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Mathematics
MATHEMATICS 1-i

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Selected References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m

Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Real Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Imaginary Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2

Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3

Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Fundamental Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Exponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Binomial Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Rules for Determining Terms in a Binomial Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
Determinants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Linear Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12
Vector Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-21
Higher Order Algebraic Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-26

Logarithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-28

Trigonometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-33
Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-33
Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-34
Polar Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-37
Fundamental Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-38
Laws for Triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-39
Hyperbolic Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-41

Analytic Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-42


Straight Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-42
Conic Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-46

Differential Calculus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-49


Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-49
Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-49
The Derivative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-52
Basic Rules of Differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-53
Table of Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-53
Implicit Differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-59
1-ii FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

Higher Order Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-59


Partial Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-60
Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-63

Integral Calculus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-70


Indefinite Integral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-70
Definite Integral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-71
Table of Integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-72
Integration by Parts .......................................... . 1-74
Double Integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-75
Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-75

Differential Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-82


Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-82
Equations with Variables Separable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-82
First-Order Linear Differential Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-84
Second-Order Linear Differential Equations Homogeneous
with Constant Coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-85
Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-87

Laplace Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-88


Definition of the Laplace Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-88
Table of Transforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-90
Application to the Solution of Differential Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-92

Probability and Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......... . . . . . . . 1-94


Probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......... . . . . . . . 1-94
Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......... . . . . . . . 1-97
Normal Distribution Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......... . . . . . . 1-103
MATHEMATICS 1-iii

SELECTED REFERENCES

R.S. Burington, "Handbook of Mathematical Tables and Formulas," Handbook Publishers, 1953.

A.E. Taylor, "Advanced Calculus," Ginn and Co., 1955.

R.V. Churchill, "Modem Operational Mathematics in Engineering," McGraw-Hill, 1944.

J.E. Powell and C.P. Wells, "Differential Equations," Ginn and Co., 1950.

C.T. Holmes, "Calculus and Analytic Geometry."

T. Baumeister and L.S. Marks, "Standard Handbook for Mathematical Engineers," lOth edition,
McGraw-Hill, 1997.
MATHEMATICS 1-1

NUMBERS

Real Numbers

A study of numbers begins with the integers, which are also referred to as whole numbers or
natural numbers. A rational number is a number that can be written in the form p/q where p and q
are integers and q -:!:. 0. Integers are rational numbers because they can be expressed as a ratio of
integers.

EXAMPLE:

3/4 is a fraction and a rational number.

/31 2 is a fraction and is not a rational number.


An irrational number is a number that cannot be expressed in the form p/q where p and q are
integers.

EXAMPLE:

/3 or 1.732 ... is irrational, whereas 0.1111 ... is a rational number because it is equivalent
to 119.

In very general terms, nonrepeating and nonterrninating numbers are irrational.

The real number system is composed of the integers, the rational fractions and the irrational
numbers. It can be represented geometrically by the points on a straight line. There is a one-to-
one correspondence between the real numbers and the points on the line (Fig. 1.1).

13!2 n Figure 1.1

I I I-1 I 0I I I II
-3 -2 1 2 3

The real number line

A prime number is an integer that has no factors except itself and 1.

EXAMPLE:

1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13 ...
1-2 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

The symbol n!, read "n factorial," is an abbreviation for the product of all integers from 1 ton
inclusive. This is also represented by the symbol n!.

n! = (n)(n-1)(n-2) ... (2)(1)

EXAMPLE:

5! = 5 X 4 X 3 X 2 X 1 = 120

3! 3 X 2 X 1 1
--
4! 4 X 3 X 2 X 1 4 Note that 0! = 1.

Imaginary Numbers

The square root of a negative number has no real number roots. This mathematical condition
introduces imaginary numbers. The determination of the square root of a negative number is
handled in the following manner. If P is a positive number, then

p = J-1 X p = R X JP = i JP
where i = R. Sometimes j is used in place of i.

Numbers such as i, 3i, -i {i are called pure imaginary numbers. Numbers such as a+ bi, where a
and b are real numbers, are called complex numbers.

EXAMPLE:

J-16=Hx/f6=4i

(Note that the principal square root of a non-negative number is a non-negative number.
For example, {16 is generally written as 4, not -4 or± 4.)

EXAMPLE:

Find the value of (i) 23 .

Notethati'=i ?=-1 e=-i i4 =+1


' ' '
also i4n+l = i 14n+2 = -1 i4n+3 = -i i4n+4 = + 1
' ' '
·23 .(4x5+ 3)
1 =1 = -1.
MATHEMATICS 1-3

EXAMPLE:

(3 + 2i) + (6 + 4i) =9 + 6i
EXAMPLE:

3 + 2i
Rationalize - - -
3 - i

It is generally useful to use the conjugate of the denominator when finding the quotient of two
complex numbers. The conjugate of a complex number a+ ib (where a and bare real numbers) is
a - ib. Note that the product of a complex number and its conjugate is a real number. Thus if A =
a+ib, its conjugate is A= a- ib and Ax A= a 2 + b 2 •

Thus, 3 + 2i 3 + 2i (3 + i)
=
3 - i 3 - i (3 + i)

9 + 6i + 3i + 2(i) 2
=
9 + 1

7 + 9i 7 9i
= = - + -
10 10 10
SETS

A collection of objects or entities is commonly called a set. The objects comprising the set are
called elements or members of the set. If an element X belongs to a setS, this is indicated by
XES.

If X does not belong to S, this is indicated by XflS.

A set can be defined by listing the elements that belong to the set. For example

{ 1' 2, 8}

is the set composed of the numbers 1, 2, and 8. The set of all the natural numbers may be
denoted by

{1,2,3,4, ... }

The null set is the set that has no elements and is generally denoted by the symbol0.
1-4 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

A set may be defined by using a variable to express a common property of all of the elements of
the set. For example

{X: X 3 > 27}

is the set of all numbers X such that X 3 > 27.

If all the elements of a set A are elements of another set B, A is a subset of B. This is denoted by
AcB.

The symbol c is called the inclusion symbol and this relationship is shown in Fig. 1.2.

Figure 1.2

The union of two sets consists of all of the elements of either set. This is usually represented by
the symbol u so that

C u D ={X: XEC or XED}

The intersection of two sets consists of all of the elements that belong to both sets. This is usually
represented by the symbol n so that

C n D = {X : XEC and XED}

This relationship is represented by the shaded region in Fig. 1.3.

Figure 1.3

CnD
MATHEMATICS 1-5

EXAMPLE:

If A= {3,5,7,10} and B ={X: X2 > 26}

then An B = {7,10}

EXAMPLE:

If A= {2,4,6} and B = {3,5,7} then An B = 0.

EXAMPLE:

If A= { 1,2,3), B = {2,4,6,8,10} and C = {1,5,9}

then C u (An B)= { 1,2,5,9}.

ALGEBRA

Fundamental Laws

The fundamental operations of addition and multiplication conform to the following laws:

Addition Multiplication

Commutative a+b=b+a ab=ba

Associative (a+b)+c = a+(b+c) (ab)c = a(bc)

Distributive a(b+c) = ab + ac

The symbols a, b and c represent any real numbers.

Exponents

The following laws of exponents apply where m and n are integers or fractions:

n,;a = al/n
am - m-n
--a
an
1-6 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

[:r =
am
bm

a-m = 1
am
where a * 0

a0 1 where a *0

When the exponents are fractions, expressions involving radicals are sometimes employed. The
meaning of the radical is illustrated by the following expression

n.;a =al/n
where n is the index and a is the radicand. As noted previously, when a is negative and n is even
n.;a represents an imaginary number. Thus, the following can be used, except when a is negative
and n is even

~ = a also v;;m = a min

Useful simplifications can be made using the following expressions


n r::l:
yab = /3. • ybfl.:
n n

EXAMPLES:

Remember, in multiplying we add exponents. Therefore,


MATHEMATICS 1-7

2) Perform the following division

a 6 = A 6-9 = A -3 = 1
a9 A3

3) What is the value of (.008f3 ?

a2/3 bl/3
= a2/3 a3/2 b1/3 b1/2
4) Simplify a -3/2 b -1/2

= aC4+9)/6 b(2+3)/6 = a 13/6 bS/6

5) Simplify = ~3ax 3 + 5 = ~3ax 3 + 5

~
X

3 3 3 3 3
R = V-t(2) = R 'fi = -1 'fi
6) Simplify
3
= -'{i

Binomial Formula

The binomial formula is

(a+b)" =a"+ na"-1b + n(n-1) a"-2b2 + n(n-1)(n-2) a"-3b3 + ... + nabn-1 + b"
2! 3!

where n is a positive integer. A special case of this formula is obtained by letting a= 1:

( 1 + b)" = 1 + nb + n( n- 1) b 2 + . . . + nb n-1 + b n
2!

When n is not a positive integer, an infinite series called the binomial series results.
1-8 FUND AMENT A L S 0 F EN GIN E ERIN G EXAM REVIEW W 0 RKB0 0 K

RULES FOR DETERMINING TERMS IN A BINOMIAL EXPANSION

1. The number of terms in the expansion is one more than the exponent.

2. The first term is An. Subsequent exponents of A decrease by 1 for each term.

3. The exponent of X in the second term is 1. Subsequent exponents of X increase by 1 for


each term.

4. The sum of the exponents in any term equals the exponent of the binomial.

5. The coefficient of the terms equidistant from the first and last terms are equal.

6. The coefficient of the second term is the same as the exponent of the binomial.

7. The coefficient of successive terms is computed from the previous term by multiplying the
coefficient by the exponent of A and dividing by one more than the exponent of X.

Example:

Consider (A + X) 7 • From the rules, the first two terms are:


A 7 + 7 A 6X

where the coefficient of the second term is 7, the exponent of A is 6, and the exponent of X is 1.
The coefficient of the third term is computed by Rule 7 as:

C = 7 X 6 = 21
3 [1] + 1

RULES FOR DETERMINING TERMS IN A BINOMIAL EXPANSION


(A + X)"

Shortcut

Pythagoras' Triangle

Start with a triangle of 1s. Always start the next level by placing 1s on either side to form the
shape of the triangle (Fig. 1.4).

1 Figure 1.4
11
1x1
M ATHEMATIC S 1-9

Compute the interior term(s) by adding the two adjacent terms above (Fig. 1.5).

1 Figure 1.5
11
\I
+
.ij.
121

Thus, coefficients for any binomial can be computed directly (Fig. 1.6).

PYTHAGORAS' TRIANGLE Figure 1.6

1
11
121
1331
14641
151010 51

Determinants

A determinant of order n is a square array (or matrix) of n2 elements. The evaluation or


expansion of the determinant requires the summation of n! terms. Although all determinants can
be evaluated by the same basic procedure, the second-order determinant will be discussed first
because of its simplicity.

Consider the following second-order determinant:

The element positions in the matrix and determinant are denoted by the subscripts i and j and
describe an element~- The i indicates the row or vertical position, the top most row being 1, and
the j describes the horizontal position, the leftmost column being 1. Therefore element az 1 is in
the second row, first column.

The principal diagonal of the determinant below is a 11 and b 22 • Elements a21 and b 12 are the
secondary diagonal. The value of the determinant is the product of the principal diagonal minus
the product of the secondary diagonal (Fig. 1.7).
1-10 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

= an x b22 - a21 x b12 Figure 1.7

EXAMPLE:

5 -4
=5 X 2 -( -4) X 3 = 22
3 2

The expansion of higher order determinants can be accomplished by considering the minor of each
element in a column or a row.

In any determinant, if the row and column containing a given element, say e (see example) are
blotted out, the determinant formed from the remaining elements is called the minor of e.

3 -2 5

Figure 1.8

3 5
In Fig. 1.8 the minor of 4 is
7 6

The procedure for expanding a determinant by minors is as follows:

1. Multiply each element of a column (or each element of a row) by its minor and give the
product a plus or minus sign according as the sum of the position numbers in the row and
column containing the element is even (+) or odd (- ). See the example that follows.

2. Take the sum of the signed products.


1-12 FUNDAMENTA LS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

EXAMPLE:

b2 c2 d2 bl ci dl

~ b2 c2 d2
+a I b3 c3 d3 -~ b3 c3 d3

~ b3 c3 d3
b4 c4 d4 b4 c4 d4
a4 b4 c4 d4

bl ci dl bl ci dl

+~ b2 c2 ~ -a4 b2 c2 d2

b4 c4 d4 b3 c3 d3

Linear Algebra

Simultaneous linear equations with two unknowns are most easily solved by eliminating one of the
variables by subtraction (after obtaining similar terms of opposite sign). Consider the following
equations:

(1)

(2)

Multiply eq. 1 by-~ and eq. 2 by a 1 and then add the two new equations

-~a 1 x- ~b 1 y = -~c 1
a1 ~ x + a 1b2y = a 1c2

(3)

Equation 3 is a linear equation in one unknown, y. This equation can be solved for y and then x
can be found from either one of the original equations by substitution of the value of y.
MATHEMATICS 1-11

EXAMPLE:
all b12 c13
b22 c23 b12 c13 b12 cl3
~1 b22 c23 = ( 11+1)a11 (-12+1)~1 + ( 13+1)~1
b32 c33 b32 c33 b22 c23
~1 b32 c33

EXAMPLE:

Alternatively, D can also be expanded by considering the elements (and associated minors) of any
row (row 1 in this illustration).

4 1 6 1 6 4
D = 3 =-( -1) +2
-3 -4 2 -4 2 -3

D = 3 (-16+3) +1 (-24 -2) +2 (-18 -8)

D = -39 -26 -52 = -117

Higher order determinants may be expanded by repeated application of this process.


MATHEMATICS 1-13

EXAMPLE:

3x + y = 2

X- 2y =5
Multiply the first equation by 2 and add the equations to eliminate y

6x + 2y = 4
X- 2y = 5
7x = 9 or x = 917
Now substitute this value of x in either equation and solve for y
using the second equation

917- 2y = 5
9- 14y = (5 X 7)
-14y = 26
y = -26114 = -13/7

Therefore, x = 917 and y = -13/7

Consider Eqs. (1) and (2) again:

A general formula for the value of y could have been obtained if Eq. 3 was solved for y.

Writing Eq. 3

Solving for y:

a 1c 2 - ~c 1
y =
a 1b2 - ~b 1

Similarly it can be shown that


1-14 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

Solutions for x and y can be obtained by substituting directly into these formulas.

EXAMPLE:

3x +y = 2
X- 2y = 5

(2) (-2)- (5) ( 1) -4-5 9


X = = =
( 3) ( -2) - ( 1) ( 1) -6-1 7

( 3) ( 5) - ( 1) ( 2) 15-2 -13
y = = =
( 3) ( -2) - ( 1) ( 1) -6-1 7

Examination of the general formulas for x and y indicates another approach to the solution of
simultaneous linear equations-solution by determinants, "Cramer's Rule."

Notice that the denominators of the x andy formulas are the same and can be obtained by
expanding the determinant of the x and y coefficients:

The numerator for the value of x can be obtained expanding

which is the determinant of coefficients with the constants substituted for the x coefficients.
Similarly, the determinant of the coefficients with the constants substituted for the y coefficients
will give the numerator ofy.

Thus cl bl a! ci

c2 b2 ~ c2
X = Andy =
al bl al bl

~ b2 ~ b2
MATHEMATICS 1-15

This procedure is applicable to any system of n linear equations in n unknowns and will give a
unique solution if, and only if, the determinant of the coefficient matrix is not zero. This
procedure is particularly useful for the solution of three (or more) unknowns. For three linear
equations in the following form

The determinant of the coefficients, !1, is

If !1 i= 0, the value of any unknown can be found from the following fraction

1. The denominator is !1.

2. The numerator is the determinant obtained if in !1 the column of coefficients of the


unknown is replaced by the column of constant terms.

Therefore:

k, b, c, a, k, c, a, b, k,

Is b2 cz ~ Is cz ~ b2 Is
k3 b3 c3 ~ ~ c3 ~ b3 k3
X = y = z =
!1 !1 !1

This system of equations is sometimes written in the following matrix form

a 1 b1 c 1 X

~ bz cz y = Is
a3 b3 c3 z
1-16 FUNDAMENTA LS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

EXAMPLE:

Solve for A, B, and C where

2A + 3B - C = -10
-A+ 4B + 2C = -4
2A - 2B + 5C = 35

2 3 -1
/). = -1 4 2
2 -2 5

4 2 3 -1 3 -1
/). = 2 -( -1) +2
-2 5 -2 5 4 2

/). = 2 (20 + 4) + (15- 2) + 2 (6 + 4)


/). = 48 + 13 + 20 = 81
A is given by

-10 3 -1
-4 4 2
35 -2 5
A=
81

A = -10 ( 24) + 4 ( 13) + 35 ( 10)


81

A = 162 = 2
81

2 -10 -1
-1 -4 2
2 35 5
B =
81
MATHEMATIC S 1-17

B = 2 ( -90) + 1 ( -15) + 2 ( -24)


81
B = -243 = _3
81

C can be obtained by substituting the values found for A and B into one of the equations:

2(2)+3(-3)-C= -10

C= 5

Thus

A= 2, B = -3, C = 5

There are certain types of problems in linear algebra that require setting up equations to represent
the physical conditions of the problem. The solution to the problem is then obtained by solving
the equation(s).

EXAMPLE:

Determine how much alcohol with a purity of 99% must be added to 50 gallons of 90%
alcohol to obtain a 95% alcohol solution.

The initial amount of pure alcohol= 0.90 x 50= 45 gal.

Let x = gal. of 99% alcohol that must be added

Then 0. 99x + 45 = O. 95
50 +X

0. 99 X + 45 = ( 0. 95) ( 50) + 0. 95 X

0. 04x = 47.5 - 45

X = 22._ = 62.5 al.


0.04 g
EXAMPLE:

Dan is 20 years older than Andy. Twenty years ago he was twice as old as Andy. How
old are both men?

Let D = Dan's age


1-18 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

A = Andy's age

Then D =A+ 20

and D - 20 = 2 (A-20)

A + 20 - 20 = 2 A - 40

A = 40 years old

D = A + 20 = 60 years old

EXAMPLE:

Alan digs 5 holes to every 3 holes dug by Bob. Together Alan and Bob can dig 24 holes a
day. How many holes can Bob dig by himself in one day?

Let A = number of holes per day for Alan


B = number of holes per day for Bob
3 5
Then B = - A or A = - B
5 3
and A +B = 24

2B + B = 24
3

8B = 72

B = 9
Thus, Bob can dig 9 holes per day by himself.

EXAMPLE:

Four men can build 5 cabinets in 3 days. How many men are required to build 15 cabinets
in 4 days?

4 men x 3 days 12
man days/cabinet = =
5 cabinets 5

Let x = number of men required to build 15 cabinets in 4 days.


MATHEMATICS 1-19

Then 12 4x
5 15

x = ( 152) ( 1:) = 9rnen

EXAMPLE:

A's swimming pool may be filled with water using his hose, neighbor B's hose, neighbor
C's hose, or any combination. Using A's hose and B's hose takes 30 hours. Using A's
hose and C's hose takes 24 hours. Using B's hose and C's hose takes 20 hours. How long
would it take using A's hose alone?

Let A = hours to fill pool with A's hose


B =hours to fill pool with B's hose
C = hours to fill pool with C's hose

Then the fraction of the pool volume filled hourly under the various combinations is given by
1 1 1
+- - -
A B 30

1 1 1
+- - -
A c 24
1 1 1
+-
B c 20

Now we have three equations in three unknowns. In matrix form this is

1 1
1 1 0
A 30
1 1
1 0 1 =
B 24
1 1
0 1 1 -
c 20

~ = 1 (-1) -1 (1) + 0 = -2
1-20 FUND AM ENTAL S 0 F EN G IN E ERIN G EXAM REV IE W W 0 RKB0 0 K

1
- 1 0
30
1
0 1
24
1
- 1 1
1 20
A -2

-2 = _1 ( -1) __1 (1) + _1 (1)


A 30 24 20

1 1 1 1
- +-
A 60 48 40

1 -1920 - 2400 + 2880


A 115,200

115,200
A= = 80
1440

Thus, it will take 80 hours to fill the pool with A's hose alone.
MATHEMATICS 1-21

Vector Analysis

Definitions

A scaler is a quantity defined by magnitude (mass, length, time, temperature). If to each


point (x,y ,z) of region R in space, there is a scaler r = OA, then OA is called a scaler point
function, and the region R is denoted as a scaler field (Fig. 1.9).
z

A
Y iTz
Figure 1.9
"------------;!
/

Scaler Representation of OA

A vector is a quantity defined by magnitude and direction (force, moment, displacement,


velocity, acceleration). If to each point (x,y ,z) of a region R in space there is a vector r =
OA, then OA is called a vector point function, and region R is denoted as vector field (Fig.
1.10).

A
Y r i I Figure 1.10

-~:)
ry// y

~--X--~
rx //~---~---_.X
Vector Representation of OA
1-22 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

Components and Magnitudes

The vector r may be resolved into any number of components.


In the Cartesian coordinate system, r is resolved into three
mutually perpendicular components, each parallel to the
respective coordinate axis.

r=r X +ry +r Z =ri+ri+rk


X 'f' Z

The magnitude of r is given by the magnitudes of its


components:

The unit vector is the ratio of the vector to its magnitude.


i, j, k are the unit vectors in the x, y, z axis directions
respectively. e is the unit vector in the r direction.

rX r rz r
= - J = __]_ ' k = - e =
rx ' ry rz ' r

The direction cosines of a vector r are:

rx ry rz
a. = p= -, y =
r r r

and relate e to i, j, k.

e = a.i + pj + yk

Vector Addition and Subtraction

A sum of vectors a and b is a vector c formed by placing the initial point of b on the terminal
point of a and joining the initial point of a to the terminal point of b.

A difference of vectors a and b is a vector d formed by placing the initial point of b on the initial
point of a and joining the terminal point of b with the terminal point of a.

A difference of vectors b and a is a vector e formed by placing initial point of b on the initial point
of a and joining the terminal point of a with terminal point of b.

Consider the vectors a and b in Fig. 1.11.


MATHEMATIC S 1-23

a
Figure 1.11

~ ~ a a
~ a
a + b = c a - b = d b - a = e
Scaler-Vector Laws (a,b are vectors; m,n are scalars)

rna = am Cumulative law


a(m + n) = rna + na Distributive law
m(a +b)= rna+ mb Distributive law
m(na) = mn(a) Associative law

Vector Summation Laws

Consider the vectors a, b, c and fin Fig. 1.12.

Cumulative Law
y
1
a~ a
l~ a
a + b + c = f b + c + a = f c + a + b = f

Figure 1.12
Associative Law

(a + b) + c = f a + (b + c) = f

Scaler Product

The scaler product, or a dot product, of two vectors a and b is defined as the product of their
magnitudes and the cosine of the angle between them. The result is a scaler.
1-24 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

Multiplication is non-commutative and distributive.

a· b = -b ·a

a · (b + c) =a · b +a · c

Two vectors a* 0, b * 0 are normal (a= 90°) if a· b = 0.


Thus,
i·j=j·k=k·i=O

Two vectors a * 0, b * 0 are parallel (a= 0°) if


a· b = ab

Thus
i·i=j·j=k·k=l

Vector Product

The vector product (or Cross product) of two vectors a and b is defined as the product of their
magnitudes, the sine of the angle between them, and the unit vector n normal to their plane. The
result is a vector.

a·b = ab sin a n

Multiplication is non cumulative but it is distributive.

Two vectors a* 0, b * 0 are normal (a= 90°) if ax b = abn


Thus
i xj =k
j X k=i
k Xi =j

Two vectors a* 0, b * 0 are parallel (a= 0°) if


axb=O

Thus
ixi=jxj=kxk=O
M AT HEM AT I C S 1-25

The product of two vectors in determinant form is

J k 1 a X bx
ay by ax bx ax bx
ax b = ax ay az = J a y by = 1 J + k
az b z a z bz a y by
bX by b z k az bz

Example: Multiply the vectors:

a= 4i + 3j- k
b =2i- 6j + 2k

Establish and complete the determinant:

J k 1 4 2
axb= 3 -6 4 2 4 2
4 3 -1 = J 3 -6 = 1 J + k
-1 2 -1 2 3 -6
2 -6 2 k -1 2

=i(6- 6)- j(8- (-2)) + k(-24- 6)


= -10j- 30k

Example:

The system shown in Fig. 1.13 is to be in equilibrium. What must be the balancing moment?

a = 2i + 3j + 6z
Figure 1.13

~--------------------------1~
X
1-26 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

The given moment is:

2d(2i + 3j + 6z) =(4di + 6dj + 12dz)

The required moment must be a force acting through a


distance d and to balance, the restoring moment must be
the given moment divided by the distance through it
acts.

The restoring moment is:

(4di + 6dj + 12dz)


(4i + 6j + 12z)
d

Higher Order Algebraic Equations

The solution of higher order algebraic equations usually involves some procedure for fmding the
roots of the equation. Roots of an equation in the form f(x) =0 are values of x that satisfy the
equation. The quadratic formula may be used to find the roots of a second degree equation. The
roots of the quadratic equation

ax 2 + bx + c =0
are
x = -b ± Vb 2 - 4ac
2a

There are formulas for the roots of cubic and quadratic equations, but these involve lengthy
procedures. Roots may be found by factoring. If x =r is a root of the equation f(x) =0, then (x -
r) is a factor of f(x) and dividing f(x) by (x- r) will reduce the equation to one degree less than
that of the original equation.

EXAMPLE:

If x = 2 is a root of the equation x3 -7x + 6 = 0, what are the other roots?

If x = 2 is a root then (x-2) is a factor of x 3 -7x + 6. The reduced equation can be found
by division.
MATHEMATICS 1-27

x2 + 2x - 3
x-2 lx 3 + Ox 2 - 7x + 6
x3 - 2x 2
+ 2x 2 - 7x
+ 2x 2 - 4x
- 3x + 6
- 3x + 6
0

Now use the quadratic formula to find the roots of the reduced equation:

x2 + 2x - 3 = 0

X =
-2 ± J (2)2 - 4 (1) (-3)
2

X
-2 ± J4 + 12
2

-2 ± 4
X =
2

X = + 1 and x = -3 are roots

Information about the approximate value of a root can be found from the fact that if y = f(x) is
plotted on a Cartesian coordinate system, the real roots are values of x where the graph crosses
the x-axis (the exact criterion is that y =0; there are certain cases where the graph does not
actually cross the x-axis). This indicates that if a function is continuous between two different
values of x and f(x) has opposite signs at these two points, then there is at least one root between
these two values of x. The approximate value of the root can be found by repeated applications
of this principle.

EXAMPLE:

Given the equation 2x4 + 5x2 - 4x - 1 = 0


One root of the equation lies within the range of:

a)Oto1 b)1to2 c)2to3 d)-1to-2;or


e) none of these
1-28 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

Find f(x) at the limits of the ranges indicated

X DX
-2 +59
-1 +10
0 -1
1 +2
2 +43
3 +194

Based on sign changes, there is at least one root in the range 0 to 1 (there also is at least
one root between 0 and -1). Check with a rough plot (Fig. 1.14).

+Y

'\ I'
\ I
\ I
\ I
• I
\ I
\ I
\ I
I
\
I
I
Figure 1.14
\ I
\
\
I
I Thus, answer is a)
\ I
\ I
\ +
+X

roots

LOGARITHMS

The logarithm of a number to the base b (b>O and b -4: 1) is the exponent that must be employed to
express the number as a power of b. This definition means that

is equivalent to ba = n

The following can be derived from these two equivalent expressions


MATHEMATICS 1-29

Additional properties of the logarithm are:

When the logarithm to one base is known, the logarithm to any other base may be determined in
the following manner. By definition

Taking the logarithm of each side of the equation to the base a gives

Solving for logbn

Also if we set n = a, the following useful expression is obtained.

A base commonly employed is the base 10 (the Briggsian System). Logarithms in this system are
referred to as common Logarithms and log 1ofi is generally written as log n.
1-30 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

Another base used extensively because it greatly simplifies mathematical expressions in the
calculus is the base e. Mathematically e is given by

e = lim (1 + _!_)m = 2.7182818 ...


m--.oo m

The number e is an irrational number which, therefore, does not repeat or terminate,

e = 2.718281828459 ...

Logarithms employing e as the base are referred to as natural logs and logen is generally written as
ln n.

Conversion between common logs and natural logs can be made by the following

log n = 0.4343 ln n

ln n = 2.3026 log n

Logarithms can be found directly by using scientific calculators. However, when tables are to be
used to find the logarithm, two other terms must be defined: the mantissa and the characteristic.
The logarithm is composed of a decimal part called the mantissa which is always positive, and a
whole number called the characteristic which may be positive, negative, or zero. Mantissas are
found in tables of logarithms.

EXAMPLE (Fig. 1.15):

>
Log 19.75 = 1.2956
...... .__.....
CHARACTERISTI{ MANTISSA Figure 1.15
..... ~

log 1.975 = 0.2956

Notice that the characteristic changes as the decimal point moves whereas the mantissa is
affected only by the sequence of numbers.

Log 0.1975 = -1 + 0.2956 which may be written as -0.7044, however this form can lead to
confusion since the mantissa does not appear explicitly, In order to avoid confusion the
following manipulation is sometimes employed: add 10 to the characteristic and subtract
10 as follows:

-1 + 0.2956
+10 -10
9 + 0.2956 -10 or 9.2956-10=log 0.1975
MATHEMATICS 1-31

Rules for Characteristics of Common Logs:

Number Characteristic

1 or greater The characteristic is positive and is one less than the number of digits to left
of the decimal point.

less than 1 The characteristic is negative and one greater than the number of zeros
between the decimal point and the first nonzero digit.

Mantissas not found directly in the tables can be determined by linear interpolation.

EXAMPLES:

1) Find 34 by logs.

let x = 34

log x =log 34

log x = 4log 3

log X= 4 X 0.477

log x = 1.908

X= 81

2) Which one of the following is correct according to this statement 7 = 10°· 845 ?

a) log 10 = 0.845

b) log 7 = 0.845

c) log 0.845 = 7

By inspection we can see that the correct answer is b).

3) What is log (0.001) 3?

log(0.001) 3 = 3 log 0.001 = 3 ( -3) = -9

alternate solution: log(0.001) 3 =log (10- 3) 3 =log w- 9 = -9


1-32 FUNDAMENTA LS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

4) Log 0.00069 is:

a) 6.062 + 10
b) 5.839- 10
c) 4.839- 10
d) 6.839- 10

The correct answer is d).

5) Find x if x415 = 0.0001. Take the log of both sides

-4
- log x "' log(O.OOOl)
5

-4 -4
-log x =
5

log x = +5

X = 100,000

b = n 1/x

b2 = n 2/x

X
log z(n) = -
b 2

7) Find In l!.je

In-1- = In e -1!2 = -V2 In e = -Y2


.;e
MATHEMATICS 1-33

8) Find log756

logan
Since logbn = --
logab

log 56
Then log756 = = 2.069
log 7

TRIGONOMETRY

Angles

Trigonometry deals with angles. Angles can be expressed in degrees or radians. There are 360°
in a complete circle. A radian is the angle that is subtended by an arc on a circle which is equal to
the radius of the circle. Since the circumference of a circle is 21tr, 360° = 21t radians. One radian
is approximately 57.3 o.

Note that the distance along an arc, S, is equal to the radius r, times the included angle measured
in radians (Fig. 1.16).
S=re

s Figure 1.16

Conversions:
1t
radians = degrees x - -
180

180
degrees = radians x - -
1t

From these conversions, the following values can be found:

30° = 1t/6 radians


60° = 1t/3 radians
45° = 1t/4 radians
90° = 1t/2 radians
180° =1t radians
360° = 21t radians
1-34 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

EXAMPLE:

Convert 10 rpm to radians/sec

Since 1 revolution = 360°, 10 rpm is an angular velocity of 3600° /min


1t 1 1t
Then 10 rpm= 3600 x - x - = - rad/sec
180 60 3

Trigonometric Functions

Consider a rectangular coordinate system and let a radius vector of length r rotate through an
angle 8 in a counterclockwise direction from the positive x-axis (Fig. 1.17). (Note that if 8 is
negative the rotation is in the clockwise direction.)

+Y (QUADRANT)

II I

-X +X
Figure 1.17

IV
III
-Y

If the coordinates of the end point of the vector are (x, y), the trigonometric functions are defmed
as follows. (note: x andy may be positive or negative depending on the location of the end point,
but r is always positive):

sine = y/r
cos e = x/r
tan e =y/x
esc e = 1/sin e = r/y
sec e = 1/cos e = r/x
cot e = 1/tan e = x/y
tan e = sin 8/cos e
MATHEMATICS 1-35

Note that as 8 moves from quadrant to quadrant, the sign of the trig function will change because
of the change in sign of x and y. The signs of the trigonometric functions in each of the quadrants
is given in the following table:

Quadrant- I II III IV
sine + + - -
cos e + - - +
tan e + - + -

EXAMPLE:

Find the sin, cos, and tan of the angle 171t/6 radians.

First we note that 171t/6 is greater than 21t and less than 31t radians.
171t 121t
-- -- = -51t radians
6 6 6

51t 31t 21t


- =- +- = 90° + 60°
6 6 6

In sketching this out we note that 8 = 30° and a= 60° (Fig. 1.18).

Figure 1.18

-13

2
1
Then 171t 1
sm - - - -
6 2
e
-X
171t _{3
cos-- =
6 2

tan 171t 1
= -
6 {3
1-36 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

Inverse functions are defined to determine the original angle from the value of one of the
trigonometric functions. For example, if

sin 8 =X

Then

This is also sometimes written with the prefix "arc." For example

arcsin x =sin-•x

Many problems involve the solution of right triangles. Consider the right triangle in Fig. 1.19.

c
a Figure 1.19

e
) b

By the Pythagorean theorem:

And the trig functions are:

opposite a
sin e= =
hypotenuse c

adjacent b
cos e=
hypotenuse c

opposite a
tan 8 = =
adjacent b

EXAMPLE:

Find sin (arctan Y2)

Let 8 = arctan V2
MATHEMATICS 1-37

Then 6 is defmed by the triangle in Fig. 1.20.

1
Figure 1.20

) 2

By the Pythagorean theorem

X= {5
Then sin 6 = sin (arctan Y2) = - 1-
{5

Polar Coordinates

Sometimes the locations of points are expressed in polar coordinates. Polar coordinates are in the
form (r, 6), where r is a radius vector to the point from the origin and 6 is the angle of rotation of
the radius vector measured from the x-axis (Fig. 1.21).

P (x,y) in rectangular coordinates


P (r,8) in polar coordinates

Figure 1.21

e X
~----~-------------------~

If a point is given as (x, y) the polar coordinates can be determined from

e = tan- 1 y/x =sin- 1 y/r = cos -1 x/r


1-38 FUNDAMENTA LS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

If a point is given as {r, 6) the rectangular coordinates can be determined from

y = r sine X= r COS 6

EXAMPLE:

Find the polar coordinates of the point (4, 3)

e =tan-! (3/4) = 36.9°

Fundamental Identities

Pythogorean formulas:

1 + cot2 A = csc2 A

Double-angle formulas:

sin 2A = 2 sinA cosA

tan 2A =

Half-angle formulas:

cos ~ =± ~ I + ~os A
A 1 - cos A sin A 1 - cos A
tan- =± =
2 1 + cos A 1 + cos A sin A
MATHEMATICS 1-39

Two-angle formulas:

sin (A ± B) =sin A cos B ± cos A sin B

cos (A ± B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B

tan A± tan B
tan (A± B) =
1 +tanAtanB

. A+B A-B
sin A + sin B 2 S i l l - - COS
2 2

A+B . A-B
sin A - sin B =2cos--sm--
2 2

cos A +cos B = 2 cos A+B cos A-B


2 2

2 s. mA+B . A-B
cos A - cos B = --sm--
2 2

Laws for Triangles

Given the triangle ABC with sides a, b, and c, (Fig. 1.22), the following laws apply.
A

A + B + C
c Figure 1.22

C~---~a~----~B

Laws of cosines:
1-40 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

Laws of sines:

a b c
=
sin A sin B sin C

EXAMPLE:

If boat A heads in an easterly direction at 20 knots and boat B heads in a south easterly
direction at 30 knots, how far apart are the boats after 2 hours if it is assumed they started
from the same location?

If the physical conditions of this problem are sketched (Fig. 1.23), it will be obvious that
the solution can be obtained from the law of cosines:

W ~-----1-~~-a~~--- E
45

ix Figure 1.23
b '
''

let a= distance traveled by boat A in 2 hours.


b= distance traveled by boat B in 2 hours.
x= distance of A from B after 2 hours.

a = 2 x 20 =40 nautical miles


b = 2 x 30 =60 nautical miles

x2 = (40) 2 + (60) 2 - 2 (40) (60) cos 45°

x = 42.5 nautical miles

EXAMPLE:

If a parallelogram has sides of lengths 3 and 5 and an included angle of 60°, find the
length of the diagonals.
MATHEMATIC S 1-41

Sketch the parallelogram (Fig. 1.24).

3 let a = short diagonal


b = long diagonal
~·---~·-.~--

} 5
/
Figure 1.24
60°

a2 =9 + 25- 30(0.5) = 19
a= 4.36 (short diagonal)

b 2 = (3) 2 + (5f- 2 (3)(5) cos (180-60)

b 2 = 9 + 25- 2 (3)(5)(-0.5) =49


b = 7.0 (long diagonal)

Hyperbolic Functions

Definitions
ex - e-x
hyperbolic sin x = sinh x =
2

ex + e-x
hyperbolic cos x = cosh x = ----
2

ex - e-x
hyperbolic tan x = tanh x = ----
ex + e-x

1
hyperbolic esc x = csch x =
sinh x

1
hyperbolic sec x = sech x =
cosh x

1
hyperbolic cot x = coth x = - - -
tanh X
1-42 FUNDAM ENTALS OF ENGINEE RING EXAM REVIEW WORKBO OK

Inverse Functions

If sinh 6 = X then 6 = sinh- 1x = arcsinh X

Identities

sinh( -x) = - sinh x


cosh(-x) = cosh x
tanh(-x) =-tanh x

cosh2x - sinh2x = 1
1 - tanh2x = sech2x
coth2x - 1 =csch2x

ANALYTIC GEOMETR Y

Straight Lines

The general equation of a straight line has only first order terms and can be written as

Ax+By+ C=O

The slope-inter cept form of the equation of a straight line is

y=mx+b

where m is the slope and b is they intercept (value of y when x =0) (Figure 1.25).

Figure 1.25

run=x2-x1
X

nse = !:l.y =
slope = m =
run !:l.x
MATHEMATICS 1-43

In terms of the general equation

-A
rn =-and b =
-c
B B

Another form of the equation for a straight line is

where (x 1, y 1) is any point on the line. The two-point form of the equation is

The slope of a line is the tangent of its inclination. If 8 is the inclination, then as shown in Figure
1.26 the slope is positive if y increases as x increases (L 1) and negative if y decreases as x
increases (L2).

m = tan e
y

Figure 1.26

If two lines are parallel, their slopes are equal.

If two lines are perpendicular, their slopes must satisfy the following

-1
or rn1 =
~
1-44 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

If straight lines L 1 and L 2 (L1 being the line of greater inclination) have slopes m 1 and m 2 , the
positive angle, a, from L 2 to L 1 is given by

mi - IIl:z
Tan a = - - - -

The distance, d, between any two points can be found using the Pythagorean Theorem

EXAMPLE:

The point (5,2) is the midpoint of the line connecting (--4, -5) with (x, y). Find x andy (Figure
1.27).

(x,y)
I

:7
I

I
(5,2) I
Figure 1.27
9
:7
(-4,-5) -- _____ I j

The slope from (--4, -5) to (5,2) is found from

2 - ( -5) 7
m= fly =
flx 5 - ( -4) 9

Since (5,2) is the midpoint between (-4,-5) and (x,y) then

x = 5 + flx = 5 + 9 = 14
y = 2 + fly = 2 + 7 =9
and (x,y) is (14,9)
MATHE M AT I C S 1-45

EXAMPLE:

The angle between line 1 whose slope is -lA and line 2 is 135 o. Find the slope of line 2.

mi -~
tan ex: = but tan 135° = -1
1+m1 ~

-•A- ~
-1 =
1 - ~/4

Solving for m2 yields m 2 = 3/5.

EXAMPLE:

Find the equation of the line perpendicular to the line 3x - 2y = 4 and passing through the point
(3, 2).

The equation of the line 3x - 2y = 4 can be written as

3
y = -X - 2
2

The slope of this line is 3/2 thus the slope of the line we are looking for is -2/3. The equation is
then

-2
y - 2 =- (x-3)
3

-2
y =-X+ 4
3

EXAMPLE:

Find the equation of the family of lines perpendicular to the line 5x + 7y + 11 =0.
The slope of the line 5x + 7y + 11 =0 is

m=-
-A -5
B 7
1-46 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

Thus, the slope of the family of curves perpendicular to this line is 7/5 and the equation of the
family is

7x- 5y + c =0

EXAMPLE:

Find the equation of the line with x and y intercepts of X 0 and Yo respectively

Since the y intercept is Yo' we can write

also 0 = mxo + y 0

Rearranging

Note that this is the equation of a straight line in terms of the x andy intercepts. Similarly
it can be shown that the equation of a plane is

where X0 , Yo' and Z 0 are the x, y, and z intercepts, respectively.

Conic Sections

An equation with second-order terms will give a conic section. The general equation of a conic
section is

A x 2 + Bxy + Cy2 + Dx + Ey + F =0
The conic section may be identified from the general coefficients as:

an ellipse if (B 2 - 4AC) < 0


MATHEMATICS 1-47

a parabola if (B 2 - 4AC) =0
a hyperbola if (B 2 - 4AC) > 0

The simplest form of the equation for an ellipse (i.e., with the center at the origin) is
xz yz
- +-:::; 1
az bz
If a2 = b2, the equation reduces to

This is the equation for a circle of radius a (with the center at the origin).

The simple form of the equation for a parabola (vertex at the origin) is

y = a x 2 or x = a y 2

The simple form of the equation for a hyperbola (center at the origin) is

or

When the center (or vertex in the case of the parabola) of the conic section is translated from the
origin to a point (h,k), the simple forms of the equations are modified by substituting (x-h) for x
and (y-k) for y. For example the equation of a circle of radius r with the center at (h,k) is

(x - h) 2 + (y - k) 2 = r
If the axis of the curve is inclined to the coordinate axes, an x y term is introduced.

EXAMPLE:

Given the following equation: x2 - 4x + 2y2 - 12y = -20; identify the conic section and
determine the location of the center or vertex.

Note that the general coefficients are as follows

A=l
B=O
C=2

Then B2 - 4AC =0- 4 (1)(2) = -8. :. B 2 - 4AC < 0 and the curve is an ellipse. To find
the center of the ellipse, complete squares
1-48 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

(x2 - 4x) + 2 (y 2 - 6y) = -20

(x2 - 4x + 4) + 2 (y2 - 6y + 9) =-20 + 4 + 18

(x - 2)2 + (y - 2f = 1
2

Thus, the center is at (2,3). The simple form of the ellipse can also be recognized.

EXAMPLE:

Find the equation of the tangent to the circle defined by the equation x2 + y 2 =25 at the point
(3,4)

Sketch the figure of the tangent to the circle at (3,4) (Fig. 1.28).

Figure 1.28

Note that the radius will be perpendicular to the tangent at (3,4) and the slope of the radius to this
point is

flY 4
m =- =
r tlX 3

3
Slope of tangent = --
4

The equation for the tangent is

-3
y =-X+ b
4
MATHEMATICS 1-49

Now since (3,4) is on the tangent

4 = 2(3) + b
4

25
b =
4

and the equation of the tangent is

-3 25
y=-x+-
4 4

DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS

Functions

The symbol f(x) is a shorthand representation of the expression "function of x", where x is any
variable. When the expression y =f(x) is written, xis the independent variable andy is the
dependent variable (its value depends on the value of x). When we write f(2), this means the
value of f(x) when x = 2. For example, if

f(x) = 3x2 + 2x + 3
f(1) =2(1) 2 + 2(1) + 2 = 8
f(2) = 3(2) 2 + 2(2) + 3 = 19

If the dependent variable, z, is a function of two independent variables, we write

z = f(x,y)

When it is required to introduce more than one function into a discussion, additional functional
symbols, such as F(x), G(x), etc., are used.

Limits

"Limits" are applied to express the value a function approaches when the independent variable
approaches some constant. More precisely, we say that f(x) approaches the limit Las x
approaches a if the numerical value of f(x)- L can be made to remain as small as we like by
taking x sufficiently close to a. This is written as

lim
f(x) = L
x-a
1-50 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

Note that the definition does not mean that f(a) = L (although it may) since the function may not
actually be defined when x = a (it may not be a continuous function at x = a). A function f(x) is
continuous at x =a if f(a) exists and if

lim
f(x) = f(a)
x--.a

Some Properties of Limits:


lim lim
If f(x) = A and F(x) = B, then
x--.a x--.a

lim
1)
x--.a
{f(x) ± F(x)} = A± B

2) lim {f(x) F(x)}


x--.a
= AB

3) lim f(x) = A' if Bf= O


x-.a F(x) B

lim
4) x--.a
{f(x) + K} =A + K, where K = constant

lim
5)
x--.a Kf(x) = KA

lim 1 lim 1
Also -
x--.0 X
= oo and x--.oo - =0
X

EXAMPLE:

lim2 (3x 3 - 7)
x-.

lim (3x 3 - 7) = 3(2) 3 - 7 = 17


x--.2

EXAMPLE:
MATHEMATICS 1-51

lim ( 2 5- x
x-2 l = oo

We can make the function ( 5 ) exceed any given number by taking x close enough to 2.
2 - X
EXAMPLE:

Find lim (x 2 - 9)
x-3 (x - 3)
In this case, the numerator and the denominator approach zero as x approaches 3 and the limit is
not apparent. However, if we factor the numerator we have

lim (x 2 - 9) lim (x + 3)(x - 3) lim


-'--------'- = = (X + 3) = 6
x-3 (x - 3) x-3 (x - 3) x-3

In the example above, the numerator and denominator were both approaching zero. When it is
not possible to factor, this type of problem can be solved by using L'Hospital's Rule:

Suppose that f(x)-0 and F(x)-0 as X -a, then if

It is also true that

Applying this rule to the previous example:

lim (x 2 - 9) = lim 2x = 6
x-3 (x _ 3) x-3 1

EXAMPLE:

Find lim (x 2 - 9)
x-3 (27 - 3x - 2x 2 )

lim (x 2 - 9) lim 2x 6 -2
x-3 (27 - 3x - 2x 2) = x-3 --- --
(-3 - 4x) -15 5
1-52 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

EXAMPLE:

Find lim ex + e-x - 2


x-.0 5x 2
lim ex + e-x - 2 lim ex - e-x
=
x-.0 x-.o lOx
5x 2

The rule must be applied again

lim ex + e-x lim ex - e-x 2 1


= =
x-.0 lOx x-.0 10 10 5

The Derivative

An important limit forms the basis of the differential calculus. By means of this limit, rates of
change can be calculated. The term by which all instantaneous rates of change are designated is
the derivative. The derivative is defined as:

Let y be a single-valued function of x. Let !:ly be the change in y when x changes by an


amount !:lx. Then the limit of the ration 1:1 y/!:lx, as !:lx approaches zero, provided that this
limit exists, is called the derivative of y with respect to x. In symbols, this is written as

lim !:ly = dy
/:ix-.0 !:lx dx

The derivative is also written in the following forms:

D y df(x) tl(x) y'


X ' dx ' '

A function for which the derivative exists is called a differentiable function.

EXAMPLE:

Find dy , if y = x 3 .
dx
Let !:ly be the change in y when x changes by !:lx, then

!:ly = (x + !:lx) 3 - y
MATHEMATIC S 1-53

fly= 3x2flx + 3x (flx)2 + (flx) 3

fly = 3x 2flx + 3x (flx) 2 + (flx) 3


flx

lim fly - lim [3 2 + 3xllx + flx 2 ]


flx--.o flx - flx---o x

Basic Rules of Differentiation

The example above illustrates the use of the definition of the derivative in performing
differentiation. However, in practice differentiation is most conveniently performed by use of
formulas or basic rules already derived for various common functions. Some of these formulas
are provided in the Table of Derivatives.

EXAMPLE:

Find dy if y = 6x 4 dy = 4 · 6x 3 = 24x 3
dx dx

EXAMPLE:

Find dy if y = ~ rewrite y = (1 - x) 112


dx
Then
-1
-dy = V2 (1- x)~ 112 (-1) = ---
dx 2~

Table of Derivatives

1. de = 0
dx

2. d dv
- (cv) = c-
dx dx

3. d du dv
- (u ± v) = -±-
dx dx dx
1-54 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

4. d dv du
- (uv) = u - + v -
dx dx dx

5.
~ (x ") = n x n-I (power rule)
dx

6. - d (u ") = nu n-1 -du


dx dx

7. d (c u) = c u.ln c·-
du
-
dx dx

8.

9. ~ (ex) = ex
dx

10.

11. du dv
v-- u-
dx dx
y2

12. d 1
- (log x) = - log e
dx c X c

13. d 1 du
- (log u) = -loge·-
dx c u c dx

14. d 1
- (In x)
dx X

15. d 1 du
- (In u)
dx u dx

16. d du
- (sin u) = cos u -
dx dx
MATHEMATICS 1-55

17. d (COS U) = - . du
- SID U -
dx dx

18. d 2 du
- (tan u) = sec u -
dx dx

19. d du
- (esc u) = - (esc u)(cot u) -
dx dx

20. d (sec u) du
- = (sec u)(tan u) -
dx dx

21. d du
- (cot u) = - esc 2 u -
dx dx

22. d du
- (sinh u) = cosh u -
dx dx

23. ~ (cosh u) = sinh u du


dx dx

24. d 2 du
- (tanh u) = sech u -
dx dx

25. d du
- (csch u) = -(csch u)(coth u) -
dx dx

26. d du
- (sech u) = -(sech u)(tanh u) -
dx dx

27. ~ (coth u) = - csch 2 u du


dx dx

Notes: (a) u and v are functions of x.


(b) c and n are constants.
(c) lim ( 1 + __!_)m.
m-oo rn
(d) All angles are in radians.
1-56 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

EXAMPLE:

Find dy ify = 4x3 + 3


dx 2x
Let u = 4x3 + 3 and v = 2x, then by formula 11 in the Table:

dy (2x)(12x 2 ) - ( 4x 3 + 3)(2)
dx 4x 2

dy = 8x 3 - 3
=
dx 2x 2

EXAMPLE:

Find dy if y = e·x cos 2x


dx

dy = e-x (-sin 2x)(2) + (-1) e·x cos 2x


dx

dy =-e-x (2 sin 2x +cos 2x)


dx
EXAMPLE:

Find dy if y =(sin ax)(tan ax)


dx

dy =(sin ax)(sec 2 ax)+ (tan ax)(cos ax)


dx

dy . 2 a sin ax
- =(a sm ax)(sec ax) + cos ax
dx cos ax
dy =(a sin ax)(sec 2 ax+ 1)
dx
EXAMPLE:

Find dy if y = (3xY
dx
let u = x and v = 3x, then by formula 8 in the Table

dy = x (3xy- 1(3) + (3xY (ln3x) (1)


dx
MATHEMATICS 1-57

dy = (3xY (1 + ln 3x)
dx
EXAMPLE:

Find dy if y =cosh2 3x- sinh(x2)


dx

The solution to this problem requires use of formulas 3, 5, 6, 22, and 23 from the Table.

dy = (2 cosh 3x)(sinh 3x)(3) - cosh(x )(2x) 2


dx

dy = 6 cosh 3x sinh 3x - 3x cosh x 2


dx

EXAMPLE:

Find dy if y =e-xlnx
dx

: =e-•( !) +(-l)e'lnx

: =e' ( ~ - ID x)

Taking logs prior to differentiation will sometimes simplify the procedure considerably. The
following example illustrates this.

3M-
EXAMPLE:

. d
Fm dy1.f
- y=x x2 .
dx 1 + x2

Taking logs;

ln y =In x3 + In V1 - x 2 - In VI + x2

then,

Differentiating each side:


1-58 FUNDAMENTA LS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

~ : = ~ ~ + ( I : x 2) (-2x) - ~ I : x 2 (2x)

:. dy =y (l X

dx x

Substituting for y;

Derivatives may be treated as a ratio of differentials that can be manipulated algebraically. This
property is most evident when working with the integral calculus, however, it is also useful for
illustrating or visualizing various relationships of derivatives. For example,

dy = 1

(:l
that is
dx

Also, when working with parametric equations such as

X= f(t) y = g(t)
the derivative of y with respect to x can be determined without solving explicitly for y as a
function of x, by the following

dy = dy/dt
dx dx/dt

EXAMPLE:

dy =6tz- 12t
dt

dx
- =6t
dt
MATHEMATICS 1-59

then dy = dy/dt = _6t_2_-_12_t = t- 2


dx dx/dt 6t

Implicit Differentiation

When y is defined as an implicit function of x, f(x,y) = 0, dy


dx
may be determined without solving explicitly for y. The procedure to be used is as follows:

1. Differentiate the terms of each member considering y as a differentiable function of


x (use formula 4 in the Table of Derivatives for those terms containing
x andy).

2. Solve for dy
dx
EXAMPLE:

Differentiate each term:

d 3d d 3d
- (x ) + - (3x y) + - ( y ) = - (8)
2

dx dx dx dx

dy = x 2 + 2xy
dx X 2 + y2

Higher Order Derivatives

The derivatives, f(x), of a function y =f(x) may be a differentiable function. In this case, the
derivative of f(x) is called the second derivative of y. The second derivative may be written in
several forms:

_i_ ( dy)
'
dzy '
f"()
X' Y''Dz
' xY
dx dx dx 2
1-60 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

Similarly, this process may be repeated and derivatives of higher order written in analogous
fashion.

EXAMPLE:

Find the Second Derivative of

4x2 + 8x + 16 = y

dy = 8x + 8
dx

EXAMPLE:

y' = 24x2 - 2x

y" = 48x- 2

y'"=48

y""=O

EXAMPLE:

Find d 3y ify = 2ex +Sin 2x


dx3

dy = 2e + 2 cos 2x
dx
M ATHEMATIC S 1-61

Partial Derivatives

If a function z =f (x,y) is differentiated with respect to x while y is treated as a constant, the


resulting derivative is the partial derivative of z with respect to x. The partial derivative treats all
independent variables, except for the one indicated, as constants. The partial derivative of z with
respect to x is written as

az
ax

Other forms are

af f ,
ax' X' f X (X, y), fl (x,y)

The partial derivative is also defmed by a limit. If z = f(x,y)

af lim f(x + dx,y) - f(x,y)


fx = Llx-0
ax Llx

Likewise the partial derivative off with respect y is:

af = f = lim f(x,y + Lly) - f(x,y)


ay y Lly-o Lly

There are four second-order partial derivatives:

a2z
----- a ( azJ
ayax ay ax

The last two derivatives are called cross derivatives. If the cross derivatives are continuous, the
order of differentiation is immaterial. That is
1-62 FUNDAMENTAL S 0 F ENG IN E ERIN G EXAM REVIEW W 0 R K B 0 0 K

also

= =

etc.

EXAMPLE:

Find the first and second partial derivatives of z =x4y·2 .


az
- = -2 x4y -3
ay
-
az = 4x 3y-2
ax
a 2z = 6x 4y -4
-
ay2

a 2z
= 12x 2y - 2
ax 2

a 2z l_ (4x 3 y -2) -8x 3y -3


-- = =
ayax ay
check
a2
-- = - a <- 2X 4 y -3) = -8x 3y -3
axay ax
In the discussion of partial derivatives thus far, x andy have been treated as independent
variables. However, x andy may be dependent on other variables. If z =f(x,y) with continuous
first partial derivatives and if x andy are continuous functions of independent variables r, s, ...
which have first partial derivatives, then

az az ax
=-- +--
az ay
ar ax ar ay ar
MATHEMATIC S 1-63

In the special case when z = f(x,y) and x = g(r) andy= 0 (r), the derivative of z with respect tor
is a total derivative and is given by

dz dx
=-- +
az ay az (Chain Rule)
dr ax dr ay ar

EXAMPLE:

The altitude of a right circular cone is 15 in. and increases at the rate of 0.2 in./min. The radius of
the base is 10 in. and decreases at 0.3 in./min. How fast is the volume changing?

Let x =radius andy= altitude of cone. The volume of the cone, V, is given by

1tX2
v = -y
3

The change in volume with respect to time can be written as a total derivative because V is a
function of one independent variable, t

dv av dx 1t (2XY dx + X 2 dy)
dt ax dt 3 dt dt

= ~ (2 X 10 X 15 ( -0.3) + 102 (0.2))


3

701t . 3 . d .
= --- m per mm. ecreasmg
3

Applications

As noted previously, the derivative represents the instantaneous rate of change of the function
with respect to x. Various useful physical and geometrical applications can be made using this
fact. For example, velocity is the rate of change of position with time. If s is a distance and t is
time, the velocity, v, is given by

ds
v =
dt

(Note that when vis positive the motion is in the positives direction.) In addition, acceleration,
a, which is the rate of change of velocity with respect to time, is given by

dV d 2s
a = =
dt dt 2
1-64 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

Similar applications can be made with regard to other rates of change. A particularly useful
application is the relationship of the derivative t the slope of a curve (i.e., the slope of the line
tangent to the curve at the point in question). If the equation of a curve is y = f(x), the derivative
of y with respect to xis the slope of the curve at any point (x,y) on the curve (Fig. 1.29).

Yj,
I
I
I

Figure 1.29

'---~~~~~~~~~~~---~~x

slope= lim lly = dy


A.x~O A.x dx

EXAMPLE:

Find the slope of the parabola y = x 2 - 1 when it crosses the X axis.

Slope = dy = 2x
dx

When y = 0, x = ± 1 therefore when y = 0, dy = ±2 and parabola has a slope of± 2 when it


dx
crosses the X axis (Fig. 1.30).

0 0 3
1 -1 ±2

Figure 1.30

EXAMPLE:

A point moves along a straight line with its distanceS, in feet, from a fixed point given by S = se
-6e + t + 3 with time t in seconds.
MAT HEM AT I C S 1-65

Find the position, velocity and acceleration of the point at t = 10 sec.

At t = 10: s = 8(1000)- 6(100) + 10 + 3


s = 7413 ft.
V = ds = 24t2 - 12t + 1
dt
v = 24(100)- 12(10) + 1

V = 2281 ft/sec
dv
a=-=48t-12
dt
a= 48(10)- 12

a= 468 ftfsec 2

EXAMPLE:

Find the equation of the normal to the curve y = 2x2 at the point (2,8)

The slope of the tangent, mT, at the point is

~ = dy = 4x = 4(2) = 8
dx

Since the normal is perpendicular to the tangent, the slope of the normal, mN, is

1
m = --
N 8

The equation of the normal is

y =_X+ b
8

Find b: (2)
8 = + b
8

b = ~
4
1-66 FUNDAMENTALS 0 F EN GIN E ERIN G EXAM REVIEW W 0 R K B 0 0 K

Thus, the equation of the normal is

33
y = -X +
8 4
EXAMPLE:

The point (1,2,3) is on a mountain whose shape is defined by the equation

Is the path drawn from the point (1,2,3) steeper in the positive x direction or in the positive y
direction?

The slope in the X direction = az


ax
The slope in the y direction = az
ay
az -4x = -4 @ x =1
ax
az = -6x -12 @ y =2
ay
:. The path is steeper in the positive y direction.

EXAMPLE:

The edge of an expanding cube increases at the rate of 3 in. per sec. When its edge is 5 in. long,
find the rate of change of its volume and of its total area.

Let x = length of an edge then volume, V = x3 , and


total area (6 faces) = 6x2 •

The change of volume with respect to time is

dV
3x 2 dx where x = 5 m.
dt dt

dx 3 in. (given)
dt sec
MATHEMATIC S 1-67

dv in3
- = 3 (5) 2 (3) =225
dt sec

da
- = ~ 6x 2 = 12x ( : )
dt dt

. 2
12(5) (3) = 180 ~
sec

EXAMPLE:

Sand poured on the ground at the rate of 3 ft 3/min forms a conical pile whose height is one third
the diameter of the base. How fast is the altitude of the pile increasing when the radius of the
base is 2ft?

For a cone, volume = 113 area of base x altitude

Since h = ln = _!(2r) is given


3 3

3h,
r = - sub stltutmg
. . . lds
yte
2

2
3h )
v = 3 2
1t (
h = 3/41th
3

dh 4 dV =_]__ftlmin
=--- =
dt 91th 2 dt 41t

Many interesting problems require the determination of the maximum and/or minimum values of a
function. A possible method for solving such problems can be seen by inspection of Fig. 1.31
below which shows the relationship between the behavior of a function and the signs of its
derivatives (the function is a continuous function with continuous first and second derivatives).
1-68 FUN DAME NT A L S 0 F ENG IN E ERIN G EXAM REVIEW W0 RKB0 0 K

----0+++++0+++++0--- sign of f' {x)

+++++++0--0++0------ sign of f'' {x)

Figure 1.31

---------------x
Positive values of f(x) are associated with portions of the curve that rise to the right (positive
slope such as from A to E) while negative values of f(x) are associated with portions of the curve
that fall to the right (negative slope). A zero value of f(x) is associated with points that have a
horizontal slope (A, C, and E). Points A and E are "local" minimum and maximum points,
respectively. Thus, when the derivative is positive the function increases as x increases and when
the derivative is negative the function decreases as x increases. The derivative is zero at
maximum or minimum values.

The sign of f'(x) is associated with the rate of change of the slope. A positive f'(x) indicates that
the slope is increasing (the curve is concave upward such as that portion up to B or between C
and D), while a negative f'(x) indicates a decreasing slope (the curve is concave downward).
Points such as B, C, and D where f'(x) is zero and changes sign are points of inflection. Note that
at a maximum point (E) f'(x) is negative and at a minimum point (A) f'(x) is positive.

This information is very useful in evaluating a function with respect to possible maxima or
minima. The procedure for this evaluation is as follows:

1. Find the first derivative of the function.

2. Set the first derivative equal to zero, and solve the resulting equation for real roots
to find the values of the variable. These values are called "critical" values.

3. Find the second derivative.

4. Substitute each critical value of the variable in the second derivative. If the result
is negative, then the function is a maximum for that value; if the result is a positive
number, the function is a minimum [if f'(x) is zero, the value of f(x) on either side
of the critical value must be evaluated].

EXAMPLE:

Find the maximum value of the function y = - x2 + 4x - 3 = 0


MATHE M AT I C S 1-69

Evaluate critical values:

Y' =- 2x+4=0

:. x = +2 is a critical value. Check the second derivative: Y" = -2, thus, at x = +2 the
function is a maximum. The maximum value of the function f(2) = -22 + 4(2) - 3 = + 1

EXAMPLE:

A farmer has 120 linear feet of fencing with which to enclose a rectangular plot of ground and to
divide it into three rectangular parts by partitions parallel to an end (Fig. 1.32). What should the
dimensions be so that the area of the plot is a maximum?

y
Figure 1.32

X
.... I

Area of plot = A = xy

Length of fence= 4y + 2x = 120

:.x = 120 - 4y = 60 - 2y
2

Then A = (60 - 2y) y = 60y - 2l


dA = 60 - 4y
dy
Find the critical value: 60 - 4y = 0

:. y = -60 = 15 .
IS . . al val ue
a cntlc
4
. d 2A
Smce - - = -4, the area is a maximum
dy2

X = 60 - 2(15) = 30

Thus, the dimensions are 15ft by 30ft for maximum area


1-70 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

INTEGRAL CALCULUS

Indefinite Integral

Integration is the process of fmding a function whose differential is given. Integration is the
inverse of differentiation. The symbol I means "the function whose differential is." Thus,

d CI f(x) dx) =f(x) dx


Since the derivative of a constant is zero, all functions whose differentials are equal to the
differential of u are in the form u + c, where c is the constant of integration. That is:

I du = u + c
Because of the presence of the constant, the resulting function is called an indefmite integral.

EXAMPLE: Find I 3x2 dx

Since the differential ofx 3 is 3x2, then

Note that this is the opposite of the application of the power rule for differentiation (formula 5 in
the Table of Derivatives). The rule for integration of simple algebraic functions in the form axn
(where a and n are constants) is to increase the exponent by one, divide by the new exponent, and
add the constant of integration. That is

ax n+l
f ax ndx =
n + 1
+ c

Like differentiation, integration is often carried out by use of formulas already derived for various
common functions. Some of these formulas are provided in the Table of Integrals, which is a
short list of fundamental integrals. A handbook of mathematical tables/formulas should be
consulted for a more complete list.

EXAMPLE:

4x 3
+ + 4x + c
3
MATHEMATICS 1-71

EXAMPLE:

3x 312 2x Yz
--- + c

EXAMPLE:

dx . 2x
JJg - 4x2 =Yl =arcsm-+c
3

Definite Integral

IfF (x) is an indefinite integral of f(x) dx, then

jf(x) dx = F(b) - F(a)


a

When the limits of integration are defined, as in this case, the integral is called a definite integral.

EXAMPLE:

3
J3x
3
2 dx = x3 2 = (3)
3 - (2) 3 = 19
2
1-72 FUND AMENT A L S 0 F EN GIN E ERIN G EXAM REV I E W W0 RKB0 0 K

EXAMPLE:

I(2x - I(4x
2 2
4) 2 dx = 2 - 16x + 16) dx
I I

= - -
4x
3
3
- 8x 2 + 16 1 2

4
3

EXAMPLE:

~ I Sin
n/4

I Sin 2xdx
n/4

= 2x(2dx)
0 0

__!_ (0 - 1) 1
2 2

TABLE OF INTEGRALS

1. I adu = a I du = au + c

2. I(du ± dv) Idu ± Idv =

3. I(u ± v) dx Iu dx ± Ivdx =

4. Iudv = uv - Ivdu

I u du n+1
U n+l
5. n = -- + c

6. I du lnu c
~ = +

au
7. =- + c
lna
s. Ie udu e u c = +

9. I u2 du a2 =_!_arctan(~)
+ a a
+c
MATHEMATIC S 1-73

10. Ju2 du- a2 I


= 2a 1n
(u-al
u + a
+ c if u 2>a 2
'

11. Ja2 du- u 2 =-'2a m(a+ul


a - u
+ c if a 2>u 2
'

12. J du =1n(u+vu 2 ±a 2)+c


vu2 ± a2

13. JJa'd~ u' arc sffi ( ~


= l + c

14. Jsin udu = - cos u + c


15. Jcos udu = sin u + c

16. Jtan udu = - 1n (cosu) + c

17. Jesc udu = 1n (cscu - cotu) + c


18. Jsec udu = - 1n (secu - tanu) + c

19. Jcot udu = 1n (sin u) + c

20. Jsinh udu = cosh u + c


21. Jcosh udu = sinh u + c

22. Jtanh udu = 1n (cosh u) + c

23. Jcsch udu = 1n (tanh ~) +c

24. Jsech udu = arc sin (tan u) + c

25. Jcoth udu = 1n (sinh u) + c


Notes: (a) u and v are functions of x.
(b) a, c, and n are constants.
(c) e = lim (1 + _!_ )m .
m~oo m
(d) all angles are in radians
1-74 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

Integration by Parts

The formula for integration by parts is particularly useful for problems where the integrand is the
product of functions of different types. The purpose is to replace one integral with another that is
easier to integrate. The formula is based on the differential equation

d (uv) = udv + vdu


which is integrated and rearranged to give I udv = uv - I vdu
The selection of the factors u and dv is a matter of trial and error. It is usually best to choose for
u a function that is simplified by differentiation. Occasionally it is necessary to repeat the
application of the formula.

EXAMPLE:

Find I xlnxdx

Let u =lnx, dv =xdx then du = -dx , v =


x2
X 2

x2
=- lnx + c
2 4
EXAMPLE:
b

Find finxdx
a dx
Let u =lnx, dv =dx then du = -, v = x.
X

b lb
Jlnxdx = xlnx a - fbdx
a a

=b lnb - a Ina - b + a
=b (lnb - 1) - a (ina - 1)
MATHEMATIC S 1-75

Double Integrals

Some problems in integral calculus involve functions of two variables. Such problems may
require the evaluation of a double integral such as

b d

JJf(x,y) dy dx
a c

This may be written as

The integration is carried out by first performing the integration within the brackets, then
performing a second integration employing the outer notations.

<l
EXAMPLE:
I 2

f( ~ ~)
I

Jf
y2 dy dx
= [(
dx
=
dx = J~ dx
0 I 0 0

I
7 7
-X =
3 0 3
Applications

Consider the area, A, bounded by the x-axis the vertical line


x = a, the vertical line x = b, and the arc ofthe curve y = f(x) (Fig. 1.33).

Figure 1.33

a ---j 1--- dx b
1-76 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

The differential of this area A is given by the formula

dA =f(x) dx

The area, A, can then be determined by the definite integral

A= jf(x) dx
a

EXAMPLE:

Find the area bounded by the curve y = 6x 2 , the x-axis, and the vertical lines x =2 and
x=4

A = J6x 2 dx = = 2x 3 [ = 112 square units


2

EXAMPLE:

Find the area bounded by the x-axis, they-axis and the curve x + y2 =4 (see Fig. 1.34).

y
X 2 2
A = f x dy f (4 - y
= 2) dy

'l:
0 0

8
A = ( 4y - Y3 =8
3

A = -16 square uruts


.
3

Figure 1.34
MATHE M AT I C S 1-77

EXAMPLE:

Determine the area moment of inertia of the area bounded by y = x 3 , y = 0, and x = 1, with
respect to the y-axis (Fig. 1.35). All dimensions are in feet.

Yi
IY = Jx 2 dA where dA = y dx

I I

Jx Jx
6 I
X
IY = 2 y dx = 5 dx
0 0
6 0

= 0.167 ft. 4

X= f~ Figure 1.35

The area between two curves: y 1 = f(x) and y2 = g(x) in the region (a,b) where y2 > y 1

Figure 1.36

a b

J
b b

is given by A= (y2 - y 1) dx = J[g(x) - f(x)] dx (Fig. 1.36).


a a
EXAMPLE:

Find the area of the region (Fig. 1.37) bounded by the curves
x2 x
y =-andy= + 2
4 2
1-78 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

Solve for the points of intersection of the curves by simultaneous solution of the two equations
y

X
x2 =
x + 2
Y2 =2 + 2 4 2

x2 - 2x - 8 =0

Factoring:

(x + 2) (x- 4) = 0

Figure 1.37 X= -2, X= +4

These values of x are the limits.

JdA J(y
4

Area A = = 2 - y 1) dx
-2

A = [~2 + 2x - ~~ L =4 + 8 - 5 ~ - I + 4 - ~ = 9 sq. unit'

When a curve y = f(x) is revolved about the x axis, a surface of revolution is generated. To find
the area of this surface, consider the area generated by an element of arc ds (Fig. 1.38). This area
is approximately that of a cylinder of radius y and length ds. Summing all such elements of
surface yields the surface area A.

Figure 1.38
MATHE M AT I C S 1-79

Element of Arc =ds

But ds = V(dxi + (dy) 2

The area of the cylinder whose radius is y and whose axial length is ds is da where

dA = 2rcy ds

dA=2nydx ~ 1 + ( ~)'
Then

r
A = 2rc f y ds

A = 21t fy ~ l r~ + dx

EXAMPLE:

Find the area of the surface of revolution between x = 0 and x = a, generated by revolving the arc
of the semicubical parabola a 2y = x 3 about the x axis.

x3 . dy x2
y = -
'
= 3-
a2 dx a2

ds =
~ l + r ~r dx
ds = _1 (a4 + 9x 4)y, dx
a2

dA = 2rcy ds

dA= 2rc (a 4 + 9x 4 )'~2 x 3 dx


a4
1-80 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

A _1t_ (a4 + 9x4)3/2b


27 a 4

A = ~ (10 {fO - 1) a 2
27

A = 3.6 a 2

A fundamental theorem of the integral calculus is the notion of the integral as the limit of a sum.
Again consider the area, A, bounded by the x -axis, the lines x = a and x = b, and the curve y =
f(x). In this case divide the region (a,b) into n intervals of lengthsilxl' d~, ... , ilxn and let x 1,
x2, ••• , xn be values ofx, one in each interval (Fig.l.39).

y
y = f(x)

Figure 1.39

n
lim
Then
n-oo I: f(xk) ilxk = A
1
b
n
lim
Thus, jf(x) dx =
n-oo
I: f(xk) dxk
a
1
EXAMPLE:

n
lim
Find L x~ dxk in the interval from x = 0 to x = 4
1
MAT HEMATIC S 1-81

n
lim 4

n-oo
L x~ Llxk = Jx 3dx =
0
1

The relation of the integral to a limit can be used to determine the volume of a solid generated
by rotating the curve y = f(x) about the x-axis. Consider the curve y = f(x) in the region (a,b)
(Fig. 1.40).
Yl
I
I

Figure 1.40

.. x

The volume of the disk element, V k, is

The total volume is

Then

EXAMPLE:

Find the volume of the solid generated by rotating about the x-axis the curve x = 3y 2 in the
region from x =0 to x =6.
6
v = = Jn; dx
0

v = = 6n cubic units
6 0
1-82 FUND AMENT A L S 0 F EN GIN E ERIN G EXAM REVIEW W0 RKB0 0 K

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

Definitions

A differential equation is an equation that involves derivatives (or differentials). If there is only
one independent variable in the equation, it is called an ordinary differential equation. When there
is more than one independent variable, it is called a partial differential equation. The order of the
differential equation is the order of the highest derivative, while the degree is the degree of the
highest ordered derivative.

The solution to a differential equation is a relationship of the variables that satisfies the equation
and contains no derivatives. The general solution of a differential equation of the nth order
contains n essential arbitrary constants while a particular solution is a solution obtained from the
general solution by assigning values to the constants (usually while evaluating the boundary
conditions).

Equations with Variables Separable

Equations with variables separable are first order equations that by simple algebraic manipulation
may be written in the following form

M (x) dx + N (y) dy =0
where M(x) is a function of x only (or a constant) and N(y) is a function of y only (or a constant).
The solution to such equations can be obtained directly by integration.

EXAMPLE:

Find the solution to dy x


dx y

Separating variables:

x dx- y dy =0

integration yields

x2 r = c
2 2 2
where the constant of integration is chosen as C/2 to eliminate fractions in the next step.

x2 - y2 = C which is the general solution of the equation.


M ATHEMATIC S 1-83

EXAMPLE:

Find the general solution of the equation.

y dx - y 2 dy = dy

Separate the variables and integrate.

f dx f dyy f y dy
=
2
+

x=lny+ L +c
2
or 2x = 2 ln y + y 2 + c 1

EXAMPLE:

Find the general solution of: dy = ky.


dt

Separating variables and integrating:

J';' = fk dt; 1n y = kt + c1 = kt + 1n c

ln y__ = kt recall Ina N =X ; ax= N


c

y = e kt or y = C e kt
c
EXAMPLE:

Find the general solution of:

Separating the variables yields


1-84 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

fu"
Un + I
Using du = yields
n + 1
-y -1 -X
-1
= c
now multiplying through by -xy

x +y= c 1 xy

First-Order Linear Differential Equations

The first-order linear equation has the form

dy+Py=Q
dx
where P and Q are constants or functions of x alone. This equation has the following solution.

y = ce- 0 + e- 0 jQe 0 dx

where 0 = JP dx
EXAMPLE:

Solve dy = 2y + (x + 1)5/2.
dx X + 1

rearranging:

dy 2y = (x + 1)512
dx X + 1

shows the equation to be Linear where

P = - -2- and Q = (x + 1)512


X + 1

0 = JP dx = - Jx ~ 1 dx = -2 ln (x + 1) = - ln (x + 1f

y = Ce In(x+I)2 + e In(x+I)2 f (x + 1)512 e -In(x+02 dx

y = C (x + 1)2 + (x + 1)2 J( X + 1)5/2


dx
(x + 1)2

y = C (x + 1) 2 + (x + 1)2 J(x + 1)v dx 2


MATHEMATIC S 1-85

( X + 1)3/2
y = C (x + 1)2 + (x + 1f --=-------"---
3/2

2
y = C (x + 1)2 + - (x + 1)712
3

Second-Order Linear Differential Equations Homogeneous With


Constant Coefficients

This type of equation has the following form (P and Q are constants):

d 2y dy
+P-+Qy=O
dx 2 dx

Note that this equation is satisfied by the substitution of y and its successive derivatives, therefore,
its solution will be in a form where the derivatives repeat themselves upon differentiation. Thus,
assume the solution is in the form:

y = e ax

and determine a so that the differential equation is satisfied.

dy =aeax· d2y =a2eax


dx ' dx2

Substituting the derivatives into the differential equation and cancelling, e ax yields:

a 2 + Pa + Q = 0.

This is called the auxiliary equation. If the auxiliary equation has real roots a 1 and ~, then y =
e a1x and y = e ~x are particular solutions of the differential equation.

The general solution is:


a X
Y = CI e C 2 e-L
~-X
1 +

The constants in the general solution can be determined from the boundary conditions. Note that
if the roots of the auxiliary equation are complex the solution will contain trigonometric functions.
For example, assume the two roots are a + bi and a - bi. Then the solution takes the following
form
1-86 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

Y= c 1e(a+bi)x + c2e(a-bi)x
now since e a+bi = e a(cosb + i sinb) and e a-bi = e a(cosb - i sinb)

y = e ax [CC 1 + C 2) cosbx + i (C 1 - C 2) sinbx]

now let A= C 1 + C 2 and B = i(C 1 - C 2), then the final form of the solution is

y = e ax (A cosbx + B sinbx)

If the roots are pure imaginary roots such as ±bi, the solution will have the form

y = A cosbx + B sinbx
If the roots are two real identical roots, the solution is

where a is the multiple root.

EXAMPLE:
d 2x 5dx
Solve - - + - - + 6x = 0.
dt 2 dt
For boundary conditions:

-dx = 12 at t = 0
dt

d 2x
-= 0 at t = 0
dt 2
This is a homogeneous equation of order 2 and is linear with constant coefficients. The solution
is in the form of x = e at. where x' = ae at • x" =a2eat
' '

Substituting into the differential equation

a 2 e at + 5a e at + 6e at = 0

The auxiliary equation is

a 2 + 5a + 6 = 0
M ATHEMATIC S 1-87

Hence;

(a+ 3) (a+ 2) = 0 :. a= -2, -3 and X= C 1 e -2t + C 2 e - 3t

The particular solution is found as follows:

dx = -2C e-2t- 3C e-3t


dt l 2

at t = 0:
dx
(1)
dt

d 2x
= 4C e -21 + 9C e -31
dt2 I 2

at t = 0:
d 2x
= 4C 1 + 9C2 = 0 (2)
dt 2
Multiplying (1) times (2) yields

-4C I - 6C2 = 24 (3)

Adding (2) and (3): 3C2 = 24. Therefore C 2 = 8. Substitute into (1):

-2 C 1 - 3 (8) = 12

-2 C1 = 36

Therefore C 1 = -18
X= -18 e- 21 + 8e- 31

Applications

Many physical problems involve the solution to differential equations.

EXAMPLE:

A 100 gal tank is filled with brine containing 60 lbs of dissolved salt. Water runs into the tank at
the rate of 2 gal/per min and the mixture, kept uniform by stirring, runs out at the same rate. How
much salt is in the tank after 1 hour?
1-88 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

Let S = lbs of salt in tank after t minutes.

~ = lbs/gal concentration after t minutes


During i~~rval dt, 2 dt gal of water flows in and 2 dt gal of brine containing 2 S dt = - s dtlbs
100 50
of salt flows out.

Change in amount of salt in the tank is dS:

dS = -~ dt or dS = dt
50 s 50

Integrating:

In s =
t
:. S = Ce ~t/50
50
Determine C:

At t =0 s =60
Therefore C = 60 and S = 60e ~t/50

At t = 60, S = 60e ~ 615 = 60(0.301) = 18 lbs. Answer

LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION

A modem form of the operational calculus consists of the use of the Laplace transformation. The
theory of the Laplace transformation introduces many rules that are important in the analysis of
problems in engineering. One of the most important of these rules deals with the transformation
of derivatives of functions. By the use of this rule, significant simplifications in certain types of
problems in differential equations can be made.

Definition of the Laplace Transformation

The Laplace transformation of F(t) is given by:

Je
0
= ~st F(t) dt = f(s)

This operation is called the Laplace transform of F(t) and is written in the following forms:

f(s) = L {F(t)} = L {F} = F(s)


MATHE M AT I C S 1-89

The Laplace transform of F(t) exists (i.e., the integral converges) if F(t) is continuous and
provided some constant a exists such that

e -!Xt IF(t)l

is bounded as t approaches infinity. The Laplace integral converges when s >a.

EXAMPLE:

Find the Laplace transform of F(t) = 3.

L {F} = J3e-stdt= -~ e-stt


0

when s > 0 the integral converges and L {F} =3/s.


EXAMPLE:

Find the Laplace transform of F(t) = e at when t > 0.

L {F} = r= eat e-st dt = _1_ e -cs-a)tl=


Jo a - s o
when s > a the integral converges and
1
s - a

Some useful transforms are shown in the following table.


1-90 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

TABLE OF TRANSFORMS

F(t) f(s) a (s >a)


1
1 s 0

c
C (constant) s 0

1
eat s - a a

n!
t n (n = 1,2, ... ) S n+l 0

k
sinkt s2 + k2 0

s
cos kt s2 + k2 0

k
sinh kt s2 - k2
s
cosh kt s2 - k2
k
e-at sin kt a)2 k2 -a
(s + +

s + a
e-at cos kt (s + a)2 + k2 -a

_i!!_
{t 0
2VsJ
1

~
- 0
{t
The Laplace transformation is linear so that if A and B are constants then:

L{AF(t) + BG(t)} = AL{F(t)} + BL{G(t)}


MATHEMATICS 1-91

Note that if: L{F(t)} = f(s)


Then: F(t) = L -1 {f(s)}
where L - 1 {f(s)} denotes the function whose Laplace transformation is f(s). F(t) is the inverse
transform of f(s). The inverse transformation is linear so that if A and Bare constants,

L - 1{Af(s) + Bg(s)} = AL - 1{f(s)} + BL - 1{g(s)}

This relationship and algebraic manipulation of fractions can be used to find the inverse transforms
of quotients of polynomials of s. The procedure is to rearrange the expression
(by considering factors) in the form of the sum of functions with known inverses.

EXAMPLE: Find L - 1( s + 1
s 2 + 2s

s + 1 s + 1
Consider the function =
s2 + 2s s(s + 2)

s + 1 A B
assume = +--
s(s + 2) s s + 2

clear fractions:
s + 1 = A(s + 2) + Bs = (A + B)s + 2A
s(s + 2) s(s + 2) s(s + 2)

equating like powers of s gives

A +B = 1 and 2A = 1
then A =Y2 and B =Y2

and L I {, ~ ~s} = ~ L
:
1
{:} + ~L 1
{, ! l} = ~ 1 e -2t
+-
2

EXAMPLE:

Find L - 1 J k2 }.
ls(s 2 + k 2)

k2 1 s
note that - - - - =
s(s 2 + k 2) s
1-92 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK

Th L -I { k2 } - L -I { 1 } - L -I { s } = 1 -coskt
en s(s 2 = k 2) - -; (s 2 + k 2)

Application to the Solution of Differential Equations

Consider the transformation of F'(t).

By the formula for integration by parts

= e-st f(t)~~ + s £~e-st F(t) dt

If e -~t IF(t)l is bounded as t approaches infinity, then for every s >ex: the first term on the right is
- F(o) and

L {F'(t)} = sL {F(t)}- F(o)


This formula is the fundamental operational property of the
Laplace transformation and makes it possible to substitute an algebraic expression of the
transform for the operation of differentiation. This property is very useful in the solution of
certain differential equations.

Also it can be shown that

L {F"(t)} = s[sL {F(t)}- F(+O)]- F'(O)

or

L {F"(t)} = s 2f(s) - sF (0) - F'(O)

and in general:

L { {F(n) (t)} = S 0 f(s) -sn-I F(O) - sn- 2 F'(O)

- S n- 3 F"(O) - ... - p<n-1)(0)

The Laplace transformation is useful in solving some linear ordinary differential equations.
MATHE M AT I C S 1-93

EXAMPLE:

Find the general solution of the differential equation

Y"(t)- k 2 Y(t) = 0

with Y(o) = A, Y' (o) = B

Now

L {y" - k 2y} = L {0}

Since the Laplace transform is linear

L {y" - k 2L} {y} = 0

Now by the rule for transformation of derivatives

L {Y" } = s 2y( s) - sA - B

Then (substituting into the previous equation)

This is a simple algebraic equation that can be solved for y(s):

y(s)=A _ _s_
sz - k2
or

s B K
y(s) =A +
s2 - k2 K s2 - k 2
Now by the inverse transforms of the functions on the right:

Y(t) =A cosh Kt + B sinh Kt


k
If
C= B
k
then

Y(t) =A cosh kt + C sinh kt

where A and C are arbitrary constants