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# 2.

What kind of information does the velocity of propagation give us in the propagation of
electromagnetic waves?

They are those waves that do not need a material means to spread. They include, among others,
visible light and radio waves, television and telephony.

All propagate in vacuum at a constant speed, very high (300 0000 km / s) but not infinite. Thanks to
this we can observe the light emitted by a distant star so long ago that perhaps that star has already
disappeared. Or to find out about an event that occurs thousands of kilometers practically at the
moment of occurrence.

Electromagnetic waves are propagated by an oscillation of electric and magnetic fields. The
electromagnetic fields to "excite" the electrons of our retina, communicate with the outside and
allow our brain to "build" the scenario of the world in which we are.

The O.E.M. they are also support for telecommunications and the complex functioning of the
current world.

3. Explain how an electromagnetic wave behaves in free space, perfect dielectrics and good
conductors. the speed with which an electromagnetic wave travels in free space is not equal to the
speed with which an electric charge moves in a metallic medium or antenna, the latter is smaller
than the first. Therefore when we speak of electric wavelength, we are referring to the mathematical
expression of section 1.4, but multiplied by a coefficient of value less than 1, which is called the
velocity factor. That is:

𝐿𝑒 / 2 = (𝑉 / 𝐹𝑟𝑒𝑐. ) / 2 𝑥 𝐹𝑣 𝐴

dielectric material has electric charges located within its molecules, bound charges whose density
ρPol can change locally, but can not move freely along the material. This distribution determines
the electric polarization vector P at each point of the material.
4. Using the electromagnetic spectrum, explain the practical application of each type of

Although the classification scheme is usually accurate, there is actually some transposition between
neighboring types of electromagnetic energy. For example, radio waves at 60 Hz can be received
and studied by astronomers, or they can be conducted along cables as electrical power. Also, some
low-energy gamma rays actually have a longer wavelength than some high-energy X-rays. This is
possible because "gamma ray" is the name given to photons generated in nuclear decomposition or
other nuclear and subnuclear processes, while X-rays are generated by electronic transitions that
involve very energetic inner electrons. Therefore, the difference between gamma ray and X ray is
related to the radiation source rather than the wavelength of the radiation. Generally, nuclear
transitions are much more energetic than electronic transitions, so gamma rays tend to be more
energetic than X-rays. However, there are low-energy nuclear transitions (eg the nuclear transition
of 14.4 keV of Fe -57) that produce gamma rays that are less energetic than some of the higher
energy X rays.

Radio waves are usually used by antennas of the appropriate size (according to the principle of
resonance),

Microwave

The super high frequency (SHF) and the extremely high frequency (EHF) of the microwave are the
following on the frequency scale

Rays T

The radiation of terahertz (or Rays T) is a region of the spectrum located between the far infrared
and the microwaves.

5. What is the refractive index and what kind of information does it give us about the
behavior of electromagnetic waves?

The ratio of the speed of light in the vacuum and the speed of light in the medium whose index is
calculated is called the refractive index. It is symbolized by the letter and it is a dimensionless
value.

nc/v

where:

## c: The speed of light in a vacuum

v: Speed of the light in the medium whose index is calculated (water, glass, etc.).
n: Refractive index of the medium.

The refractive index of a medium is a measure of how much the speed of light (or other waves such
as sound waves) is reduced within the medium.

6. What is a flat wave and a non-flat wave and where are they used? What is a magnetic and
non-magnetic medium and where are they used? Why do we use flat waves to explain
practical models associated with electromagnetic phenomena?

A flat wave or also called mono-dimensional wave, is a wave of constant frequency whose wave
fronts (surfaces with constant phase) are parallel planes of constant amplitude normal to the vector
velocity of phase. That is to say, they are those waves that propagate in a single direction
throughout the space, like for example the waves in the springs or in the cords. If the wave
propagates in a single direction, its wave fronts are flat and parallel.

By extension, the term is also used to describe waves that are approximately flat in a localized
region of space. For example, a source of electromagnetic waves such as an antenna produces a
field that is approximately flat in a far field region. That is, at a distance far from the source, the
waves emitted are approximately flat and can be considered as such.

n magnetic medium is a device that stores information by means of magnetic waves. Magnetic
media are hard drives, 3 1/2 "discs, audio cassettes or cassettes.

Magnetic media must be kept away from magnetic fields and no body with magnetic properties
(such as magnets, telephones) should be brought near them, as they could cause irretrievable loss of