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Metaphor and its Moorings

Studies in the grounding of metaphorical meaning

von
M. Elaine Botha

1. Auflage

Metaphor and its Moorings – Botha


schnell und portofrei erhältlich bei beck-shop.de DIE FACHBUCHHANDLUNG

Peter Lang Bern 2007

Verlag C.H. Beck im Internet:


www.beck.de
ISBN 978 3 03910 457 4

Inhaltsverzeichnis: Metaphor and its Moorings – Botha


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acknowledgements ..............................................................................XI
Foreword ........................................................................................... XIII
Introduction ............................................................................................ 1

PART ONE: METAPHOR AND EMBODIMENT.................... 13

I The Knowledge of our Body


and the Body of our Knowledge .................................................. 15
Metaphor: Between a Positivist Rock
and a Postmodern Soft Place ................................................... 15
Looking in a Mirror Dimly ....................................................... 20
The Cognitive Claims of Metaphor
Based on Irreducible Primary Relations ................................. 21
Grounding Knowledge in Embodiment ................................ 23
Knowing Through the Body .................................................... 26
Non-objectivist Alternatives to Cognitivism ......................... 29
Being & Acting in the World .............................................. 29
Creative, Dynamic, Interactive,
and Context Dependent Know How ................................ 30
Metaphors and Patterns of Invariance .............................. 33
Metaphorical Projections: Constitutive of Domains? .......... 35
The Upshot? ............................................................................... 37

II Solid Ground: The Weight of Grounding Hypotheses ............. 41


The ‘Grounding Hypothesis’ ................................................... 42
The Conundrum of ‘New’ Domains....................................... 44
Conceptual Metaphor Theory .................................................. 45
Domains and the ‘Corporeality of the World’ ....................... 48
An Ontological Framework
Conditioning the ‘Itineraries of Meaning’ .............................. 50
Discerning Recurring Regulated Patterns .............................. 53
Domains: Structured Mush?..................................................... 54
Domains and Mental Spaces
Not Only Creations of the Human Mind .............................. 56
Other Domain Theories ........................................................... 57
Eve Sweetser............................................................................... 57
Brandt’s Proposals ..................................................................... 58
Categorization and Domains ................................................... 60
The Concept of Radial Structure ............................................. 63
Cross-domain Mappings and Radial Categories .................... 65

PART TWO: METAPHORICAL HERMENEUTICS:


A NEW METHODOLOGY .................................. 69

III Metaphors as Keys to the World and the World


as Key to Metaphor ....................................................................... 71
Metaphors and Experience....................................................... 71
Personhood: Relational and Stratified Embodiment ............ 74
Corporeal Structures.................................................................. 76
Structural Domains of Meaning .............................................. 80
The Conventional Distinction between Metaphor and
Analogy Revisited ...................................................................... 83
‘Home Bases’ and Radial Analogies ........................................ 85
All Metaphors are Analogies But Some are More
Analogical than Others ............................................................. 91
Necessary Metaphors and Proper Analogies ......................... 93
The Principle of Aspectual Universality ................................. 95
The Role of Focal Analogical Moments................................. 98

VI
IV Metaphors as Keys to Science .................................................... 101
Changing Views of Language, Metaphor and Science ....... 101
The Interaction View Of Metaphors
and Scientific Models .............................................................. 104
Scientific Theorizing as Hypothetico-Structural
Explanation............................................................................... 109
Metaphor in Reformational Philosophy ............................... 113
Metaphors: Stereoscopic Contexts for Analogies ............... 116
Metaphor and Theoretical Concept Formation .................. 120
Analogies and Structure Mapping ......................................... 122
Semantic Networks in Language and Science ..................... 124
Conceptual Displacement....................................................... 127
Scientific Metaphors: Qualified by Logic,
Language or Imagination? ...................................................... 131
Conclusion ................................................................................ 134

PART THREE: METAPHOR, RELIGION


AND COGNITION ...................................... 137
V Embodiment and the Fiduciary Dimension of Reality............ 139
Religion in Science ................................................................... 139
Religion in the Broad and Narrow Sense ............................. 140
The Omnipresent Fiduciary Dimension .............................. 143
The Fiduciary Rootedness of Cognition .............................. 145
The Fiduciary, the Spiritual and Religion ............................. 146
Non-Epistemic Factors in Scientific Theorizing................. 148
The Fiduciary Element in Theorizing ................................... 149
Rethinking Root-Metaphors: Re-Enchanting a
Disenchanted World ............................................................... 150

VI Possible Worlds: The Mediating Role of Metaphor


Between Religion, Metaphysics and Science .......................... 153

VII
When do Standard Cultural Allegories or Licensing
Stories Become Reified Myths? ............................................. 153
Basic- and Root-metaphors in Science and Society ............ 156
Ideologies: Metaphors Gone Awry ....................................... 160

VII Theory-constitutive Metaphors in Science ............................. 165


Tracing the Constitutive Presence
of Religious Convictions in Science ...................................... 165
Metaphors and Scientific ‘World Views’ .............................. 167
Paradigmatic Presuppositions ................................................ 169
Control Beliefs as Certitudinal Footholds of a Theory ...... 172
Metaphorical Hermeneutics:
A Methodology for the Natural Sciences ............................. 173
Recapitulation ........................................................................... 177

VIII Religion, Metaphysics and Science in Michael


Faraday’s Work ......................................................................... 179
Faith and Science: Methodological Approach ..................... 180
Faraday and the Elusive Forces of Nature........................... 184
Faraday’s Field Concept.......................................................... 188
The Relationship of Faith and Science
in Michael Faraday’s Physics .................................................. 190
Faraday’s Religious Convictions: The Cantor Thesis ......... 192
One Set of Confessional Religious Beliefs,
Two Metaphysical Frameworks
and Two Force Schemata? ..................................................... 198
The Force Metaphor: Two Literal Readings? ...................... 200
Religious Control Beliefs in Faraday’s Work ....................... 206

IX Clusters, Roots and Hierarchies of Metaphors in


Scripture and the Quest for Christian Scholarship ................ 209
Scriptural, Disciplinary and Reality Metaphors ................... 209

VIII
Biblical Metaphors as the Source of Theorizing? ............... 211
Back to Scripture...................................................................... 212
Metaphors as Views of the World in Scripture and in
the Disciplines .......................................................................... 215
The Omnipresence of Metaphor in Scripture ..................... 217
Metaphorical Keys to Scripture and Reality......................... 221
Central or Privileged Metaphors? .......................................... 224
Religious Language Between the Poles
of Pan-Literalism and Pan-Metaphoricism .......................... 225
The ‘Literal Truth’ and Biblical Metaphor ........................... 228
Some Concluding Reflections ................................................ 231

PART FOUR: METAPHOR AND ITS MOORINGS .............. 235

X Metaphorical Models and Scientific Realism ............................ 237


The Cognitive Claims of Metaphor ...................................... 237
Metaphors and Family Resemblances................................... 240
Metaphors: A Realistic Portrayal of the World?.................. 242
Metaphors and Universals ...................................................... 245

XI Embodiment and the Grammar of Creation .......................... 251


Real Certitudinal Anchors ...................................................... 251

Bibliography ........................................................................................ 257

Index..................................................................................................... 277

IX