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Design Considerations In Television
And Radio Broadcast Studios.

UNIVERSITY O F NAIROBI LIBRARY

III111III
0238648 0

HjitVr.v.4 •1 1
A. i A *\ i

—Ngunjiri-
B Arch V
1989-90
INSIGHT

"Hie tower o f human knowledge which we are


in the process o f bu ildin g is endangered by the
curse o f Babel and many who are in i t s construction
have ceased t o be in t e l l i g i b l e t o any o f th e ir fe llo w
workers except those actu ally working on the sane
part o f the b u ild in g ".

- Alexander Wood 1947.

( F i r s t Summer Symposium o f th e A c o u s tic s


Group o f t h e P h y s i c a l S o c i e t y ) .
EEDICATICN

TO

NGUNJIRI WA MUGAI

NA

WACUKA WA CTKCNYO

My Parents

m
EECLARATION This in v e s tig a tio n rep ort i s my own o r ig in a l work, and to the b e s t
o f ny knowledge, has never been submitted fo r the award o f a degree
o r any o th e r academic q u a lific a tio n in this o r any other in s titu tio n .

Sign:
N g u n jiri, F.K.
(Author)

I t i s presented in the 1989/90 Academic Year as a p a r tia l fu lfilm e n t


o f the Examination Board Requirements fo r the award o f the degree o f
Bachelor o f Architecture (B.Arch) at the department o f A rch itectu re
in the U n iversity o f N airob i.

(Supervisor)

Sign:____________________________ _
Mr. K. Karogi
(Year Master) and
Chairman, Department o f Architecture
Faculty o f Architecture Design and Development
U n iversity o f Nairobi
ACKNOWLEDGENEOT This document i s not the fr u it s o f ny own e f f o r t alcne. I am very
much indebted to a l l those who have consciously o r subconsciously
contributed to it s substance and preparation; and e s p e c ia lly the
fo llcw in g
. Dr. A.A. Adebayo - My Supervisor f o r his constant
guidance throughout the e n tire p erio d .

. Mr. Y. As ante - FOr his i n i t i a l in sp ira tio n and


encouragement.

. The D irector K.B.C* - For h is honoured permission to


carry ou t ny case study a t the Voiae o f Kenya.

. Mr. G.M. Muguchu - Administration Manager KBC fo r h is


quick assistance.

. Mr. Koinange - Head o f design sectio n K.B.C.

. Mr, Munyua - K.B.C. -

. Mr. Ole Tianpati - Studio Incharge.


. A l l oth er K.B.C. s t a f f whose assistance and oorperation
I enjoyed.
. My e n tir e fam ily f o r providing both moral and fin a n c ia l
support.

. To Grace fo r h e r concern and dedication.

. To Mrs. Th ion g'o fo r t ir e le s s ly typ in g this report.

. To the authors o f the publications lis t e d in the


Bibliography.
. To a l l those th a t are regarded to be ny frien d s.

* K.B.C. - Kenya Broadcasting Corporation


I n s i g h t . . . , .......................................................................................... (i)
D ed ica tion ........................................................................................... (ii)
D eclaration ........................................................................................ ( i i i)
Acknowledgement................................................................................. ( i v)
Table o f Contents............................................................................. (v )

INTPODUCITON............................................................................................. 1

PART I - THEOPITECAL BACKGROUND

CHAPTER I ~ BASIC SOUND THEORY..................................................... 6

Content O u tlin e ................................................................................... ^

1;1:0 Nature o f Sound.................................................................... 8


1;2;0 Sound Behaviour in Outdoor Space..................................... 12
1;3;0 Sound Behaviour in an enclosed space................................ 16
1:4:0 Sound In su lation .................................................................... 19
1;5;0 Sound Absorption.................................................................. 23

CHAPTER 2 - STUDIO DESIGN................................................................. 29

Content O u tlin e .................................................................................. ^O

2 :1:0 Sound Is o la tio n ............................... .'.................................. 32


2:2:0 T e le v is io n Studio.................................................................. 36
2 :3:0 Broadcasting Studio............................................................... 43
2:4:0 Acoustics and Studio Construction..................................... 32
2:5:0 lig h t in g and V e n tila tio n ..................................................... 30
PART I I ~ CASE STUDIES

CHAPTER 3 - TELEVISION STUDIO..............................................................68

3:1:0 Studio A n alysis........................................................................... 71


3:2:0 Sound Is o la t io n ........................................................................... 73
3:3:0 Roan A cou stics............................................................................. 74
3:4:0 Construction................................................................................ 79
3:5:0 Mechanical S ervices.................................................................... 81
3:6:0 Conclusion.................................................................................... 82

CHAPTER 4 - BROADCASTING STUDIO........................................................... 84

Content O u tlin e.................................................................................... 85

4:1:0 Studio A n alysis............................................................................. 87

4:2:0 Sound Is o la t io n ............................................................................. 90

4:3:0 Roan Acoustics............................................................................... 91

4:4:0 Construction.................................................................................. 97

4:5:0 Mechanical S ervices .................................................................... lO l

4:6:0 Conclusion.................................................................................... 103


PART III

CHAPTER 5 ~ OyCUUSICN ANDPECDN'NENDATICINS........................................ 105

Ccntent O u tlin e .......................................................................................... 106

5:1:0 Conclusion.................................................................................. 107

5:2:0 109

EPILOGUE....................................................................................................... 112

APPENDIX

I - C o e ffic ie n ts o f Sound Absorption................................................ 113

B ibliography................................................................................................ 116
INTRODUCTION The a rc h ite c t is usually faced with the problem o f id e n tify in g

some b a sic tech n ical requirements that have to be in tegrated in


h is design work. Most a rch itects leave a l l these requirements in
the hands o f s p e c ia lis ts who in turn, never in te g ra te them with
other elements o f design to achieve a s a tis fa c to ry and coherent
structure.

The a rc h ite c t does not cnly possess the prime re s p o n s ib ility o f


**
designing the b u ild in g and seein g that i t is executed according
to h is in stru ctio n s, but he has also the addition al task Qf
in te g ra tin g the inputs o f a l l other consultants t o achieve the
design c r i t e r i a s e t down in the b r ie f.

This study s e ts out to in v e s tig a te such an area where the


a rch itect has the r e s p o n s ib ility o f handling the b asic technical
design b e fo re the consultants acmes in - The design o f studios.

In the design o f studios, acoustics remains a prime consideration.


However, as a primary concern, the arch itect has to understand the
elements and ccrponents th at enhance a good acou stic design.
Acoustics, as an a ttrib u te o f arch itectu ral space, should be given
as much a tten tio n as the a ttrib u te s lik e structure and mechanical
systems.

Fundamental acoustic considerations in studio design should be


establish ed in i n i t i a l stages o f design to eschew acoustic p i t f a l l s
or subsequent a ltera tio n s to produce s a tis fa c to ry work. This design
technique aids the a rc h ite c t in in tegra tin g h is work with other
elements o f design.

Broadcasting and te le v is io n studios -"basic design considerations


have been reviewed in th is study to show that the technical
requirements o f acoustics and sound in su lation in studios can
cnly be enhanced by carefu l a rch itectu ral design considerations.

AIM OF STUDY (i) To broaden the understanding o f basic design considerations


o f studios where acoustics is a prime requirement.

(ii) To understand the r o le o f an a rc h ite c t in a technical f i e l d


where a s p e c ia lis t i s needed.

(iii) To ensure a background understanding o f design techniques


t o be undertaken in my design p ro je c t - A Radio and
T e le v is io n Broadcasting centre.

METHODOLOGY This study adopts an approach to establish both t h e o r it ic a l and


p ra c tic a l aspect o f acoustic design in T e le v is io n and Broadcasting
studios. These aspects are analysed and evaluated and fin a lly
concluded w ith an appropriate case study. This evolves certain
deductions th at remain important to an a r c h ite c t's aiders tending
and ap p lica tion . The study i s broken in to three p a rts :-
P a rt I

This p a rt con stitu tes o f a t h e o r itic a l background o f sound as


w e ll as design c r it e r ia in both T elevision and Broadcasting
studios.

The primary source o f information is from re le v a n t lite ra tu re .


This is then expounded to b rin g out certain ch a ra cteristics
valuable f o r studio design.

Part 2
This p a rt gives a p r a c tic a l approach to an e x is t in g situ ation
in Kenya. The studios chosen are used fo r normal d aily
broadcasting and te le c a s tin g to the whole nation. The aim
here is t o brin g ou t the carrponents and elements that are
in teg ra ted in selected stu dios. An evaluation o f both
q u a lit it iv e and q u a n tita tive analysis o f these studios is
considered to ascertain t h e ir performance.

P art 3
This p a rt concludes the e n tir e stud/ by a rriv in g at certain
deductions and recommendations already c ite d in the study. The
aim here i s to d ep ict the r e a l situ ation response versus
t h e o r it ic a l requirements already considered in the study.
SCOPE WTO LIMITATIONS The scope o f th is study s h a ll be lim ited to Broadcasting and
T e le v is io n studios only. However, the b a sic soind theory s h a ll
be considered to a tta in a more cctprehensive study.

The study sh a ll also attempt to ou tlin e most arch itectu ra l


solu tion s to acoustic design in these studios.
PART
ONE
PART ONE

•s.
This Part ocn stitu tes o f two chapters which
are aimed a t esta b lish in g a t h e o r it ic a l backgroind
o f sound as w e ll as design c r it e r ia in both te le v is io n
and broadcasting stu dios.

1HEOPITICAL BACKGROUND
v
Chapter One
Z HAP T E R ONE

This chapter deals b a s ic a lly with the t h e o r it ic a l prop erties o f


sound aimed a t determining certain fundamental considerations in
the design o f studios. The word sound here s h a ll r e fe r to n o is e ,
speech o r music. The main source o f d efin a ticn is ex tra cted from
releva n t lite r a tu r e .

The c h a ra c te ris tic behaviour o f sound in both indoor and outdoor


spaces has been evaluated to bring out design inplications o f
these ch a ra cteristics in t o design.

BASIC SOLND THEORY


CONTENT OUTLINE

1
BASIC

I0
CHAPTER I .
1 : 1:0 NATURE OF SOUND.........................................

1 : 1 :1 Frequency o f Sound >■


1 : 1:2 V e lo c ity o f Sound
1:1:3 Wavelength
1:1:4 Sound Pressure le v e l

1 : 2:0 SOUND BEHAVIOUR IN OUTDOOR SPACE.......... 12

1 : 2:1 Inverse square law


1 : 2:2 Molecular Absorption o f Sound in a i r
1:2:3 Ground Attenuation
1:2:4 Natural and a r t i f i c i a l obstacles

1:3:0 SOUND BEHAVIOUR IN AN ENCLOSED SPACE..


1:3:1 Sound R eflectio n
1:3:2 Sound D iffra c tio n

1:4:0 SOUND INSULATION.......................................

1:4:1 Aiir-bome sound Transmission -


1:4:2 Inpact Sound Transmission

1:5:0 SOUND ABSORPTION....................................... ......... 23

1:5:1 Absorption c o e ffic ie n t


1:5:2 Sound Absorption media
1:5:3 Sound Absorbent m aterials
1:5:4 T o ta l Absorption
1:5:5 Reverberation time
Soind Frequency (H3 )

RALE VDICE, Vowel sounds 100 h3

MALE VDICE, S ib ila n ts 3000 "


BASS SINGER, Bottom note 100
SOPPANO, Top note 1200 "
PIANO, Bottom note 25 "
PIANO, Middle C. 260 "
PIANO, Top note 4200 "
PICCOLO, Top note 4600 "
BASS VIOL, Bottom note 40 "
OPCHESTPAL PANGE 45-4500 "
AUDIBIE RANGE 20-1600 "

Table 1 ,1
Sane ty p ic a l frequencies
(Moore, London 1961 Pa. 13),
1;1;0 NATUFE OF SOUND

Sound can be defined as v ib ra tio n in a m aterial medium such as s o lid s ,


water o r a ir . In the li g h t o f th is in v e s tig a tio n rep ort, only sound
propagation in s o lid s and a i r s h a ll be cons icte red.

1:1:1 Frequency o f Sound

This is the nurrfoer o f complete cycles per second a given molecule


o f the median vib rates about i t s neutral p o s itio n . I t s measure is
the Hertz (H3 ) . The audible range o f frecruencies ranges from
20 - 16,000 H3 -I w ith the upper lim it diminishing with age. Some
ty p ic a l frequencies are lis t e d on Table 1.1 in order to give a
c le a r p ic tu re o f sound sources and th e ir frequencies.

The audible range o f frecruencies can be d ivid ed in to octaves from


meaningful analysis. An octave band representing the frequency
in te r v a l can be c la s s ifie d as shown on Table 1.2.

For seme purpose o f th is stu<fy, the octave band in Table 1.3 s h a ll


deem necessary f o r acoustic design and reverberation time
determ ination in the studios. These frequencies can g iv e a good
sanpling o f a frequency spectrum fo r both speech and music.

1;1;2 V e lo c ity o f Sound


The transmission o f sound waves depend on the physical p ro p erties o f
the medium in which i t tr a v e ls . These p rop erties are mainly e l a s t i c i t y
and den sity. The denser the m aterial, the fa s t e r the speed. Table 1.4
gives examples o f sound v e lo c it ie s in seme construction m aterials a t
roan terrperature.

1-Moore, London 1961 Pa. 13. ___________


Table 1.2
Audible Range Octave Band
(Parkin & Humphreys London 1969 Pg. 246).

O CTAVE BAND
31.5 630 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000 16000
(H z )

Low Frequency Mid Frequency H ig h Fre q u e n cy


C L A S S I F A C A T IO N
Sounds Sounds Sounds

Table 1.3
Octaves used in Studio Design
(Parkin & Humphreys London 1969 Pg. 129).

SELEC TED OCTAVE 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000

(H z)

For Low F r e q u e n c y ForM id Fre q u e n cy For High F re q u e n cy


C L A S S IF A C A T IO N
Sounds So u n d s Sounds

Table 1.4
V e lo c ity o f sounc* in some construction m aterials
(Asante, B. Arch. I l l classwork 1988).

M A T E R IA L V E L O C IT Y (M / s)

A ir 3 4 5 M /s

Concrete 400 "

M a so n ry 2000 "

C ork 4 5 0 -5 3 0 "
L E V E L IN O t C I R t L J
fO V N O - P K C S S U K E

f i g . 1 .1 chart shewing the minimim audible


threshold v 's frequency and threshold
o f f e e l in g (Knudsen, New York 1950
1:1:3 Wavelength
This is the distance tr a v e lle d by sound during the period
ccnplete v ib ra tio n . The wavelength o f v ib ra tio n is re lab
v e lo c ity and requency by the fo llo w in g equation;

= v ^ = Wavelength

v = V e lo c ity o f sound
f = Frequency

1:1:4 Sound Pressure L e v e l


When sound i s produced, the vib ra tio n s e t in the a ir prod
pressure v ib ra tio n which i s d ir e c tly p rop ortion al to the
o f the sound. The sound pressure is measured cn a rela ti-
rith im ic s c a le c a lle d the d e c ib e l scale (dB). This gives
pressure le v e ls and can be d efin ed by the equation;

S .P .L (dB) = 20 lo g |0 P/Po Where SPL = sound i

P = areragc
carp arc
Po = referer
taken i
F ig. 1.1 represents the rela tio n sh ip between frequency anc
pressure l e v e l (S . P . L . ). The S.P.L. are measured by a soi
meter which in dicates the S .P .L . in Decibels (d B ). A typi
sound le v e l meter f o r such measurements i s shewn on Fig. ]
scales o f measurements o f S .P .L .; the phons and sones sha]
in th is study fo r s im p lic ity reasons. The S .P .L . sh all be
equal to the sound in te n s ity le v e l (S .I .L .) , the rate at wh
energy is transm itted.
M olecular Absortpicn o f sound
by a i r (Parkin and Humphreys
London 1969 pg. 250 ) .

M olecular A bsoeptiqm of Sound by A ik

O ctave Ban d Attenuation in d B /\0 O O m


( H i)

21 ®C 2 °C

Relative H um idity Relative H um idity

40*/. €0% 80 % 40% «% 80%

600 1200 3 3 3 10 6 0
1200 2400 13 6 6 33 16 3
2400 4800 33 16 16 49 49 f 33
4800 9600 130 82 49 82 130 82

Fig. 1.3 Illu s tr a tio n o f R eflected


Ground Wave.
(Parkin and Humphreys,
London 1969 Pg. 171;•
1:2:0 SOUND BEHAVIOUR IN OUTDOOR SPACE

In outdoor spaces, the u n restricted soind waves are d iffu sed in


space which is equal cn a l l d ire c tio n . However, sound i s a ffe c te d
by se v e ra l factors creatin g a decrease in sound in te n s ity from the
source. These fa ctors are important since the indoor acoustic
environment has a strong lin k with the outdoor acoustic environment.

1:2:1 In verse Square Law


Each time the distance between the source and the re c e iv e r is
doubled, the sound pressure le v e l decreases by 6dB. The S.P.L. i s
iv e r s e ly p rop ortion al to the distance. This i s an important
phenomenal to be observed when zoning out a cou stic requirements in
an outdoor s e t up. The q u ie t areas in a b u ild in g should be s e t up as
fa r as p o s s ib le from a l l n oise sources.

1:2:2 M olecular Absorption o f Sound in A ir


At frequencies above 200CH3/ i t s noticeable th a t sound attenuation
occurs due to same energy bein g used to overcome in tem o lecu la r
fr ic t io n in the a ir . This attenuation is prop ortion al t o the
distance from the source and may vary due to temperature •and
humidity as shown by the fig u re s given in Table 1.5.

1:2:3 Ground Attenuation


Sound may be absorbed or r e fle c te d depending on the nature o f the
ground cn which i t f a l l s . S o ft grounds are absorbers w h ile hard
grounds are r e fle c to r s o f the soind waves. F to. 1 .3 shows how
sound tr a v e ls frcm a source to a receiver.
R
0 i
1
i
np -
Hi
source t - W r ie r

}
receiver
-

section

Fig. 1.4 A r t i f i c i a l b a r r ie r , source and


r e c e iv e r rela tio n sh in .
(Lawrence England 1970
Pa. 6 4 ).
The a rc h ite c t should bear in mind the need to s e le c t the nature o f
ground textu re in order t o enhance the d esira b le outdoor acoustic
environment.

1:2;4 Natural and A r t i f i c i a l Obstacles


Screens and b a rrie rs can be used to reduce the sound in te n s ity
e s p e c ia lly a t high frequencies. In low frequencies, d iffr a c tio n
(bending o f .sound waves) may occur thus reducing the e f f e c t o f the
obstacles. > Cuttings have 'S im ilar e f f e c t to b a rrie rs and care
should be taken to avoid p a r a lle l w alls which would cause in te r e f lection s
o f the sound waves.

In order t o a ttain b e tte r attenuation, b a rrie rs should be designed


w ith the fo llo w in g fa ctors in mind:-
(i) The b a r r ie r should be plaoed as clo se as p ossib le
. t o the sound source o r rec e iv e r.

(ii) The attenuation i s enhanced by the height o f the


b a r r ie r ; the g re a te r the h eigh t, the more the sound
le v e l reduction.

(iii) The b a r r ie r should be s o lid and a ir t ig h t .

The sound le v e l reduction given by a b a r r ie r o r cu ttin g can be


e a s ily worked out by using the fo llo w in g rela tion sh ip . F ig . 1.4
illu s t r a t e s a ty p ic a l source b a r r ie r and re c e iv e r relationship.

Sound le v e l Reduction (cB)


• Poor

• Be t t e r

• Best
E le v a t e d r o a d b e d p lu s
sh ie ld o f earth b e rm

Fig. 1.5 N atural B a rriers Configurations


(Egan, New York 1972, Pg. 91).
Where H E ffe c t iv e heicfit above b a r r ie r in meters (m)
7K Wavelength o f sound (m)
R Distance between souroe and b a rrie r (m)
D Distance between b a r r ie r and Receiver (ir)

The distance from the b a r r ie r to the re c e iv e r (D) should be much


g rea ter than the distance from source t o b a r r ie r . Likewise, the
distance from the souroe to the exten t o f the b a r r ie r should
always be g re a te r than tw ice the distance frcm the b a rrie r to the
souroe (R) to prevent d iffr a c t io n occuring around the ends.

In planning o f bu ildin gs, t r a f f i c noise can be reduced by such


b a rriers lik e w a lls , sand banks, hedges e tc . F ig . 1.5 illu s tr a te s
attenuation le v e l given by various natural b a r r ie r configurations
w h ile F ig. 1. 6 shews d e ta ils o f prop rietary sound absorbing screen
panel which can be adequately used alcng side o f roads to achieve
sound attenuation o f up to 27 dB

2-Lord & Tenpletcn England 1986 P g .' 54.


F iq . 1.6

P ro p rieta ry sound absorbing screen panel.


(Terrpletcn, London, 1986 Pg. 54) .
4000

PROPRIETARY SOUNP A&GGR&ING-


SCREEN PAN£l>3 PfOTiON
U46P AU)N& ^ OF MAPUTO
T O m WTACfcNT HOMN&
AE^UFNT MOUNTING AUOW^
U W ttflO N Of PAN&TO
A ^O f\& NO
WMPtNG TffKf (PIN WHO)
PCTA1U O f P£*fUFNT MOUNTING- tm K K 'n d b
Of PAM&l*

W U U V U -----------!________ 1
0 100mm 200 300
16

1;3;0 SOUND BEHAVIOUR IN AN ENCLOSED SPACE

When sound waves s trik e a su rface in an enclosed space, p a rt o f i t is


r e fle c te d , p a rt is absorbed and p art is transm itted depending on the
nature o f the m aterial cn which i t f a l l s .

/ Reflected "tound ray


In th is study, sound waves s h a ll be visu a lised as sound rays tr a v e llin g
in s tra ig h t lin e s (Pay or Geometrical aooustics) .
Hard, flat, reflecting surface

1:3:1 Sound P e fle c tio n

Sound r e fle c tio n s depend on the nature and shape o f the surface on

vhich they f a l l . Hard surfaces are good r e fle c t o r s while s o f t porous

Fig. 1. 7 R e fle c tio n from plane surface surfaces are good absorbers. The plane, concave and convex shaped
(Parkin & Humphreys London 1969, Pg. 44). surfaces have d iffe r e n t e f f e c t on sound r e fle c t io n as shewn in
figu res 1.7 and 1 . 8 .

Plane Surface
Sound waves in cid en t on a plane surface are r e fle c t e d such that the
angle o f incidence is equal to the angle o f r e fle c t io n as depicted on
fig . 1.7.

This phenomenon i s analogous t o o p tic a l laws o f lic h t re fle c tio n . In

order to achieue b e tte r r e fle c tio n from any r e fle c t in g surface, the
surface must be designed to be la rg e r than the in cid en t wavelength.
F ig. 1.8 F e fle c tio n from curved surface R eflectio n by plane surfaces bears the advantage o f rein forcin g
and com ers (Parkin & Hunphreys London sound waves in a roan.
1969, Pg. 45).
P la te 1.1 Use c f convex .surfaces in broadcasting
stu d io. (Rcdin Centre P a ris )
Fu rrer, London 1964 Pa. 80.

By MAKirvj
A It* *1 •

© absorptive su rface :

Treatment o f corner to avoid unwanted sound


g. i.y in t e r e f le c t io n s .
(yoore, London 1978 Pa. 30).
Convex Surface
Sound waves in cid en t cn convex surfaces are dispersed in many d irectio n s
as shewn cn f i g . 1.8. Convex surfaces can be used fo r sound d iffu s io n
esp ecia lly i f they are la rg e r than the in ciden t wavelength. These
surfaces are used ex ten sively in both te le v is io n and broadcasting
studios to enhance d iffu s io n o f sound waves and to a s s is t in prevention
o f echoes and unwanted cross r e fle c tio n s . P la te 1.1 illu s tr a te s the
use o f convex surfaces in the w a lls and c e ilin g o f a broadcasting stu dio
in Rodin Centre, Paris.

Concave Surface
Sound waves in cid en t on a concave surface are concentrated cn a focus
region r e la t iv e t o the source as shown in f ig . 1.8. The concentration
increases the sound in te n s ity and th is may cause undesired acoustic
e f f e c t in au dition spaces. Concave spaces should th erefore be avoided
when designing such spaces lik e studios and th eatres.

I f in any case such concave shapes are used, t h e ir fo c a l centres should


be o f f the enclosed space.

Comers
Sound en terin g in a r ig h t angled com er gets r e fle c t e d back to the
source as shewn in f i g . 1.8. This has the disadvantage o f presenting
unwanted echoes unless the c o m e r is treated as shown in f i g . 1.9.

1:3;2 Sound D iffra c tio n


D iffracti.cn i s the change in d ire c tio n o f propagation o f sound waves due
(a) D iffra c tio n o f sound

(b) Acoustic Shadow Formation


Fiq. 1.10 Sound. D iffr a c tio n
(Parking s Humphreys, London 1969 Pg. 46) .

P la te 1.2
Spark nhotocrraph showing r e fle c t io n and
d iffr a c tio n s from a c o ffe re d c e ilin g in an
auditorium.
(Knudsen,New York, 1950 Pg. 55).
to th e ir passage around an o b sta cle. This occurs more fo r low *
frequency than fo r high frequency sound waves as illu s t r a t e d in F ig . l . l o
Figure (b) illu s t r a t e s the formation o f sovnd shadows in high frequency
sounds.

In studio spaces, where music and speech are conducted, the wide range
o f freauencies would have t o be d iffr a c te d s e le c t iv e ly . Nbst o f the
high frequency sound would be r e fle c te d w hile the low frequency sounds
would be d iffr a c te d . R e fle c tiv e and absorptive surfaces in a room may
also cause d iffr a c t io n as depicted in p la te 1 . 2 . The many wavelets
o rig in a tin g from the rib s o f the c o ffe rs are accounted fo r by both
re fle c tio n s and d iffr a c tio n . The edges o f the c o ffe r s being sm aller
than the wavelength o f the in c id e n t sound d i f f r a c t and d iffu s e the
sound.

D iscon tin u ities in the placement o f the sound absorptive treatment cn


the w alls and ir r e g u la r it ie s on the surface w a ll helps to b rin g about
d iffr a c tio n which is a d esira b le condition fo r good acoustics. When
designing stu dios and other audition rooms, the a rc h ite c t should be
aware o f the kind o f m aterials and placements t o be made on the
surfaces o f the room in order t o enhance d iffr a c t io n o f sound waves.

o
1 :4 ;Q SOUND INSULATION
Sound in su lation is the reduction o f sound in te n s ity from one roan to
another. The in su lation o ffe r s more sound reduction than sound
absorption. In su lation o f sound due to impact sound and air'-bom e sound
should always be considered e s p e c ia lly in the design o f studios. This
is one section that the a rc h ite c t has to understand thoroughly as fa r
as the design o f studios is concerned. •Studios requ ire maximum sound
A = D irect transmission
BC&D = In d ir e c t transmission insulation to make sure th at no extern al noise gets in to them.
#

F ig. 1.11 Paths o f sound transmission


between adjacent roans > 1:4:1 Air^-Bome Sound Transmission
(Parkin & Humphreys London
Sound can be transm itted between two adjacent rooms as shown in F ig. 1.11.
1969 , Pg. 178).
Path A shews the most obvious d ir e c t transmission w h ile the others show
how sound f a l l i n g on the w a lls o f the source room can also be transm itted
in d ir e c tly in t o the re c e iv in g room.

Mass La-/
Insulation value <3?

The amount o f in su lation o ffe r e d by the p a r titio n w a lls depend on t h e ir


mass, construction and on the frequency o f the in cid en t sound. Ftor every
mass doubling o f a s in g le - le a f w a ll, the sound in su la tion increases by
5dB; and fo r every doubling o f frequency, the sound insulation also
increases by 5dB. Therefore, f o r s in g le w a lls , the average in su lation
depends on the weight p er unit area ('Mass L a ;' o f sound insu lation )3 .
W e ig h t o f p a rtitio n K g fn>-
F ig. 1.12 g iv e s the rela tio n sh ip between p a rtitio n s with a range o f
F ig. 1.12 ’ Mas Law' o f sound in su lation
(Moore, London 1978 Pg. 70) .

3-Parkin & Humphreys London 1969 Pg. 179»


Weak Links
In most b u ild in g s, windows, doors, roof lig h ts , o e i lin g s etc. provide
weak paths f o r air-b o m e sound transmission. An open window o r a
fliirpsy door would b rin g about a w r y low in su lation value t o an
otherwise h ig h ly sound in su la tin g w a ll. Windows and doors h aw to be
w e ll designed to provide good indoor acoustic environment.

Doors which should exclude as much sound as p o ssib le should be heavy


and f i t t ig h t ly with r e s ilie n t stops. In s tu d io s , sound lobbies
treated with absorbent m aterials and sound p roof doors are provided.
This i s d e a lt w ith more thoroughly in Chapter TVo.

1; 4:2 Impact Sound Transmission


This kind o f sound transmission occurs when source o f the sound is
generated in the structure o f the bu ildin g and transm itted throucji
it. This transmission may be throucfi the flo o r , the w a lls , c e ilin g s o r
the ro o f. The inpact sound may be created by fo o ts te p s , dragging
fu rn itu re, f a l l i n g objects e tc . The loudness o f such inpact sounds
in the re c e iv in g roans s h a ll depend cn the construction o f the flo o r
and f lo o r surfaae. (See F ig . 2 .9 P g .. 55) ..

F loatin g F lo o r

R e s ilie n t m aterials such as ca rp ets, rubber or cork are used t o danp

the energy transm itted through the structure. However, these


m aterials may loose th e ir p r a c t ic a b ilit y with increase o f the inpact.
— )50dB

COMMON PRlCKWOfm
15 PLM51TRT0 EACH 51PE

(a) s in g le w a ll

l -_ £ ___ i

t
—X 5^» dB

SEPARATE 112 BRICK LEAVES


<- tMO TIES] 4 0 0 KO/M^
\__v
-13 PIASTER ON
-EITHER 5IDE
<?om h\t cw\r
r n -I— 1
(b) c a v ity w a ll
m u i n i i j ----------- l
0 100mm 2d)
F ig . 1.13 sound in su a ltio n in s in g le
and c a v ity w alls
(Lord & Tenpletcn London 1968)
Pg. 42,43.)*
s u p e rfic ia l weights (Kg/W) and th e ir in su lation values (cB) .

C avity W all

In order t o achieve more sound in su lation values through a p a r titio n


w a ll, use o f double l e a f w a ll construction is adopted. A doiinle l e a f
w a ll with an a i r c a v ity between the two le a fs g iv e s more sound
transmission loss than a s in g le le a f w a ll with the same weight p er
unit area.

Fig. 1.13 shews a oorparison o f sound in su lation values given by


two brickwork w a lls , cne s in g le le a f and the o th e r dotble le a f w ith a
50 nm a ir c a v ity and 480 kg/m^ mass per unit area. Figure (a)
represents the s in g le le a f w a ll o ffe r in g an in su la tio n value o f 50cb
w hile fig u re (b) represents the same w a ll thickness with the a ir c a v ity
o ffe r in g an in su lation value o f 54 dB. According to the mass leu, th is
insulation can be o ffe r e d by almost doiinling the s iz e o f the s in g le
le a f w a ll.

In the lig h t o f this in feren ce, i t s s^en that a more economical and
e ffe c t iv e so lu tio n to attain high sound in su lation values can be
attained by the way a w a ll i s constructed. A c a v ity w all i s th erefore
an appropriate solu tion to good sound in su lation s e s p e c ia lly in stu d io
designs.
r;
u
T
SUSP6NPEP CfclUUO
/i CM Jt66ILlEA)f HAkXfc££?
'f ■ WTKMAl PARfljlOlO OH
fcESllltWf FNP5

- tv T fm i £>\wpa
/I 6 fU P I0 5fi\Cl

-n c K \m w jo z o\o
e & s iu u t M vvTm

% c\m fH iw r t a

t/ncAL 5fUPW

F ig . 1.14 Discontinuous Construction,


(d e t a il by author).
In that case, the flo a tin g f l o o r construction which a cou stically
is o la te s the f lo o r fin is h from the stru ctu ral f l o o r i s used (see F ig .
2 . 9 pg 55 ) . This type o f construction does not only insulate
impact sound, but also inprove the air-b o me sound in su lation as w e ll.

Discontinuous Construction
In broadcasting and recording stu dios, g rea ter in su lation from both
air-b o me and irrpact sound i s required. In th is case, a discontinuous
cxnstruction i s used which creates a double skin structure w ith the
studio being an a co u stica lly independant room w ith in another room as
shown cn F ig . 1.14.

In th is type o f construction, the external noise in cid en t on the


structure are broken by the a i r space and by the r e s ilie n t m aterials
g iv in g a sQund in su lation o f 60-65 dB4

4-Moore, Tendon 1978, Po. 79.


1:5;0 SOUND ABSORPTION

Sound absorption is the removed o f sound energy th a t is converted


in to heat when sound s trik e s a surface. The nature o f the surfaces
cn which the sound waves f a l l determines how much sound w i l l be
absorbed. Hard r ig id ncn-porous surfaces provide le a s t absorption
while s o ft porous surfaces and those that can v ib ra te absorb most o f
the sound.

1:5:1 absorption C o e ffic ie n t *1


This is the number that rates the e ffic ie n c y o f the absorption process.
This number v a r ie s from zero f o r a case where no sound is absorbed t o
one - a case where a l l the sound i s absorbed. This c o e ffic ie n t is f o r
those sounds a rriv in g on the surfaoe at a l l angles o f incidence. The
absorption c o e ffic ie n t varies w ith the type o f m a teria l and the
frequency o f the in ciden t sound. C o e ffic ie n ts o f sound absorption f o r
various m aterials are given in Appendix I (Pg* 11 3 -1 1 5 ) .

1:5:2 Media o f Sound Absorption


1■ 1 ^
Sound in a roan may be absorbed by a ir , bounding su rfaces, furnishings
as w e ll as the audience.

A ir Absorption
Small amount o f sound i s absorbed in the passage o f d ir e c t and r e f le c t
sound through the a ir in a roan due to in te m o le c u la r fr ic t io n o f a ir .
This i s only o f s ig n ific a n t e f f e c t fo r sornd frequencies above
laX3I3-
___________________
Surface Absorption
absorption occurs in bounding su rfaces depending cn the nature o f the
m aterial and surface treatment. The absorption c o e ffic ie n t o f the
m aterial is the prime fa c to r in surface absorption. S o ft porous
m aterials are b e tte r absorbers w h ile hard s o lid m aterials are good
r e fle c to r s .

Absorption by Furnishings
Sound i s also absorbed by fu rn itu re, curtains, drapperies e tc .
Seats should be h ighly absorbent to reduce aooustic va ria tio n due
to changing audience in a room. Furniture in stu d io spaces should
be porous o r made o f absorbent m aterials to prevent r e fle c tio n s o f
the sound to the microphones.

Absorption by audience
Absorption by the audience is due to the clothings th a t they wear.
This i s a major fa c to r to be taken in a room because the n u tter o f
people present p er occasion can a lt e r the room acoustics percep tib ly.

1:5:3 Sound Absorbent M aterials


Absorbent q u a lit ie s o f d iffe r e n t m aterials vary w ith the frequency o f
the in ciden t sound waves. D iffe r e n t m aterials are used in a roan to
absorb d iffe r e n t ranges o f frequencies. Sate type o f absorbent
m aterials used a re; porous absorbents, menbrane absorbents, resonant
absorbents and p erforated panel absorbents.
fcrovb
txA.id W^fl
(a) Porous absorbent m
w a ll
Hz

sga a
- A«* £>va^c«i

(b) Porous absorbent


10 100 *000 ‘0 00*3 Hz w ith a ir aao

F ig . 1.15 Porous absorbents


(Koenigsberoer, Lcndcri, 1973 Pg. 185)

W a lt
m - + 6*w
-fw o la y e rs of
b itum erw xis felt
-AtV 6try
Hn (a) 2 layers Bituminous
f e l t menbrane
Vtid We.il-
Al»4e>ehw»f
HOm m
plywood (b) If) irm Plywood
-Air 4*y ,
membrane
10 100 1000 10000

F ig . 1.16 Menbrane absorbent


(Koenictsberger, London 1973 Pa. 185)
Porous Absorbents
These are m aterials that have tin n y holes which are open 1
the rocm. Exartples include; m ineral wool, glass w o o l, fo.
wool sla b , ca rp ets, curtains and oth er s o ft furnishings,
absorbents absorb best f o r the h igh er frequency sounds. 1
how porous absorbents absorb sound a t d iffe r e n t frequence

Increasing the thickness o f the porous absorbed o r spacinc


a s o lid backing increases absorption at low and middle fn
shown in the graph in fig u re ( b ) .

Msirbrane absorbents
These type o f absorbers con sist o f a thin a ir tia h t skin,
include; plywood spaced sene distance from a r i g i d w a ll,
c e ilin g and tim ber flo o r s . These meirbranes absorb b est a1
as shown by the graphs in Fig. 1.16.
<
The e ffic ie n c y o f the absorbent can be increased by incre;
thickness o r by putting a s o ft porous absorbent in the ail
the membrane.

Resonant Absorbents
These absorbents have an enclosed a i r chamber connected tc
a small opening. Examples include the Helmholtz resonate;
absorbents have very s e le c tiv e absorption and can be tunec
frequency d esired . These are good f o r use in a u d ito ria l c
l-Ulvibol-tj Ctionajyr
A iv £avi-f y

F ig. 1.17 C avity (IIelmholt 2) resonator


(Koenigsberoer, London 1973
Pg. 185) .

10 100 1000 10000 Hz

F ig. 1.18 P e rfo ra te d Panel absorbent


(Koeniacberoer, Lm dm ]973
Pg. 185).
broadcasting and te le v is io n studios where sere long vib ration s may

be experienced a t a s in g le frequency. F ig. 1.17 g iv e s the exanple


o f the performance o f a ty p ic a l c a v ity (Helnholtz) resonator.

Perforated Panel absorbents


This is a ocxrbinaticn o f both porous and resonant absorbers. They
are b est in medium frequencies; but can be adjusted to s u it various
frequencies by va ria tio n o f the hole s iz e , shape and the nature o f
the backing m a teria l. The performance o f such a p erfora ted panel
absorbent i s shown cn F ig . 1.18.

Application
S election o f the absorbents to be used should be according t o the
frequency o f th e desired sound. The placement w i l l depend on the
e f f e c t desired (whether absorption o r r e fle c tio n ) and also cn the
p o s s ib ilit ie s o f damage that can be caused cn the type o f m aterial.
The c e ilin g , w ith l i t t l e damage exposure should always be prefered
fo r any s lig h t absorption consideration. The same degree o f to t a l
absorption a t a l l frequencies should be provided. This makes i t
necessary to mix the m aterials s e le c te d to balance out the s e le c tiv e
absorption.

1; 5:4 T ota l Absorption^


This i s the sum o f the product o f the areas o f the d iffe r e n t types o f
surface and t h e ir absorption c o e ffic ie n t . The u n it used fo r the
absorption is the sabin

T otal Absorption, A = ° ^ S 1 + 0^ 2 S2 + .............. -to(nSn


5. Parkin & Hunphrevs London 1969 Pg. 51.
Where
are areas in m^
"1 n

<*1 are absorption c o e ffic ie n t s o f the


m aterials a t various frequencies.

The t o t a l absorption i s a determinant parameter towards achieving the


o v e r a ll reverberation time in a roan.

1:5;5 reverberation Time^


The time taken by the sound to decay by 60dB is c a lle d reverberation
time. This dying away o f the sound depends an the absorption in the
roan and the volume o f the roan.

For a great m ajority o f spaces, Sabines formula i s s u ffic ie n t ly accurate


to be used as*a standard formular f o r the reverb eration time ca lcu la tio r

R.T = ° ’A 6V---- Where R.T = Reverberation time


A in seconds
V = Volume in
A = T o ta l Absorption in
Sabins.
Fran the Sabine's formular, i t s c le a r "that absorbent m aterials tend t o
reduce the reverberation time w h ile g rea ter volumes tend to increase i t .

In design o f stu dios, the reverberation time calcu lation s requires the
m odification o f the Sabine's formula in order to overcome i t s an an alities
In th is case, the Eyrings m od ification is o fte n ly used fo r the
calculations.

6 - Parkin & Humphreys London 1969 Pg. 51,52,53.


By th is fo n m la r,

R .T - °~ 16 1
__
S Q -loge (I —o< ) 3 + (xv)

Where P .T . = Reverberation time in seconds

V = Volume o f the space in

X V = A ir Absorption (cnly iirportant fo r large


volumes and frequencies above IOOOH3 )

c< = +...• + SnO(o


S

S = T o ta l su rface area in M2

= Absorption c o e ffic ie n ts o f the m aterials at


various frequencies.

o
Chapter Two
CHAPTER 2

This chapter se ts out t o achieve the design c r i t e r i a in t e le vision

• and broadcasting studio which the a rc h ite c t should bear in mind in


e a rly stages o f ctesign.

Studio design i s a function o f man/ factors w ith acoustics as the


most s trin g e n t c r it e r ia . Good acoustics design must be enhanced
by good planning, layout, m a teria ls, surface fin is h e s , shape, choioe
and design o f se rv ic e systems. Hie a rch itect should consider th is t o
be the backbone o f a successful acoustic solu tion .

STUDIO EESICN
CHAPTER 2
CONTORT OUTLINE

STUDIO DESICU

2 ; 1:0 SOUND ISOLATION..........................................................

2 : 1 :1 S ite S election
2 : 1:2 S ite Planning
2:1:3 I r t e m a l Planning
2:1:4 Background Sound Levels

2 : 2:0 TELEVISION STUDIOS.................................................... ............. 36

2 : 2 :1 Studio Types
2 : 2:2 General Purpose and Theatre Type Studio
2:2:3 In terview and Announcer Studios
2:2:4 Dubbing Suites
2:2:5 Acoustic Design

2:3:0 BPOADCASTING STUDIOS.................................................

2:3:1 Studio Types


2:3:2 JAisic Studio
2:3:3 V a riety Show Studio
2:3:4 Draifa Studio •

2:3:5 Talks Studio


2:3:6 Aonuntic Design

2:4:0 ACOUSTICS AND STUDIO CONSTRUCTION........................ .

2:4:1 Foundation
2:4:2 Structure
2:4:3 Walls
2:4:4 Floors
2:4:5 Poofs
2:4:6 C e ilin g
2:4:7 Doors
2:4:8 Wlndcws

2:5:0 LIGHTING AND VENTILATION....................................................... 60

2:5:1 A ir Conditioning and '/Mechanical V e n tila tio n


2:5:2 Noise reduction
2:5:3 L ig h tin g and Noise
2:1:0 SOtND ISOLATION
The in tern a l and extern al noise sources can g re a tly a ffe c t the noise
le v e ls in a b u ild in g. I t is th e re fo re essen tia l to con trol such noise
problems to the acceptable noise le v e ls in order t o maintain a good
acoustic environment.

2;1;1 S ite S electio n


The required in te rn a l and extern a l noise climate in a broadcasting
studio s e t up depends a l o t cn the s it e location . A l l the perceived
noise le v e ls in a chosen s it e depends on the in te n s ity o f the noise
source and should be measured to ascertain the range o f the background
sound le v e l. Such extern al and in te rn a l noise sources should be w e ll
co n tro lled to achieve the desired noise le v e ls .

I t is important to p re d ic t the nature o f any future developments that


are l ik e ly to take plaoe around the s it e . These developments would
g re a tly a ffe c t the noise clim ate and hence sound c o n tro l precautions
should be oorrpreheaded e a r ly enoucfr to avoid la te r disappointment.

2;1;2 S ite Planning


In the o v e r a ll planning and design o f broadcasting and te le v is io n
studios, there should be proper o rien ta tio n o f the b u ild in g to
reduce noise exposure o f occupied and c r i t i c a l spaces.

The noise s e n s itiv e spaces such as studios should be placed as fa r


at:ay as p o ssib le from extern al and in tern a l noise sources.
The a rch itect should attenpt to g iv e a s ig n ific a n t separation o f
q u ieter areas from, noiser ones.

2:1:3 In tern a l Planning


In the in tern a l planning o f a broadcasting and te le v is io n studio
centre, q u ie te r studios should be separated from n o is e r areas by
less c r i t i c a l spaces acting as b a rrie rs to the e x t e r io r noise;
fo r instance use o f o ffic e s to s h ie ld the q u ie te r stu d io spaces
from extern al n oise in the Broadcasting House, London (see F ig. 2 .1 ).

Studios require q u ie t arrfoient background (25-30 dB) and hence b u ffe r


2.1 Plan o f Broadcasting House London. spaces are p refered between them and other noisy spaoes. Adequate
(Parkin & Hunphreys , London 1969
sound in su lation both frcm the in terferen ce o f outside noise and
(Pg. 201.)
between adjacent in tern al areas and the studios must be provided.

Maximum degree o f insulation betoken the studio and adjoining


spaoes should be achieved by proper construction as already
ou tlin ed p a rtly in chapter cne (see F ig . 1.14 Pg. 22 ) as w e ll as
in the consecutive te x t; construction with carefu l a tten tion given
t o reduction o f any in d ire c t noise transmission frcm the surrounding
spaoes. Observation windows and doors form acoustic weak links in
these spaoes and should th erefo re be s p e c ia lly designed to reduce
any sound transmission through them (see Figs. 2.13, 2.14, 2.15,
on Per. 57-58) .

Any spaoes above any stu dio should be provided with r e s ilie n t flo o rs
t o reduce any impact sound transmission to the studio. The studio
should have suspended c e ilin g t o increase sound in su lation fncm
spaces above i t .

2:1:4 Background Sound Levels

Background n oise le v e ls are taken to determine the b est p osition o f

a b u ildin g cn s i t e . The most q u ie t part o f the s i t e can be found out


by the noise survey.

The aoou stical environment in an occupied space i s the resultant o f


the noise a r r iv in g at the space fran both in te rn a l and extern al noise
sources.

In tern a l noise sources in a stu d io may be caused by mechanical systems,


e le c t r ic a l s e r v ic e s , c irc u la tio n services and human t r a f f i c , w hile the
extern al n oise sources may be caused by t r a f f i c , a ir c r a ft , railway o r
nearby machinery.

I t s mandatory to maintain an ambient aooustical background fo r studio


spaces at 25-30 dB^. This range should be maintained and any
unwanted noise should be is o la te d from these spaces to achieve a good
indoor acoustic environment.

The noise c o n tro l procedure o f s i t e s e le c tio n , b u ild in g o rien ta tio n ,


in tern a l planning, s e le c tio n o f p la n t and equipment and use o f
b u ild in g m aterials and su ita b le structure should be s t r ic t ly follow ed.

6-Burris Meyer, New York 1972, Pg. 115


There i s often a change o f ex tern a l noise climate w ith time,
usually increasing year a ft e r y e a r. This may be due to progressive
developments around the b u ild in g location . Such future developments
should be ascertained e a r ly enough to avoid s ig n ific a n t e ffe c t s cn the
le v e l o f the n oise clim ate.

UNlVEFi»iTY r,: NAIROBI


ft./fe-.O, UBRARY
2;2;0 TELEVISION STUDIOS
J

From e a r lie s t days o f te le v is io n production u n til p re s e n tly , the need


to obtain good p ictu res is allowed to overide the need fo r good acoustics.

The acoustics o f te le v is io n studios is not as c r i t i c a l as those in


broadcasting studios since the p erfon rers have to be given a to le ra b le
acoustic atmosphere in order to produce good performance.

2:2:1 Studio Types

There are four types o f te le v is io n studios whose s iz e s d i f f e r according

to the performance. Acoustical requirements has l i t t l e e f f e c t in


governing th e ir s iz e s . These stu dies a re :-

(i) General purpose stu d io


(ii) Theatre type stu dio
(iii) In terview and announcers studio
(iv ) Dubbing su ites

Each o f these stu dios are provided w ith a n cilla ry tech n ica l roars and
stores around them. The access t o the studios is through sound lobbies
provided with sound p roof doors.

2:2:2 General Purpose and Theatre Type Studios


S patial Use
These two types o f te le v is io n studios are used fo r a l l types o f
progrannes. The main d iffe re n c e btween the two studios is that the
general purpose stu d io has no permanent audience s e a tin g but only
makeshift audience p a rticip a tio n w h ile theatre type stu d io has p rovision
fo r permanent audience seating.

S ize
These studios are usually very la rg e with volumes o f up t o 10,000n3 .

A maximum cle a r h eigh t over the working part o f the stu d io o f 8m must
be provided to elab orate the lig h tin g g rid and the cyclorama scenery
gear.

Control Poems
Each studio is provided w ith four con trol roerrs fo r v is io n , sound,
lig h tin g and camera con trols. An apparatus room is a ls o provided.

V ision , sound and lig h tin g con trol rooms are arranged in a su ite and
must have good v is u a l link through observation windows to the studios.
Out o f n e c e s s ity , the con trol s u ite is located one sto re y higher than
the studio flo o r to g iv e a wide view over the whole stu dio spaoe.

Camera con trol and apparatus roan does not require arty visu al
connection to the studio and can on ly be located near the con trol
roans to avoid long runs o f intercom c ir c u it lin k s.

The s iz e o f the co n tro l roan is governed by the s iz e o f the technical


apparatus which they should accorrmodate.
F ig. 2.2
Section across a ty p ic a l t e le v is io n studio
(Drawing by author)
F ig . 2.2 gives a sirrple diagramatic section o f a t y p ic a l studio

shewing con trol s u ite p osition .

Other Poems
Make up rooms, changing roans and property stores must be provided

close to the stu dio. The p ro visio n fo r audience may requ ire p u b lic
access, t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s , cloak rooms, foyers and even associated
bars and restaurants.

Ligh tin g
Hie studio s e t up must be f le x ib le enough to provide room fo r the
lim itin g g rid . L igh tin g in a t e le v is io n studio in flu en ces the viewers
in terp retation o f s iz e , shape, d istan ce, texture and even p ic t o r ia l
environment o f the o v e r a ll p ictu re.

A lig h tin g g a lle r y , a system o f catwalks or even a gridded flo o r over


the whole studio should be (tesigned to g ive access f o r adjustment o f
the d iffe r e n t types o f luminants used in the studio lig h tin g .

V en tila tion
The powerful lig h t in g system used in the te le v is io n studios dissipate
a l o t o f heat to the studio. This heat output must be reduced by
e ffe c t iv e a r t i f i c i a l v e n tila tio n system. I t th erefo re be acmes
e s s e n tia l to use c h ille d a i r supply a i r - conditioning system to
lower down the tenperatures to com fortable le v e ls .
2; 2; 3 In terview and announcers studios
S patial Use

Announcers studio i s used f o r news casting w hile interview


fo r small in terview s and small group discussions.

S ize
These types o f studios are r e la t iv e ly very small compared
two cases ou tlin ed above. A minimum flo o r area o f 60m2 ai
height o f at le a s t 4m can serve as an adequate spaoe fo r :

Ccntrol Poems
Cne ccn trol cu b icle is s u ffic ie n t though a con tin u ity sui
formed with oth er con trol roars. This may comprise o f prt
studio, con trol cu b icle, cen tra l v is io n roan, cen tra l soui
rocm and sound and v is io n q u a lity check roam. A l l these
the sound and v is io n q u a lity check roans should be v is u a l
each other and t o the studio.

L igh tin g
A lig h tin g g r id is not required f o r these types o f studio;
spot lig h t s ; the key, back and f i l l lig h ts are s t r a t e g ic s
nroduce required surface tones cn the sob ject.

V en tila tion

A r t i f i c a l v e n tila tio n is required t o reduce the heat outp'


Adaptive Use
In some cou n tries, o ld theatres have been converted in to audience
p a rticip a tio n t e le v is io n studios. Though the stage may be adapted
f o r te le v is io n use, a nurrber o f disadvantages are p reva len t; among
them are the fo llo w in g :-

(i) The stage i s usually small preventing innovation


concerning scenery p ro jectio n and a lte ra tio n s .

(ii) The proscenium arch lim its the general ad a p ta b ility


o f the stage area.

(iii) T e le v is io n audience i s small and the th eatre audience


sea tin g capacity i s usually very la rg e .

(iv ) Theatres w ith la rg e stages have a la rg e audience


seatin g and presents d i f f i c u l t in adapting general
sea tin g f o r a sm aller audienae.

(v) E xtra tech n ological innovation concerning lim itin g ,


acoustics con trol and v e n tila tio n i s needed.

The above disadvantages c le a r ly shews that the a rch itect should be arare
th at adaptation can cn lv be done through d i f f ic u lt ie s and eventually
l i t t l e success i s achieved.
Reverberation time (sec.)

OOS Ol 02 0 3 0 4 0 5 IO 5 IO 20
Volum e o f studio (thousands of m 1.)

F ig. 2.3 Reoorrmended Reverberation Tine


fo r Broadcast and T elevisio n
stu dios (Parkin & Hurrphreys
London 1969 Pg. 23).
these few but powerful luminants as w e ll as supplying fresh a ir to
the enclosed stu dio.
J

2;2:4 Dubbing Suites


Dubbing suites are p ro jectio n th eatres whose con trol cubicles and
recording roans have good unobstructed view o f the screen. They are
used fo r previewing film s and dubbing oonmentaries from taped
progranmes,

2:2;5 Acoustic Design


For a l l t e le v is io n studios, the reverberation time should be adjusted
to s u it the volume o f the studio. The volume/reverberation time rela tio n ­
ship fo r both te le v is io n and broadcasting studios i s given in F ig. 2.3.

I t is important to maintain an almost constant reverberation time at


frequencies between 100 H3 and 4000 113?. This can be dene by rig h t use
and placement o f absorbent m aterials.

In audience p a rtic ip a tio n stu d ios, adequate sound coverage fo r the


audience should be provided. A need f o r sound-reinforcement system
becomes necessary in large studios to a n p lify the human voice and
g iv e good sound coverage t o the audience. Lew reverberation time is
th erefore important to prevent reverberaht sound from being picked
up by the microphone.

In p rojection th ea tres, sound co n tro l roans and sound q u a lity check


rooms, the acou stic treatment should only be designed to give good
lis te n in g room condition (reverb era tion time o f 0 .4 -0 .5 s e c . ) .
In v is io n co n tro l roans, the production technique f o r constant
verbal oonmunication between the producer and his assistants c a lls
fo r an a c o u s tic a lly dead condition. An average reverberation tin e
o f not more than 0.25 seconds i s p refered .

Ligh t con trol rooms, apparatus roans and cen tral c o n tro l rooms
require minimum acoustic treatment such as p rovision o f acoustic t i l e
o e ilin g only.
2;3:0 BROADCASTING STUDIOS

In a broadcasting centre, a v a rie ty o f studios are designed to ca ter


fo r various prograirmes and a c t iv it ie s whose d iv e r s ity o f tech n ical and
functional requirements must be f u l f i l l e d .
V|- »

The need fo r good sound production in broadcasting studios sipercedes


a l l other tech n ical and functional aspects. Studios present acoustic
problems whose solu tions l i e on the hands o f a design team o f
a rc h ite c ts , acousticians and engineers.

2;3;1 Studio Types


Pour types o f sound broadcasting studios whose functions are d iffe r e n t
are found in most broadcasting centres. These studios include

(i) Music studio


(ii) V a riety show studio
(iii) Drama studio
(iv ) Talks studio

Planning
Each o f these studios are planned w ith high noise in su la tion precautions
t o lim it any a ir-b o m e or innact sound transmission from the in tern al and
extern al noise sources. A la rge sound transmission lo s s o f sound produced
w ith in the studio is also required to a ttain a qu iet anbient acoustic
environment between i t and i t s neighbouring spaces. Table 2.3 Pg. 54
g iv e s some exanples o f sound transmission loss values required between
some studios and t h e ir adjacent spaces. The ta b le a ls o gives types o f
w a lls that would be ap p licab le in ord er to a tta in these in su lation

requirements.
lAasic Studio s iz e and nurrber o f perfonrers.
(Parkin & Humphreys London 1969 Pg. 119).

Num ber of P e rfo rm e rs Minimum S t u d io Volume

4 4 2 m?

8 1 1 0 "

1 6 34 0 "

32 8 50 "

64 2300 -

128 6200 "


In every studio space, a co n tro l room is required. The con trol room
is v is u a lly lin ked to the studio throuc^i s p e c ia lly designed observation
window. This window should provid e an average sound in su lation value •*
o f up to 40 dB o r more. F ig . 2.15 (Pg. 58 ) gives the d e ta ils o f such
an ^observation window used between a studio and a c o n tro l roan.

The studios gain access through sound lobbies with sound p roof doors
which exclude any extern al noise from g e ttin g in sid e. Fig. 2.1 3 Pg. 57
ou tlin es the d e t a ils o f such a door w hile F ig. 2.14 (Pg. 58 ) gives an
exanple o f sound lock to a studio space.

2:3:2 Music Studio


S patial Use
Large music stu dios are used fo r synphony orch estras, ch oirs, bands
and concerts.

Smaller music studios are used as general purpose studios and are
su itab le fo r medium-sized orch estra, brass band, t r i o s , quartets and
small dance bands. This s iz e o f a studio can also be used fo r speech
production.

S ize
The s iz e o f the music studio is determined by the nurtber o f perform ers.

Table 2.1 gives nurrber o f performers and studio volumes used by the
(B ritis h Broadcasting Corporation) as a general guide.

Music studios should adequately acoorrmodate the audience and a l l the


physical contents in a performance including the instrum entalists and
microphone p lacin g.
Large studios usually have a seatin g fo r an audience o f a t le a s t
one hundred and f i f t y people w h ile sm aller studios used as general
purpose studios have a seatin g f o r an audience o f le s s than cne hundred
and f i f t y .

Ccntrol Poems
A ccn trol cu bicle o f about 2Cm2 j_n area i s required to ha\e a
wide v isu a l lin k to the studio f l o o r through observation windows.

In the i la rg e s t studios with double storey h eigh ts, i t is


desirable to lo c a te the con trol cu bicle a flo o r le \ e l higher than
the studio flo o r .

Other Roans
A recording room adjoining the c o n tro l cubicle and w ith observation
windows both from the con trol roan and to the stu dio should be
incorporated.

L igh tin g co n tro l roan should be in s ta lle d in theatre type o f


studios. For oormentabor build-up progranmes, a carmentary o r
narrators stu d io with observation windows to the stu dio is required.

2:3:3 V a riety Show Studio


This i s a th eatre type studio w ith provision fo r p u b lic audience
seating o f up to four hundred persons. T e le v is io n v a rie ty type o f
studio can adequately suppliment th is type o f studio.
Acoustic panels
Double curtains

Dead side
J £ Live side

Membrane
units E "Bathroom ''

•• •••./

: V.'. • •. 'Dead', cubicle


i/l Slidlng-foldlng 1
^Slid ing panels to . I t ^J partltlop
^ ' Vary acoustics

*’* * ■ ' ‘
•r -
* • ’ • .* -
. Observation window \

f:
WL Control desk

'£ k : ■ B - o .-;:r
f Vestibule •' . y . \ Gramophones
•••." C ontrol cubicle'' * • ' j

F ig , 2.5
The layou t o f a ty p ic a l Drama Studio
(Parkin and Humphreys, London 1969
Pg. 116).
2; 3; 4 Drama Studio

S p atial Use

Drama studio i s mainly used fo r drama and plays. These are normally
recorded fo r l i v e broadcasting.

Size
The s iz e o f a drama studio is governed by s p a tia l requirements. A
flo o r area o f a t le a s t 60m2 is required with two enclosures th at are
acou stica lly trea ted as very dead and very liv e . The dead enclosure
area should a t le a s t be Qm2 in area. F ig 2.5 d epicts a ty p ic a l
drama studio s e t up.

When audience p a rtic ip a tio n is requ ired, i t is necessary to keep


the audience a certa in distance away fron the action area to
maintain a proper performed-to-audience rela tion sh ip .

The height o f a drama studio should vary from three to s ix metres


depending on t h e ir flo o r areas.

Control Poems
Both the dead and liv e enclosures should be arranged to have
direc± v isu a l lin k from the co n tro l room. P re fe ra b ly , the control
roan should be situ ated in a s lig h t ly higher le \ e l than the studio
flo o r .

A recording rcom w ith observation to the con trol room and the

studio flo o r should also be required fo r most programmes.


P la te 2.1
A B ritis h Broadcasting Corporation talks studio
(Parkin & Humphreys, London 1969, P la te v ) .
2:3:5 Talks Studio
Use

Talks studios are used f o r discussion programmes and a lso fo r


announcements and news reading. A ty p ic a l ta lk stu d io i s shewn
on p la te 2 . 1 .

Size

The s iz e o f a ta lk s studio is determined by acou stical requirements


and by the p h ysica l space required fo r the p a rtic ip a n ts , furniture
and apparatus.

Since the acou stical prop erties o f the room must contribute t o the
sound output, dimensions less than 2.4m should be avoided. The
c e ilin g height should be between 2.4m and 3.7m in o rd er to keep to
required reverberation time.

Suites

In a broadcasting cen tre, talks studios can be oorrbined to form

su ites. Continuity and mixer s u ite s are the main ta lk s studio


su ites found in most broadcasting centres.

Mixer Suite
Mixer suites c o n s is t o f two rooms, an announcers stu dio and a
con trol room. Provision i s made f o r bu ildin g up programmes from
other sources such as outside broadcasting.

Record playin g equipment are not accommodated in the studio but


F ig . 2.6
Key Diagram o f lin k in g o f studios in a
Broadcasting Studio Centre
(Parkin & Hunphreys Lodnon 1969, Pg. 117).
in the a co u stica lly treated co n tro l roam which has v is u a l link to
the studio through observation window.

Continuity Suite

The s u ite accommodates announcers studio and a co n tro l room. The


announcers studio houses record p la yin g f a c i l i t i e s as w e ll as the
the microphone.

Sane times a con tin u ity s u ite may con sist o f a mixer room which is
also treated as a talks studio.

Studio Link
A l l studios are linked togeth er through intercom c ir c u it s to a
cen tra l apparatus roan b efore the prog ramies are sen t on a ir
through the transm itter. Fig. 2 . 6 gives a ty p ic a l broadcast lin k .

2:3:6 Acoustic Design

Reverberation Time

The calcu lation s f o r reverberation time fo r every octave from

62H3 to 40OOH3 should be ca rried out and the average values


checked to agree with the optimum value given in the volume/
reverberation time graph. (F ig. 2.3 Pg. 41).

Reverberation time calcu lation s are worked out using the


E ryin g's formular fo r reverberation time instead o f the Sabi res
formula.
R.T. = 0.16 v

S Q -log e (l- o O J + (xv)

Where xv = a ir absorption
oC = average absorption c o e ffic ie n t o f a l l
surfaces o f the room.
lo g e = natural logarithm
s = to t a l surface area o f the m aterials

Absorption
The required amount o f absorption a t each frequency can be
determined a ft e r g e ttin g the required reverberation time and
volume.

Absorption o f the studio contents should be ignored except in


studios w ith p ro visio n fo r permanent audience p a rtic ip a tio n .

Absorbents Placement

The rebust hard-wearing m aterials such as p erforated boards or


wood s trip s should be used on w a lls where they are lia b le to
s u ffe r damage. Less rugged m aterials such as acoustic t i l e s
should be used on ly out o f reach o f particip an ts.

Absorbers are d is trib u te d so that about the same amount o f


absorption at a l l frequencies i s applied to the w a lls , c e ilin g
and flo o r .
Various types o f absorbents (Porous, meirbrane, Resonating Panels
and Perforated Panels) are patched out and w e ll mixed cn the w a ll
to provide maximum sound d iffu s io n d esirab le in the studios a t
low, mid and high frequencies.

Extensive r e f le c t iv e areas such as the observation windows and


plastered w alls should not come e x a c tly opposite one another to
avoid flu t t e r echoes.

In tern a l Geometry
The in tern a l geometry should contribute to the acoustics o f the
studio. Curved surfaces and par ail l e i w alls that are lia b le to produce
undesired sound e ffe c t s on the sound production should be avoided.

7
Studio Proportions
By rule o f thunb, the r a t io o f any two dimensions o f the studio
should not be a whole number o r c lo s e to a whole nunber. This may
help to prevent enhancement o f c e rta in resonant frequencies which
depend on roan dimensions.

For small stu dios, a r a tio o f length to width to h eigh t o f


1.6:1.25:1.0 i s aopropriate v h ile in large studios, ra tio s o f the
order o f 2.4:1.5 and 3 .2 :1 .3 :1 .0 are com only used.

D iffu sion
Studios should have proper sound d iffu s io n to increase the
uniform ity o f the sound d is trib u tio n . With proper uniform sound

7-Knudsen, Nov York 1950, Pg. 407.


P la te 2.2
Protuberances cn the w a lls and c e ilin g o f
N.B.C. Studio 3A Radio C ity , New York
(Knudsen, New York 1950, Pg. 396).
d istrib u tio n , microphone placement becomes less c r i t i c a l than i t
would be in a stu dio with l i t t l e d iffu s io n .

D iffu sion may be provided by non-symnetrical placement o f absorptive


m aterials and by ir r e g u la r itie s on the w alls such as protvberances.
$

P la te 2.2 show a c h a ra c te ris tic exanple o f methods used to obtain


large d iffu s io n in a broadcasting studio in Padio C ity , New York.

o
2; 4 ;Q ACOUSTICS AND SnJDIQ OGNSTPUCTION

This section advances to o u tlin e and describe ocnstrucrticn techniques


and d e ta ils that the a rch itect requ ires to g iv e a s u ffic ie n t
fundamental acou stic solu tion to stu d io designs.

Due to the increasing v a rie ty o f m aterials and oonponents, the


outlined d e ta ils should only be in terp reted as an assessment o f the
■WAU b asic construction solu tion .

2:4:1 Foundation
KEflU&Nf INFIU/
(t ^ L »6 P C6U F0AM6P flAPffc)
The foundation must not transmit vib ra tion s and other n oise o rig in a tin g

from the ground t o the bu ildin g structure. I t must a ls o be heavy


RZVUCtP
yiERAfl^W enough to d issip a te any noise and vib ration s re s u ltin g w ith in the
structure.

Where ground vib ra tio n s are expected, the foundation must be is o la te d


\m>&&
FIU'W from i t . Ib is must be dene ea rly enough to avoid in te rfe re n c e w ith
other design elements la te r .

VIBKAjl^MS Where serious ground vibration s may occur, i t becomes necessary to


r~ L _j is o la te the frame o f the b u ild in g from the foundation by use o f
0 200 BOO 400

F ig . 2.8 r e s ilie n t m aterials between the stru ctu ra l supports and the foundation
Ground Vibrations and Foundation footin g.
Is o la tio n EETAIL
(Moore London 1978 Pg. 86) .
stru ctu ra l frame (Tenpletcn London 1982 Pg. 20).

Table 2.2
A ir-b o m e sound transmission in loss fo r
oonmon types o f w a ll m aterials
(Parkin & Humphreys London 1969 Pg. 216-217).
M A SS PER I N S U L A T IO N
TYPE OF W ALL
U N IT AREA T R A N S M IS S IO N
1 Kg/M 2 ) LO SS (d B )

460m m so lid b rick or s to n e 950 55

2 3 0 mm •• *< « _ •> 450 50

100 mm d en se c o n c re te 350 45

75m m clin k e r c o n cre te plastered


b o t h sid e s. 150 40

50m m gyp su m 100 35

6m m a sb e sto s ce m e n t 13 25

5m m gla ss 13 20
Fig. 2. 7 (a) shows the resu ltan t e f f e c t o f ground vib ra tio n in the
b u ildin g w h ile F ig. 2. 7 (b) shows the use o f foundation is o la tio n
to reduce ground vib ration s.

2; 4:2 Structure

The beam and colurm frame form a r ig id structure th a t may transmit


vibration s and sound from one p a rt o f the b u ild in g t o the other.
This can be reduced by r e s ilie n t ly supporting the lig h t e r frame
mertbers from the major stru ctu ra l elements. The manner o f
attachment o f oth er elements lik e w alls to the stru ctu re can help
to reduce v ib ra tio n s and noise transmission. Such an exanple o f a
w a ll jo in in g a stru ctu ral frame i s given in Fig. 2 .8.

2:4:3 Walls
Studio w alls must maintain a sound b a rrie r from cne spaoe to the
next.

Insulation
Sound waves in cid en t cn a w a ll can 's e t i t in to vib ra tio n s whose
magnitude depends cn the mass p e r u nit area o f the w a ll. For a
homogeneous r i g i d w a ll, mass p er u n it area becomes the main
insulation determinant.

As already s ta te d in chapter cne, fo r every doubling o f mass


per u n it area, the insu lation value improves by 5 dB (see Fig. 1.12
Pg. 19 ) . Table 2.2 indicates the air^bom e sound transmission
loss averaged o v e r the freauency range 100 to 3150 H3 fo r most

ocmmon types o f w a ll m aterials.


Insulation values and typ es. o f w a lls
appropriate fo r broadcasting studios
Cavity Walls
(Knudsen, New York 1950, Pg. 257) .
INSULATION MASS PER TYPE To avoid large w eight s in g le le a f s o lid w a ll, a double le a f w a ll
[ LO SS UNIT AREA OF
SPA CE
R E Q U IR E D (K g / M 2 ) W A L L w ith an a ir gap in between may be used. This gives an average
(dB)
insulation value which is g re a te r than the in su lation o ffe r e d by the
Q iie t outside and s t u d io 55 A 90 S in g le
w a ll o f the same w eight b u ilt s o lid . (Fig* 1*13 Pg. 21) .
Music studio ad jo in in g a t a lk s s t u d io Double
75 980
C avity The double w alls used in c a v ity w a lls should be is o la te d from each
Iw o ta lks s tu d io s adjoining e a c h oth er 55 490 Single other with only fle x ib le lin ks to t i e them together. Sometimes an
S tu d io and con trol ro o m s w ith 45
o b se rv a tio n window 50
absorptive i n f i l l may be used in the ca vity to increase the sound

S t u d io and c ir c u la t io n sp a ce s 50
transmission lo s s . (See F ig . 2.15 P g . 58 ) . in ta b le 2 .3 insulation
Control room and c ir c u la t io n values and types o f w alls appropriate fo r broadcasting studio design
sp a ce s 45
are given.
O ffice a b o ve stu dio 50

F loor Finishes
TABLE 2.4
Impact noise reductions fo r various f lo o r fin ish es The inpact noise reduction on the f l o o r depends on the nature o f the
compared to bare concrete slab (Knudsen, N.Y. 1950 inpact and the f l o o r surface.
FLO O R C O N S T R U C T IO N ON IM P A C T Pg. 257) *
REDUCTION COMMENTS
CONCRETE SLAB
(d B ) Exanples o f inpact noise reductions fo r various f lo o r fin ish es
B a re c o n c re te 0 Bad
ccrpared to bare concrete slab i s given in tab le 2.4.
A s p h a lt tile 0 $•

A s p h a lt felt M
2
Rubber tile B e tte r
F loatin g Floor
7

H eavy carpet 10 Good The amount o f iirpact energy g e ttin g in to the flo o r may not be
Linoleum on fe lt 12 it
properly . is o la te d by r e s ilie n ts surfaces such as cork, carpet o r
A s p h a lt - s a t u r a t e d fibre b o ard 12 M
rubber. I t becomes necessary to adopt a flo a tin g f l o o r construction
W ood flo o r on sle e p e rs 19 Mery quiet
which not only inproves iirpact n oise reduction but a ls o increases
Cork tile 20 ii ••
transmission lo s s f o r air^bom e sound.
Wood flo o r on s le e p e r s a n d ro c k wool 20 ii *•
F H E fllO -W C S 415 T H C 4 U E44C-3 HZ
A IH 6 0 H U & * **»£7 & »um P

Fig. 2.9
In term idiate flo a t in g f lo o r oonstructior
(Templeton, London 1986 Pg. 74).

€x7iAf? rmrFru^o
gUItt-UP PfjUM^U TE-lt
A < 2?MM
MPfW-( PMiWlAjlMfi
-^i|l__ fSJMM l£AAtlM4 £tAp
' C' -#>NM a u m ^ O t V E&yUEMf
. a - ^UILf
* t '
&Cet*V LAID\CfALl,
-t— 1— E#>F£lA0, IPP
i — i^mm nAt’tee.
rm n rm i “I
0 200 mm 400

F ig. 2.10
Sound P ro o f F la t Poof D eta il
(P ich , London 1982 Pg. 64).
A flo a tin g f l o o r rests on the stru ctu ra l flo o r but i t is separated
frcm i t by r e s ilie n t supports. The r e s ilie n t supports must withstand
ocrpression and must have a long l i f e span. Examples o f such supports
include; rubber, f i b reboard, f e l t , wood-wool and m ineral wool blankets.
Fig. 2.9 g iv e s an example o f an interm idiate flo a t in g flo o r con stru ctia
capable o f p ro vid in g both impact and a ir-b o m e sound insulation
values depicted in the shown graphs.

2:4:5 Roofs
In construction o f stu d ios, roofs must also be treated, as sound
is o la tin g devices. A q u ie t l o f t i s necessary where catwalks and
ducts may produoe unwanted squeaking.

Sound con trol techniques in duct passages and r o o flig h t s should be


taken in to account to is o la te the in t e r io r from the e x te r io r .

Semetimes a double structure r o o f is used in studios to increase


sound in su lation from a ir c r a ft n o ise. Fig. 2J0 illu s t r a t e s the
d e ta ils o f a sound proof ro o f construction.

2:4:6 C e ilin g
Suspended C eilin g s

Many suspended c e ilin g s are e it h e r porous o r p erforated in order


to increase the absorption q u a litie s . However, th is correspondingly
reduces the in su la tio n p ro p e rtie s o f these c e ilin g s to very low
values.
Sound isolotion and acoustical treatment of o typical ceiling at
N B C studios in New York. (Courtesy Notionol Broodcosting Co.)

F ig . 2.11
F e s ilie n t Hanaer a p p lication
(Knudsen New York 1950, Pg. 267).
■ftC

jL ___ 2 __ * .

--------------- ■VtMbnmv a m i
* r

vmy. itAiANt------- f
t mviz *wmrw4
$v V Wlfll f$ M U W \ i k f i w

-FIMKING IRflMW&IM

(a) 1GRMINA1W At (blFARt'l1^ W\WVW


tv m w r ctm b V k\e>
F ig . 2.12
Flanking Transmission
(D e ta il by author)
I f good is o la tio n against inpact sound is to be obtained,
the c e ilin g should be r ig id ly connected on to the undersi
structure from which i t i s hung. R e s ilie n t c lip s may pro\
ocnvinient means o f a ttain in g good is o la tio n between the c
and the structure.

Fig. 2.11 d ep icts a ty p ic a l ap p lication o f a r e s ilie n t he


used f o r is o la t in g the c e ilin g from the stru ctu ral sla b .

Suspended c e ilin g s are usually used in studios where c e i l i


should provide favourable sound absorption and d iffu s io n .

C e ilin g Shape
Concave surfaces and barreled c e ilin g s should be avoided,
c e ilin g should not be p a r a lle l to the flo o r to avoid unwan
flu t t e r echoes.

P a rtitio n s

Suspended c e ilin g s have a frequent cause fo r flanking tram


a t the w a ll head i f the p a r titio n i s not b u ilt up t o the s
slab. F ig. 2. 12 illu s t r a t e s the construction d e ta ils o f b
p a r titio n w a lls . Figure (a) shews hew c e ilin g flan kin g o o
to a p a rtitio n w a ll being terminated a t the suspendeded ce:
height w hile F ig . (b) shows how c e ilin g flanking can be re<
by extending the p a r titio n to slab le v e l.
3ntm so rb o rubber
ip S 1 - , str ii
C lo s e r s p rin g
c o rd

r
S o lid c e r e
d o o r (5 0 tn m )
Sin gle or double
p la te g la s s
p e e p h ole

T osilion oh ru b ie r s e a l when
d o o r is open

r
r

J > ro p -T )a r
Minimum clearan ce d ra u g h t t so m
e x c lu d e r

O v e r c a rp e t O ver wood floor

F ig. 2.13
T yp ica l studio door d e ta il
(Parkin & Hurrphreys London 1969 Pg. 203).
2:4:7 Door
I f the w a ll has an opening, the n e t insu lation value o f that w a ll
w i l l be determined by the w a ll and the opening actin g in combination.

The sound transmission loss o f a door depends cn i t s mass per u n it


area and construction. Studio doors must be constructed to achieve
transmission lo ss o f the order o f 40 dB or more. To achieve th is
amount o f transmission loss at a l l frequencies, doors should be
heavy and made a ir t ig h t when closed by providing sea ls around th e ir
e n tire perim eter. The d e ta ils o f a ty p ic a l studio door are shown
F ig. 2.13.

Souid Locks
When doors p e r io d ic a lly stand open, they provide no b a r r ie r to
noise transmission. Sound locks (lob b ies) w ith a s e t o f two doors
are provided in studios to reduce d ir e c t sound transmission when
one door i s open.

The lobby is a c o u s tic a lly lin ed w ith absorbent m aterials and the
doors made as heavy as p ra ctica b le. With both doors clo s e d , o v e r a ll
average in su lation o f upto 45 dB® can be achieved.

Staggering o f doors w i l l help to reduce d ir e c t sound transmission


when both doors are open. Such a staggered arrangement o f doors
in a sound lobby i s illu s tr a te d in F ig. 2.14.

8-Moor e , London 1978, Pa. 84.


Ir .A^RgtMT
.iWFfO, ; ;
WEAVtMHfl^.- ■ *1w
AlUfcE Fif|fNf.
90UKP Ut*

F ig. 2.14
Sound lock between Foyer and Studio

#PARAfE g>fll£K WAU/& Nil fits


•mine^m , m i linw ^ in a vrfy
&fPARA|E fl£ h n T«&

EX 7)?XJ*? W APN 00P

50X<K*6MM ALUMINIUM jit

RU&BFFt ^PH Eidl^N 5tAl


FAOEP 2?MM MIHEFfAb
VttPl U H I H P \ 0 I9MM PMEK0MKP
{.WM 0EPPEP « F
^jWfUICF-

m p pane ;- uimm noh\ g\m >s


$tt in hon m m i i H t m \ \ o
Ot HWPKEKV AflAMN^* HUP (W
aluminium f£i> W P
At 22£VUA C t$

fffMCVMie fWC MP JW& amm


fUPAT 6IMS

r u m ru u -----------r
0 200mm ^00
F ig . 2.15
Studio Observation Window D eta il
(Terrpleton, London 1986 Pg. 105)
2:4:8 Windows

Windows lik e doors provide a s im ila r weak path in defence against


air-bom e sound transmission.

Observation windows
Observation windows form v is u a l lin k between con trol rooms and
studios.

The average: in su lation provided by observation windows should be


up to 40 dB o r more. To a ttain th is reduction, the fo llo w in g must
be incorporated in the window design.

(i) Double o r t r i p l e gla ss plates spaced 20011111


between them.

(ii) A ir t ig h t sea l around the e n tire perim eter.

(iii) The periphery o f the spaoe between the panes should


be lin e d with sound absorbing m aterial.

I t is advisable to have d iffe r e n t glass p la te thicknesses and to


t i l t one glass p la te in respect to the other in order to suppress
high transmission o f certa in resonant frequencies. F ig . 2.15 shows
a ty p ic a l studio observation window w ith two glass p la te s and an
a i r c a v ity between them.
double
**mm
g la ss
(d B )
V a lu e s
Insulation
A v e ra g e

100 200 300 WO

C a v it y W idth (mm)

F ig. 2,16
4irm Double g la s s p la te average in su lation
values with variou s c a v ity widths
(Parkin & Humphreys, London 1969 Pg. 217).
Cavity Width

F ig. 2.16 shews an exanple o f how average insulation values o f a


double 4 irni gla ss window v a rie s w ith the width between them.
The presence o f absorbent lin in g in the ca vity may inprove the
insulation by about 2 to 4 dB.

o
2 ;5 :0 LIGHTING AND VENTILATION

In both broadcasting and te le v is io n stu d ios, a r t i f i c i a l lig h tin g


and mechanical v e n tila tio n s are used sin ce natural means are not
p o ssib le due to high acoustics demands.

These systems may s ig n ific a n t ly a lt e r the in te r io r acou stic environment


in studios by producing and transm itting noise unless considerable care
i s taken. The a rc h ite c t should be fa m ilia r with the in te rn a l noise
sources and transmissions by these systems.

2 :5 :1 A ir Conditioning and Mechanical V en tila tion

Most noise problems in a ir conditioning and mechanical v e n tila tio n can


be solved a t the design stage. Noise may o rig in a te from mechanical
equipment such as fans and from a ir flow in the ducts and g r i l l s .

The choice o f a ir con dition in g system as w e ll as the lo c a tio n and


construction o f the p la n t room and duct work should be considered
w ith carefu l a tten tion being paid to sound insulation measures.
(See Fig.2.18Pg.61 ). I f these issues are resolved p ro p e rly , it s
p o ssib le to g re a tly low er dcwn a l l the noise o rig in a tin g from these
systems to very lew le v e ls .

2:5:2 V en tilation N oise Control

The v e n tila tio n s e rv ic e s contain p o te n tia l sources o f noise which


can be id e n tifie d and sound in su lation measures taken.
* ATTENUATOR flEXI&E Planning

The arch itect should always use th is as the f i r s t defence against


both air-borne and inpact sound transmission. The machine roan
should be located as fa r as p ossib le fran n o is e -s e n s itiv e areas.
Any noise s e n s itiv e spaces lik e studios should not be loca ted
adjacent t o noisy spaces served by the same a ir conditioning
system.

F ig. 2,17 A coustic Enclosure to n oisy items o f P la n t Room


plan w ithin plantroom (Terrpletcn, London 1986 Pg 136)
I t is e s s e n tia l t o have su bstantial p la n t roam enclosure t o ensure
good sound is o la tio n . Separation o f the plant roam stru ctu re fran
the rest o f the b u ild in g can enhance sound is o la tio n .

Acoustic enclosures to noisy items o f plant w ithin p la n t roan may be


done to ensure su bstan tial is o la tio n as shown in Fig. 2.17.

Vibration Is o la tio n

A v e n tila tio n p la n t causes both n oise and vib ration s. These vibrations
may be transm itted to the structure i f vib ra tio n is o la tio n i s not
considered.

The v e n tila tio n p la n t must be mounted on r e s ilie n t pads and the


duct work should be is o la te d fran the plan t equipment by using
canvas o r asbestos darrping necks as shewn in F ig . 2.18.
In order to reduce the transmitted v ib ra tio n s , the n atu ral frequency
o f the r e s ilie n t moulting must be h igh er than the plan ts d rivin g
frequency.

Duct Treatment
a .W t« N A l A5IN6 10 W t : EASIER V A m y AT1FR
INSTAUATW ANP IF A LAFT£F NUM&tR Of VUCt£ The speed o f a i r flow in a duct can lead to noise generation. This
APP& 5 0 U H P K e ^ O H P p ^ U P C U U H 6 V O I P o ( \ ft O o y A .
b- INTERNA4- <5fYt& OC0V AtfFNUATHW Ji PM- &MUZ noise can be transmitted from room to roan i f the ducts are not
h o w , A m w M t t if in w v & ? u b i\ m .
F ig . 2.19 a cou stically trea ted to attenuate th is noise.
Ductwork lin in g s (Tenpleton, London 1986
Pg. 127).
Air^bome sound can be prevented from tr a v e llin g through the duct

7- by lin in g i t w ith sound absorbent m aterials as shown in F ig. 2.19.


fC ^l r^ i
77-T ‘ /A Duct lin in g m aterial is placed a t both ends o f the duct to prevent
? A. * UN1U 6 p m&l IALP6
* r noise from en terin g the duct system and to prevent cro ss-ta lk noise
<7 ' •REKFEFI <?R rtASfEff FINISH
Tv from being transm itted through the duct.
Vm r MINCTAL VW M X M U
mmm, mwM work
INFUF-

I9MINFRAL WOOL $<AP5 1 ^ Ducts passing through w alls must be w e ll positioned w ith souid
ig/M* Ptmity harp faakep
W IU’Bte WORK £AMt PEK&R7 absorbing m aterials to prevent any vib ra tio n transmission to the
A£>WAl-U
w a lls. Example o f such p o sitio n in g is given in F ig. 2.20.
V 1 9 U H \ 6 £ > m WOfr T l h W
ru u -y H m p aw m w m
KOH SttfW Mte|l6
The ducts must a ls o be r e s ilie n t ly supported with is o la tio n hangers
to reduce any v ib ra tio n transmission to the structure from which
a n rtiu T j—
0 200mm 400 i t is suspended. F ig . 2.21 gives a duct suspension d e t a il from a
F ig. 2.20 concrete c e ilin g .
^ t a 1! shewing duct throuah c a v ity w a ll
(Teirpletcn, Lcndcn 1986 P g. 125).
V en tila tion ducts arrangement in a space must be dene in a way
that prevents d ir e c t soind transmission. F ig . 2.22 o it lin e s three
d iffe r e n t ductwork arrangement; bad, good and best p o s itio n s with
respect t o flanking sound in su la tio n .
r

•srnutfUKAU u m iri

Kmient

-PUtf.
HRItfENt lAytR
■&UPR7«t

F ig. 2,21
Duct suspension c te ta il (Tenpletcn,London, 1986
Pg. 125).
i<— 4IWI.B Alt Putt -P«Tusept,
1 TA> C U B fc E A C H c’lH E -e .
XlkWl4i V(AHKJH4

(a) B A D PO SITIO NIN G

i ^ _ 6 in f iL E Alt p u g - P r i m e s PtAtep
I' rts. TZM t*CM (f\net AUWIH6
riAH£fu&

(b) GO O D POSITIONING

u— cvuBLe putf - e*6H e» a ^etweP


py its P u tf.

(c ) BEST P O SIT IO N IN G

F ig. 2.22 Flanking transmissions in Duct


Arrangements (Furrer, London, 1964, Pg. 178).
Fans

Hie fans as the c h ie f a ir d is trib u to rs in an a i^ co n d itio n ed space


can present sene noise problems. The noise sources may o rig in a te
from:-

(i) The rotation action o f the iirp e lle r blade


(ii) Turbulent flo w o f a i r across the fan blactes
(iii) Motors, bearings and b e lts

The noise produced can be attenuated by good in s ta la tio n , choice o f


equipment, v ib ra tio n is o la tio n as w e ll as good maintenance.

Fans can also be silen ced by en closin g them and by equiping them with
intake and exhaust silen cers.

2:5:3 L igh tin g and Noise

The inductive c o n tro l gear fo r discharge lig h tin g lik e flourescent


tubes can produce unpleasant humming sound. This sound may be
am plified by c e ilin g s and w alls to cause poor sound production.

Incardescent lamps are hcwe\er s i l e n t and the filam ent may produce
a b i t o f noise cn ly before f a ilin g .
The noise le v e l can be kept low by use o f good lig h tin g choiae.
Attachement o f the luminare with a firm f i t t i n g during in s ta lla tio n
may help to keep the noise le v e l produced by the lig h t in g to a lew
value.

o
PART
TWO
I N T R O D U C T I O N
" *'
This p a rt oenstitubes o f case stu dies conducted cn two d iffe r e n t
types o f studio spaces. An in v e s tig a tio n in to the in te g ra tio n o f
both technical and arch itectu ral elements has been in s tig a te d in
the resultant stu d io space. The planning, layout, m ateria ls, surface
fin is h e s , in te rn a l geometry and design o f service systems have been
taken to evaluate th e ir contribution to the o v e r a ll acoustic environment
in these studios.

The case studies were conducted in the N ational radio and te le v is io n


broadcasting cen tre - The Voice o f Kenya (V .O .K .). The V .O .K ., b u ilt
in e a rly 1960's, houses both radio and te le v is io n stu d ios. I t s e rie s
as a good exanple t o a general scene o f studio designs in a developing
country lik e Kenya despite the disadvantage o f being located in the
N airobi C.B.D.

Location

The V.O.K. i s located, o f f Harry Thuku road (F ig . I I . I ) . Inrtediate


M A JO R F ltfU ttb
* m e ct u n y A cv o x ) . neighbourhood i s d iv e r s ifie d in character; h o te ls , apartments, sheps
£ MOeWLK. tCW£K&
3 ttm uarnki itiwtRE and theatres cou stitu te o f the current physical developments around
4 U N IV t^ tV OF NAietei MAIM CAMPUS .
5 CINIRAt- roue.E ^AlkJN the centre. The centre i s also sandwiched between the busy Lhuru
6 FACULtY Of A SX Itlffc ju X FE3tW ANF peVFW PMFNt ( F A & P )
Highway and Harry Thuku road.
F ig . 1 1 .1 - L o c a t i o n Map.

Organisation S e t Up

The ccnplex was designed and executed in two section s which were
in tegrated throu^i a connection b u ild in g lin k and a covered walk way.
The two sections a re jr

(i) Hie T, V. production centre


(P la te I I . I )
\

(ii) The Radio broadcast centre (P la te 1 1 , 2 )

Both sections have associated tech n ica l and ncn tech n ica l spaces.

T elevision Production Section

The T elevision production section consists o f four main elements

(i) A two storey wing ly in g in a North South o rien ta tio n


P la te 1 1 .1 w ith o ffic e s .
T e l e v i s i o n P r o d u c tio n C en tre
( E . A . I . A . J u b ile e Year book, N a ir o b i 1 9 6 3 ). (ii) A Central section - a r t i f i c i a l l y l i t and v e n tila te d
f o r equipment, con trol areas, te le c in e , sm all studios
and f i r s t f l o o r production g a lle r y overlookin g main
stu dio.

(iii) Connecting lin k to rad io broadcasting s e c tio n with


s to re s , workshops and garage.

(iv ) Main studio space

The main studio space has been considered fo r case study.

Radio Broadcast Section *•

The radio broadcast section has been planned cn two le v e ls


P l a t e 1 1 .1
• Level I - Sited cn th is le v e l are; main
R a d io B ro a d c a s t C en tre
( E . A . I . A . J u b ile e Year book, N a iro b i 1 9 6 3 ). entrance, recep tion , s t a f f canteen and

a large multipurpose studio.


Ifiv e l 2 - This le v e l constitu tes o f a c irc u la tio n
corrid or g iv in g access to upper p a rt o f the
la rge multi-purpose studio and four studio
su ites. Access to record lib r a r y , cardex
roan, lib r a r ia n 's o f f i c e , a ir conditioning
p la n t, o f f ic e s and engineering section are
served by the same circu la tio n corrid or.

The la rge multipurpose radio studio has been evaluated in the


ensuing case study.

o
Chapter Three
CHA P T ER THREE

This chapter addresses i t s e l f to the performance o f the main


te le v is io n studio to brin g out the main design elements and
components that were considered during the design. This takes
on a more q u a lita tiv e analysis o f the stu dio design.

Reverberation time calculations based on Eyrings formula and octave


bands range o f ; 125 h^,250 ^ ,5 0 0 , 1000 H^ and 4000 H^ (see
T a b le '1.3 on Pa. 9) has been taken as the only q u a n tita tive analysis.
This creates a deeper understanding cn the acoustic performance o f the
o v e r a ll studio space. The absorption o ffe r e d by studio contents lik e
fu rn itu re, equipment, scenery e tc . has been l e f t out due t o variation s
in studio s e t ups.

TELEVISION STUDIO


CONTENT OUTLINE

CHAPTER 3 TELEVISION STUDIO.

3:1:0 STUDIO ANALYSIS....................................................................... 71

3:1:1 General Description


3:1:2 S p a tia l U t i l i t y
3:1:3 Physical A coustic Response

3:2:0 SOUND ISOLATION......................................................................... 73

3:2:1 S ite S election


3:2:2 In tern al Planning

3:3:0 ROOM ACOUSTICS......................................................................... 74

3;3:1 Reverberation Tine Calculations


3:3:2 Reverberation Tine Evaluation
3:3:3 In tern al Surface Shapes
3:3:4 M aterial S e le c tio n and Plaoenent

3:4:0 CONSTRUCTION............................................................................. 79

3:4:1 W all Finishes


3:4:2 F loor
3:4:3 C e ilin g
3:4:4 Doors and Observation Windows

3:5:0 MECHANICAL SERVICES................................................................ 81


3:5:1 Mechanical V en tila tio n
3:5:2 Ligh tin g
3:6:0 ODNCLUEION........

3;6;1 Sound Is o la tio n


3;6;2 S p a tia l Use
3:6:3 Roan Acoustics
3:6:4 V en tilation
3:6:5 Maintenance
ftC N u M C K flM p fclt

1 T CUUU&
«

" I T — I 5 — 7 — j T 5— o A iiw y

* * yUKAMl CVtpH <


l etet ta
m < p i(c m

S E C T IO N A -A

Fig. 3,1
The Main T e l e v i s i o n S t u d i o
(Measured D ra w in g b y A u th o r ) .
3 :1;0 STUDIO ANALYSIS

3;1;1 General Description

The main te le v is io n studio is a general purpose stu d io w ith no


provision fo r any audience p a rtic ip a tio n . The stu dio i s recta n gu la r
in plan and it s in tern al dimensions measure 19.2m by 14.4m. I t has
a flo o r to c e ilin g heic^it o f 7.0m. 4.7m above the f l o o r i s a g r id
o f s te e l sc a ffo ld poles from which hang powerful s tu d io lig h t s . A
cyclorama screen covers the three o f the four side w a lls o f the
studio to give an appropriate general propose background, (F ig . 3 .1 ).
A production g a lle r y with observation windows o verlo o k in g the s tu d io
is positioned 3m above the studio f l o o r as shewn in F ig . 3.1 (b ) .

3:1:2 Spatial U t i l i t y

The studio caters fo r a diverse v a r ie ty o f programmes l i k e ; in terview s


drama, conferences, va rie ty music f o r choirs and sometimes fo r news
reading.

The studio o ffe r s s u ffic ie n t acccrmodaticn fo r small c a s t drama


though i t s double volume o ffe r s in s u ffic ie n t h eigh t f o r sp ot lig h t s
which appear too close to the perform ers. As fa r as la r g e cast drama
and b etter stage s e t programmes are concerned, th is s tu d io o f f e r s
very l i t t l e technical innovation concerning la rg e saenery a lte r a tio n s .

General ad ap tab ility o f any audience seatin g i s very much lim ite d by
space. The presence o f some audience in the stu dio cou ld be ttesireb le
in sore programmes to give an impact o f a more r e a l i s t i c s itu a tio n .
This could even help to eleva te the moods o f the perform ers. I t is
th erefore ju s t ifia b le to say that the studio fa ils to meet diverse
needs f o r the modem times.

3 ;I;3 Physical Acoustic Response

TVo sound lobbies with sound proof doors g iv e an acoess to the studio.
The in te r io r w a ll surface ocrprises o f menberane absorbers, resonant
absorbents and panel absorbents. Menbrane and panel absorbents are
good absorbers at low and medium frequencies while resonant absorbents
have s e le c tiv e absorption. The c e ilin g is treated w ith resonant
absorbents w h ile the flo o r remains acou stically untreated to aid the
camera movements,

P l a t e 3 .1 A quick lock a t the studio shows sene e ffo r t s to have a wide frequency
Sound lo b b y s h o w in g p e r f o r m e r s ’ range o f sound absorption. The acou stic treatment locks w e ll responded
en tra n ce.
to . However, the p a r a lle l w alls d is c re d its th is to a g re a t exten t
N o te:
because unwanted f l a t t e r echoes remain unsuppressed.
. The r u b b e r s e a l g a s k e t a lo n g
th e d o o r e d g e and t h e t h r e s h o l d P la te 3.1 shows the main entrance lebby to the studio. Hcwevsr, due
m o ld in g .
to lack o f proper maintenance, the doors have d eteriora ted to no
. The h ole on th e d o o r t h a t can
d r a s t i c a l l y r e d u c e sound i n s u l a t i o n longer o f f e r much soind proofing.
t o the s t u d io .

o
Fig. 3.2
External Noise Sources.
3:2:0 SOUND ISOLATION

3:2:1 S ite S election

Hie heavy t r a f f i c fle w along Uhuru Hicjrway remain the main extern al
n oise source. From the s it e lo ca tio n , the a rch itect seems to have
overlooked the p o s s ib ilit y o f future increase in background noise
le v e ls . Harry Ihuku road cn the oth er side has less t r a f f i c though
th is might increase in time causing more extern al n oise. The s ite
s e le c tio n was th erefo re not w e ll considered as fa r as n oise le v e ls
are concerned.

3:2:2 ' In tern al Planning

The studio is p a r tly protected from Churu Highway t r a f f i c noise by


the two storey wing ly in g in a north south orien ta tion on one side
and by the connecting link to the broadcasting section cn the other
sid e o f Harry Ihuku road. However, the other two faces remain
exposed to any e x t e r io r noise since no b u ffe r spaoes are provided
(F ig . 3 .2).

In tern a l planning o f th is studio took l i t t l e application o f noise


attenuation by oth er elements o f design. A p ra c tic a l case i s that
one is able to hear t r a f f i c noise from the studio onoe the studio
doors are l e f t a ja r .

o
3:3:0 POO* ACOUSTICS

3:3:1 Reverberation Time Calculations

Reverberation tin e in a studio governs it s acoustic environment.


A certain amount o f reverberation enriches and enhances sounds thus
conveying an inpressicn o f v i t a l i t y and spaciousness. I t a lso boosts
the performers mood, and may help to produce b e tte r performances.

The reverberation time calculations f o r the main te le v is io n studio


i s carried out below. Eyrings formalar fo r reverberation time cal­
culations i s used instead o f the Sabines formular to a tta in b e tte r
resu lts.

Studio Particu lars

S ize : 19.2m long x 14.4m wide x 7m high


Volume: 1935.36m^
T o ta l Surface area(s) = 1301.36
(Ib is includes cyclorama and l i ah tin g oarpanents).

Optimum Reverberation time: 0.50 sec. approximately


(This is obtained from Fig. 2.3 (Pg. 4 1 ) which gives
Recmrended Reverberation time fo r broadcast and
T e le v is io n s tu d io s ).
TABLE 3.1 FEVEIBEPATICN TIME CALCULATIONS POP TELEVISION STUDIO BY EYRING’ S POPMULA
(DATA COLLECTION BY AWHOR)

F H ttH B W (He ) X& 50RF1I0W ^ F F F I« W 5 A B 6 0 H rtW W (5wbin6)


flC
AK^/J
t, v e e im r p k YILUMPY 125 H * 2 5 0 H* 5m i iooo te 2000 U 4000 Ht. 4 0 U fl£
M
NUM6ER of 5M5IN0 (X 0AI5IM6 oc 5W N 6 Of 6AJJN5 C* SA0IN6 0( 6WHM6

m u
~ e m v w n m b b f-n 0U ££f on zo uv nan 276 4 6 oot ^•00 004- U-06 0-00 13-32 0-00 13 0 Z 0/ 27 65 000 13-62 9
C llU H O
— re m m tw c e u p x w>u6-\\c -\\u& 253M O-Z 00-69 000 139-09 o-b 162 06 0-6 102 06 060 >66-14 06 202 70 <3
— m et a l a ie m v a y m \u & > ZZ-Dhf 010 216 000 i-o b 0 -7 16-13 0-30 19 6? 09 Zt-14 0.-5 ZO 06 9
m u
— f v m c p ir n e u , m 9 K R & & wrfu m i in m n\ite 162- 5 0 03 4 9 -7 3 o -2 92-52- 0-10 29-39 o-/ /fc-26 07 lb-26 07 Ib Z i 9
— t f a M f t t H PUCK. MOW WAIL CABWT P4*£> 0 -5 7 010 o-04 o -2 0-7/ O-l 0 36 0-1 0 -36 0-/ Obb 07 O bb 9
— 50 F-t u m v on p & v h a u f m e t 19 Z 0 05 0-10 OM 0-10 O-/0 0-29 0 20 o if S 0?? 0 66 03 058 9
— fiM fe je e x i c f m ' 2 04- 0 -10 101 0-2 2-4/ o-l 1-20 0-1 1-20 6-1 i-a? 07 i-zo 9
~ fiX F te A p P AZOUibpC m -0 b 0-2 40-19 0-00 110-03 0-b 120-63 0-6 \24-5g o-bb I3A62 06 160-77 4
~ 20% & 0\\W NARPPOAfP OW MIWflSAi, Hftt IHOOHP gMKINO 4 2-5/ 050 U P 66 0 7 Z4 7b 0-9 082b o-9 39-26 0-95 40-36 09 •06-26
— Me TAL m VENTfM.fI/N 0m E 6 (1 - 9 010 1-7? 0-30 4-02 0-7 8-06 0-00 97g O-O) 1000 03 103 0 •)

w n w w

— <fMM tW K 0W00 OH 0 & m V K [l0 H WINP^vV zi-4& 0-3 6- ^ o-3 6-94 o-z 4 30 O-l 216 000 107 000 1-07 10

R0K£
— 2/r, o to r fs 7hakp» ae 7 ^ mjneqj , w l in M i p v m 0-7 63 0-9 810 0-9 810 0-90 005 0-9 070 4
9 o-30 3-15
— nywwp PANELS ON frli.60' w * )l OH fKMV P llM P m 1 -9 4 0-2 0 -6 9 0-16 O-l 0-Z9 07 0-24 07 0-Z9 9
0-3 o-88 o-94
0-/7 11
— b u m r MefAL t u r n m w en I 'M ooo O-l 1 0-00 o-o9 0-07 e-lb 0-10 O-Z 7 073 0-24 031
— 6 m &l m & r u t ? y &w n v m i OOb 0-0 0-00 0-3 o -d Z 0 -2 o-OI 0/ 001 0-00 Mil- 000 N IL 9

t \ m
— r«TAL b w w a . % w p w p o »p «A W 75 006 40 oo0 4-15 0 07 5ZO 0/6 w is - O - li 9 -t& on 1270 9
40-6 30-60. 9
— c/cu E A m o a c fw 2o 3 0-03 6-o9 ooq- Bl2 o-l 20-3 0-10 30 4 0 O -Z o->5

p -fu n m xn sH t w m m 262% 41367 424-90 W -3 B <?% Cb


1301-36 1 0 6 -9 0

— ry _ ^ -Z Z iOCi -f 0eO({'-1.......... + &„ 0 36 0-4-0


0-10 o- o-eg o a e 039
0-4-9 0-5/
— T06g ( l- «c ; ; 0-160 0-^0 0.936 04
581 10-55 30 7/ 9
— AIE A & S 0 R 7 jL fll 1939 3$ N IU NIL Nil/
T£BLE 3.1 (ODNTD.) - 76 -

(Hz.) A ^ K P jW W EFFM EN'f («0 *f A ^ K f f W U N I^ (*«Wn&)


aka
i?fw tow n i m crn m WHINE I2>*HZ n&Oto. 50) 1te. IfOOtte encu AW He- &0US6E
0A
NUM&6R of GARINS Of 5A0IN& of 5-ARlNE Of 6AEIH5> a QABlSe

Km m m nm w m w B w m ^
R.T - • 0 ,6V
5 E U ^ < i-o < U + (^ ; 1 -4 b me o u Ob 054- O fy

o< zo\)'e/&2>
Cf — PAW N f H U M PH C Y& . '9 69 03 8 W -3 / 5
to — T l M t U W . U > u m 19 « 6 03 aw-,201
it e <s a n ( n e n w a c 19 72 pg

flfrr <WU> W KEMfMffPW T«A| T»t- C.tiCW\X\tf V K W ) M


1HF FK<?UEN£IE&&e- I2 5 Me AfcE E/A61E 1/> RE <ATW*-
INWCUMIE THAN TH#&6 F*T? FKEtfueN£fe£
THE WW-KftfUEN^y **>UNP PARFE? so IMPUTEE9 P)FFDf>EW
THE C*M ANP eaAtt# UNrWPltfARLt VACATE )M w m iu
EFFICIENT ACJE M B« UtEuy Aj TH66E FCe^l'eN ElE^”
—(ptejan ^ HUM PM M 39 U npph W E9 Pg
3 ;3 ;2 Reverberation T ir e Evaluation

The reverterati.cn time fo r middle and high frequency sounds seem to


agree with the volim e/reverberaticn time graph (F ig . 2.3 Pg. 41 ) .
which gives re contended reverberation times fo r broadcasting and
t e le v is io n studios.

However, low frequency sounds have more reverberation p a r tly due to


iitproper d iffu sio n and absorption v a ria tio n . This would g r e a tly
a f f e c t recording o f musical performances w ith low frequency instruments
and bass singers. This can tend to mask o r ig in a l sounds a t higher
frequencies by enphasis o f low frequency sounds.

Reverberation time a t low frequency may be improved by use o f more


membrane panel absorbers and c a v ity resonators (see F ig. 1.17, 1.18
Pg. 26 ) • There should a lso be an attempt to increase sound d iffu sio n
by va ria tio n o f m aterial surfaces.

3 ;3;3 In tern al Surface Shapes

The studio, being rectangular in plan, has p a r a lle l w alls. This is


q u ite undesirable due to creation o f f l u t t e r echoes between these
p a r a lle l w a lls. These echoes may be picked by the microphone
a ffe c t in g the o r ig in a l sound and thus minimizing i t s i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y .

3 :3:4 M aterial S electio n and Placement

A gen eral outlook across the studio revea ls a w e ll considered case


in both m aterial s e le c tio n and placement.
As a reverberation time consideration at a l l frequencies, low, irediun
and high frequency sound absorbent m aterials have been e x ten sively used
in the studio. With reference to table 2 .1 , perforated c e lo te x
acou stic t i l e s g ive a good crossecticn o f absorption from low, medium
to high frequency sounds.

The placement o f more d e lic a te absorbent cn the upper w a ll and c e ilin g


and placement o f the less d e lic a te ones w ith in participants reach
d epicts a w e ll considered case to p ro tect the m aterials from damage.
The va ria tio n o f m aterial placement shows an attempt to increase sound
d iffu s io n in the studio as w e ll.

o — «-
3 :4 :0 OCNSTRUCTICN
Thick m v buck w \u
m w erm m i w cavity
- 6 mm imct RL/WOP The stu dio adapts disccntinous construction technique by separating the
PiM
75*50M S\W£> in te r n a l w a lls fran the external w alls. Suspended c e ilin g from the
r o o f structure adds t o th is kind o f construction (See Fig. 1.14 Pg. 22 )

0
nrin__ i
100mm 200
3 :4 :1 Wall Finishes
Fig. 3.3
Plywood Panel Three main acoustic w a ll fin ish es are used. These a re :-
(Sketched and drawn by Author)
(i) Plywood panels cn battens w ith mineral wool in
c a v itie s (F ig . 3.3 ).
eoup wx iviu
MlMECAl WML Wavitx
6MM 1«KX 5WttEP
weepimp pmc (ii) S lotted hardboard on mineral wool cn s o lid w a ll
-76*5(0 MM 5 fW *S

(F ig. 3 .4 ).

arui___ i
0 100mm200 (iii) Peforated acoustic t i l e s glued cn the s o lid w a ll
Fig, 3,4 (Fig. 3 .5 ).
S lo tted Hardboard Panel
(Sketched and drawn by Author)
3;4;2 Floor
■■
A 6rrm thick v in y l rubber flo o r fin is h i s used cn the e n tire f lo o r
area. This f lo o r i s gen era lly smooth and o ffe r s very l i t t l e sound
absorption. I t s main purpose is to provide a smooth surface fo r
ease o f camera movement (See p la te 3.6 Pg. 82 ) .

3:4:3 C e ilin g
Fig. 3.5 The c e ilin g , made out o f perforated c e lo te x acoustic t i l e s , i s
Aocustic t i l e on S o lid W a ll
(Sketched and dravn by A u th o r). suspended from the main ro o f structure.
A - 80 -

r vEWMSOUP« p<fc>R
A g r id o f s t e e l s c a ffo ld poles from which hang the stu dio lig h ts
_ I Z ---- t»WK AijtL
6llZJJ> wrtH£w« nyww fitwe lie s below the c e ilin g a t 4.8m above the f lo o r le v e l.
hL- B - B e -H
l 0
nnn
SOQmm 1m
i 3:4; 4 Doors and Observation Windows
50mm 100

OUMMUM mi PUff Heavy sound p roof doors w ith sound lobbies are provided. The observation
AlUUNM / ■ rtlffiM'tJJ vcokji w it mot. u a
(U1t ^eeWEP/VIO
Lu Hiufc* ntu mm -m te x
^fcoztLy Scnwtpw
i>1Cuciuei
pieie windows have double p la te glass with absorbent lin in g between the cavity.
Both doors and observation windows are lined with rubber gaskets to
ELEVATION. V E R T IC A L SE C T IO N .
make them a ir tig h t. F ig . 3.6 shows the entrance door d e ta ils w hile
F ig. 3.7 shows the observation window d e ta il. Plate 3.2 captures the
co n tro l g a lle r y observation windows as w e ll as the studio luminares.

Perform ers' Entrance Door D e ta il


(Sketched and drawing by A u th or).

P la te 3.2
Studio I n t e r io r shewing Control G allery
Observation windows, studio luminares and
wnt xxwez
the lig h tin g s te e l s c a ffo ld g r id . Also
note the v a ria tio n o f acoustic m aterials
on the w a lls .
V E R T IC A L SEC T IO N .
Fig. 3.7

o
3 :5 :0 MECHANICAL SERVICES
A 1
3 :5 :1 yiechanical V enti la ticn

The studio i s a r t i f i c i a l l y v e n tila te d n ot only t o give ocm fort to the


perform ers, but to g e t r id o f considerable heat em itted by both ecruipment
and the powerful stu d io lig h tin g .

The large U-shaped rein forced concrete columns carrying the ro o f a ct as


a i r in le t ducts as w e ll as the structure. A ir is ex tra cted by four
1200 nrn diameter fans through c e ilin g vents in to a 1500 im plenum
chamber which also acts as a low frequency absorber. Each area is then
P la t e 3.3
n atu rally v e n t illa t e d to the outside. In p la te 3.3 the v e n ti la tic n
N ote:
- V e n tila tio n g r i l l e f o r a i r in flo w g r i l l e fo r a i r in flo w can be seen.
- Piano as a saenery item
- Acoustic tre a te d cn the w a ll
- The v in y l rubber f lo o r 3:5:2 Lighting

The studio comprises o f powerful lig h ts which are used o n ly during


performaoes. These lig h ts can be levered , raised or moved along the
lig h t in g g r id below the c e ilin g .

Fluorescent bulbs fix e d cn the side w a lls are used to provid e lig h tin g
when the studio is o u t o f normal operation.

P la te 3.4 shows the powerful studio luminares hanging from s t e e l


s c a ffo ld s . The cyclorama screen is seen in the background.

P la t e 3.4
S tu dio luminares hanging from s t e e l
s c a ffo ld s . Note the cyclorama curtain
at the background. o
3 :6:0 CCNCLUSICN

3:6:1 Sound Iso la tio n

The studio location is only p artly protected from the thuru Highway
and Harry Thuku road t r a f f i c noise sources. Though not an appr opriate
s i t e , the noise frcm these two sources can be attenuated by use o f
sound barriers b u ilt close to the road. (See Fig. 1.6 pg.15 ) .

3:6:2 S patial Use

Makeshift audience particip ation can be ccnviniently incorporated in


the studio to give b e tte r performances fo r audience p articip ation
Plate 3.5
Part o f studio s e t ready fo r a programme. programmes.
Note the absorbent nature o f the fu rn itu re
used.
3;6;3 Poem Acoustics

Reverberation time a t low frequencies can be lowered by stu dio contents


lik e scenery, equipment performers, e t c . However, there i s a need to
use panel and s e le c tiv e resonant absorbers fo r b etter lew frequency
absorption.

V a riation in w a ll surface to provide more sound diffusion could also be


o f g re a t assistance in d istrib u tin g sound and hence lowering the
reverberation time.

A co u stica lly , this stu d io 's performance c^n be termed as ^ p rep ria te
f o r drama and speech.
Plate 3.6
T e le v is io n cameras used in the s tu d io
Note: P la te 3.5 and 3.6 show seme studio equipment that can vary the
- The smooth f l o o r fin is h to a id the
camera movement. reverberation time in the studio.
- A lso note the plywood panel absorbers
3:6:4 V en tilaticn

Hie type o f a ir c c n d itim in g system used in th is studio i s not


appropriate to g e t r id o f a l l the heat created by the stu d io
lig h tin g . Hie performers usually complain o f unfavourable high
tenperatures when performing.

A b e tte r a ir conditioning system and e s p e c ia lly m e with c h ille d


w ater should serve oon vin ien tly in such a studio.

3:6:5 Maintenance

Hie acoustic maintenance in the studio seems to have d eterio ra ted .


Hie rubber seals in doors are wearing out due to age. Hie cbors
are no longer a ir t ig h t when closed, thus forming weak sound

P la te 3,7 in su lation lin ks.


Perform ers' entrance sound lock
Note the m utilated a cou stic t i l e s .
Hie absorbent m aterials are neglected as seen in the entrance l obby
in p la te 3.7. This should not be allowed to happen in orxfer to
maintain a good acou stic environment.

I f l e f t to d e te rio ra te , the background sound le v e ls would r is e g re a tly


a ffe c t in g the o r ig in a l sound thus minimizing i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y and good
sound production.
Chapter Four
C H A P T E R FOUR

In th is chapter, the la rge central broadcasting studio has been


evaluated to attain a general understanding o f it s acoustic
performance. A rch itectu ral elements and conpcnents considered
in i t s design have been ou tlin ed to ascertain th e ir contribution
to th e acoustic performance.

Reverberation time fo r the octave band range frcm 125 to


4000 h 3 has been calculated using Evrings formula and then
acou stic evaluation is made to give a more c le a r analysis o f
the s tu d io 's in te r io r acou stic environment.

broadcasting studio
CHAPTER OCMENT

BROADCASTING STUDIO

4:1:0 STUDIO ANALYSIS....................................................................... 87

4:1:1 General Description


4:1:2 S patial U t i l i t y
4:1:3 Physical Acoustic Response

4:2:0 SOUND ISOLATION......................................................................... 90

4:2:1 S ite S election


4:2:2 In tern al Planning

4:3:0 POOM AOOU5TICS......................................................................... $1

4:3:1 Peverbe ration time calculations


4:3:3 Reverberation time evaluation
4:3:3 In tern al Surface Shapes
4:3:4 M aterial S electio n and Placement

4:4:0 ODNSTPUCITCN....................................................................1 . . . . 97

4:4:1 Wall Finishes


4:4:2 F loor
4 :4:3 C e ilin g
4:4:4 Doors and Observation windows
4:5:0 MECHANICAL SERVICES................

4:5:1 Mechanical V en tilation


4:5:2 Lighting

4:6:0 OONCLUSICN.................................

4:6:1 Sound Is o la tio n


4:6:2 Spatial Use
4:6:3 Room Aooustics
4:6:4 V en tilation
4:6:5 Maintenance
4:1:0 STUDIO ANALYSIS
p*SU4f
4:1:1 General Description

The la rg e central broadcasting studio is a general purpose studio. The


stu dio i s wedge shaped in plan and i t was designed fo r l i v e shows with
a permanent audience provision fo r s ix ty people. The studio has a
3
volume o f 424.5 m with an average c e ilin g h eigh t o f 5.3 m above the
studio f lo o r . Part o f the audience seating area has control g a lle r y
c a n tile v e rin g out givin g a c le a r c e ilin g heicfit o f only 2.5 m.

The stu d io i s accessible from both lcwer and upper le v e l flo o r s . The
lower l e v e l entrance, serves as the main entrance to the studio w h ile
the o th er two accesses in the upper le v e l are used as emergency e x it s .
These two accesses can a lso be used by performers as th e ir entry and
e x i t to the studio.
(a) FIRST L E V E L jinn^
PLAN
On the upper le v e l i s the stu dio's^ production g a lle r y conprising o f a
con trol room, a talk s studio and a d isc cu tting rocm a l l w ith observation
window towards the studio. The control rpom serves both the main studio
and the ta lk s studio (F ig. 4 .1 b ).

4:1:2 S p a tia l U t ilit y

This stu d io , though not very o fte n ly used acocrmodates various performances
such as; drama, concerts, v a r ie ty shews, bands, ochestras and ch oirs.

S u ffic ie n t accomodation f o r both audience and performers is w e ll taken


F% . 4.1
Central Studio Plan care o f. The fron t part o f the studio used as a stage gives enough space
'feasured drawing by Author) .
nnii •
fo r both instruments and performers. This type o f stage o ffe r s
f l e x i b i l i t y p a rticu la rly with reference to a d ap tab ility.

Lack o f backstage and audience f a c ilit ie s such a foyers and p v b lic


t o i l e t s i s the greatest drawback in th is stu dio. The studio spaoe
i s lim ite d to such f a c i l i t i e s therefore becoming unquestionably
in s u ffic ie n t fo r public u t i l i t y .

4;1:3 Physical Acoustic Response

The main entrance to the stu dio o ffe rs no sound lock. Double doors
with rubber gaskets are used at the 1.5 m wide opening. This leads
to an a co u stica lly lin ed lobby which has two 1 .2 m wide doorless
openings. The lobby never serves any s ig n ific a n t measures on sound
in su lation since the s in g le door used a t the entrance may not provide
actequate sound insulation o r may be p e r io d ic a lly open thus allowing
unwanted sound in to the stu dio (Fig. 4.2 a ).

As one g e ts in to the studio, the w e ll pronounced n on -parallel surfaces


depict a c le a r achievement in suppressing undesired f lu t t e r echoes.
On a c lo s e r lock a t the in t e r io r , d istrib u tio n o f m aterials cn d iffe r e n t
planes to promote sound d iffu s io n never goes unnoticed. The in t e r io r
w alls have been lin ed with panel absorbents, porous absorbents and
pannel absorbers. Part o f the w a ll bearing no absorbent m aterials
(W SECTION A-A characterises the side w a lls . This helps to r e f l e c t sound to the

V 4.2 audience.
tiio plan and section shewing Acoustic
-rials (measured drawing by A u th or).
The c e ilin g is treated with resonant absorbents while the flo o r is
w holly covered by carpet as a porous absorbent.

The p h ysica l look a t the studio shews e ffo r ts to provide souid


absorption a t a wide frequency range. However, presence o f
r e f le c t iv e w a ll surface and variable absorption panel pronounae the
a b ilit y o f stu d io's performance in both speech and music. V ariable
absorption is necessary to a lt e r the reverberation tine which should
be less f o r speed than fo r music. P la te 4.1 (Pg.94 ) c le a r ly shows the
v a ria b le absorption panels in both open and closed position s. The
panel provides sound r e fle c t iv e properties when closed and souid
absorptive properties when open. This v a ria tio n in absorption a lso
provides va ria tion in reverberation time thus making the studio
v a ria b le fo r both speech and music.

Movable absorption panels are also provided in the studio to increase


F ig . 4.3 the sound absorption. These panels can be c le a r ly seen on p la te 4.2
Movable Absorption Panel D e ta il
(Sketched and drawn by A u th o r). {P g .95 ) F ig. 4.3 shows tne crossecticn d e t a il o f a ty p ic a l movable
absorption panel used in th is studio.

o
4 ;2 :0 SOUND ISOLATION

4:2:1 S ite Selection

S it e selectio n fo r the e n tire carp lex is ou tlined in chapter 3-


(3 :2 :1 ) (Pg. 73 )•

4:2:2 In tern al Planning

The studio is cen tra lly located with b u ffe r spaces around i t . The
b u ffe r spaces conprising o f o ffic e s and studio suites provide
su bstantial sound insu lation from Lhuru Highway and Harry Thuku
road t r a f f i c noise. (F ig . 4 .4 ).

The location o f the stu dio c le a rly depicts a w e ll organised in te rn a l


layout to provicte ultim ate sound insu lation from e x te r io r noise

F ig. 4.4 sources.


Padio S tu dio Location.
However, the location o f an a ir ocnditicning plant behind the stage
w a ll d iscred its the soind insulation measures taken cn planning le v e l.
However w e ll the plant room is designed, no assurance can be given
against any structure borne soind o r vib ra tio n being transm itted to
the stu dio.

o
4 ;3:0 ROOM ACOUSTICS

4;3;1 Reverberation Time Calculations

A cou stic design o f a studio re lie s on hew dead o r lin e the resu ltan t
stu d io space is acou stica lly. This is mainly governed by the reverberation
time o v e r a wide range o f p ra c tic a l frequencies. The reverberation time
at a l l th is freciuency range should be more o r less uniform in ord er to
achieve a b e tte r i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y o f both speech and music.

Reverberation tin e calcu lations fo r the cen tral studio based cn Eyrings
formula and 125-4000H3 octave band range is worked out be lew.

Studio P articu lars

Volume: 424.5m3
- T otal surface area
with variable
Absorption Panels
open 396.18m2

- With variab le
Absorption Panel 2
closed = 387.40m
- Optimum Reverberation = 0.68 sec. ( approx)
time (Ib is is obtained
from Fig. 2.3 (Pg. 41 ) which gives
Peaormencted Reverberation time fo r
Broadcast and T e le v is io n s tu d io s ).
FEVEFBEFATION TIMS CALCULATIONS FOR RADIO STUDIO BY EYRING S P0FM1LA
TABI£ 4.1 (DATA COLLECTION BY AUTHOR)

m r\ m u K rf5 (Soln'ns)
W t O R H ’l M C fiF flflfN f H ) $ W
v m m c y o n ) (p<)
m w ld »H i i ’000 Hz 4i000 Hi M M l
500 H i
$ m m r\ \ ow v m %
125 Hi 250H z.

(X a. 5651H5
b k .m .5 a 6APINS
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4 ;3 ;2 Reverberation Time Evaluation

From ta b le 4.1, the reverberation time fo r the middle and high


frequency sounds g iv e more dead acoustic conditions to the studio
w h ile low er frequency sounds give a liv e acoustic atmosphere, ib is
is in contrast with the recorrmended reverberation time values given
in F ig . 2.3 (Pg. 4 1 ) .

However, during performances, the audience, performers and equipment


are bound to increase the sound absorption thus lowering the reverberation
time and making the stu d io 's environment more acou stically dead.

Due t o the nature o f the absorbent acoustic materials used in th is


P l a t e 4 .1 stu dio (Table 4 .1 ), the stu dio suppresses most acoustic r e fle c tio n s ,
Use o f Sound Reinforcing System thus crea tin g a less reverberant environment. The sound th erefore
A ls o n o te the variable acoustic absorptic
P a n els in both closed and open p o sitio n . produced in the studio may seem weak and fa in t to the extent o f
req u irin g sound re in fo rc in g systems. Plate 4.1 shews the leund speaker
system used in th is studio to rein force the sound fo r b e tte r i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y
In musical performances, lew frequency sound producing instruments such as
drums would be more enhanced by the reverberant sound since the re v e r­
beration time at low frequencies is higher than a t mid and high frequency
sounds (Table 4 .1 ). Hi^ner frequency sound instruments (e .g . Piano, top
note) would remain masked by the low frequency instruments thus making
i t d i f f i c u l t and t ir in g f o r musicians to perform under such acou stic
environment.
W h ile reverb era tio n time a t lower frequencies can be lowered by studio
c o n te n t, there i s need to have more r e fle c tiv e surfaces in the studio
in orefer to c a te r f o r a diverse acoustic need in both music and speech.

4 :3 ;3 In te rn a l Surface Shape

The s tu d io adopts a wedge shaped internal geometry as shewn in Fig.4.1


(Pc^. 8 7 ). This geometry o f non-parallel w alls bears the advantage o f
T
suppressing most f l u t t e r echoes which is a desired acoustic condition
in a l l broadcasting studios.

S ta g e w ^ l with mvuli wood strip s on


I Stage W all
- be— s s .
The s ta g e w a ll i s treated with absorbent m aterials and some hard wood
% £ } £ * Preseno5 ° f “ able absorption
s tr ip s running v e r t ic a lly as shewn in Fig. 4.5 (Pg. 97) . Plate 4.2
A ls o n ote the ta b le top Porositv ^ . and 4.6 show the bade w a ll with the conspicuous tirrber s trip s . The
Reverberant Sound. ^ t o reduoe
tim ber s tr ip s h elp to d iffu s e sound but the whole surface o ffe r s very
l i t t l e sound r e fle c tio n e s p e c ia lly to the audience.

Back W all

The back w a ll i s treated with absorbent m aterials to suppress


p ossib le sound r e fle c tio n s and hence minimizing the reverberant sound.
D etails o f th is back w a ll showing the use o f hesian cloth on mineral
wool i s illu s tr a te d cn F ig . 4.6. The w all i s also p a rtly treated with
timber s tr ip s as shown on p la te 4.3. The w a ll provides two door less
openings leading to the a c o u s tic a lly treated sound lock as shown in
Fig. 4.2 (P g .8 8 ) .
4 :3 :4 M aterial S e le c tio n and Placement

Absorbent and r e f l e c t i v e m aterials have been used in th is stu d io.


Both the c e ilin g and the f l o o r have absorbent m aterials w h ile the
w a ll has both absorbent and r e f l e c t i v e surfaces.

S o ft absorbent m a te ria ls have been p la ced on the c e ilin g w h ile


touchier absorbents a re used on the w a lls where they are l i k e l y to
s u ffe r damage.

F lo o r
P l a t e 4.3
S t u d i o s Back W a ll
The stu dio f l o o r i s w h o lly absorbent t o reduce both a i r and s o lid
N o te : borne sound. A 200mn h icji t in b e r s k ir t in g tucks in the ca rp et and
- The Absorbent nature o f the a ls o acts as a duct f o r broadcast w ir in g . This can be seen in the
h essian c lo th used as v e il as
the upholstered seats. f l o o r d e t a il shown in F ig . 4.8. (Pg. 98) .

- A ls o note the tinber strip s and


the v a r ia b le absorption panel cn C e ilin g
the l e f t hand side w all.
The inebriating suspended c e i l i n g is covered with acou stic t i l e s
o f f e r i n g l i t t l e sound r e fle c t io n s . The c e llin g above p a r t o f the
audience s e a tin g i s p a r t ly a b sorp tive and p a r tly r e f l e c t i v e . This
holpR to r e f l e c t sound t o the audience thus in creasin g the reverber;
sound in th a t p art o f the s tu d io . The undulating c e ilin g c fe ta il is
■horn in F ig . 4 .* (P g . 98 ) w h ile p la te 4.5 shows the a cou stic t i l e s
on tho r o iiin a as w e l l as the in fle w / o u tfle w a ir d iffu s e r positicn ec
cn the c e ilin g .
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H orizontal w a ll section showing wood s tr ip s
cn hessian and mineral wool in c a v ity ,
(Sketched and drawn by Author)

H o rizo n ta l w a ll sectio n through va ria b le


absorption panel.
(Sketched and drawn by A u th o r).

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4:4 ;Q Q3NSTPUCTICN

The studio is constructed with double le a f w a lls with a ir c a v ity


between than. The f lo o r is a flo a tin g f lo o r construction w h ile
the c e ilin g is suspended from the roof structure. This makes
the studio acou stica lly independent o f the main structure - a
discontinuous construction phenomenon. (F ig . 1.14 Pg. 22 ) .

4:4:1 Wall Finishes

The main w all fin ish es in th is studio are : -


(i) Ex 35 x 15 rm mvuli wood s trip s spaced to g iv e 18nm s lo t s ,
cn hessian and mineral wool in a ir space on s o lid w a ll.
(Fig. 4.5 ).

(ii) Hinged variab le absorption panels w ith r e fle c t iv e


surface o f painted r ig id blockboard and an absorbing
surface o f acoustic t i l e s (F ig. 4.6) .

(iii) Painted hessi ai cloth stretched over a ir space w ith mineral


wool (F ig. 447 ) .

(iv ) Plastered and painted w all surface.

4:4:2 Floor

The studio adoots a flo a t in g flo o r construction. The tin b er f lo o r


board restin g cn the stru ctu ra l concrete f l o o r covered w ith a rubber
backed carpet la id in separate narrow widths. (F ig. 4 .8 ).
4:4; 3 G eilin g

EX3M5MTOI JJR I& Ih e suspended c e ilin g with undulating surfaces is covered w ith
MINERAL WML IN aVIty
75*50 f!M&£RW acou stic t i l e s . V en tila tion a ir d iffu sers and fluorescent lig h t s
U/WftWWK 5KIK11N6
fELLc^M CiecUft E>U£.-f are fix e d cn the c e ilin g . (Fig. 4 .9 ).
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giPTOKw^s^tfi'faga A heavy s o lid doible door with robber gaskets is used as the main
entrance to the studio. Ihe door i s padded w ith foan and le a th e r

rum . backing. One o f the e x i t door is lin ed w ith acoustic t i l e s w h ile


0 XX)mm200 the o th er is faaed with mvuli wood s trip s cn hesian cloth . (See
V e r t ic a l section showing s k irtin g
duct and flo a tin g flo o r F igs. 4. IO a,b and c ).
(Sketched and drawn by Author)

Ihe observation windows between the studio and the control g a lle r y
(p la te 4.4) are formed o f three separate scales with the middle cne
t i l t i n g frcm the other two to give c a v itie s o f varying widths. This
helps to suppress any resonant frequency in the c a v itie s . The
c a v itie s are lin ed with o e lo te x t i l e s and a robber gasket alcng th e ir
e n tire perim eter. The p la te glass i s enbedded in small cork channels
to reduce any vibrations from being transm itted to the w a ll lin in g s .
Fig. 4 . U shews the crossecticn d e ta il o f the observation window in
this stu dio.

0
nnrr i
100mm 200
Fig. 4.9
Section through undulating c e ilin g
(D e ta ils assumed by A u th or). o
- 99 -

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HO RIZO N TAL SECTION
(b)
Stage e x it door I
(a) Main Entrance Door (c) Stage e x i t door 2

F ig. 4.10
Central Studio door schedule.
(Sketched and dram by A u th or).
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P l a t e 4.4
S tu d io Observation window a t the
w a ll.
re a r
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The absorbed re a r w a ll
F ig . 4.11
The upholstered seats. Section through stu d io observation window.
(Note the t i l t e d gla ss pane to prevent resonant frequency) .
(Sketched and drawn by Author)
- 101 -
4;5;0 NECHMICAL SERVICES

4:5;1 Mechanical V en tilation

A ir conditioning i s provided to both the studio and the production


g a lle ry by an a i r conditioning p la n t located behind the stu d io stage
w a ll as shown in F ig . 4.12. The a i r flow ducts pass in the plenum
between the suspended c e ilin g and the r o o f stru ctu re. The proxim ity
o f the a i r conditioning system bears the advantage o f avoiding leng
duct runs thus reducing cost. However, p rovision o f adequate sound
insu lation between the studio and the plant roam becomes a b ig problem
requiring sp ecia l treatment to the p la n t roan such as th e one shown in
F ig. 2.17 (Pg. 6 1 ).
F iq . 4.12
S tu d io plan shewing p la n t room lo ca tio n
C ircu lar a ir d iffu s e r s with both a i r i n l e t and a ir return ducts are
provided on the c e ilin g . The movements made by a paper s t r ip attached
to the d iffu s e rs sid e (P late 4.5) show that the a ir flo w speeds are
qu ite low. Faster a ir movement is required in th is s tu d io to g e t r id
o f heat and fo u l a i r e s p e c ia lly during a performance. In an attenpt
to increase the a i r speeds, the noisy e le c t r ic fans such as the one in
place 4.7 are bein g used in th is stu d io . These fans have noise problems
and should not be used in studios sin ce th is noise oould.be picked vp
by the microphones thus masking the recorded sound.

4 ;5:2 L igh tin g

The studio is l i t through flu orescen t bulbs placed cn the a e ilin g .


P l a t e 4.5
These l a p s have low heat output but haua the acoustic drawbacks
In flcw / O u tflo w a ir d iffu s e r .
However, the stu d io lig h tin g lades the ad a p ta b ility o f c c n tro llin g
the stags e s p e c ia lly during musical performances. The lig h tin g
system needs seme m odification o f g r id hanging spot lig h t s that can
be controlled in various ways to achieve desired lig h t in g e ffe c t s
in a performance (P late 3.2 Pg. 80 g iv e s examples o f various spot
lig h t s ).

o
- 1 0 3 -

4:6:0 CONCLUSION

4:6:1 Sound Is o la tio n

The studio is w e ll located with b u ffe r spaces around it. However,


the lack o f proper sound lock can be improved by f i t t i n g two doors
a t the sound lobby to increase sound in su lation measures.

4:6:2 S patial Use

The studio is w e ll u t iliz e d with la rg e stage area which can accomodate


about fift e e n performers. The stu dio can be w e ll adapted fo r various
performances due to the f l e x i b i l i t y o f the stage area.

However, backstage and pu blic f a c i l i t i e s cannot be .accomodated in the


studio without a ffe c tin g the e x is tin g studio.
P la t e 4.6
Photo shewing the nature o f the sta ge w a ll. 4;6;3 Rd c t Acoustics
N ote the hard wood tirrber s tr ip s .
Middle and h i^ i frequency reverberation time need to be s lig h t ly
adjusted to a tta in an acoustic environment o f the stu d io being n eith er
to o dead nor too liv e ly . A suggestion to make the sta ge w a ll more
r e fle c t iv e by using r e fle c t iv e w a ll finishes such as p la s te r or block-
board could a tta in th is ccn diticn . There should a lso be an attenpt to
increase the surface o f the v a rib le absorption panels in order to
adjust the rererberation time depending on the type o f performance.
| • — ---- |-----j---- - - % 4:6;4 M r Conditioning

A ir d iffu sers used in the e n tire stu dio have slow a ir speeds.
However, th is seems inadequate since the studio fe e ls uncomfortable
even with only a few people in side.

The suggestion here i s to increase the a ir flow speeds and the nunfoer
o f inflow/outflow a i r d iffu s e rs as w e ll. This may requ ire adequate
noise insulation precautions such as the use o f s ile n o e rs in the
d iffu s e rs and proper duct treatment such as the one shown in Fig. 2.19
(P g .62 ) .

4:6:5 Maintenance

General maintenance o f the studio n eglects the performance o f sene


acoustic m aterials. Acoustic t ile s e s p e c ia lly a t the lobby have been
P l a t e 4.7
S tu d io 's Control Roan. bridged over with p a in t, closin g t h e ir p erforation s and thus reducing
N o te :
t h e ir absorption performance. To avoid th is bridgin g spray pain tin g
The fan used to increase the a ir speed
in the roan. method should be used cn such surfaces instead o f brush p a in tin g method.

- The P.V.C. t i l e d f l o o r ahd acou stic


■raterial lin in g s cn the w a lls . The flu orescen t bulbs replacement should be dene in the e n tir e studio
a t the same time and not fix in g cnly the fa ilin g bulbs. This may h elp
- The mixer system used fo r production.
t o minimize hurnning sounds made by fa u lty bulbs.
- The intercom lin k w ires.

o
PART
THREE
Chapter Five
The preceding chapters portray the r o le o f both a rch itectu ra l
elements and ccnponents in an area where acoustics is o f prime
consideration. A lu c id ou tlin e o f certa in s p e c ific design
p rin cip les has been expounded upon both in construction and
planning to bring ou t an o v e r a ll p ictu re o f a successful
acoustic design.

This chapter concludes and recoimends some th e o r itic a l and


p ra c tic a l requirements already o u tlin e in the preceding chapters
which are most s ig n ific a n t in th is study.

CONCLUSIONS MD FEOOWENDATIONS
CONTENT OLTLINE
CHA ? T E P FIVE
OTNCHJEIfN AND FECDWENDATICNS

5 :1 :0 CDNCLUSICN.................. 107
5:1:1 Sound Theory
5:1:2 Design Consideration
5:1:3 V a riety

5 :2 :0 FECDM^ENDATTONS 109
5 :2:1 Location
5:2:2 Design
5:2:3 Execution
5:2:4 Maintenance
5; 1:0 CONCLUSION

In order to handle any aooustic design, the arch itect should


understand the sound theory, aooustic design elements and
functional requirements o f the spaoe.

5 :1?1 Sound Theory


Fundamental knowledge o f sound theory constitutes an in p o rt ant
foundation fo r the approach o f acoustic design. This c le a r ly
h igh ligh ts the behaviour o f sound both outdoors and in an
enclosed space.

Basic formulae ou tlin ed in th is study are necessary in ord er to


achieve both a q u a lita tiv e and q u a n tita tive understanding o f
sound behaviour.

5:1:2 Design Consideration


B a s ic a lly , good aooustic design Gormanoes with the choiae o f a
s i t e whose background sound le v e ls are low. This is then enhanced
by the planning and layout o f p a rtic u la r a c t iv it ie s to a tta in a
separation o f noisy spaces from qu iet spaces.

The choice o f m aterials, placement and construction technique in


studios plays a very important ro le in the o v e r a ll acoustic design.
A l l these should be accompanied by c a r e fu lly designed acou stic
ctetails and good workmanship.
Due to high sound insulation requirements, studio spaoes require
a r t i f i c i a l v e n tila tio n and lim itin g. These systems should be
selected and incorporated in studio w ith maximum precaution to
preserve the high insulation standards e x is tin g in the stu d io.

To fu lly r e a lis e a studio whose acoustic performance is good,


the a rch itect needs t o work hand in hand w ith the c lie n t ,
engineers, acousticians and a ccrpetent contractor rig h t from
the inception stage to the oonpleticn o f the p ro ject.

5 :1 :3 V ariety
A v a rie ty o f studios e x is t whose fu n ction al and technical requirements
remain d iv e r s ifie d both in nature and character. However, a l l
studios have one th in g in common - That the sound produced in
such a space is picked up by a microphone and is thus su b ject to
the same p e c u lia r itie s as in the case o f somebody lis te n in g with
cne ear.

For the purpose o f th is study, referen ce to te le v is io n and broad­


ca stin g studies have been ou tlined. These are expounded upon to
serve as a ty p ic a l example among other studios whose design c r it e r ia
f a l l along the same b a s ic design path.

The presentation o f s c a le and accarmodaticnal aspect o f p a rtic u la r

performance remain a d iverse item r e ly in g w holly on the stu dio.


A studio should th erefo re be designed t o ca ter fo r s p e c ific
performance, presumably coping up with su b stan tial requirements
f o r modem times.
o
5:2:0 FECPWENDATICNS

In the lig h t o f the deductions suggested in the conclusion, the


a rc h ite c t's ro le in an area o f prime acoustic design i s unfolded.

The a rc h itc t bears various r e s p o n s ib ilitie s o f ca rvertin g the


s c ie n t ific theory and analysis in to a d eta iled and p ra ctica b le
arch itectu ral solu tion s.

5:2:1 Location
The c r it e r ia fo r s i t e s e le c tio n and lo ca tio n should be predominantly
con trolled by surrounding sound le v e ls . The sound pressure levels
should be low enough to provide appropriate outdoor acou stic
environment.

The design team should search fo r an appropriate s it e ra th er than


adapting a s it e which is se t aside w ithout taking the n oise le v e ls
in to consideration.

With proper s it e lo c a tio n , the studios can be conveniently incorporated


in the bu ildin g s e t up.

I f d i f f ic u lt ie s a ris e in g e ttin g an a c o u s tic a lly convenient s it e ,


sound insulation measures should be taken serio u sly. This should
include appropriate construction, e le c tio n o f sound b a r r ie r w alls
and the appropriate location o f the studios with b u ffe r spaces
between them and the noise sources.
5:2:2 Design
The design o f any studio space should be dene by a ctesign team
c le a r ly g iv in g a d is tin c tio n o f the a c t iv it ie s to be accomodated
in the studio.

The in tegration o f oth er design elements and services should be


chosen and implemented c a re fu lly without disrupting the ctesired
acoustic environment. The need fo r the a rch itect to design and
supervise the execution o f a l l acoustic d e ta ils is o f prime inportanoe.

The design o f studios should be d irected to p a rtic u la r a c t iv it y rather


than designing fo r a wide spectrum o f a c t iv it ie s .

5 :2:3 Execution
In Kenya, the ' Jua K a li' domestic technology is being e x ten sively used
throughout the country. Almost a l l craftsmen used in our lo c a l
b u ild in g industry are descendants o f th is evolvin g technology. This
serves qu ite w e ll w ith most o f the lo c a l construction needs but may
be o f disastrous e f f e c t to an area o f s p e c ia lis e d construction
requirement such as stu d io construction. Construction o f studios
requ ire a coupe tent contractor whose p ast experience an such studios
i s established.

The design team has to keep close supervision on the p ro je c t


throughout the e n tire construction p eriod . This would ensure
e x c e lle n t execution and workmanship in the o v e r a ll p ro je c t.
- Ill -

5:2:4 Maintenance
Consultation should n ot only be carried out in t i l the cou p let! on o f
the p ro je c t. P e r io d ic a lly , the c lie n t needs to consult the ctesign
team in order to carry out surveys to ascertain any e s s e n tia l areas
requ irin g maintenance.

o
Epilogue
EPILOGUE

The study c ite s arch itectu re as an evo lu tio n from s c i e n t i f i c


demand to provide approp riate and fe a s ib le solution to an outstanding
acoustic f i e l d .

The a rc h ite c t is seen to possess the prime o b je c tiv e o f p ro p ellin g


the cumulative and challenging re s p o n s ib ility in to cne ta r g e t -
Achieving a p r a c tic a l solu tion to the desired studio space.

-----------------------o ---------------------
A P P E N D IX I

Absorption Coefficients
Th e following table o f absorption coefficients is divided into
four groups: common building materials (1 to 22), common
absorbent materials o f non-proprietary kinds (23 to 42), room
contents (43 to 49), and proprietary absorbents (50 to 69).
Coefficients are given for the three representative frequencies
125, 500 and 2000 H z at which calculations are commonly made
and also for a number o f materials at some or all o f the fre­
quencies 62, 250, 1000 and 4000 Hz to enable calculations at
every octave over a wider range to be made for studio design
purposes. In all o f the groups except the proprietary materials
the values given are those which have been found in practice to
be most applicable to average room and auditorium conditions,
rather than values based on an isolated test measurement. It
must be borne in mind that sound absorption is not an intrinsic
property o f a material alone. Factors such as thickness, method
o f mounting and decorative treatment will influence actual
absorption, as w ill the nature (solidity and weight, for example)
o f the structures in which they are built, particularly at the
lowest sound frequencies.
T h e values for proprietary absorbents are those published by
the manufacturers o f these materials, and only those which are
results o f tests by the National Physical Laboratory o f Great
Britain and the Technical Physics Dept. (T .N .O .) of, the
Netherlands (which are recognised authorities) have been
included.
T h e values quoted under the heading L .R .C . are the loud­
ness reduction coefficients which give an indication o f the per­
formance o f the material as a noise-reducing treatment*

*Parkin & Humphreys, London 1969


Pg. 309-313.
b ltq u m e y I U

m *
62 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 L .R .C .

C ommon H u iip in o M a t f .k i a i j
1. Hoarded roof; underside of
pitched slate or tile covering 015 01 0-1
2. Hoarding ( ' match') about
19 mm thick over air-space against
solid wall 03 01 0-1
3. Brickwork, plain or painted 005 0-05 004 002 004 005 005
4. Clinker ('breeze') concrete
unplastered 01 02 0-3 0G 0^ 0-5 05
5. Concrete, constructional or
tooled stone or granolithic 005 002 002 002 004 005 005
6. Cork tiles (thin), wood
blocks, linoleum or rubber flooring
on solid floor (or wall) 005 002 0-04 005 0-05 0-1 005
7. Cork tiles 25 mm thick on
solid backing 005 01 02 0-55 06 0-55 0-5
8. Fibreboard (normal soft)
12 mm duck, mounted against solid
backing—unpainted 005 0-05 0-1 0-15 0-25 03 03
9. Ditto, painted 005 005 01 0 1 0-1 01 015
10. Fibreboard (normal soft)
12 mm thick mounted over 25 mm
air-spacc on battens against
solid backing— unpainted 0-3 0-3 03
11. Ditto, painted 03 0-15 01
12. Floor tiles (hard) or 'com-
position' floor 003 003 005
13. Class; windows glazed with
up to 4 mm glass 0-3 0-1 005
14. Glass, C mm plate windows
in large sheets 01 004 002
15. Class used as a wall finish
(e.g. ‘ Vitrolilc') or glazed tile or
polished marble 001 0 01 002
Granolithic floor—see 5
Lath and plaster—see 17
Linoleum—see 6
Marble— see 15
Match-boarding—see 2
16. Plaster, lime or gypsum on
solid backing 005 0-03 003 002 003 0 01 005
17. Plaster, lime or gypsum on
lath, over air-space against solid
backing or on joists or studs in­
cluding plasterboard 01 0-3 0-15 0-1 0-05 004 005
18. Plaster or plasterboard sus­
pended ceiling with large air-space
above 0-2 01 004
19. Plywood or hardlioard
panels mounted over air-space
against solid backing 0-3 0-15 0-1
F n q u ru j H i

62 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 L.R.C.

C o m m o n Buildimo M a t z a h —
io n tin iu d
20. Ditto with porous absorbent
in air-space 04 0-15 01
Rubber flooring—see 0
Stone, polislied—see 15
21. Water—as in swimming-
baths 001 001 04)2
Windows—see 13 and 14
Wood-block floor— see 6
22. Wood boards on joists or
battens 0-1 0-15 0-2 0-1 01 01 0-1

C ommon A horsem t M a t e r ia l !
( N o n -p r o p r ie t a r y )
23. Asbestos spray, 25 mm on
solid backing—unpainted 0-15 05 07
24. Carpet—thin, such as hair
cord over thin felt on concrete floor 04)5 0-1 0 15 025 03 03 03 03
25. Ditto on wood-board floor 0-15 02 025 03 05 03 03 03
26. Carpet, pile over thick felt
on concrete floor 005 0417 025 05 05 06 065 055
27. Curtain—medium or similar
fabric, straight against solid barking 005 005 01 015 02 0-25 03 02
28. Curtain medium fabric hung
in folds against solid backing 0-05 0-35 05
29. Curtains (dividing), double,
canvas 003 003 04M 0-1 0-15 02 0-15
30. Felt—hair, 25 mm thick with
perforated membrane (viz. muslin)
against solid barking 0-1 0-7 08
Mineral or glass wool, 80-190
Kg/m* density, 25 mm thick
blanket or semi-rigid slabs against
solid backing:
31. With no covering, or very
porous (scrim or open-weave
fabric) or open meial inesh cover-
ing 008 0-15 035 07 085 09 09 085
32. With 5% perforated hard-
board covering 04)5 0-1 035 085 085 035 0-15 055
33. With 10% perforated or
20% slotted hanlboard covering 0-05 0-15 0-3 0-75 085 075 04 07
Mineral or glass wool, 80-190
Kg/m* density, 50 mm thick blan­
ket or mattress mounted over 25 mm
air-space against solid backing:
34. No covering or with very
porous (scrim or open-weave
fabric) or open metal mesh cover-
ing 0 15 035 07 09 09 095 0 9 09
35. Ditto with 10% perforated
or 20% slotted hardboard covering 0-15 0-4 08 09 085 075 0-4 07
F req u en cy H i

62 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 I..R.C.

Comiox A bsorbent M a t e r ia l s
( N o n - p r o p r i e t a r y ) -co n tin u e d
36. Panel (about 5 Kg/m2) of
3 mm hardboard with bitumen
roofing felt stuck to back mounted
over 50 mm air-space against solid
backing 05 09 045 025 0-15 0-1 0-1
37. Panel (about 4 Kg/ml ) of
two layers bitumen roofing felt
mounted over 250 mm air-space
against solid backing 09 05 03 0-2 0-1 0-1 0-1
38. Polystyrene (expanded)
board 25 mm thick spaced 50 mm
from solid backing 0 1 025 055 02 01 0-15 025
39. Polyurethane flexible foam
50 rnm thick on solid backing 025 05 085 0-95 09 09 09
40. Wood-wool slabs 25 mm
thick mounted solidly— unplastered 0-1 0-4 0-6
41. Ditto mounted 25 mm from
solid backing 0-15 06 06
42. Ditto, plastered and with
mineral wool in cavity 0-5 02 0-1

R oom C o m m
43. Air. ( x ) (per cu. m) nil nil nil nil 0 003 0007 002
44. Audience seated in fully up-
hobtered seals (per person) 015 0-18 0-4 0 46 046 051 0-46
45. Audience seated in wood or
padded seat (per person) 0-16 0-4 044 0-4
46. Seats (unoccupied), fully
upholstered (per seat) 0-12 028 032 0-37
47. Seats (unoccupied), wood
or padded (per seat) 008 0 15 0-18 02
48. Orchestral player with in­
strument (average) 0-18 0-37 08 l-t 1-3 1-2 M
49. Rostrum (portable wood)
per m2 of surface 06 0-4 01 nil nil nil nil

A bsorbent M a t e r ia l s ,
P r o p r ie t a r y
50. 'Burgeis' metal perforated
01 0-3 06 075 08 08 0-75
tile (type C ) against solid backing
51. ‘ Echostop' plaster per­
0-45 0-7 08 08 065 0-45 0-7
forated tile over 125 mm air-space
52. Fibreglass 19 mm plastic
Alined acoustic tiles spaced 50 mm
from solid backing. (Film 0 038
mm stretched across tiles and stuck
0-3 0-45 0-7 075 085 075 0-75
at edges only)
53. ‘ Frenger’ metal perforated
(heated) panel with 19 mm bitu­
men-bonded glass wool behind, 04
0-2 045 065 0-45 035 025
over air-space
F req w n cy H z

62 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 I-.R.C.

A bso r b e n t M a t e r ia l s .
P r o p r i e t a r y — w / s — rf
54. 'Cypklilh' wood-wool tile,
25 mm thick over 25 mm air-spare 025 045 09 0-7 055 075 07
55. 'Gyproc* perforated plaster­
board over 25 mm scrim-covercd
rock-wool 0-15 0-7 0-9 0-7 045 03 06
56. Ditto over 50 mm glass-wool 04 0-75 085 055 045 03 055
57. Ditto over 25 mm air-space
(empty) 0-1 0-2 04 03 0-15 02
50. 'Gyproc* slotted plaster-
board tile over 25 mm bitumen-
bonded glass-wool 0-15 05 08 06 025 as 05
59. '1'axfelt’ asbestos felt 25 mm
thick over 25 mm air-space 0-5 0-55 065 0-7 0-75 065
60. 'Paxtiles,asbestostiles25mm
thick over 25 mm air-space 0-55 0-75 085 08
61. 'I'crfonit* wood fibre per­
forated tile 19 mm thick over 25
mm air-space 02 05 0-7 085 075 065 0-75
62. 'Tentest' Rabbit-Warren
perforated hardboard tile with
grooved fibre barking 25 mm
mounted over 25 mm air-space 0 15 05 06 08 0-75 025 06
63. ' lbermacoust ’ wood-wool
slab 50 mm thick against solid
backing 02 05 08 0-75 0-75 075 0-75
64. ‘ Tree!ex’, ‘ Decorac’ slot­
ted wood-fibre tile 25 mm thick 0-15 065 0-75 1-00 095 0-7 085
65. 'Treetex', 'Slotac' grooved
wood-fibre tile 19 mm thick 0-15 04 055 0-7 08 07 07
66. ‘ Treetex’ , ‘ Treeperac' per-^
forated wood-fibre tile 19 mm thick 02 0-55 065 0-9 08 055 0-7
67. 'Unitex* perforated wood-
fibre tile 12 mm thick 02 0-55 06 06 065 08 065
68. 'Unitex' perforated wood-
fibre tile 19 mm thick 025 065 065 0-7 08 0-75 07
69. * W. Cullum ' Acoustic Felt,
covered with painted and pin-hole
perforated muslin—solid backing 0-35 0-75 085 0-7 065 0-75
Bibliography
GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Burris Meyer H. - Acoustic f o r the A rch itect.
Reinhold Publishing Corporation,
New York 1972.

2. Croome D.J. - Noise and the Design o f B uildings and


S ervices. Construction Press, London
1982.

3. East African - Jubilee Year Book, 1913 - 1963, Nairobi


In s titu te o f
1963.
Architects

4. Egan D.M. - Concepts in A rch itectu ra l Acoustics.



McGraw-Hill Bock C o ., New York 1972.

5. Furrer W. - Room and B u ilding Acoustics and Noise


Abatement. Butterworth & Co. Ltd.
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6. Joseph De Chiara & - Time Saver Standards fo r B u ildin g Types


John Hancock C.
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■ arris C.M.
H
Jchn W iley & Sons I n c ., New York, 1950.
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GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY
& Szokolay
B uilding Part I - C lim atic Design.
Longman Group Ltd, London 1973.

9. Lawrence Anita - A rch itectu ral Acoustics. Applied


Science Publishers Ltd. England 1970.

10 . M illerson G. - The Technique o f T e le v is io n Production.


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A rch itectu ra l Press, London 1961.

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C on trol. McMillan Press L td , London
& Basingstoke, 1978.

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Hnrphreys H.R.
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E d ition . Longman Group L t d . , London
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16. Ttenpleton D & D eta ilin g fo r Acoustics. 2nd Edition.


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Press L t d . , London 1979.

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