, improved Author
equipment condition and higher pro­ Diego Pareschi is the global
cess performance. product manager for rotating-mao
chinery products and services for
Depending on the type of KPI­ the oil, gas and chemical markets
triggered alert, several actions can at ABB (George Hintzenweg 81.
be taken: 3068 AX. Rotterdam. the Nether·
lands; Email: dlego.pareschi@nl.
• If the KPI can trigger a mechani­ abb.com). In this role. he manages
cal or electrical service, such as a the portfolio 01 solutions for gas
compressors, pumps, turbines
repair call, then the maintenance and electrical motors, including the use of digital tech­
engineer issues a request for field nologies 10 ensure predictable,safe and efficient opera­
engineers to verify and perform tion. Pareschi joined ASS in 2010 and has held various
roles in research and development, product develop·
the repair ment and marketing in Switzerland. Italy and the Neth­
• If the KPI is related to the control erlands. He earned an M.S. In automation and control
system of the machine, the action engineering from Politecnicodi Milano. Italy.


Cover Story
Part 2

Guidelines for Designing a

Compressed Air System
With the proper knowledge, engineers can work alongside compressor
manufacturers to ensure that an optimal air compression system is installed
Deepak Vetal here are various

T factors to consider
when designing a
compressed air sys­
tem that help to improve the
reliability and efficiency of
compressors and ancillary
AMBIENT CONDITIONS equipment, reduce leakage
CENTRALIZED VERSUS and pressure drops, and
DECENTRALIZED minimize the compressor
system's lifecycle cost (Fig­
ure 1). This article provides
COMPRESSION guidance on several con­
PRINCIPLES siderations that impact a
FLOW AND PRESSURE compressed air system.
FIGURE1.A typical compressedair system comprisesmanyancillary equipment
elements,andcareful considera.tlonshould be taken to ensurethat the system's
Ambient conditions design promotesefficiency andreliability
AIR DRYER AND vary based on ambient conditions. It is im­ In most other cases, a centralized system
FILTRATION portant to know the site elevation,ambient is preferred due to its added energy effi­
COMPRESSOR ROOM temperatures, relative humidity (RH) and ciency and decreased maintenance costs.
VENTILATION airborne dust load prior to choosing a com­ A centralized system uses larger,but fewer,
pressorsystem.Ambientair can also contain compressor units, as its air-intake filtration,
aggressivegases,such as hydrocarbons,hy­ ventilation requirements, COOling-water
COMPRESSED AIR drogensulfide(H2S)or ammonia(NH3),which treatment, air cooling and drying are all
PIPING NETWORK requirea suitablefiltrationsystem to protect located in the same area. Users can save
MONITORING AND compressedair equipment.Havingthis infor­ time on labor and routine maintenance
CONTROL mationon handcan helpcompressedair ex­ since centralized systems are well-suited
perts make a more informed decision when for remote master control, load sharing and
it comes to designingthe best solution for a sequencing operations.
plant's needs.
Sizing and selection
Centralized versus decentralized Selecting a correctly sized compressor
Centralized and decentralized compressor requires a robust analysis of the following
systems each have their own advantages. parameters:
A decentralized system is installed when • Flow demand
compressed air is needed for applications • The equipment manufacturers' flow and
where the compressor system must be lo­ pressure requirements
cated near the application,such as air blast • Air consumption rates
for high-voltage electric breakers, pneu­ • Utilization factor - the ratio of time that
matic conveying of materials, pneumatic the equipment is in operation to the total
operationof forging tools and other applica­ working time
tions that demand the air compressor be in • Load factor - the ratio of actual flow to
close proximity. the full load flow during operation time
FIGURE3. In dynamic com­
pressors, an impeller rotates
rapidly to accelerate air to a
high velocity

FIGURE 2. Screw compressors provide positive displacement

compression, and are well-suited for variable loads
of the compression chamber's volume.
It is also necessary to check equipment Positive displacement compressor types
specificationsand evaluatewhether or not include piston, vane, scroll, liquid ring,
the compressor has taken extra flow mar­ rotary screw, tooth and blower. A typical
gins for leaks and pressuredrops. In many compressor screw element is shown in
cases, an additionalmargin on flow leads to Figure 2.
variousissuesin the compressor'soperation In dynamic compressors, such as radial
and can reduce efficiency. and axial types, air is drawn between the
blades on a rapidly rotating compression
Compression principles impeller that accelerates to a high veloc­
There are two basic principles of compres­ ity (Figure 3). The gas is then discharged
sion for air and other gases - positive dis­ through a diffuser, and the kinetic energy
placement and dynamic compression. is transformed into static pressure. Most
In positive displacement compression, dynamic compressors are turbo compres­
the air is drawn into one or more of the sors with an axial or radial flow pattern de­
compression chambers, which are then signed for larger-volume flowrates.
closed from the inlet. Gradually, the vol­ Selecting either of these technolo­
ume of each chamber decreases and the gies depends on the application. For in­
air is compressed internally. When the stance, turbo technology is best suited
pressure reaches the designed build in for base load requirements, whereas
pressure ratio, a port or valve is opened positive displacement compressors are
and the air is discharged into the outlet better for variable loads. For larger flow
system due to the continued reduction and variable demands, applications with

< 15910.1 ) < 15320.1 ) < 15520.1 ) WWW.ISAFE-MOBllE.COM

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Unit of Fixed reference!
measurement standard conditions
SCFM 14.7 psia
0% relative humidity


14.7 psia


Nm3/h 1.01325 bara

a combination of both technologies Receiver tank
1.01325 bara work better for optimal utilization The primary function of an air receiver
15°C of compressed air and decreased tank is to store compressed air, but it
energy consumption. also servesas an additionalcondensate
OR separator. Furthermore,the air receiver
Flow and pressure units ensures a steady airflow and equalizes
1.01325 bara An critically important first step is to momentary pressure variations in the
O%RH decide which unit of measure will be air piping network, which could cause
used to indicate flowrate, based on frequent loading and unloading of the
the requirements of the specific pro­ compressor. Normally, the air receiver
cess. There are several ways to mea­ comes with a safety valve, pressure
sure the capacity of an air compressor, gage,connection to fit the test-pressure
as follows: gage, inspection cover and drain valve.
• Inlet cubic feet per minute (ICFM),
which is the inlet volume flowrate or Air dryer and filtration selection
intake volume as measuredat the in­ Atmospheric air contains water vapor
take. For most processes, inlet flow that must be removed to a certain de­
is not usable flow; therefore, using gree. Water concentration increases
the ICFM flow unit is not advised at higher temperatures and decreases
• Cubic feet per minute (CFM), which at lower temperatures. Therefore,
describes the free air delivery as when the air is compressed, the water
measured at the delivery point. concentration increases.
downstream of the aftercooler There are different types of dryers
• Standard cubic feet per minute available on the market, with the two
(SCFM) or normal cubic meter per main types being refrigerated dry­
hour (Nm3/h), which represent the ers and desiccant dryers. Refriger­
standard or normal flow as mea­ ated dryers can reach a 3rF pressure
sured at the delivery point and es­ dewpoint, whereas desiccant dryers
tablished by standard temperature are capable of handling negative dew­
and pressure (STP) or normal tem­ points. Dependingon what quality of air
perature and pressure (NTP) condi­ is needed for the application, either of
tions. The reference condition will these dryer types can be chosen.
have a large impact on flow, which is When sizing your dryer, avoid se­
why it is good practice to specify the lecting one straight from a manufac­
reference condition you want to use turer's brochure. Inlet conditions can
when consulting with a compressor have a major impact on the dryer's
manufacturer.Typical reference con­ performance, so it is recommended
ditions are given in Table 1 to calculate sizing based on dryer
Required pressure can also be spec­ inlet conditions.
ified in psig, barg or kg/cm2g. With the heatless type of desiccant
dryers, the dryers experience purge energy disSipated in the compres­
loss, which requires that designers sor can be evacuated with a rea­
oversize the compressors to meet sonableamount of increasein water
that extra flow, resulting in higher temperature.
energy consumption. There are
also heat of compression dryers Compressed air piping network
available with a zero-purge option Compressors should be placed in
to save on energy, as opposed to a central location in close proxim­
heatless dryers, since these dryers ity to all relevant applications and
do not produce any air loss. De­ processes in order to minimize the
pending upon the application and length of piping between compres­
level of energy efficiency, there are sors and points of use. The loca­
different options available to find the tion must also take into consider­
best solution possible. ation the quality of intake air, which
For application or process fil­ should be cool, clean and dry. The
tration, the required filtration level compressor installation should be
and type of filters can be installed kept clear of steam, chemical va­
in the system piping (Figure 4). pors, engine exhaust and dust.
There are oil removal filters, dust fil­ To reduce pressure drop, mini­
ters and carbon filters available for mize the number of valves, bends,
use, depending on the quality of fittings and flow obstructions. Ad­
air required. equate space must be provided
around the compressor for proper
Compressor room ventilation ventilationand for regularinspection
The total quantity of energy deliv­ and maintenance.
ered to the compressor in the form Compressed air pipes should be
of electricity is completely trans­ installed in such a way that they
formed into heat during compres­ can be reached from all directions.
sion. The majority of this heat is re­ Avoid pipe installations in subfloor
moved by a cooling medium - air trenches since they are difficult to
or water. The remaining heat is not maintain and repair. Also, these
removed, and is referred to as the conditions make it difficult for ad­
residualheat in compressed air. equate condensate drainageand air
In the case of water cooling, the leak detection.
heat is removed to outside the Horizontallyinstalled pipes should
compressor room to the sump of slope 1 to 2% toward the air con­
the cooling tower. Conversely,with sumption point so the condensate is
air-cooled compressors, all of the carried to predetermined locations
heat is dissipated into the compres­ where drains permit the condensate
sor room if no dedicated ducting to be removed. While some may
is provided. argue that properly installed and
Prior to deciding which type of correctly sized dryers make sloping
compressor to install, make sure of compressed air pipes superflu­
to procure installationproposals for ous, the cost is minimaland sloping
both air-cooled and water-cooled providesadditional protection in the
options from the oompressormanu­ event that the dryer is out of service.
facturer so that experts can help to Pipe-to-tube bends should have
properly size the required compres­ generous radii to minimize tur­
sor room ventilation. bulence. Bends are preferred to
elbow couplings because they re­
Cooling water duce turbulence and create less
The cooling water quality must meet pressuredrop.
certain requirements as specified To prevent condensate from en­
by the compressor manufacturer. tering the branch pipe, the latter
It is recommended to have a water should be branched on top of the
sample analyzed by a laboratory subheader and condensate drain
that can also advise on a suitable points should be provided at the
treatment solution if needed. The lowest point of the ring network.
cooling water flow for compressors It is recommended to provide
can be designed so that the total flanges so that sections of the air


piping network can be isolated by in­turbo compressors are used in their
serting blind flanges. Maintenance most efficient performance zones
work can then be carried out without when working together
completely halting production. • Shutdown scheduling to avoid costs
Adequate brackets, clamps or other during non-working hours
supports will keep lines straight with­
• Optimized pressure stability, which
out sagging and prevent machinery helps to reduce problems with air­
vibrations that can lead to loosened operated equipment
pipe couplings. • Workload equalizationto avoid over­
Expansion joints should be used loads on Individualmachines
between the compressor and air net­• Reduced equipment maintenance
work piping with proper support aftercosts
the expansionjoints, which ensure that
Comprehensive, flexible machine­
the air net load is not transferred to
sequence control ensuresthat installed
the equipment. machines are able to work in groups.
The controller guarantees that the run­
Monitoring and control ning hours of the system are equal
Central controllers are an effective so­ across all machines in the same group.
lution for improving the efficiency of a A central controller can also control
compressed air system, because they other ancillary equipment, such as
not only monitor the system's opera­ switching dryers, control valves and
tions, but can reduce lifecycle costs cooling water pumps. Users can add
and help compressors to meet the extra instrumentation, such as meters
requirements of environmental regula­ to monitor flow and vibration levels in
tions. There are several advantages to order to prevent potential equipment
central controllers for air compression failure. Safety parameters, tempera­
systems, as described below: tures and pressurescan be monitored
• Potential energy savings (as high as for all compressors and dryers that are
10%) on a typical compressed-air in­ connected to the controller. Further­
stallationwith mixed sizing and com­ more, machines require fewer service
pressor technology visits and experience reduced costs,
• Regulationof system pressurewithin since they can all be serviced at the
same time.
Designing a compressed air system
that is right for a facility requires an
understanding your applications, their
demands and the different technology
Central controllers are an effective solution for options available.After reviewingthe in­
formation given in this article, engineers
improving the efficiency of a compressed air system, should be empowered to work knowl­
because they not only monitor the system's operations, edgeably with compressor manufac­
turers to design the best compression
but can reduce lifecycle costs and help compressors systemfor their application. •
to meet the requirements of environmental regulations Edited by Mary Page Bailey

,-------, Deepak Vetal is a Jl(oduct marketing
manager for oil-free SCfew and centrif­
ugal compressors at Atlas Coj)Co Com­
pressors lLC (3042 Soutl\cross Blvd.,
a predefined and narrow pressure __ I~I Suite 102. Rock Hilt,SC 29730; Email:

band to optimize energy efficiency deepak.vetal@us.atlascopco.com). He

has over 19 years of experience in
• Prioritizeduse of the most economic sales, customer service, account man­
machines over older or less effective agement. Jl(oduct development and
Jl(odUCImarketing for oil-free SCfew
versions to reduce downtime and centrifugal compressors.He has handled national prod­
• Continuous use of variable speed uct marketing in key markets, including India and the U.S.,
drive (VSD)machines, which are the and worked with many customers on their compressed-air
systems in many industrial sectors, including automotive,
most energy-efficient machines for metal. textile, pharmaceuticals, chemical, food-and-bever­
variableload age, oil-and-gas, paper, power and electronics. He holds a
• Assurance that multiple VSD and/or B.Tech.degree in mechanical engineering from Doctor Sa­
basahebAmbedkar TechnologicalUniversityin lonere. tndia.
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Feature Report

Pressure-Relief System
Design: Developments
and Deficiencies
Areas of recent activity for pressure-relief systems include new calculation methods and
updates to existing codes and standards. Included here is an overview of recent developments
and a look at the results from a recent study of pressure-relief system deficiencies and solutions

Neil Prophet and he process

Casey Houston,
T safety
is constantly
changing and
evolving, so it is im­
portant to periodically

IN BRIEF assess new develop­

NEW CALCULATION ments that affect each
METHODS of the various types
of safety equipment.
Pressure reliefand flare
systems are examples
SAFETY INCIDENTS of equipment systems
PRESSURE-RELIEF that have experienced
SYSTEM STUDY recent and ongoing
changes. This article
focuses primarily on
MITIGATIONOPTIONS three areas of activity RGURE1. Pressure relief valve (PRV) stability has been an area of recent focus for APIresearch
in pressure-relief sys- groups
tems: new calculation
ADVANCED methods; updates to regulatory codes and made two-phase flow one of its main areas
CALCULATION METHODS standards; and lessons learned from safety of focus. Over the past three decades,
STABILITYANALYSIS events at chemical process industries (CPI) DIERS has spent several million dollars to
facilities. To illustrate potential problems asso­ investigate the two-phase vapor-liquid onset
ciated with pressure-relief systems and pos­ and disengagement dynamics, as well as the
IMPORTANCE OF sible mitigation options, the article also dis­ hydrodynamics of emergency relief systems.
DOCUMENTATION cusses the findings from a study, conducted Of particular interest to DIERS was the pre­
by the authors' employer, of pressure-relief diction of two-phase flow venting and the
equipment at a petrochemical facility. applicability of various sizing methods for
two-phase vapor-liquid flashing flow.
New calculation methods Runaway reactions. In addition to advanc­
New calculation methods are constantly being ing two-phase flow modeling, DIERS has
developed and enhanced to address both also continued to develop and improve
new and existing safety topics (for informa­ modeling of runaway-reaction scenarios.
tion on calculations for sizing pressure-relief Over the years, more sophisticated reac­
valves, see Part 2 of this Feature Report, pp. tion models have been developed to allow
52-55). A few examples of this for pressure­ more accurate prediction and modeling of
relief systems include the following: runaway reactions.
Two-phase flow. The Design Institute for Pressure relief valve (PRV) stability. New
Emergency Relief Systems (DIERS) has engineering analyses have been developed


through American Petroleum Institute (API) research
groups to further study PRV stability for cases where
inlet line losses exceed 3% of set pressure (Figure "1).
This research has demonstrated that PRVs can func­
tion in a stable manner with irrecoverable inlet losses
greater than 3% of the set pressure. The research also
provides an accepted methodology to determine and
demonstrate stable operation of PRVs,
Acoustic induced vibration. Acoustic induced vibra­
tion (AIV)is generally a potential problem to piping in gas
service where large amounts of high-frequency acoustic
energy can be generated by a pressure-reducing device,
such as a PRV.The flowrate and pressure primarily gov­
ern the amplitude of this energy transmitted through the
piping system, Excitation due to AIV can lead to fatigue
failure of downstream connections, with failures poten­
tially occurring at small bore branches, It is important to
consider this phenomenon when designing piping for
pressure-relief systems, and when selecting appropriate
piping and connections to prevent AIV from occurring.

Regulatory code updates

Regulatory codes and standards are continuously being
updated, resulting generally in both new and stricter re­
quirements (Figure 2). The following describe several of
the recent updates to codes and standards governing
pressure relief systems:
API Standard 520 Part 1 [1J. This standard applies to
the sizing and selection of pressure relief devices used
in petroleum refineries, chemical manufacturing facilities
and related industries for equipment that has a maximum
allowable working pressure (MAWP) of 15 psig (103
kPag) or greater. The pressure-relief devices covered in
this standard are intended to protect unfired pressure
knock-out drums and related equipment against over­
pressure from operating events and fire contingencies,
Part 1 of this standard was most recently updated in
2014, and it includes basic definitions and information
about the operational characteristics and applications
of various pressure-relief devices. It also includes sizing
procedures and methods based on steady-state flow of
Newtonian fluids.
API Standard 520 Part 2 [2J. This standard was most
recently updated in 2015, and was also promoted from
a Recommended Practice to a Standard. It covers meth­
ods of installation for pressure-relief devices in gas, vapor,
steam, two-phase, and incompressible fluid service.
API Standard 521 [3J. This standard was most recently
updated in 2014. It provides guidelines for a number
of tasks, including evaluating the principal causes of
overpressure, determining individual relieving rates and
selecting and designing disposal systems, These would
include such component parts as piping, vessels, flares
and vent stacks.
API Standard 2000. This standard covers the normal
and emergency vapor-venting requirements for above­
ground liquid petroleum or petroleum-products storage
tanks and aboveground and underground refrigerated
storage tanks designed for operation at pressures from
full vacuum through 103.4 kPag (15 psig). It was up-
For detans visit adUnks.chemengonllne.coml70304-08
4, 1998, a catastrophic vessel failure ammonia in the exchanger shell, and
and fire occurred at a facility owned increased the pressure in the shell.
by Sonat Exploration in Louisiana. The closed isolation and block valves
Four workers who were near the ves­ prevented the increasing ammonia
sel were killed, and the facility sus­ pressure from safely venting through
tained significant damage. The vessel either the ammonia pressure-control
lacked a pressure-relief system and valve or the rupture disk and PRV.
ruptured due to overpressurization The pressure in the heat exchanger
during startup. The rupture released shell continued climbing until it vio­
flammable material, which ignited. lently ruptured, killing one operator
First Chemical Corp. On October and causing extensive damage.
13, 2002, a violent explosion oc­ At the time, John Bresland, former
curred in a chemical distillation tower CSB chair, was quoted as saying,
at First Chemical in Pascagoula, "This tragic accident is but the latest
Miss., sending heavy debris over a example of the destruction that can
wide area. Three workers in the con­ result from a lack of effective pres­
trol room were injured by shattered sure-relief systems and practices."
glass. One nitrotoluene storage tank Williams Olefins. On June 13, 2013,
was punctured by explosion debris, a catastrophic equipment rupture,
igniting a fire that burned for several explosion and fire occurred at the
hours. During the incident investiga­ Williams Olefins Plant in Geismar,
FIGURE 2. Regulatory codes and standards for pres­ tion conducted by the U.S. Chemical La., where two Williams employees
sure-relief devices have seen some recent updates
Safety Board (GSB; www.csb.gov).it were killed as a result. The incident
dated in 2014, and discusses the was determined that the capacity of occurred during nonroutine opera­
causes of overpressure and vacuum, the pressure-safety valve was inad­ tional activities that introduced heat
as well as the determination of vent­ equate to prevent overpressurization to an offline reboiler,creating an over­
ing requirements, the means of vent­ and catastrophic column failure. pressure event while the vessel was
ing, selection and installation of vent­ BP pIc. A major incident occurred at isolated from its pressure-relief de­
ing devices, and testing and marking the BP refinery in Texas City, Tex. in vice. The introduced heat increased
of relief devices. March 2005. An explosion occurred the temperature of the liquid propane
This standard applies to tanks when hydrocarbon vapors over­ mixture confined within the reboiler
containing petroleum and petroleum flowed from a blowdown stack and shell, resulting in a dramatic pressure
products, but it can also be applied to ignited. The explosion resulted in 15 rise within the vessel due to liquid
tanks containing other liquids. How­ fatalities and 180 injuries. One of the thermal expansion. The reboiler shell
ever, it is necessary to use sound contributing factors in this incident catastrophically ruptured, causing a
engineering analysis and judgment was the use of an inadequately de­ boiling liquid expanding vapor explo­
whenever this standard is applied to signed blowdown drum and stack as sion (BLEVE)and fire.
other liquids. This standard does not part of the pressure relief and venting All incidents mentioned here were
apply to external floating-roof tanks. system for the raffinate splitter, which investigated by the CSB and rep­
National emphasis programs. The had gone through several design and resent a limited snapshot of events
U.S. Occupational Safety and Health operational changes and was located that were related to pressure-relief
Administration (OSHA; Washington, close to uncontrolled areas. systems, as identified in the pub­
D.C.; www.osha.gov) Refinery Na­ Goodyear. On June 10, 2008, Good­ lished CSB reports at www.csb.gov.
tional Emphasis Program and the year operators closed an isolation To improve a plant's overall safety
Process Safety Management (PSM) valve between a heat exchanger shell apparatus and meet the demands of
Covered Chemical Facilities National (ammonia-cooling side) and a PRY the ever-changing safety world, it is
Emphasis Program included a focus to replace a burst rupture disk under necessary to address two general
on ensuring that pressure-relief sys­ the PRY that provided overpressure questions: What is the quality of the
tems design documentation is kept protection. Maintenance workers re­ plant's current safety systems?; and
up-to-date and accurate. placed the rupture disk on that day; How effective are the mitigation op­
however, the closed isolation valve tions that are available to solve prob­
Safety incidents was not reopened. lems created by inadequate design?
Safety incidents experienced in plant On the morning of June 11, an op­
operation have led the industry to erator closed a block valve isolating Pressure-relief system study
rethink certain assumptions used in the ammonia pressure-control valve It is an unfortunate reality that pro­
process safety, such as which pres­ from the heat exchanger. The opera­ cess safety can often be a victim of
sure-relief scenarios are considered tor then connected a steam line to plant economics - sufficient time
credible. Some examples of these the process line to clean the piping. and financial resources are not al­
incidents include the following: The steam flowed through the heat ways available to instantly and si­
Sonat Exploration Co. On March exchanger tubes, heated the liquid multaneously address every safety


• Rupture Disk Devices
• Flame Arresters
• Tank Vents
• Relief Valves
• Buckling Pin Valves SAFETY RELIEF
• Explosion Vents
• Explosion Suppression

Contact BS&Bfor the solutions you need.


issue. Because of this, it is neces­ Approximately 70% of the pressure­
sary to prioritize. Formalized studies relief systems analyzed were found to
of a particular set of safety systems have an issue of some sort. Most of
can offer insight about prioritization these issues involved interconnecting
of potential safety improvements. valves between equipment not being
Presented here are the findings locked, or "car-sealed" open. These
from a sample study of pressure re­ issues were easily resolved, but some
lief systems that is similar to a safety other installation issues were not as
audit (Figure 3). Such studies can be easily mitigated. For example:
utilized to create a picture of where • PRVs set above MAWP
the plant stands on the whole, and • Low points in the PRV outlet line,
enable the prioritization of pressure­ allowing pocketing of liquids
relief systems that pose the greatest "Unprotected equipment" was
risks to the facility. evaluated to determine if there was
To help illustrate the conduct of a an applicable overpressure scenario
safety study in the context of pres­ in the revalidation study. An equip­
sure-relief systems, we describe a ment item could be considered to
recent detailed analysis, carried out be unprotected if it does not have a
recently by the authors' employer, of FIGURE3. A recent detailed analysis of pressure­ free path to a pressure relief device,
a process unit within a petrochemi­ relief devices at a petrochemical facility can inform as defined by both API and ASME
prioritization of safety projects
cal production facility. The study requirements. Several systemic de­
analyzed all pressure-relief systems ing temperatures ficiencies were identified:
throughout the process unit and • Abnormal flow. This scenario was • Some PRVs were set above the
judged them to be either adequate due to the original design missing MAWP of the equipment they
or inadequate, according to the fol­ a significant amount of manual were protecting
lowing typical criteria: valve operation situations, such as • Pressure-relief devices on a com­
• Pressure-relief requirement com­ inadvertent opening of a control mon inlet manifold were not con­
pared to relief capacity valve bypass valve sidered for hydraulic calculations
• Irreversible inlet-line loss (3%) • Thermal expansion. This situation • Thermal-relief valves were often
• Backpressure (10% for conven­ was due to failures of the original assumed to be adequate without
tional devices, manufacturer-spe­ design to consider thermal expan­ proper evaluation of the applicable
cific for other types, such as bal­ sion to be credible, even for heat overpressure scenarios
anced bellows) exchanqers with high heat duties • Some overpressure scenarios
• Installation and code-violation • Tuberupture. This was due to the were not considered
issues original design being inconsistent • ManuaVbypass valve opening was
• Temperature concerns regarding consideration of tube not considered
rupture as a credible source of It is also worth noting that none
Common issues overpressure. The original design of the existing documentation for
The results of the analysis of pres­ did not consider mixing effects, the pressure relief devices evaluated
sure-relief systems revealed a num­ such as flow of a volatile mixture to met the current documentation guid­
ber of issues, which are discussed the hot side of the heat exchanger ance in API Standard 521, Section
here, along with possible mitigation External fires and control valve 4.7. For example, the existing docu­
options. Of the systems and calcu­ failures were found to result in very mentation did not provide rationale
lations analyzed, a significant num­ few inadequately sized pressure­ regarding the credibility of all typi­
ber were found to be inadequate for relief systems, even though these cal overpressure scenarios. This is a
the following reasons: two overpressure scenarios were common issue in many facilities.
• Relief capacity: 41 % commonly analyzed in the sample
• Irreversible inlet line loss: 32% pressure-relief systems. Mitigation options
• Backpressure: 22% In the study, several factors were When an existing pressure-relief sys­
The most common factors con­ identified that contributed to the num­ tem is found to have issues, there
tributing to overpressure scenarios ber of problematic pressure-relief cal­ are many well-known and accepted
for which the existing pressure-relief culations. The factors include: "typical fixes." Included here are
systems were inadequately sized in­ • Originaldesign work failedto consid­ some of the potenial issues of pres­
cluded the following: er specific pressure-reliefscenarios sure-relief systems, along with pos­
• Blocked outlet. This scenario • Missing or conflicting sources of sible mitigation strategies:
was mainly due to the pressure­ data To address inadequate capacity in
relief consequences not being • Changes In plant throughput and the pressure-relief system, possible
considered during operational operating conditions mitigation strategies could include:
changes, such as increased plant • Changes regarding compliance • Installation of larger PRV
throughput and increased operat- and company guidelines • Installation of additional PRV


• Mitigation of controlling scenario Wall stress versus time
(for example. fireproof insulation Wall seqme 1() 1
Bol1om fal ure str 'IS (213 UTSI wa
Wa'l segmr It 1·2
fal ure stress (213 UTSI barn
for an external fire scenario) Wall segmenl 2-3.
failure stress [213 UTSI bara
For excessive inlet pressure losses. ...~
segmenl 3-4
fal ure stress [213 UTS bara
segmenl 4-5.
Top failure stress [213 UTS) bam
mitigation could involve: ~ 2,400 Vessel stress caused by Internal pressure. bam
• Reduce the number of fittings, el- =>g-
bows and so on O)

• Use larger inlet piping ~

~ 1,800
• Increase PRV blowdown j
• Install a pilot relief valve .!!
For excessive outlet pressure =
losses, the following actions are pos­ ~ 1,200
sible fixes: ~
• Reduce the number of fittings, el­ '"i!!
bows and so on 600
• Use larger outlet piping
• Install a bellows-relief valve
When temperatures are above the
maximum allowable working temper­ 0
0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000
ature. plants can use fireproof insula­ Time, s
tion or water sprays for external fire
FIGURE4. This graph shews an example of dynamic simulation to predict vessel-wall failure due to fire
scenarios. If temperatures are below exposure
the minimum design metal tempera­
ture. plants should look to select an if the accumulated pressure does not improper relief system design.
alternate material of construction. exceed the corrected hydrotest. Spe­
It should be noted that any of these cific guidance is given in API Standard Advanced calculation methods
"typical" fixes do not take into ac­ 521 for the following scenarios: Improvements in computational
count cost - and indeed may be • Closed outlets on vessels power and software have led to in­
cost -prohibitive. especially for exist­ • Inadvertent valve opening creased availability of dynamic-relief
ing facilities. Therefore, prior to mak­ • Check-valve leakage or failure sizing calculations.
ing any physical modification in the • Heat transfer equipment failure Various relief scenarios can be
facility. it is worth ensuring that every (tube rupture) modelled dynamically, such as the
design option has been considered Locating missing data or docu­ following: external fire; loss of cool­
thoroughly. Engineering design op­ mentation. Missing data can be a ing; tube rupture; and vapor break­
tions will tend to be a fraction of the significant factor affecting pressure­ through and liquid displacement
cost of any physical modification in relief design calculations. Conflicting The benefits of a dynamic pres­
the plant. data can result in inadequate pres­ sure-relief system simulation include
sure-relief system design as conser­ a more accurate representation of
Practical solutions vative assumptions are often used in the system at relief conditions, typi­
Several mitigation options exist to cases where discrepancies exist. cally resulting in decreased pres­
address the inadequate pressure­ The amount of information needed sure-relief flowrate requirements and
relief system calculations. including: to meet the OSHA PSM Standard required relief areas; and hence po­
Administrative changes (for exam­ Process Safety Information (PSI) el­ tentially smaller PRVs.
ple. locking a bypass valve closed). ement can be considerable, and re­ Additionally, dynamic simulations
The opening of normally closed quires revalidation every five years. enable the user to model the effects
manual bypass valves around con­ There is no requirement that all PSI of reliefon upstream and downstream
trol valves contributed significantly be compiled in a single document, systems. such as the ability to com­
to inadequate relief systems; particu­ or that it be located in a single file. pute changes in flow In and out of the
larly control valve bypass valves and Where it is contained in various doc­ system due to changes in pressure
steam out valves. uments or locations, good practice and temperature over time. Dynamic
Locking these valves closed af­ is to compile an index of the PSI or simulation can also be used to predict
fects more than just the pressure­ locations, or both. vessel wall failure due to fire exposure.
relief area sizing - with the scenario During the National Emphasis Pro­ as shown in Figure 4.
eliminated, there is no longer a need gram audits conducted by OSHA, in­
for any inlet and outlet pressure-loss adequate or outdated PSI was com­ Stability analysis
calculations for that scenario. monly one of the most frequently cited PRV stability and the "3% rule" has
API Standard 521 (6th edition) cur­ elements. In the case of pressure-re­ been under scrutiny over the past
rently allows the use of administra­ lief systems. data discrepancies can several years as the subject of litiga­
tive controls to mitigate or eliminate cause inefficiencies, additional costs, tion, research and modeling. PRV
overpressure scenarios, particularly and most importantly, the potential for instability can lead to chatter, which


0.90 important that updated documen­
tation be fully compliant with these
0.80 documentation requirements. When
deficiencies are identified, there may
0.70 not always be a simple solution to
all of the safety issues. Hence, the
experience and expertise of qualified
safety professionals is key to identi­
~ fying faults and shortcomings. •

x 0.40
Edited by Scott Jenkins

~ 0.30 References
1 Ametican PetrOOlm Institute,'Si2ltlg. Selection, and In·
stallation of Pressure Relief Devices in Refineries" 91h
Edboo,APIStandard 520 Part I. 2014.
2. American Petraeum Institute,'Si2i1g, Selection, and In·
0.10 stallation of Pressre Relief Devices in Refineries" 6th
Edition, API Standard 520 Part II, 2015.
0.00 3. AmeOCan Petrdeum InsUtute. ·Pressue·reiew1g ald De·
~CSSIJMg Systems' 6th ed..API S1andard521. 2014.
...---.- ........-.--,-"T"""T-.---.-...--.---,--.---.-...-.-.-.,.........,.....,r-..-.-.-.....,.....,.....,.-.-,
·0.10 -t--,......... 4. Ameocan mtilUte fa ChemcaJ EngC1eeIsand 1he Center lor
o 500 1,000 1,500 2.000 Cl1emicaI Prooess Safety,'GUde!I1es fO(Pressue Relief
Time, milliseconds iiWXI Ellim1 HandWlg', 1$I ed ,~ 1998.
AGURE 5. ThiS graph shows an example of dynamic PRV stability Calculations, with results from different 5. 'Maximize the Use 01 Your Existi~ Flare Structures',
lengths of inlet piping IChemE Hazards XX Symposium, Manchester. Uflted
Kingdom, April2008.
in turn can result in catastrophic fail­ inlet pressure losses exceed 3%.
ure of the system. It is therefore im­ Figure 5 provides an example of dy­ Authors
portant to ensure that when the last namic PRV stability calculations. Neil Prophet is a senior partner at
line of defense is asked to perform, Additionally, the following conclu­ ioMosalc (1900 Sl. James Place,
Suite 700, Houston, TX 77056;
any pressure relief devices operate in sions can be drawn, based on PRV Phone: 713-490-5220; Email:
a safe and stable manner. The "3% stability research: inlet and outlet pip­ nprophet@iomosaic.com).Prophet
rule" remains a recommendation ing configuration highly impacts sta­ brings over 20 years of experience
in 1he field 01 process safety to his
and not a requirement in RAGAGEP bility; an irrecoverable inlet loss from leading rOleioMosa.ic's Relief Sys­
(recognized and generally accepted friction has little impact. tems consulting group. His experi·
ence includes providing project
good engineering practice). The management and engineering expertise to large-scale
"rule" appears in both ASME Boiler Field changes pressure-relief and lIare systems design studies for
and Pressure Vessel Code Section Despite the previous mitigation op­ chemical, pharmaceutical and petrochemical companies
WOI1dwide.Prophet has also led numerous quantitative
VIII Division I (BPVC-VIII-I) Non-Man­ tions, some inadequate relief systems risk analyses, hazard identificatioo studies and audits,
datory Appendix M and as a "should" may still require actual field changes. and has provided litigation support lor safety and relief
in API STD 520 Part II. Field changes can range from rela­ systems issues. Prophet has authored or co-aemcreo
many industry white papers OIl process safety, in addi­
API practice formed the founda­ tively easy and inexpensive jobs to tioo to presenting over 50 training courses and seminars
tion of the ASME guidance. In the troublesome and exceedingly expen­ covering consequence analysis and risk analysis to both
past, API RP 520 Part II has allowed sive jobs. Some field changes are: in­ operating and consulting companies. He holds a B. Eng.
degree in Chemical engineering and a postgraduate di­
an "engineering analysis" to dem­ stallation of a bellows conversion kit; ploma in energy systems and envirOllmeflt, bo1h from
onstrate that non-recoverable inlet installation of a larger flow area; instal­ the University 01StrathClyde.
pressure drop greater than 3% of the lation of fireproof insulation or water Casey Houston is a senior partner
set pressure is safe, but has offered spray; and modification of relief-valve at ioMosaic (401 North 3rd Street,
Suite 410, Minneapolls. MN55401;
little guidance on a method. inlet and outlet piping Phone: 612-338-1669; Emai:
Based on significant research and chouston®ioo1osaic.COO1)_ He
experience, the sixth edition of API Importance of documentation brings CNer 15 years of engineeri~
and process safety experience to his
520, now a standard, includes an Based on the authors' experience role as a leader of ioMosaic's Relief
engineering analysis (§7.3.6) and pro­ with many pressure-relief system Systems coosulting group. His wOO<
is focused on managing and execut­
vides valuable guidance to the user. revalidation projects, maintain­ Ing large-scale pm$StJre·relief and flare systems design
While the mitigation options men­ ing reliable, accurate, available and projects for reactive and roo-reactive cherri:al. petroleum
tioned previously may have primarily maintainable pressure-relief system and pharmaceulical systems, as well as prOYfdingtechnl·
cally sound analysis and documentation 10( existing process
addressed pressure-relief-system ca­ design documentation is an ongoing and reactivity hazards. Houston is Il1e co-author and ~e·
pacity inadequacies, the irreversible challenge for many companies. As senter of industry whitepapers relating to pres5\Jre retief
inlet-loss inadequacies can remain a mentioned earlier, the batch of pres­ and flare systems design. effluent handling, and RAGAGEP.
Houston also ~nts training sessoos and WOI1IsOOps on
concern. The force balance method sure relief devices evaluated in the process safety topCs, such as PRVstability, pm$StJrerelief
can be used to determine if the instal­ sample study were all lacking ade­ and flare systems design, and Process Safety Office, Su·
lation of a pressure-relief device will quate documentation as specified in per01ems software training. HClJs10nholds a B.S.01.E.
degree from IcYIa State UnivefSity and is a certified profes·
result in stable behavior, even when API Standard 521 (Section 4.7). It is sionaJ project manager.
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Feature Report

Sizing Pressure-Relief
Valves for Two-Phases
Several methods are available for sizing two-phase pressure-relief valves (PRVs).Here, the API
520 homogeneous direct integration method is compared to a potentially simpler alternative
that does not require integration

GuofuChen wo-phase pressure-relief valves method requires less modeling effort than

T (PRVs) have been studied by many

researchers. Among the many pub­
lished works on this subject is the
American Petroleum Institute (API) Standard
520 on the Sizing, Selection and Installa­
the HDI method and eliminates the need for
integration, but the two methods arrive at the
same results, as shown in an example calcu­
lation included in this article.

IN BRIEF tion of Pressure-Relieving Devices. Part 1 of HOI versus HO: An overview

HOIVERSUS HO: AN the API 520 standard (9th edition) describes The HDI method involves generating mul­
OVERVIEW three methods to size two-phase PRVs, tiple data oolots over an isentropic range of
which are described in detail in Annex C. The pressures from the inlet to the discharge of
first method is the HDI (homogeneous direct the valve, using a thermodynamic property
integration) method (section C.2.1), which database. These data are used to evalu­
SAMPLE CALCULATION has wide applicability. The second method is ate the mass flux integral by direct numeri­
COMPARINGHD AND HOI known as the Omega method for two-phase cal integration. When this method is put into
METHODS flashing or non-flashing flow (described practice, engineers generally model each
in section C.2.2). The third is the Omega isentropic integral through an expander (is­
method for sub-cooled liquid (described in entropic flash block) with 100% isentropic ef­
section C.2.3). ficiency. Depending on the accuracy desired,
This article examines the HDI method and this may translate into modeling ten or more
compares it to an easier alternative method, isentropic flash blocks. Physical properties
known as HD (homogeneous direct without like pressure and mass density are extracted
integration), which is proposed here. The HD into a spreadsheet and mass flux is calcu-

C Velocity of sound. m/s or fVs
C, Velocity of sound at pressure-relief valve (PRII)discharge, mls or fVs
Cb Velocity of sound corresponding to PRY backoressure, m/s or fVs
G Theoretical mass flux through an isentropic nozzle, kgls-m2 or Ib/s-ft2
h Mass enthalpy, Jlkg or Btullb
ho Mass enthalpy at stagnation state or PRY inlet or relivingcondition, Jlkg or Btullb
P Pressure, Pa absolute (SI units) or psia (U.S. customary units)
Po Pressure at PRV inlet or reliving condition, Pa absolute or psia
PI Pressure at PRY discharge, Pa absolute or psia
PIS A pressure value imagined to calculate velOcityof sound. It is equal 99% of PI. Pa absolute or psia
IJP Differential pressure between P, and PIa, Pa or psi
Pb PRV backpressure, Pa absolute or psia
PI Choke pressure. or critical pressure, at the PRYthroat, Pa absolute or psia
PI Mass density at the PRY discharge, kg/m3 (SI units) or Ib/ft3 (U.S. customary units)
PIe Mass density corresponding to P,a. kg/m3 or Iblft3
Llp Differential density between P I and P lao kglm3 or Ib/ft3
Pb Mass density corresponding to PRY backpressure, kg/m3 or Ib/ft3
P, Mass density at the PRY throat, kglm3 or Ib/ft3
V Velocity of fluid, mls or fVs
VI Velocity of fluid at PRY discharge, m/s or ftls
Vb VelOCityof fluid corresponding to PRY backpressure, mls or fils
vt Velocity of fluid at the PRY throat, mls or ftls
lated according to the HOI method. HOImethod
The choke point is determined when 0,
)2 3 4 6
the mass flux reaches a maximum.
The HOI method requires intensive
:f J J )5
) J7 J8 )9
modeling effort, depending on how I 11 14 15 16 17 18 19
close engineers need their result to )12 )13
compare to the actual integration J ) ) ) ) J ) )
(Figure 1, top). Therefore, an easier
1 -]3
method that produces identical mass
flux results without integration, would
be helpful for engineeers wishing to
:r ]26 ]27
l l l
29 30

reduce time and effort required. HOmethod

The HO method without integra­ ~ 13
tion proposed here requires only i
I ............
two isentropic flash blocks (Figure ~~
1, bottom), instead of modeling ten ,.. ,..,.)
or more isentropic flash blocks with
the HOI method. For HO, the first is­ CalculatelividvelOcity, CalCulate
represenl PRV at PRVdlsdlargecondition
entropic flash block represents the
actual PRV, and is used to calculate FIGURE1. The HOImethod (top) requires significant modeling effort, while the HOmethod without Inte­
velocity of the fluid when expand­ gration (bottom) reduces the modeling effort required in calculating sizes for pressure-relief valves
ing isentropically from the PRV inlet
to the PRV discharge. The second
isentropic flash block is used to cal­ Subsonic Relief Sonic relief
culate the velocity of sound at the Criterion Vb < CII Vb <!: CII
PRV discharge and it is an imagi­ Mass flux G= Vb x Po G= v,X p,
nary one. If the velocity of fluid is Iterations Oncethe calculation is completed, no itera­ Iterations are required to find the throat pres­
lower than the velocity of sound, it is tions are needed sure Pb such that v,:: C,
considered a subsonic pressure re­
lief. The mass flux can be obtained formula C.9 or C.10 in the 9th edi­ at the pressure-relief valve throat, the
by multiplying the mass density and tion of API 520 Part I. fluid velocity at the relieving condition
the velocity of fluid at the PRV dis­ (PRV inlet) is negligible. Thus,
charge condition. Theory behind the HD method
On the other hand, if the velocity of The homogeneous direct (HO) hO = h + (v21 2) (1)
the fluid is greater than the velocity method begins with the same as­
of sound, it is termed a supersonic sumptions as those in the HOI After rearranging the formula, the
relief. It is well known that super­ method. The most important as­ fluid velocity can be calculated in SI
sonic pressure-relief events cannot sumption is that the flow is well mixed units, as follows:
occur without a properly designed - and therefore homogeneous -
converging and diverging nozzle. due to high fluid velocities and a high v = v(2 x (ho - h)) (2)
Thus, the maximum fluid velocity in degree of turbulence found in typical
a pressure-relief valve is equal to the pressure-relief flow. This means that Or in U.S. customary (USC) units,
velocity of sound. In cases where the the two-phase mixture can be repre­ using the appropriate conversion
velocity of fluid is larger, engineers sented as a "pseudo-single-phase" factors:
need to adjust the discharge pres­ fluid, with properties that are a suit­
sure of the first isentropic flash block able average of the individual phase v = v(2 x (ho - h) x 2,326/0.30482)
so that velocity of fluid equals the properties. (3)
velocity of sound. The final adjusted Fluid velocity calculation. When
PRV discharge pressure is the choke dealing with pressure-relief flows, The variables and units for Equations
or critical pressure. The adjustment it is often convenient to work with (1) through (7) are described in the
can be done manually or through a properties evaluated at a refer­ nomenclature box on p. 52.
solver in simulation software such as ence state known as the "stagna­ Velocity of sound calculation. Ve­
ProMax, an adjuster in HYSYS or a tion state." The stagnation state is locity of sound can be calculated
controller in VMGSim. Similarly, the the state that a flowing fluid would using the following formulas. In SI
mass flux is calculated by multiply­ attain if it were decelerated to zero units:
ing the mass density and velocity of velocity isentropically. Rgure 2 illus­
fluid at this choke (or critical) pres­ trates how an actual PRV can be c=V(ilPlilp) (4)
sure condition. The required relieving conceptualized into a nozzle model.
area can then be calculated, using Compared to the high fluid velocity In USC units:


To illustrate how to property utilize me HD method to calculate the mass flux of a two-phase pressure relief flow, a sample problem is pre­
sented here. ProMax is used as the process simulator and ASME steam is the selected physical property package. Please refer to Figure 1
for the process flow setup. The same exercise can be done directly in an Excel spreadsheet also. if a thermodynamic engine like RefProp is
installed on the computer. For this example, the following values are assigned:
Auid: a steam and water mixture
Relieving (PRV inlet) pressure Po: 100 psia
Relieving steam and water fraction: 50 mol.% each
Relieving flow: 100,000 Iblh
Backpressure Pb scenane 1: 80 osia (subsonic relieQ
Backpressure PI) scenario 2: 14.7 psia (sonic relleQ

For subsonic relief with a backpressure of 80 psia.

Step 1: Create the first isentropic flash block (expander) to calculate fluid velocity in a process simulator like ProMax. The adiabatic efficiency
is 100%. The first isentropic flash block represents the PRY,which goes through an isentropic thermodynamic path. Refer to Figure 1 for
additional details.
Step 2: Create the second isentropic flash block (expander) to calculate sound velocity at the PRY discharge condition. The adiabatic ef­
ficiency is also 100%. Unlike the first isentropio flash block, which represents the PRY,the second isentropic flash block is an imaginary one
that does not physically exist.
Step 3: Specify the relieving conditions as the inlet conditions for the first isentropic flash block. Fluid is H20, Po:: 100 psla, vapor mole
fraction = 50%, mass now = 100,000 Iblh
Step 4: Specify the discharge pressure of the second lsentropic flash block. PIa:: 0.99 X PI (PI is the first isentropic flash block discharge
pressure). This can be done through the ·Specifier" function in ProMax, or "Set" in HYSYS and VMGSim.
Step 5: Set the backpressure Pb as the oullet pressure of the first isentropic flash block: PI:: Pb = 80 psia
Step 6: Calculate the velocity of fluid USingEquation (3) and data from Table 2
vI = 12x (-e,123.01 + 6,132.16) x (2,326/0.30482»)0.5 = 676.6 ftIs
Step 7: Calculate the velocity of sound using Equation (5) and data from Table 2.
Cl :: (80 - 79.2) I (0.3633 - 0.35984) x 144 x 32.174]0.5 = 1.036 tUs
Step 8: Compare VI and Cl' Since < Cl. this is a subsonic relief
Step 9: Calculate the mass flux USingEquation (6).
G :: 676.6 x 0.3633 :: 245.8 Ib/s-ft2

For sonic relief with a backpressure of 14.7psia

For Steps 1-4, follow the same protocol as in the above subsonic-relief example, then proceed as follows:
Step 5: Set baokpressure PI) as the outlet pressure of the first isentropic flash block (PI:: PI):: 14.7 psia)
Step 6: Calculate the velocity of the fluid using Equation (3) and data from Table 3.
Vb :: [2 x (-6,123.01 + 6,197.88) x (2,326/0.30482)]0.5 = 1,936.2 fVs
Step 7: Calculate the velocity of sound using Equation (5) and data from Table 3.
cb = (14.7 - 14.553) I (0.07411 - 0.07342) x 144 x 32.174)0.5 = 993 ftIs
Step 8: Compare Vb and cb' Since Vb > cb' this is a sonic relief, although it looks like a supersonic relief, which is impossible in a PRY
pressure-relief situation.
Step 9: Increase the discharge pressure of the first isentropic nash block to PI' then repeat Steps 6 and 7 until VI = cl. This can be done
manually or through a solver in the ProMax software, an adjuster in HYSYS or a controller in VMGSim. The final adjusted pressure is the
critical pressure, or choke pressure. PI at the throat. At these choke conditions, Pt = 59.31 psia, v, = 1,031.4 tUs and PI = 0.27362 Ib/ft3
Step 10:Calculate mass nux using Equation (7). G = 1031.4 x 0.27362 = 282.2Ib/s-ft2
Editor's note: For more data on the sample calculations. see Tables 2 and 3 in the online version of this article at www.chemengonline.com.

c='l/f/JPltJp x (144 x 32.174)) (5) pressure of the first isentropic flash Comparing the methods
block, and then calculate the veloc­ The same example problem can be
Mass flux calculation. Mass flux is ity of the fluid (Vb: Equation (2) or (3)) also solved with HDI method. A sum­
mass flowrate per unit area. It can be and velocity of sound (cb: Equation mary table of the calculation using
calculated by multiplying mass density (4) or (5)), If Vb < cb' then it should the HDI method can be found in the
by velOCity.For subsonic pressure re­ be considered a subsonic relief. If online version of this article. It can
lief, the equation is as follows: Vb = Cb, then it is a sonic relief. If Vb be found at www.chemengonline.
> cb' then it is a supersonic relief, com. Refer to section C.2.1 of API
(6) which can't happen in a PRV situ­ 520 Part I (9th ed.) for the detailed
ation. Thus, the discharge pressure step-by-step calculation. A table
The equation for a sonic pressure re­ needs to increase to Pt, so that Vt = summarizing the result from the two
lief is as follows: c/, and the mass flux should be cal­ methods can be found online, At
culated with properties at the throat the back pressure of 80 psia (sub­
G = Vt x PI (7) condition, instead of the backpres­ sonic relief), both methods yield an
sure condition. Sample calculations identical mass flux of 245.8 Ib/s-ft2.
To determine whether the pres­ using this method are shown in the Furthermore. for a sonic relief with
sure relief is a sub-sonic or sonic box at the top of this page. a backpressure of 14.7 psia. both
relief, first use Pb as the discharge methods capture the identical throat


1 AmeOcan Pe.oIeum Insbtute.API StMdard 520, 'Siz·
Ing. SelectIOO. and InstaIlaoon01 Pressure'relll!'llng
Devrces.' 9111edtion. Part 1. Sizrlg aOO SetecIion, July
2. Darby R., FE. Self and V.H. EOl'lards.,"Propel1ySize
Pressure·ReielValves (or Two·Phase Flow.' Chem.
Eng., June 2002, pp. 68-74
Disc 3. Moran, M., and othets, 'Fundamentals of Engneenng
Thelmodynamics,' John WIiJt & Sons. Inc.. 8th edt·

Adjusting ring Author

Body--- GuOfu Chen is the principal pro­
cess engineer at Joule Processing
Houle LLC (3200 Southwest Freeway,
Suite 2390, Houston. TX 77027;
FIGURE2. On the left, a diagram of an actual pressure-relief valve is shown, while on the right is a con­ Phone (832) 230-9936; Email:
ceptualized nozzle model gchen@jouleprocesslng.com). He
has authored and presented sev­
pressure at about 60 psia and calcu­ any mathematical derivation, such eral papers on organic Rankine
late an identical mass flux of 282.2 as the mass flux formula in the HOI cycle. natural gas liquid and lique­
Ib/s-ft2. method. Overall, the HO method is fied natural gas at various confer­
ences. Chen developed rigorous steady-state process
The example clearly shows that easier and more straightforward for models to I){edict the performance of gas-processing
the HOI and HO methods produce engineers to understand. • plants with existing unit operations. such as heat ex­
changers, towers. compressors and control valves. He
identical results. But the HO method Edited by Scott Jenkins also utilized dynamic simulation to validate process con­
is generally easier to put into prac­ trol. optimiZe e)(15tlngplants' performance and train
Editor's note: For additional tables related to this artl· operators. Chen earned his B.S. in mechanical engi­
tice by engineers, since it elimi­ cle, see the online version at www.chemengonline.com. neering from Zhepang University, China. He Is both a
nates the integration and requires For fTlO{einformation on l){essure-rel1efsystem design, professional chemical engineer and a professional me­
less modeling effort. In addition, see the article on pp. 44-50 01this Issue. chanical engineer in the states of Texasand Louisiana.
the HO method does not involve


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Environmental Manager

Understanding New
PPE Regulations
The new European Union Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)Regulation explained, and what
it means for the chemical process industries
Bob Wells and Graham FIGUR.E1. Personal protec­
Clements tive equfpment falls fnto one
of three categories: simple,
BSI intermediate or complex

he European Commis­

T sion's Personal Protective

Equipment (PPE) Direc­
tive 89/686/EEC is over 20
years old and is now being super­
seded by the new PPE regulation
(EU) 2016/425. This new regulation
has been designed to reflect cur­
rent technologies and processes
for developing and bringing PPE to
the market, as well as to enhance
consumer safety and ensure fair
competition between companies.
The new regulation carries some
important implications for the
chemical process industries (CPI),
which utilize a wide range of PPE held or worn by a person, that are by a notified body).
to protect staff against potentially designed to connect that equip­ Category 3. This category covers
serious health and safety risks. This ment to an external device or to a "complex PPE" to guard against
article outlines the new PPE regula­ reliable anchorage point. that are risks that may cause serious con­
tion and describes its implications not designed to be permanently sequences, such as death or irre­
for the CPI. fixed, and that do not require fas­ versible damage to health (EU Type
tening works before use Examination Certificate issued by
PPE defined for regulations PPE falls into the following three a notified body and ongoing as­
PPE encompasses hundreds of categories, with Category 3 cover­ sessment of factory production
products, including protective cloth­ ing many serious risks of relevance control). It includes risks known to
ing, helmets, hearing and respiratory to the CPI: arise - some of them frequently
protection, gloves, body armor, boots Category 1. This category covers - in chemical processing facilities,
and more (Figure 1). From legal and "simple PPE" designed to protect such as:
regulatory perspectives, PPE is de­ users against minimal risks, includ­ • Hazardous substances 1 mixtures
fined more specifically as follows: ing contact with hot surfaces not • Harmful biological agents
A. Equipment designed and manu­ exceeding 50°C, contact with water • Ionizing radiation
factured to be worn or held by a or cleaning materials of weak action, • Oxygen-deficient atmospheres
person to protect against one or and superficial mechanical injury • High-temperature environments,
more risks to the person's health (manufacturer's self-declaration). the effects of which are compara­
or safety Category 2. This category covers ble to those of an air temperature
B. Interchangeable components for "intermediate PPE," such as safety of at least 100°C
equipment referred to in Point A spectacles and goggles. industrial • Low-temperature environments,
that are essential for its protective helmets, bump caps, high-visibility the effects of which are compara­
function clothing and other products not in­ ble to those of an air temperature
C. Connection systems for equip­ cluded in Categories 1 and 3 (EU of -SO°C or lower
ment referred to in A that are not Type Examination Certificate issued


The new regulation chemicals (TIC), toxic industrial ma­ prevent companies from selling sub­
The PPE Directive is now being su­ terials (TIM), and chemical warfare standard PPE without accountability.
perseded by the European Regula­ agents (CWA). Typical PPE for pro­ Under the new regulation, any com­
tion on Personal Protective Equip­ tection from these hazards includes pany importing or distributing PPE
ment. The regulation was adopted hoods, eyewear, respiratory protec­ products will have to ensure it meets
on February 12, 2016 and published tion, clothing, gloves and footwear. A the regulation and keeps records.
in the European Union Official Jour­ combination of standards and tech­
nal. It will apply to products from April nical specifications may be required Certification of PPE
21, 2018, with a one-year transition to demonstrate compliance with the So how can specifiers and buyers
period until April 21, 2019 for the essential health and safety require­ of PPE in the CPI be confident a
transfer of certified products from ments of the new regulation, and the product will do what it claims? Com­
the Directive to the new regulation. protection may consist of combined mercial specifiers and buyers of PPE
can derive a measure of reassurance
about the quality and safety of prod­
ucts from the presence of the flCE
Mark. The presence of the CE Mark
Counterfeit, substandard and illegal PPE products do II

on a product means that a manufac­

not perform as they should, and put employees lives at I turer claims it conforms to minimum
legal requirements for the product as
risk and expose their organization to prosecution laid down by the E.U.
CE (contormite Europeenne)
Mark. For products sold within the
E.U., PPE manufacturers must CE
The PPE Regulation is manda­ devices or complete ensembles. mark products following the specific
tory in every E.U. country, covering The most complex area for deter­ requirements laid down in the regu­
any type of product that falls within mining compliance is with protective lations. The CE Mark requirements
its scope. It is a legal obligation for clothing. Tables 1 and 2 show some may be achieved by demonstrating
all PPE manufactured after April 21, of the options that are available: that the product meets the Essential
2019 to comply. In addition, those
involved in procuring PPE, such as New glove standards
health and safety professionals, facil­ The group of standards that apply
ities managers and specialist buyers, to chemical risks for gloves has also
need to be aware of the changes been recently updated with changes Safety is for life."
to ensure equipment meets the re­ to parts of the classification system:
quirements of the new regulation. • BS EN ISO 374-1 :2016: Termi­
The main changes that the regula­ nology and performance require­
tion brings include the following: ments for chemical risks
• Clear placement of protection • BS EN 374-2:2014: Determination
from substanc€S and mixtures of resistance to penetration
hazardous to health in Category 3 • BS EN 374-4:2013: Determination
(Complex PPE) of resistance to degradation by
• The need for product risk assess­ chemicals
ments in the product technical file • BS EN ISO 374-5:2016: Termi­
• Enclosing a declaration of confor­ nology and performance require­
mity with each item of PPE or at ments for micro-organisms risks
least a link to where such a docu­ • BS EN 16523-1 :2015: Determina­
ment can be obtained tion of material resistance to per­
• Made-to-order PPE is now cov­ meation by chemicals
ered in the regulation
• The need for manufacturers to Countering counterfeits
place their name and address on There is a good amount of effective
the product PPE available to the CPI, but there
• Responsibilities outlined for im- are also numerous counterfeit and il­
porters and distributors legal products. Invariably,such fakes
• Mandatory 5-year certificate validity do not perform as they should, put
REMBE GmbH Safety+Control
employees' lives at risk and expose Gallbergweg 21 159929 Brilon. Germany
PPE for hazardous substances their organization to prosecution. F +49 2961 507141 www.rembe.de
All PPE that claims any protection From the laboratory to the factory REMBE ir(.
from chemical substances is included floor, PPE is vital to workplace well­ 3809 Beam Road Suite K Charlotte. NC 28217. USA
in Category 3, with the exception of being and it is imperative that it meets T +1704 71670221 F +1 70t. 716 7025
water or cleaning materials of weak or exceeds health and safety stan­ info@rembe.us 1 www.rembe.us
action. This includes toxic industrial dards. The new Regulation will help


"Type" Name Corresponding U.S. type Definition independent, third-party certifica­
European/ISO stan- tion, To achieve it, a manufacturer
dards must have a comprehensivequality
Type 1 Gas-tight EN 943-1 :20151EN Level A Gas/vapor-tight suits 1a Internal SCBA, managementsystem based on ISO
suit 943-2 (ET) 1 1b External SCBA, 1c BA air line. Revised
ISO 16602 EN 943-1 awaiting narmonzaton
9001, or a recognized factory pro­
Type 2 VentlJated EN 94311:2002l1S0 Level B Venlllated positive pressure suits with BA
duction control system, combined
suit 16602 (Approx) air line. Not included in EN 943-1 :2015 with initial product type-testing and
Type 3 Chemical EN 14605 (EN 466) I LevelB Suits Intended to protect from strong and regular ongoing audits. The certifi­
splash ISO 16602 (SCBA) directional jet sprays of liquid chemical. cation process demonstrates the
Level C Includes Partial body garments (PB). product has been manufactured
(mask! Used with mask!SCBAlPAPR
under a verified quality system, and
Type 4 Chemical EN 14605 (EN 465) I LevelC Suits intended to protect from a saturat- the products and processes are
coverall ISO 16602 Ing spray of liquid chemicals. Includes assessed on a continuing basis. In
Partial body garments (PBJ. Used with addition, it provides verificationthat
mask!SCBAlPAPR the product meets the standard,
Type 5 Dust coverall EN ISO 13982-11 Level 0 Protection from airborne solid partcu- as it requires regular factory visits,
ISO 16602 lates, Used with facepjecelmasklPAPR
Type 6 Ught chemi- EN 13034/1S0 16602 Level 0 Umlted protection from light liquid
typically twice a year,and an ongo­
cal coverall chemical splashes and mist spray. In- ing product audit. Certification to,
cludes Partial body garments (PBJ. Used and display of, an independent BSI
with facepiecelmaskJPAPR Kitemark provides a much stronger
Solid par- Ventilated EN 1073-1 - Ventilated positive pressure suits for statement of product quality than a
tides and suit solid particles and radioactive contarnt- CE Mark, enablingcustomers - in­
Nuclear naUon. Used with BA air line
Nuclear Unventilated EN 1073-2 Level 0 Umited protection from particulate radlo-
cluding those in the CPI - to dif­
coverall active contamination. Used with mask! ferentiate between PPE and derive
SCBAlPAPR genuine assuranceof product qual­
Airline BA air line EN 14594 - Suitable for lower level suits when ity and fitness for purpose. From
with llood, combined with type 3, 4, 5 & 6 including a buyer's perspective, it helps dif­
half suit, suit Partial body garments (PB]
ferentiate well-made PPE products
Powered PAPR with EN 12941 - Treated as a large 'hood'. Suitable for
from those of a lower standard - or
air- hood, half lower level suits when combined with
purifying suit, suil type 3, 4, 5 & 6 including Partial body indeed counterfeit goods.
respirator I garments [PB] BSI works both with PPE manu­
_!\;l~;a..:.I:lIIII"II":lHIl. :lh'LI'f!\'jl IliI~' Lilli! =11'11
facturers that achieve CE marking
and also with those that choose to
Standard Classes of Definition
go for BSI Kitemark certification to
Chemical EN 16523-1 or 1 to 6 v",,,,",,,,auu" of material resistance to demonstrate product quality and
EN ISO 6529 permeauon by chemicals generatecustomer trust. •
EN 1149-5 Edited by Scott Jenkins
Infective EN 14126 Class rat- Protective clothing against infective
agents ings for four agents Authors

Heat and
EN ISO 14116

EN ISO 11612
Index 1/213 limited lIame spread

A1/A2IBI-31 Protective clothing against heat and

Bob Wells is global head 01 pef­
sona! safety at SSt (389 Chiswick
High Road. London W4 4AL, UK;
Phone: +44 20 8996 7248: Email:
Flame CI-4/o1-31 flame Product.certification@bsigroup.
E1-3IF1-3JW com) and has been working in the
I producl certification field I()( 0\Ief
Welding EN ISO 11611
~~~~~Z Welding and allied processes
25 years. He started QUI at SSI as a
laboratory test engineer and later
Electrical EN 50286:2001 Class 00 I ' ""''', ..... clothing for low-voltage
became a manager testing me­
chanical products priof to certificatiOn. In 2010, he re­
turned to SSI to handle the certlficaUon of personal safety
Healthand Safety Requirementsin­ be severalrelatingto a single prod­ equipment.
cluded in Annex II of the regulation. uct, which may includethe EMC Di­
This may be through a harmonized rective, Low-Voltage Directive, and Graham Clements joined BSI In
European Standard, published in Medical DevicesDirective. 2014 as certification manager fOf
the OfficialJournal of the European aSI Kitemark. BSl's status as a PPE (PflOOe:+44 20 8996 724B:
Union (giving presumption of con­ notified body for many European Email: product.certiflcation@bslg·
.~,...:~ ...... :~ roup_com. He has o.'e( 25 years'
formity),or through other European, directives and regulations enables experience in PPE and assurance
national,international,publicly avail­ it to offer third-party testing and and has wol1ald with industry and
able standards or an appropriate factory production control assess­ g<)'Iernment bOOteswithin the field
of chemical protection. He is pas­
technicalspecification. ments, where products require sionate about ensuring products
A CE Mark placed on a product it, and can offer support for PPE have been tested to the highest level, that a product will
covers all the directivesand regula­ manufacturers wishing to CE Mark pertorm as expected and protect people. propelty and lhe
tions that apply to it, and there can their products. environment and thaI it win do what it is designed to do.


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Advertisers Index
Advertiser Page number Advertiser Page number Advertiser Page number
Phone number Reader Service 1/ Phone number Reader Service It Phone number Reader SetVice /I

A-T Controls Inc 15 GEMU Valves, Inc 36d Rembe GmbH 57

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Classified Index March 2018
adllnks.chemengonlina.comI70304·05 Advertiser Page number
Phone number Reader SeNice /I
Consu~ng 60
Equipment, New & Used 61
Check-All Valve Mfg. Co 34 Engineering SOftware 60
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Endress+Hauser .4 Ross, Charles & Son Co......... 61

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Economic Indicators
2015- 2016- 2017_ 2018-

Download the CEPCItwo weeks sooner at www.chemengonline.com/pci

(1957·59 = 100) Annual Index:
2009 = 521.9 600
Cflndex 572.8 573.2 550.9
EQuij1ment 691.8 692.5 661.0 2010 = 550.8
Heale.oCllI!l1getS&. lanb 604.7 604.4 573.7
2011 = 585.7 575
PI'ocess M3Chinery 694.7 693.2 667.9
~. valves &. fillings 893.5 900.1 833.9 2012 =584.6
Process inSIntmenlS 410.9 411.6 396.9 2013 =567.3 550
Pumps &. COOlIl(essor'S 996.4 995.9 973.5
EIecttIc3I equl!lmeOl 524.1 523.5 512.1 2014 =576.1
StrucluraJ sqIIlOIlS&. mise. 732.7 731.7 713.9 2015 = 556.8 525
ConslruCtiocllabOf 329.9 329.5 324.4
Buildings 5612 567.5 S.7.0 2016 = 541.7
Engi1eeMg & supeMsion m.3 308.6 313.6 600
J F M A M J J A S 0 N 0
Starting with the Aj)riI2007 RnaIIMl\bers. _raI of the dal8$ene$ lor labor and compressors have been c:onvefIedto
accommodate series IDStll3t WI!f8 ~tinueII by the us, Buteau O1l3llOt Sta!l$tlc$


CI'IqJenttingI3te.'" _
_ Jan.' 18

·... n.o
Jan. '17
Jan.'17 ~
·· 100.7
~prices.lndusIIIaIChemIcaJS(I982~ 1001 _ Jan.'18 267.2 0ec:,'17 269,8 Nat,'17 262.2 Jan,'17 241.5
IndIlstri31Prockoc1ionin MaolufaCllJring (201 2.. 100)' _ ,Jan,'18 .. 104,8 0ec:.'17 & 104.7 Nat.'17 .. 104,8 Jan. '17 .. 103,0
Hout1yeatningslndex.ctlen*al& aliledl)roducts(I992.1OO)
PtOOudMtyindex,chemicals&alliedl)roduclSl1992. 100)
Jan. '18

0ec:.'17 ·

Nat.'17 ·

Jan.'17 ·





1700 II,
.1 .I III 1.1 .,11,1 III II 0 J F M A M J J A SON 0

'Due 10dlsoontinuarn:e,1I1e lIldex of IndusIIIaIActMtyllas been replaced by the Industrial Prockiction InManulllCtLlingIndex lrom the U.s, FOOetaI Reserve SoaId.
IFor the Cl$l1intmonth's CPIoutput Index values. the base ye.;r was changed lrom 2000 to 2D12
Culrenl business indicalOtSprO'iidedby Global InSight, tnc.. texing1Dn.Mass.

The preliminaryvalue for the Decem­
I oer CE Plant Cost Index (CEPeI;
top; most recent available) decreased
compared to the previous month's value
for the second consecutive month. De­
creases in the Equipment and Buildings

subindices tor December 2017 offset
smallincreasesin the Construction Labor
and Engineering & SuPeNision subindi­
ces. Within the Equipment subindex, a
number of equipment classes saw de­
creases, with the largest being in Pipes.
Valves and Fittings. The overall monthly
CEPeI value for December 2017 stands
at 4.0% higher than the corresponding
value from December 2016. Meanwhile,
the latest Current Business Indicators
(CBI; middle) for January 2018 showed
slight gain in the CPI Output Index.
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