Mathematics
MATHEMATICS 1i
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Selected References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m
Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Real Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Imaginary Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Fundamental Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Exponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Binomial Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Rules for Determining Terms in a Binomial Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Determinants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Linear Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Vector Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Higher Order Algebraic Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Logarithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Trigonometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Polar Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Fundamental Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Laws for Triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Hyperbolic Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
SELECTED REFERENCES
R.S. Burington, "Handbook of Mathematical Tables and Formulas," Handbook Publishers, 1953.
J.E. Powell and C.P. Wells, "Differential Equations," Ginn and Co., 1950.
T. Baumeister and L.S. Marks, "Standard Handbook for Mathematical Engineers," lOth edition,
McGrawHill, 1997.
MATHEMATICS 11
NUMBERS
Real Numbers
A study of numbers begins with the integers, which are also referred to as whole numbers or
natural numbers. A rational number is a number that can be written in the form p/q where p and q
are integers and q :!:. 0. Integers are rational numbers because they can be expressed as a ratio of
integers.
EXAMPLE:
EXAMPLE:
/3 or 1.732 ... is irrational, whereas 0.1111 ... is a rational number because it is equivalent
to 119.
The real number system is composed of the integers, the rational fractions and the irrational
numbers. It can be represented geometrically by the points on a straight line. There is a oneto
one correspondence between the real numbers and the points on the line (Fig. 1.1).
I I I1 I 0I I I II
3 2 1 2 3
EXAMPLE:
1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13 ...
12 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK
The symbol n!, read "n factorial," is an abbreviation for the product of all integers from 1 ton
inclusive. This is also represented by the symbol n!.
EXAMPLE:
5! = 5 X 4 X 3 X 2 X 1 = 120
3! 3 X 2 X 1 1

4! 4 X 3 X 2 X 1 4 Note that 0! = 1.
Imaginary Numbers
The square root of a negative number has no real number roots. This mathematical condition
introduces imaginary numbers. The determination of the square root of a negative number is
handled in the following manner. If P is a positive number, then
p = J1 X p = R X JP = i JP
where i = R. Sometimes j is used in place of i.
Numbers such as i, 3i, i {i are called pure imaginary numbers. Numbers such as a+ bi, where a
and b are real numbers, are called complex numbers.
EXAMPLE:
J16=Hx/f6=4i
(Note that the principal square root of a nonnegative number is a nonnegative number.
For example, {16 is generally written as 4, not 4 or± 4.)
EXAMPLE:
EXAMPLE:
(3 + 2i) + (6 + 4i) =9 + 6i
EXAMPLE:
3 + 2i
Rationalize   
3  i
It is generally useful to use the conjugate of the denominator when finding the quotient of two
complex numbers. The conjugate of a complex number a+ ib (where a and bare real numbers) is
a  ib. Note that the product of a complex number and its conjugate is a real number. Thus if A =
a+ib, its conjugate is A= a ib and Ax A= a 2 + b 2 •
Thus, 3 + 2i 3 + 2i (3 + i)
=
3  i 3  i (3 + i)
9 + 6i + 3i + 2(i) 2
=
9 + 1
7 + 9i 7 9i
= =  + 
10 10 10
SETS
A collection of objects or entities is commonly called a set. The objects comprising the set are
called elements or members of the set. If an element X belongs to a setS, this is indicated by
XES.
A set can be defined by listing the elements that belong to the set. For example
{ 1' 2, 8}
is the set composed of the numbers 1, 2, and 8. The set of all the natural numbers may be
denoted by
{1,2,3,4, ... }
The null set is the set that has no elements and is generally denoted by the symbol0.
14 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK
A set may be defined by using a variable to express a common property of all of the elements of
the set. For example
If all the elements of a set A are elements of another set B, A is a subset of B. This is denoted by
AcB.
The symbol c is called the inclusion symbol and this relationship is shown in Fig. 1.2.
Figure 1.2
The union of two sets consists of all of the elements of either set. This is usually represented by
the symbol u so that
The intersection of two sets consists of all of the elements that belong to both sets. This is usually
represented by the symbol n so that
Figure 1.3
CnD
MATHEMATICS 15
EXAMPLE:
then An B = {7,10}
EXAMPLE:
EXAMPLE:
ALGEBRA
Fundamental Laws
The fundamental operations of addition and multiplication conform to the following laws:
Addition Multiplication
Distributive a(b+c) = ab + ac
Exponents
The following laws of exponents apply where m and n are integers or fractions:
n,;a = al/n
am  mn
a
an
16 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK
[:r =
am
bm
am = 1
am
where a * 0
a0 1 where a *0
When the exponents are fractions, expressions involving radicals are sometimes employed. The
meaning of the radical is illustrated by the following expression
n.;a =al/n
where n is the index and a is the radicand. As noted previously, when a is negative and n is even
n.;a represents an imaginary number. Thus, the following can be used, except when a is negative
and n is even
EXAMPLES:
a 6 = A 69 = A 3 = 1
a9 A3
a2/3 bl/3
= a2/3 a3/2 b1/3 b1/2
4) Simplify a 3/2 b 1/2
~
X
3 3 3 3 3
R = Vt(2) = R 'fi = 1 'fi
6) Simplify
3
= '{i
Binomial Formula
(a+b)" =a"+ na"1b + n(n1) a"2b2 + n(n1)(n2) a"3b3 + ... + nabn1 + b"
2! 3!
( 1 + b)" = 1 + nb + n( n 1) b 2 + . . . + nb n1 + b n
2!
When n is not a positive integer, an infinite series called the binomial series results.
18 FUND AMENT A L S 0 F EN GIN E ERIN G EXAM REVIEW W 0 RKB0 0 K
1. The number of terms in the expansion is one more than the exponent.
2. The first term is An. Subsequent exponents of A decrease by 1 for each term.
4. The sum of the exponents in any term equals the exponent of the binomial.
5. The coefficient of the terms equidistant from the first and last terms are equal.
6. The coefficient of the second term is the same as the exponent of the binomial.
7. The coefficient of successive terms is computed from the previous term by multiplying the
coefficient by the exponent of A and dividing by one more than the exponent of X.
Example:
where the coefficient of the second term is 7, the exponent of A is 6, and the exponent of X is 1.
The coefficient of the third term is computed by Rule 7 as:
C = 7 X 6 = 21
3 [1] + 1
Shortcut
Pythagoras' Triangle
Start with a triangle of 1s. Always start the next level by placing 1s on either side to form the
shape of the triangle (Fig. 1.4).
1 Figure 1.4
11
1x1
M ATHEMATIC S 19
Compute the interior term(s) by adding the two adjacent terms above (Fig. 1.5).
1 Figure 1.5
11
\I
+
.ij.
121
Thus, coefficients for any binomial can be computed directly (Fig. 1.6).
1
11
121
1331
14641
151010 51
Determinants
The element positions in the matrix and determinant are denoted by the subscripts i and j and
describe an element~ The i indicates the row or vertical position, the top most row being 1, and
the j describes the horizontal position, the leftmost column being 1. Therefore element az 1 is in
the second row, first column.
The principal diagonal of the determinant below is a 11 and b 22 • Elements a21 and b 12 are the
secondary diagonal. The value of the determinant is the product of the principal diagonal minus
the product of the secondary diagonal (Fig. 1.7).
110 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK
EXAMPLE:
5 4
=5 X 2 ( 4) X 3 = 22
3 2
The expansion of higher order determinants can be accomplished by considering the minor of each
element in a column or a row.
In any determinant, if the row and column containing a given element, say e (see example) are
blotted out, the determinant formed from the remaining elements is called the minor of e.
3 2 5
Figure 1.8
3 5
In Fig. 1.8 the minor of 4 is
7 6
1. Multiply each element of a column (or each element of a row) by its minor and give the
product a plus or minus sign according as the sum of the position numbers in the row and
column containing the element is even (+) or odd ( ). See the example that follows.
EXAMPLE:
b2 c2 d2 bl ci dl
~ b2 c2 d2
+a I b3 c3 d3 ~ b3 c3 d3
~ b3 c3 d3
b4 c4 d4 b4 c4 d4
a4 b4 c4 d4
bl ci dl bl ci dl
+~ b2 c2 ~ a4 b2 c2 d2
b4 c4 d4 b3 c3 d3
Linear Algebra
Simultaneous linear equations with two unknowns are most easily solved by eliminating one of the
variables by subtraction (after obtaining similar terms of opposite sign). Consider the following
equations:
(1)
(2)
Multiply eq. 1 by~ and eq. 2 by a 1 and then add the two new equations
~a 1 x ~b 1 y = ~c 1
a1 ~ x + a 1b2y = a 1c2
(3)
Equation 3 is a linear equation in one unknown, y. This equation can be solved for y and then x
can be found from either one of the original equations by substitution of the value of y.
MATHEMATICS 111
EXAMPLE:
all b12 c13
b22 c23 b12 c13 b12 cl3
~1 b22 c23 = ( 11+1)a11 (12+1)~1 + ( 13+1)~1
b32 c33 b32 c33 b22 c23
~1 b32 c33
EXAMPLE:
Alternatively, D can also be expanded by considering the elements (and associated minors) of any
row (row 1 in this illustration).
4 1 6 1 6 4
D = 3 =( 1) +2
3 4 2 4 2 3
EXAMPLE:
3x + y = 2
X 2y =5
Multiply the first equation by 2 and add the equations to eliminate y
6x + 2y = 4
X 2y = 5
7x = 9 or x = 917
Now substitute this value of x in either equation and solve for y
using the second equation
917 2y = 5
9 14y = (5 X 7)
14y = 26
y = 26114 = 13/7
A general formula for the value of y could have been obtained if Eq. 3 was solved for y.
Writing Eq. 3
Solving for y:
a 1c 2  ~c 1
y =
a 1b2  ~b 1
Solutions for x and y can be obtained by substituting directly into these formulas.
EXAMPLE:
3x +y = 2
X 2y = 5
( 3) ( 5)  ( 1) ( 2) 152 13
y = = =
( 3) ( 2)  ( 1) ( 1) 61 7
Examination of the general formulas for x and y indicates another approach to the solution of
simultaneous linear equationssolution by determinants, "Cramer's Rule."
Notice that the denominators of the x andy formulas are the same and can be obtained by
expanding the determinant of the x and y coefficients:
which is the determinant of coefficients with the constants substituted for the x coefficients.
Similarly, the determinant of the coefficients with the constants substituted for the y coefficients
will give the numerator ofy.
Thus cl bl a! ci
c2 b2 ~ c2
X = Andy =
al bl al bl
~ b2 ~ b2
MATHEMATICS 115
This procedure is applicable to any system of n linear equations in n unknowns and will give a
unique solution if, and only if, the determinant of the coefficient matrix is not zero. This
procedure is particularly useful for the solution of three (or more) unknowns. For three linear
equations in the following form
If !1 i= 0, the value of any unknown can be found from the following fraction
Therefore:
k, b, c, a, k, c, a, b, k,
Is b2 cz ~ Is cz ~ b2 Is
k3 b3 c3 ~ ~ c3 ~ b3 k3
X = y = z =
!1 !1 !1
a 1 b1 c 1 X
~ bz cz y = Is
a3 b3 c3 z
116 FUNDAMENTA LS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK
EXAMPLE:
2A + 3B  C = 10
A+ 4B + 2C = 4
2A  2B + 5C = 35
2 3 1
/). = 1 4 2
2 2 5
4 2 3 1 3 1
/). = 2 ( 1) +2
2 5 2 5 4 2
10 3 1
4 4 2
35 2 5
A=
81
A = 162 = 2
81
2 10 1
1 4 2
2 35 5
B =
81
MATHEMATIC S 117
C can be obtained by substituting the values found for A and B into one of the equations:
2(2)+3(3)C= 10
C= 5
Thus
A= 2, B = 3, C = 5
There are certain types of problems in linear algebra that require setting up equations to represent
the physical conditions of the problem. The solution to the problem is then obtained by solving
the equation(s).
EXAMPLE:
Determine how much alcohol with a purity of 99% must be added to 50 gallons of 90%
alcohol to obtain a 95% alcohol solution.
Then 0. 99x + 45 = O. 95
50 +X
0. 99 X + 45 = ( 0. 95) ( 50) + 0. 95 X
0. 04x = 47.5  45
Dan is 20 years older than Andy. Twenty years ago he was twice as old as Andy. How
old are both men?
A = Andy's age
Then D =A+ 20
and D  20 = 2 (A20)
A + 20  20 = 2 A  40
A = 40 years old
D = A + 20 = 60 years old
EXAMPLE:
Alan digs 5 holes to every 3 holes dug by Bob. Together Alan and Bob can dig 24 holes a
day. How many holes can Bob dig by himself in one day?
2B + B = 24
3
8B = 72
B = 9
Thus, Bob can dig 9 holes per day by himself.
EXAMPLE:
Four men can build 5 cabinets in 3 days. How many men are required to build 15 cabinets
in 4 days?
4 men x 3 days 12
man days/cabinet = =
5 cabinets 5
Then 12 4x
5 15
EXAMPLE:
A's swimming pool may be filled with water using his hose, neighbor B's hose, neighbor
C's hose, or any combination. Using A's hose and B's hose takes 30 hours. Using A's
hose and C's hose takes 24 hours. Using B's hose and C's hose takes 20 hours. How long
would it take using A's hose alone?
Then the fraction of the pool volume filled hourly under the various combinations is given by
1 1 1
+  
A B 30
1 1 1
+  
A c 24
1 1 1
+
B c 20
1 1
1 1 0
A 30
1 1
1 0 1 =
B 24
1 1
0 1 1 
c 20
~ = 1 (1) 1 (1) + 0 = 2
120 FUND AM ENTAL S 0 F EN G IN E ERIN G EXAM REV IE W W 0 RKB0 0 K
1
 1 0
30
1
0 1
24
1
 1 1
1 20
A 2
1 1 1 1
 +
A 60 48 40
115,200
A= = 80
1440
Thus, it will take 80 hours to fill the pool with A's hose alone.
MATHEMATICS 121
Vector Analysis
Definitions
A
Y iTz
Figure 1.9
";!
/
Scaler Representation of OA
A
Y r i I Figure 1.10
~:)
ry// y
~X~
rx //~~_.X
Vector Representation of OA
122 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK
rX r rz r
=  J = __]_ ' k =  e =
rx ' ry rz ' r
rx ry rz
a. = p= , y =
r r r
and relate e to i, j, k.
e = a.i + pj + yk
A sum of vectors a and b is a vector c formed by placing the initial point of b on the terminal
point of a and joining the initial point of a to the terminal point of b.
A difference of vectors a and b is a vector d formed by placing the initial point of b on the initial
point of a and joining the terminal point of b with the terminal point of a.
A difference of vectors b and a is a vector e formed by placing initial point of b on the initial point
of a and joining the terminal point of a with terminal point of b.
a
Figure 1.11
~ ~ a a
~ a
a + b = c a  b = d b  a = e
ScalerVector Laws (a,b are vectors; m,n are scalars)
Cumulative Law
y
1
a~ a
l~ a
a + b + c = f b + c + a = f c + a + b = f
Figure 1.12
Associative Law
(a + b) + c = f a + (b + c) = f
Scaler Product
The scaler product, or a dot product, of two vectors a and b is defined as the product of their
magnitudes and the cosine of the angle between them. The result is a scaler.
124 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK
a· b = b ·a
a · (b + c) =a · b +a · c
Thus
i·i=j·j=k·k=l
Vector Product
The vector product (or Cross product) of two vectors a and b is defined as the product of their
magnitudes, the sine of the angle between them, and the unit vector n normal to their plane. The
result is a vector.
a·b = ab sin a n
Thus
ixi=jxj=kxk=O
M AT HEM AT I C S 125
J k 1 a X bx
ay by ax bx ax bx
ax b = ax ay az = J a y by = 1 J + k
az b z a z bz a y by
bX by b z k az bz
a= 4i + 3j k
b =2i 6j + 2k
J k 1 4 2
axb= 3 6 4 2 4 2
4 3 1 = J 3 6 = 1 J + k
1 2 1 2 3 6
2 6 2 k 1 2
Example:
The system shown in Fig. 1.13 is to be in equilibrium. What must be the balancing moment?
a = 2i + 3j + 6z
Figure 1.13
~1~
X
126 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK
The solution of higher order algebraic equations usually involves some procedure for fmding the
roots of the equation. Roots of an equation in the form f(x) =0 are values of x that satisfy the
equation. The quadratic formula may be used to find the roots of a second degree equation. The
roots of the quadratic equation
ax 2 + bx + c =0
are
x = b ± Vb 2  4ac
2a
There are formulas for the roots of cubic and quadratic equations, but these involve lengthy
procedures. Roots may be found by factoring. If x =r is a root of the equation f(x) =0, then (x 
r) is a factor of f(x) and dividing f(x) by (x r) will reduce the equation to one degree less than
that of the original equation.
EXAMPLE:
If x = 2 is a root then (x2) is a factor of x 3 7x + 6. The reduced equation can be found
by division.
MATHEMATICS 127
x2 + 2x  3
x2 lx 3 + Ox 2  7x + 6
x3  2x 2
+ 2x 2  7x
+ 2x 2  4x
 3x + 6
 3x + 6
0
Now use the quadratic formula to find the roots of the reduced equation:
x2 + 2x  3 = 0
X =
2 ± J (2)2  4 (1) (3)
2
X
2 ± J4 + 12
2
2 ± 4
X =
2
Information about the approximate value of a root can be found from the fact that if y = f(x) is
plotted on a Cartesian coordinate system, the real roots are values of x where the graph crosses
the xaxis (the exact criterion is that y =0; there are certain cases where the graph does not
actually cross the xaxis). This indicates that if a function is continuous between two different
values of x and f(x) has opposite signs at these two points, then there is at least one root between
these two values of x. The approximate value of the root can be found by repeated applications
of this principle.
EXAMPLE:
X DX
2 +59
1 +10
0 1
1 +2
2 +43
3 +194
Based on sign changes, there is at least one root in the range 0 to 1 (there also is at least
one root between 0 and 1). Check with a rough plot (Fig. 1.14).
+Y
'\ I'
\ I
\ I
\ I
• I
\ I
\ I
\ I
I
\
I
I
Figure 1.14
\ I
\
\
I
I Thus, answer is a)
\ I
\ I
\ +
+X
roots
LOGARITHMS
The logarithm of a number to the base b (b>O and b 4: 1) is the exponent that must be employed to
express the number as a power of b. This definition means that
is equivalent to ba = n
When the logarithm to one base is known, the logarithm to any other base may be determined in
the following manner. By definition
Taking the logarithm of each side of the equation to the base a gives
A base commonly employed is the base 10 (the Briggsian System). Logarithms in this system are
referred to as common Logarithms and log 1ofi is generally written as log n.
130 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK
Another base used extensively because it greatly simplifies mathematical expressions in the
calculus is the base e. Mathematically e is given by
The number e is an irrational number which, therefore, does not repeat or terminate,
e = 2.718281828459 ...
Logarithms employing e as the base are referred to as natural logs and logen is generally written as
ln n.
Conversion between common logs and natural logs can be made by the following
log n = 0.4343 ln n
ln n = 2.3026 log n
Logarithms can be found directly by using scientific calculators. However, when tables are to be
used to find the logarithm, two other terms must be defined: the mantissa and the characteristic.
The logarithm is composed of a decimal part called the mantissa which is always positive, and a
whole number called the characteristic which may be positive, negative, or zero. Mantissas are
found in tables of logarithms.
>
Log 19.75 = 1.2956
...... .__.....
CHARACTERISTI{ MANTISSA Figure 1.15
..... ~
Notice that the characteristic changes as the decimal point moves whereas the mantissa is
affected only by the sequence of numbers.
Log 0.1975 = 1 + 0.2956 which may be written as 0.7044, however this form can lead to
confusion since the mantissa does not appear explicitly, In order to avoid confusion the
following manipulation is sometimes employed: add 10 to the characteristic and subtract
10 as follows:
1 + 0.2956
+10 10
9 + 0.2956 10 or 9.295610=log 0.1975
MATHEMATICS 131
Number Characteristic
1 or greater The characteristic is positive and is one less than the number of digits to left
of the decimal point.
less than 1 The characteristic is negative and one greater than the number of zeros
between the decimal point and the first nonzero digit.
Mantissas not found directly in the tables can be determined by linear interpolation.
EXAMPLES:
1) Find 34 by logs.
let x = 34
log x =log 34
log x = 4log 3
log X= 4 X 0.477
log x = 1.908
X= 81
2) Which one of the following is correct according to this statement 7 = 10°· 845 ?
a) log 10 = 0.845
b) log 7 = 0.845
c) log 0.845 = 7
a) 6.062 + 10
b) 5.839 10
c) 4.839 10
d) 6.839 10
4
 log x "' log(O.OOOl)
5
4 4
log x =
5
log x = +5
X = 100,000
b = n 1/x
b2 = n 2/x
X
log z(n) = 
b 2
7) Find In l!.je
8) Find log756
logan
Since logbn = 
logab
log 56
Then log756 = = 2.069
log 7
TRIGONOMETRY
Angles
Trigonometry deals with angles. Angles can be expressed in degrees or radians. There are 360°
in a complete circle. A radian is the angle that is subtended by an arc on a circle which is equal to
the radius of the circle. Since the circumference of a circle is 21tr, 360° = 21t radians. One radian
is approximately 57.3 o.
Note that the distance along an arc, S, is equal to the radius r, times the included angle measured
in radians (Fig. 1.16).
S=re
s Figure 1.16
Conversions:
1t
radians = degrees x  
180
180
degrees = radians x  
1t
EXAMPLE:
Trigonometric Functions
Consider a rectangular coordinate system and let a radius vector of length r rotate through an
angle 8 in a counterclockwise direction from the positive xaxis (Fig. 1.17). (Note that if 8 is
negative the rotation is in the clockwise direction.)
+Y (QUADRANT)
II I
X +X
Figure 1.17
IV
III
Y
If the coordinates of the end point of the vector are (x, y), the trigonometric functions are defmed
as follows. (note: x andy may be positive or negative depending on the location of the end point,
but r is always positive):
sine = y/r
cos e = x/r
tan e =y/x
esc e = 1/sin e = r/y
sec e = 1/cos e = r/x
cot e = 1/tan e = x/y
tan e = sin 8/cos e
MATHEMATICS 135
Note that as 8 moves from quadrant to quadrant, the sign of the trig function will change because
of the change in sign of x and y. The signs of the trigonometric functions in each of the quadrants
is given in the following table:
Quadrant I II III IV
sine + +  
cos e +   +
tan e +  + 
EXAMPLE:
Find the sin, cos, and tan of the angle 171t/6 radians.
First we note that 171t/6 is greater than 21t and less than 31t radians.
171t 121t
  = 51t radians
6 6 6
In sketching this out we note that 8 = 30° and a= 60° (Fig. 1.18).
Figure 1.18
13
2
1
Then 171t 1
sm    
6 2
e
X
171t _{3
cos =
6 2
tan 171t 1
= 
6 {3
136 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK
Inverse functions are defined to determine the original angle from the value of one of the
trigonometric functions. For example, if
sin 8 =X
Then
This is also sometimes written with the prefix "arc." For example
arcsin x =sin•x
Many problems involve the solution of right triangles. Consider the right triangle in Fig. 1.19.
c
a Figure 1.19
e
) b
opposite a
sin e= =
hypotenuse c
adjacent b
cos e=
hypotenuse c
opposite a
tan 8 = =
adjacent b
EXAMPLE:
Let 8 = arctan V2
MATHEMATICS 137
1
Figure 1.20
) 2
X= {5
Then sin 6 = sin (arctan Y2) =  1
{5
Polar Coordinates
Sometimes the locations of points are expressed in polar coordinates. Polar coordinates are in the
form (r, 6), where r is a radius vector to the point from the origin and 6 is the angle of rotation of
the radius vector measured from the xaxis (Fig. 1.21).
Figure 1.21
e X
~~~
y = r sine X= r COS 6
EXAMPLE:
Fundamental Identities
Pythogorean formulas:
1 + cot2 A = csc2 A
Doubleangle formulas:
tan 2A =
Halfangle formulas:
cos ~ =± ~ I + ~os A
A 1  cos A sin A 1  cos A
tan =± =
2 1 + cos A 1 + cos A sin A
MATHEMATICS 139
Twoangle formulas:
tan A± tan B
tan (A± B) =
1 +tanAtanB
. A+B AB
sin A + sin B 2 S i l l   COS
2 2
A+B . AB
sin A  sin B =2cossm
2 2
2 s. mA+B . AB
cos A  cos B = sm
2 2
Given the triangle ABC with sides a, b, and c, (Fig. 1.22), the following laws apply.
A
A + B + C
c Figure 1.22
C~~a~~B
Laws of cosines:
140 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK
Laws of sines:
a b c
=
sin A sin B sin C
EXAMPLE:
If boat A heads in an easterly direction at 20 knots and boat B heads in a south easterly
direction at 30 knots, how far apart are the boats after 2 hours if it is assumed they started
from the same location?
If the physical conditions of this problem are sketched (Fig. 1.23), it will be obvious that
the solution can be obtained from the law of cosines:
W ~1~~a~~ E
45
ix Figure 1.23
b '
''
EXAMPLE:
If a parallelogram has sides of lengths 3 and 5 and an included angle of 60°, find the
length of the diagonals.
MATHEMATIC S 141
} 5
/
Figure 1.24
60°
a2 =9 + 25 30(0.5) = 19
a= 4.36 (short diagonal)
Hyperbolic Functions
Definitions
ex  ex
hyperbolic sin x = sinh x =
2
ex + ex
hyperbolic cos x = cosh x = 
2
ex  ex
hyperbolic tan x = tanh x = 
ex + ex
1
hyperbolic esc x = csch x =
sinh x
1
hyperbolic sec x = sech x =
cosh x
1
hyperbolic cot x = coth x =   
tanh X
142 FUNDAM ENTALS OF ENGINEE RING EXAM REVIEW WORKBO OK
Inverse Functions
Identities
cosh2x  sinh2x = 1
1  tanh2x = sech2x
coth2x  1 =csch2x
ANALYTIC GEOMETR Y
Straight Lines
The general equation of a straight line has only first order terms and can be written as
Ax+By+ C=O
y=mx+b
where m is the slope and b is they intercept (value of y when x =0) (Figure 1.25).
Figure 1.25
run=x2x1
X
nse = !:l.y =
slope = m =
run !:l.x
MATHEMATICS 143
A
rn =and b =
c
B B
where (x 1, y 1) is any point on the line. The twopoint form of the equation is
The slope of a line is the tangent of its inclination. If 8 is the inclination, then as shown in Figure
1.26 the slope is positive if y increases as x increases (L 1) and negative if y decreases as x
increases (L2).
m = tan e
y
Figure 1.26
If two lines are perpendicular, their slopes must satisfy the following
1
or rn1 =
~
144 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK
If straight lines L 1 and L 2 (L1 being the line of greater inclination) have slopes m 1 and m 2 , the
positive angle, a, from L 2 to L 1 is given by
mi  IIl:z
Tan a =    
The distance, d, between any two points can be found using the Pythagorean Theorem
EXAMPLE:
The point (5,2) is the midpoint of the line connecting (4, 5) with (x, y). Find x andy (Figure
1.27).
(x,y)
I
:7
I
I
(5,2) I
Figure 1.27
9
:7
(4,5)  _____ I j
2  ( 5) 7
m= fly =
flx 5  ( 4) 9
x = 5 + flx = 5 + 9 = 14
y = 2 + fly = 2 + 7 =9
and (x,y) is (14,9)
MATHE M AT I C S 145
EXAMPLE:
The angle between line 1 whose slope is lA and line 2 is 135 o. Find the slope of line 2.
mi ~
tan ex: = but tan 135° = 1
1+m1 ~
•A ~
1 =
1  ~/4
EXAMPLE:
Find the equation of the line perpendicular to the line 3x  2y = 4 and passing through the point
(3, 2).
3
y = X  2
2
The slope of this line is 3/2 thus the slope of the line we are looking for is 2/3. The equation is
then
2
y  2 = (x3)
3
2
y =X+ 4
3
EXAMPLE:
Find the equation of the family of lines perpendicular to the line 5x + 7y + 11 =0.
The slope of the line 5x + 7y + 11 =0 is
m=
A 5
B 7
146 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK
Thus, the slope of the family of curves perpendicular to this line is 7/5 and the equation of the
family is
7x 5y + c =0
EXAMPLE:
Find the equation of the line with x and y intercepts of X 0 and Yo respectively
also 0 = mxo + y 0
Rearranging
Note that this is the equation of a straight line in terms of the x andy intercepts. Similarly
it can be shown that the equation of a plane is
Conic Sections
An equation with secondorder terms will give a conic section. The general equation of a conic
section is
A x 2 + Bxy + Cy2 + Dx + Ey + F =0
The conic section may be identified from the general coefficients as:
a parabola if (B 2  4AC) =0
a hyperbola if (B 2  4AC) > 0
The simplest form of the equation for an ellipse (i.e., with the center at the origin) is
xz yz
 +:::; 1
az bz
If a2 = b2, the equation reduces to
This is the equation for a circle of radius a (with the center at the origin).
The simple form of the equation for a parabola (vertex at the origin) is
y = a x 2 or x = a y 2
The simple form of the equation for a hyperbola (center at the origin) is
or
When the center (or vertex in the case of the parabola) of the conic section is translated from the
origin to a point (h,k), the simple forms of the equations are modified by substituting (xh) for x
and (yk) for y. For example the equation of a circle of radius r with the center at (h,k) is
(x  h) 2 + (y  k) 2 = r
If the axis of the curve is inclined to the coordinate axes, an x y term is introduced.
EXAMPLE:
Given the following equation: x2  4x + 2y2  12y = 20; identify the conic section and
determine the location of the center or vertex.
A=l
B=O
C=2
Then B2  4AC =0 4 (1)(2) = 8. :. B 2  4AC < 0 and the curve is an ellipse. To find
the center of the ellipse, complete squares
148 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK
(x  2)2 + (y  2f = 1
2
Thus, the center is at (2,3). The simple form of the ellipse can also be recognized.
EXAMPLE:
Find the equation of the tangent to the circle defined by the equation x2 + y 2 =25 at the point
(3,4)
Sketch the figure of the tangent to the circle at (3,4) (Fig. 1.28).
Figure 1.28
Note that the radius will be perpendicular to the tangent at (3,4) and the slope of the radius to this
point is
flY 4
m = =
r tlX 3
3
Slope of tangent = 
4
3
y =X+ b
4
MATHEMATICS 149
4 = 2(3) + b
4
25
b =
4
3 25
y=x+
4 4
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Functions
The symbol f(x) is a shorthand representation of the expression "function of x", where x is any
variable. When the expression y =f(x) is written, xis the independent variable andy is the
dependent variable (its value depends on the value of x). When we write f(2), this means the
value of f(x) when x = 2. For example, if
f(x) = 3x2 + 2x + 3
f(1) =2(1) 2 + 2(1) + 2 = 8
f(2) = 3(2) 2 + 2(2) + 3 = 19
z = f(x,y)
When it is required to introduce more than one function into a discussion, additional functional
symbols, such as F(x), G(x), etc., are used.
Limits
"Limits" are applied to express the value a function approaches when the independent variable
approaches some constant. More precisely, we say that f(x) approaches the limit Las x
approaches a if the numerical value of f(x) L can be made to remain as small as we like by
taking x sufficiently close to a. This is written as
lim
f(x) = L
xa
150 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK
Note that the definition does not mean that f(a) = L (although it may) since the function may not
actually be defined when x = a (it may not be a continuous function at x = a). A function f(x) is
continuous at x =a if f(a) exists and if
lim
f(x) = f(a)
x.a
lim
1)
x.a
{f(x) ± F(x)} = A± B
lim
4) x.a
{f(x) + K} =A + K, where K = constant
lim
5)
x.a Kf(x) = KA
lim 1 lim 1
Also 
x.0 X
= oo and x.oo  =0
X
EXAMPLE:
lim2 (3x 3  7)
x.
EXAMPLE:
MATHEMATICS 151
lim ( 2 5 x
x2 l = oo
We can make the function ( 5 ) exceed any given number by taking x close enough to 2.
2  X
EXAMPLE:
Find lim (x 2  9)
x3 (x  3)
In this case, the numerator and the denominator approach zero as x approaches 3 and the limit is
not apparent. However, if we factor the numerator we have
In the example above, the numerator and denominator were both approaching zero. When it is
not possible to factor, this type of problem can be solved by using L'Hospital's Rule:
lim (x 2  9) = lim 2x = 6
x3 (x _ 3) x3 1
EXAMPLE:
Find lim (x 2  9)
x3 (27  3x  2x 2 )
lim (x 2  9) lim 2x 6 2
x3 (27  3x  2x 2) = x3  
(3  4x) 15 5
152 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK
EXAMPLE:
The Derivative
An important limit forms the basis of the differential calculus. By means of this limit, rates of
change can be calculated. The term by which all instantaneous rates of change are designated is
the derivative. The derivative is defined as:
lim !:ly = dy
/:ix.0 !:lx dx
EXAMPLE:
Find dy , if y = x 3 .
dx
Let !:ly be the change in y when x changes by !:lx, then
!:ly = (x + !:lx) 3  y
MATHEMATIC S 153
The example above illustrates the use of the definition of the derivative in performing
differentiation. However, in practice differentiation is most conveniently performed by use of
formulas or basic rules already derived for various common functions. Some of these formulas
are provided in the Table of Derivatives.
EXAMPLE:
Find dy if y = 6x 4 dy = 4 · 6x 3 = 24x 3
dx dx
EXAMPLE:
Table of Derivatives
1. de = 0
dx
2. d dv
 (cv) = c
dx dx
3. d du dv
 (u ± v) = ±
dx dx dx
154 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK
4. d dv du
 (uv) = u  + v 
dx dx dx
5.
~ (x ") = n x nI (power rule)
dx
7. d (c u) = c u.ln c·
du

dx dx
8.
9. ~ (ex) = ex
dx
10.
11. du dv
v u
dx dx
y2
12. d 1
 (log x) =  log e
dx c X c
13. d 1 du
 (log u) = loge·
dx c u c dx
14. d 1
 (In x)
dx X
15. d 1 du
 (In u)
dx u dx
16. d du
 (sin u) = cos u 
dx dx
MATHEMATICS 155
17. d (COS U) =  . du
 SID U 
dx dx
18. d 2 du
 (tan u) = sec u 
dx dx
19. d du
 (esc u) =  (esc u)(cot u) 
dx dx
20. d (sec u) du
 = (sec u)(tan u) 
dx dx
21. d du
 (cot u) =  esc 2 u 
dx dx
22. d du
 (sinh u) = cosh u 
dx dx
24. d 2 du
 (tanh u) = sech u 
dx dx
25. d du
 (csch u) = (csch u)(coth u) 
dx dx
26. d du
 (sech u) = (sech u)(tanh u) 
dx dx
EXAMPLE:
dy (2x)(12x 2 )  ( 4x 3 + 3)(2)
dx 4x 2
dy = 8x 3  3
=
dx 2x 2
EXAMPLE:
dy . 2 a sin ax
 =(a sm ax)(sec ax) + cos ax
dx cos ax
dy =(a sin ax)(sec 2 ax+ 1)
dx
EXAMPLE:
Find dy if y = (3xY
dx
let u = x and v = 3x, then by formula 8 in the Table
dy = (3xY (1 + ln 3x)
dx
EXAMPLE:
The solution to this problem requires use of formulas 3, 5, 6, 22, and 23 from the Table.
EXAMPLE:
Find dy if y =exlnx
dx
: =e•( !) +(l)e'lnx
: =e' ( ~  ID x)
Taking logs prior to differentiation will sometimes simplify the procedure considerably. The
following example illustrates this.
3M
EXAMPLE:
. d
Fm dy1.f
 y=x x2 .
dx 1 + x2
Taking logs;
ln y =In x3 + In V1  x 2  In VI + x2
then,
~ : = ~ ~ + ( I : x 2) (2x)  ~ I : x 2 (2x)
:. dy =y (l X
dx x
Substituting for y;
Derivatives may be treated as a ratio of differentials that can be manipulated algebraically. This
property is most evident when working with the integral calculus, however, it is also useful for
illustrating or visualizing various relationships of derivatives. For example,
dy = 1
(:l
that is
dx
X= f(t) y = g(t)
the derivative of y with respect to x can be determined without solving explicitly for y as a
function of x, by the following
dy = dy/dt
dx dx/dt
EXAMPLE:
dy =6tz 12t
dt
dx
 =6t
dt
MATHEMATICS 159
Implicit Differentiation
2. Solve for dy
dx
EXAMPLE:
d 3d d 3d
 (x ) +  (3x y) +  ( y ) =  (8)
2
dx dx dx dx
dy = x 2 + 2xy
dx X 2 + y2
The derivatives, f(x), of a function y =f(x) may be a differentiable function. In this case, the
derivative of f(x) is called the second derivative of y. The second derivative may be written in
several forms:
_i_ ( dy)
'
dzy '
f"()
X' Y''Dz
' xY
dx dx dx 2
160 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK
Similarly, this process may be repeated and derivatives of higher order written in analogous
fashion.
EXAMPLE:
4x2 + 8x + 16 = y
dy = 8x + 8
dx
EXAMPLE:
y' = 24x2  2x
y" = 48x 2
y'"=48
y""=O
EXAMPLE:
dy = 2e + 2 cos 2x
dx
M ATHEMATIC S 161
Partial Derivatives
az
ax
af f ,
ax' X' f X (X, y), fl (x,y)
a2z
 a ( azJ
ayax ay ax
The last two derivatives are called cross derivatives. If the cross derivatives are continuous, the
order of differentiation is immaterial. That is
162 FUNDAMENTAL S 0 F ENG IN E ERIN G EXAM REVIEW W 0 R K B 0 0 K
also
= =
etc.
EXAMPLE:
a 2z
= 12x 2y  2
ax 2
az az ax
= +
az ay
ar ax ar ay ar
MATHEMATIC S 163
In the special case when z = f(x,y) and x = g(r) andy= 0 (r), the derivative of z with respect tor
is a total derivative and is given by
dz dx
= +
az ay az (Chain Rule)
dr ax dr ay ar
EXAMPLE:
The altitude of a right circular cone is 15 in. and increases at the rate of 0.2 in./min. The radius of
the base is 10 in. and decreases at 0.3 in./min. How fast is the volume changing?
Let x =radius andy= altitude of cone. The volume of the cone, V, is given by
1tX2
v = y
3
The change in volume with respect to time can be written as a total derivative because V is a
function of one independent variable, t
dv av dx 1t (2XY dx + X 2 dy)
dt ax dt 3 dt dt
701t . 3 . d .
=  m per mm. ecreasmg
3
Applications
As noted previously, the derivative represents the instantaneous rate of change of the function
with respect to x. Various useful physical and geometrical applications can be made using this
fact. For example, velocity is the rate of change of position with time. If s is a distance and t is
time, the velocity, v, is given by
ds
v =
dt
(Note that when vis positive the motion is in the positives direction.) In addition, acceleration,
a, which is the rate of change of velocity with respect to time, is given by
dV d 2s
a = =
dt dt 2
164 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK
Similar applications can be made with regard to other rates of change. A particularly useful
application is the relationship of the derivative t the slope of a curve (i.e., the slope of the line
tangent to the curve at the point in question). If the equation of a curve is y = f(x), the derivative
of y with respect to xis the slope of the curve at any point (x,y) on the curve (Fig. 1.29).
Yj,
I
I
I
Figure 1.29
'~~~~~~~~~~~~~x
EXAMPLE:
Slope = dy = 2x
dx
0 0 3
1 1 ±2
Figure 1.30
EXAMPLE:
A point moves along a straight line with its distanceS, in feet, from a fixed point given by S = se
6e + t + 3 with time t in seconds.
MAT HEM AT I C S 165
V = 2281 ft/sec
dv
a==48t12
dt
a= 48(10) 12
a= 468 ftfsec 2
EXAMPLE:
Find the equation of the normal to the curve y = 2x2 at the point (2,8)
~ = dy = 4x = 4(2) = 8
dx
Since the normal is perpendicular to the tangent, the slope of the normal, mN, is
1
m = 
N 8
y =_X+ b
8
Find b: (2)
8 = + b
8
b = ~
4
166 FUNDAMENTALS 0 F EN GIN E ERIN G EXAM REVIEW W 0 R K B 0 0 K
33
y = X +
8 4
EXAMPLE:
Is the path drawn from the point (1,2,3) steeper in the positive x direction or in the positive y
direction?
EXAMPLE:
The edge of an expanding cube increases at the rate of 3 in. per sec. When its edge is 5 in. long,
find the rate of change of its volume and of its total area.
dV
3x 2 dx where x = 5 m.
dt dt
dx 3 in. (given)
dt sec
MATHEMATIC S 167
dv in3
 = 3 (5) 2 (3) =225
dt sec
da
 = ~ 6x 2 = 12x ( : )
dt dt
. 2
12(5) (3) = 180 ~
sec
EXAMPLE:
Sand poured on the ground at the rate of 3 ft 3/min forms a conical pile whose height is one third
the diameter of the base. How fast is the altitude of the pile increasing when the radius of the
base is 2ft?
3h,
r =  sub stltutmg
. . . lds
yte
2
2
3h )
v = 3 2
1t (
h = 3/41th
3
dh 4 dV =_]__ftlmin
= =
dt 91th 2 dt 41t
Many interesting problems require the determination of the maximum and/or minimum values of a
function. A possible method for solving such problems can be seen by inspection of Fig. 1.31
below which shows the relationship between the behavior of a function and the signs of its
derivatives (the function is a continuous function with continuous first and second derivatives).
168 FUN DAME NT A L S 0 F ENG IN E ERIN G EXAM REVIEW W0 RKB0 0 K
Figure 1.31
x
Positive values of f(x) are associated with portions of the curve that rise to the right (positive
slope such as from A to E) while negative values of f(x) are associated with portions of the curve
that fall to the right (negative slope). A zero value of f(x) is associated with points that have a
horizontal slope (A, C, and E). Points A and E are "local" minimum and maximum points,
respectively. Thus, when the derivative is positive the function increases as x increases and when
the derivative is negative the function decreases as x increases. The derivative is zero at
maximum or minimum values.
The sign of f'(x) is associated with the rate of change of the slope. A positive f'(x) indicates that
the slope is increasing (the curve is concave upward such as that portion up to B or between C
and D), while a negative f'(x) indicates a decreasing slope (the curve is concave downward).
Points such as B, C, and D where f'(x) is zero and changes sign are points of inflection. Note that
at a maximum point (E) f'(x) is negative and at a minimum point (A) f'(x) is positive.
This information is very useful in evaluating a function with respect to possible maxima or
minima. The procedure for this evaluation is as follows:
2. Set the first derivative equal to zero, and solve the resulting equation for real roots
to find the values of the variable. These values are called "critical" values.
4. Substitute each critical value of the variable in the second derivative. If the result
is negative, then the function is a maximum for that value; if the result is a positive
number, the function is a minimum [if f'(x) is zero, the value of f(x) on either side
of the critical value must be evaluated].
EXAMPLE:
Y' = 2x+4=0
:. x = +2 is a critical value. Check the second derivative: Y" = 2, thus, at x = +2 the
function is a maximum. The maximum value of the function f(2) = 22 + 4(2)  3 = + 1
EXAMPLE:
A farmer has 120 linear feet of fencing with which to enclose a rectangular plot of ground and to
divide it into three rectangular parts by partitions parallel to an end (Fig. 1.32). What should the
dimensions be so that the area of the plot is a maximum?
y
Figure 1.32
X
.... I
Area of plot = A = xy
:.x = 120  4y = 60  2y
2
:. y = 60 = 15 .
IS . . al val ue
a cntlc
4
. d 2A
Smce   = 4, the area is a maximum
dy2
X = 60  2(15) = 30
INTEGRAL CALCULUS
Indefinite Integral
Integration is the process of fmding a function whose differential is given. Integration is the
inverse of differentiation. The symbol I means "the function whose differential is." Thus,
I du = u + c
Because of the presence of the constant, the resulting function is called an indefmite integral.
Note that this is the opposite of the application of the power rule for differentiation (formula 5 in
the Table of Derivatives). The rule for integration of simple algebraic functions in the form axn
(where a and n are constants) is to increase the exponent by one, divide by the new exponent, and
add the constant of integration. That is
ax n+l
f ax ndx =
n + 1
+ c
Like differentiation, integration is often carried out by use of formulas already derived for various
common functions. Some of these formulas are provided in the Table of Integrals, which is a
short list of fundamental integrals. A handbook of mathematical tables/formulas should be
consulted for a more complete list.
EXAMPLE:
4x 3
+ + 4x + c
3
MATHEMATICS 171
EXAMPLE:
3x 312 2x Yz
 + c
EXAMPLE:
dx . 2x
JJg  4x2 =Yl =arcsm+c
3
Definite Integral
When the limits of integration are defined, as in this case, the integral is called a definite integral.
EXAMPLE:
3
J3x
3
2 dx = x3 2 = (3)
3  (2) 3 = 19
2
172 FUND AMENT A L S 0 F EN GIN E ERIN G EXAM REV I E W W0 RKB0 0 K
EXAMPLE:
I(2x  I(4x
2 2
4) 2 dx = 2  16x + 16) dx
I I
=  
4x
3
3
 8x 2 + 16 1 2
4
3
EXAMPLE:
~ I Sin
n/4
I Sin 2xdx
n/4
= 2x(2dx)
0 0
__!_ (0  1) 1
2 2
TABLE OF INTEGRALS
1. I adu = a I du = au + c
3. I(u ± v) dx Iu dx ± Ivdx =
4. Iudv = uv  Ivdu
I u du n+1
U n+l
5. n =  + c
6. I du lnu c
~ = +
au
7. = + c
lna
s. Ie udu e u c = +
9. I u2 du a2 =_!_arctan(~)
+ a a
+c
MATHEMATIC S 173
Integration by Parts
The formula for integration by parts is particularly useful for problems where the integrand is the
product of functions of different types. The purpose is to replace one integral with another that is
easier to integrate. The formula is based on the differential equation
EXAMPLE:
Find I xlnxdx
x2
= lnx + c
2 4
EXAMPLE:
b
Find finxdx
a dx
Let u =lnx, dv =dx then du = , v = x.
X
b lb
Jlnxdx = xlnx a  fbdx
a a
=b lnb  a Ina  b + a
=b (lnb  1)  a (ina  1)
MATHEMATIC S 175
Double Integrals
Some problems in integral calculus involve functions of two variables. Such problems may
require the evaluation of a double integral such as
b d
JJf(x,y) dy dx
a c
The integration is carried out by first performing the integration within the brackets, then
performing a second integration employing the outer notations.
<l
EXAMPLE:
I 2
f( ~ ~)
I
Jf
y2 dy dx
= [(
dx
=
dx = J~ dx
0 I 0 0
I
7 7
X =
3 0 3
Applications
Figure 1.33
a j 1 dx b
176 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK
dA =f(x) dx
A= jf(x) dx
a
EXAMPLE:
Find the area bounded by the curve y = 6x 2 , the xaxis, and the vertical lines x =2 and
x=4
EXAMPLE:
Find the area bounded by the xaxis, theyaxis and the curve x + y2 =4 (see Fig. 1.34).
y
X 2 2
A = f x dy f (4  y
= 2) dy
'l:
0 0
8
A = ( 4y  Y3 =8
3
Figure 1.34
MATHE M AT I C S 177
EXAMPLE:
Determine the area moment of inertia of the area bounded by y = x 3 , y = 0, and x = 1, with
respect to the yaxis (Fig. 1.35). All dimensions are in feet.
Yi
IY = Jx 2 dA where dA = y dx
I I
Jx Jx
6 I
X
IY = 2 y dx = 5 dx
0 0
6 0
= 0.167 ft. 4
X= f~ Figure 1.35
The area between two curves: y 1 = f(x) and y2 = g(x) in the region (a,b) where y2 > y 1
Figure 1.36
a b
J
b b
Find the area of the region (Fig. 1.37) bounded by the curves
x2 x
y =andy= + 2
4 2
178 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK
Solve for the points of intersection of the curves by simultaneous solution of the two equations
y
X
x2 =
x + 2
Y2 =2 + 2 4 2
x2  2x  8 =0
Factoring:
(x + 2) (x 4) = 0
JdA J(y
4
Area A = = 2  y 1) dx
2
When a curve y = f(x) is revolved about the x axis, a surface of revolution is generated. To find
the area of this surface, consider the area generated by an element of arc ds (Fig. 1.38). This area
is approximately that of a cylinder of radius y and length ds. Summing all such elements of
surface yields the surface area A.
Figure 1.38
MATHE M AT I C S 179
The area of the cylinder whose radius is y and whose axial length is ds is da where
dA = 2rcy ds
dA=2nydx ~ 1 + ( ~)'
Then
r
A = 2rc f y ds
A = 21t fy ~ l r~ + dx
EXAMPLE:
Find the area of the surface of revolution between x = 0 and x = a, generated by revolving the arc
of the semicubical parabola a 2y = x 3 about the x axis.
x3 . dy x2
y = 
'
= 3
a2 dx a2
ds =
~ l + r ~r dx
ds = _1 (a4 + 9x 4)y, dx
a2
dA = 2rcy ds
A = ~ (10 {fO  1) a 2
27
A = 3.6 a 2
A fundamental theorem of the integral calculus is the notion of the integral as the limit of a sum.
Again consider the area, A, bounded by the x axis, the lines x = a and x = b, and the curve y =
f(x). In this case divide the region (a,b) into n intervals of lengthsilxl' d~, ... , ilxn and let x 1,
x2, ••• , xn be values ofx, one in each interval (Fig.l.39).
y
y = f(x)
Figure 1.39
n
lim
Then
noo I: f(xk) ilxk = A
1
b
n
lim
Thus, jf(x) dx =
noo
I: f(xk) dxk
a
1
EXAMPLE:
n
lim
Find L x~ dxk in the interval from x = 0 to x = 4
1
MAT HEMATIC S 181
n
lim 4
noo
L x~ Llxk = Jx 3dx =
0
1
The relation of the integral to a limit can be used to determine the volume of a solid generated
by rotating the curve y = f(x) about the xaxis. Consider the curve y = f(x) in the region (a,b)
(Fig. 1.40).
Yl
I
I
Figure 1.40
.. x
Then
EXAMPLE:
Find the volume of the solid generated by rotating about the xaxis the curve x = 3y 2 in the
region from x =0 to x =6.
6
v = = Jn; dx
0
v = = 6n cubic units
6 0
182 FUND AMENT A L S 0 F EN GIN E ERIN G EXAM REVIEW W0 RKB0 0 K
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
Definitions
A differential equation is an equation that involves derivatives (or differentials). If there is only
one independent variable in the equation, it is called an ordinary differential equation. When there
is more than one independent variable, it is called a partial differential equation. The order of the
differential equation is the order of the highest derivative, while the degree is the degree of the
highest ordered derivative.
The solution to a differential equation is a relationship of the variables that satisfies the equation
and contains no derivatives. The general solution of a differential equation of the nth order
contains n essential arbitrary constants while a particular solution is a solution obtained from the
general solution by assigning values to the constants (usually while evaluating the boundary
conditions).
Equations with variables separable are first order equations that by simple algebraic manipulation
may be written in the following form
M (x) dx + N (y) dy =0
where M(x) is a function of x only (or a constant) and N(y) is a function of y only (or a constant).
The solution to such equations can be obtained directly by integration.
EXAMPLE:
Separating variables:
x dx y dy =0
integration yields
x2 r = c
2 2 2
where the constant of integration is chosen as C/2 to eliminate fractions in the next step.
EXAMPLE:
y dx  y 2 dy = dy
f dx f dyy f y dy
=
2
+
x=lny+ L +c
2
or 2x = 2 ln y + y 2 + c 1
EXAMPLE:
J';' = fk dt; 1n y = kt + c1 = kt + 1n c
y = e kt or y = C e kt
c
EXAMPLE:
fu"
Un + I
Using du = yields
n + 1
y 1 X
1
= c
now multiplying through by xy
x +y= c 1 xy
dy+Py=Q
dx
where P and Q are constants or functions of x alone. This equation has the following solution.
y = ce 0 + e 0 jQe 0 dx
where 0 = JP dx
EXAMPLE:
Solve dy = 2y + (x + 1)5/2.
dx X + 1
rearranging:
dy 2y = (x + 1)512
dx X + 1
0 = JP dx =  Jx ~ 1 dx = 2 ln (x + 1) =  ln (x + 1f
( X + 1)3/2
y = C (x + 1)2 + (x + 1f ="
3/2
2
y = C (x + 1)2 +  (x + 1)712
3
This type of equation has the following form (P and Q are constants):
d 2y dy
+P+Qy=O
dx 2 dx
Note that this equation is satisfied by the substitution of y and its successive derivatives, therefore,
its solution will be in a form where the derivatives repeat themselves upon differentiation. Thus,
assume the solution is in the form:
y = e ax
Substituting the derivatives into the differential equation and cancelling, e ax yields:
a 2 + Pa + Q = 0.
This is called the auxiliary equation. If the auxiliary equation has real roots a 1 and ~, then y =
e a1x and y = e ~x are particular solutions of the differential equation.
The constants in the general solution can be determined from the boundary conditions. Note that
if the roots of the auxiliary equation are complex the solution will contain trigonometric functions.
For example, assume the two roots are a + bi and a  bi. Then the solution takes the following
form
186 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK
Y= c 1e(a+bi)x + c2e(abi)x
now since e a+bi = e a(cosb + i sinb) and e abi = e a(cosb  i sinb)
now let A= C 1 + C 2 and B = i(C 1  C 2), then the final form of the solution is
y = e ax (A cosbx + B sinbx)
If the roots are pure imaginary roots such as ±bi, the solution will have the form
y = A cosbx + B sinbx
If the roots are two real identical roots, the solution is
EXAMPLE:
d 2x 5dx
Solve   +   + 6x = 0.
dt 2 dt
For boundary conditions:
dx = 12 at t = 0
dt
d 2x
= 0 at t = 0
dt 2
This is a homogeneous equation of order 2 and is linear with constant coefficients. The solution
is in the form of x = e at. where x' = ae at • x" =a2eat
' '
a 2 e at + 5a e at + 6e at = 0
a 2 + 5a + 6 = 0
M ATHEMATIC S 187
Hence;
at t = 0:
dx
(1)
dt
d 2x
= 4C e 21 + 9C e 31
dt2 I 2
at t = 0:
d 2x
= 4C 1 + 9C2 = 0 (2)
dt 2
Multiplying (1) times (2) yields
Adding (2) and (3): 3C2 = 24. Therefore C 2 = 8. Substitute into (1):
2 C 1  3 (8) = 12
2 C1 = 36
Therefore C 1 = 18
X= 18 e 21 + 8e 31
Applications
EXAMPLE:
A 100 gal tank is filled with brine containing 60 lbs of dissolved salt. Water runs into the tank at
the rate of 2 gal/per min and the mixture, kept uniform by stirring, runs out at the same rate. How
much salt is in the tank after 1 hour?
188 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK
dS = ~ dt or dS = dt
50 s 50
Integrating:
In s =
t
:. S = Ce ~t/50
50
Determine C:
At t =0 s =60
Therefore C = 60 and S = 60e ~t/50
LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION
A modem form of the operational calculus consists of the use of the Laplace transformation. The
theory of the Laplace transformation introduces many rules that are important in the analysis of
problems in engineering. One of the most important of these rules deals with the transformation
of derivatives of functions. By the use of this rule, significant simplifications in certain types of
problems in differential equations can be made.
Je
0
= ~st F(t) dt = f(s)
This operation is called the Laplace transform of F(t) and is written in the following forms:
The Laplace transform of F(t) exists (i.e., the integral converges) if F(t) is continuous and
provided some constant a exists such that
e !Xt IF(t)l
EXAMPLE:
TABLE OF TRANSFORMS
c
C (constant) s 0
1
eat s  a a
n!
t n (n = 1,2, ... ) S n+l 0
k
sinkt s2 + k2 0
s
cos kt s2 + k2 0
k
sinh kt s2  k2
s
cosh kt s2  k2
k
eat sin kt a)2 k2 a
(s + +
s + a
eat cos kt (s + a)2 + k2 a
_i!!_
{t 0
2VsJ
1
~
 0
{t
The Laplace transformation is linear so that if A and B are constants then:
This relationship and algebraic manipulation of fractions can be used to find the inverse transforms
of quotients of polynomials of s. The procedure is to rearrange the expression
(by considering factors) in the form of the sum of functions with known inverses.
EXAMPLE: Find L  1( s + 1
s 2 + 2s
l·
s + 1 s + 1
Consider the function =
s2 + 2s s(s + 2)
s + 1 A B
assume = +
s(s + 2) s s + 2
clear fractions:
s + 1 = A(s + 2) + Bs = (A + B)s + 2A
s(s + 2) s(s + 2) s(s + 2)
A +B = 1 and 2A = 1
then A =Y2 and B =Y2
and L I {, ~ ~s} = ~ L
:
1
{:} + ~L 1
{, ! l} = ~ 1 e 2t
+
2
EXAMPLE:
Find L  1 J k2 }.
ls(s 2 + k 2)
k2 1 s
note that     =
s(s 2 + k 2) s
192 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW WORKBOOK
Th L I { k2 }  L I { 1 }  L I { s } = 1 coskt
en s(s 2 = k 2)  ; (s 2 + k 2)
If e ~t IF(t)l is bounded as t approaches infinity, then for every s >ex: the first term on the right is
 F(o) and
or
and in general:
The Laplace transformation is useful in solving some linear ordinary differential equations.
MATHE M AT I C S 193
EXAMPLE:
Y"(t) k 2 Y(t) = 0
Now
L {Y" } = s 2y( s)  sA  B
y(s)=A _ _s_
sz  k2
or
s B K
y(s) =A +
s2  k2 K s2  k 2
Now by the inverse transforms of the functions on the right:
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