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API - 510 COURSE NOTESm

VOLUME - IE

CONTENTS

1 Program Daily Schedule.

2. Body of Knowledge & Effectivity Sheet.

3. Examples of Repairs and Alterations

4. Guidelines for API 510 Certification Exam.

5. Case Studies. ASME Sec. VIII. API 510.

6. Case Studies ASME See. IX.

7. Reference Documents.

Allowable Stress Tables


Solved Examples, ASME Sec. VIII, Div. 1
Materials of Construction

8. Daily Practice Exams & Answer Keys

9. Daily Points to Recall.

10. Add itiona I Information


API 510 PRESSURE VESSEL INSPECTOR COURSE

PROGRAM SCHEDULE
Venue: Hotel Kohinoor Executive, Pune, INDIA.

\ DAY 1.

Session 1

Introduction to API-510 Certification.


ASME code system
introduction to ASME SEC. VIII, Div. 1.

Session 2

Design fundamentals
Allowable Stresses,
Joint Category, Joint types
Joint efficiencies

Session 3

Design of Cylindrical shells


Calculation of vessel MAWP, part MAWP
Static head calculations
Design of Dished heads
Case Studies

I DAY 2.
J
Session 1

• Points to recall Day-1


Design of Dished heads. (Contd.)
Design of Flat unstayed heads
• Depths of dished heads

Session 2

External pressure calculations


Case Studies
Impact testing requirements

Session 3

Pressure testing -Hydrostatic


Pressure testing-Pneumatic
Review of Practice Exam-1
------------------_ - ~.-------- ..

I DAY-3.
l
Session 1

• Points to recall Day-2


• Weld size for attachment welds at openings.
• Case studies.
• Reinforcement of Openings-Concepts

Session 2

• Reinforcement pad Calculations


• Case studies.
• Typical weld joints for Pressure Vessels
Restrictions on joints -mismatch tolerances

Session 3

• Allowable weld reinforcements


• Inspection requirements for Pressure Vessels
• Heat treatment
Code stamping and Data-reports
• Review of Practice Exam-2

~------------------------------------------,
I DAY 4. I

Session 1

Points to recall Day-3


Introduction to API-510 code - Scope & Applications
Reference Codes and Standards
Specific definitions

Session 2

API-510 contd ...lnspection Organizations


• Owner-User responsibilities
Quality control manual
Certification requirements

Session 3

Modes of Deterioration
• Corrosion, Fatigue, Creep
Freeze damage, Brittle failure,
Temper embrittlement
Review of Practice Exam-3
--_._ ..,-_ ..•..••.. _-_ _-._-------~---_.
.•.

[DAYS.
---------- ---------------------

Session 1

• Points to recall Day-3


• API-510 contd ..Defect inspection
• Inspection of parts
• Minimum thickness Evaluation
• Pitting corrosion
• Localised corossion

Session 2

• API-510 Inspection practices


• Corrosion rate determination
• MAWP determination for Vessels in service
Numerical Examples

Session 3

• API-510 contd .... External inspection


Internal and on-stream inspection
Inspection interval
• Remaining service life
Illustrative calculations
Review of Practice Exam-4

r DA-Y_ -_6-._----- -- -- ------- -_ -_ -_ -_ - --------.-------------------.,


. I

Session 1

Points to recall Day-3


API-510 contd ...Defect repairs
Pressure tests
Documentation and Records

Session 2

• Welding requirements
Pre-heating and PWHT
Weld overlay and cladding
NOT for repairs and alterations

Session 3

Alterations and re-rating


Re-rating documentation and stamping
Review of Mid-session Exam-Open book. Closed book.
I DAY 7.
Session 1

• Points to recall Day-6


• Introduction to ASME SEC. IX
• Procedure Qualifications
• PQR tests- and evaluation of results

Session 2

Welding variables-EVs, NEVs, SEVs.


Limits of PQR Qualificatios I validity.
WPS/PQR documentation
• WPQ tests & their validity

Session 3

• Detailed road-map for review of WPS/PQR documentation


Case Studies for WPS/PQR review.
ASME Sec.v Nondestructive Examination
• Article 1: General Requirements
• Review of Practice Exam-6

I
t
DAY 8.

Session 1

Points to recall Day-7


Article 2: Radiographic Examination
Radiograpic procedure
Selection of penetrameter
• Radiographic technique
Interpretation & documentation

Session 2

• Article 6: Liquid Penetrant Examination


• LPE procedure
• Selection of penetrants
LPE technique
• Interpretation & documentation
Article 7: Magnetic particle Examination

Session 3

SE-797 UT measurememt
Pulse-Echo contact method
Single and dual crystal techniques
Review of NDE Requirements ASME See VIII & API 510
Review of Practice Exam-7
I DAY 9.

Session 1

• Points to recall Day-8


• Introduction to IRE Chap. II
• Corrosive components in crude
• Deterioration due to Hydrogen
• Deterioration due to H2S
• Other factors of Corrosion

Session 2

• API RP-572 review


• Types of Pressure Vessels
• Construction Standards
• Causes of deterioration

Session 3

• Internal inspection
• External inspection
• Inspection records and reports
• Review of Practice Exam-8

-- ---- ---------.---------

Session 1

• Points to recall Day-9


• API RP-576 Inspection of Pressure relieving Devices
Types of PRDs
• Causes for malfunctioning
• Inspection intervals &insp. procedures for PRDs,
• Testing of PRDs on test bench.
• Inspection records & reports

Session 2

Review of Practice Exam-8


Final Open- book Test

Session 3

Final close book test


Feed-back on tests
Close-down.
" ~ ..:",ao 1220 L Street. Northwest
Washington, D.C. 20005-4070
reln-dcum 202-682-8161
Institute 202-682-8348 (Fax)

~ICP
BODY OF KNOWLEDGE

API-SIO PRESSURE VESSEL INSPECTOR

CERTIFICATION EXAMINATION

May 2005 (Replaces June 2004)

API Authorized Pressure Vessel Inspectors must have a broad knowledge base relating to maintenance, inspection, repair,
and altcration of pressure vessels. The API Authorized Pressure Vessel Inspector Certification Examination is designed to
determine if individuals have such knowledge. The following is a list of specific topics in which the API Authorized Pressure
Vessell.nspector should bc knowledgeable.

To determine whether the applicants have this broad base of inspection knowledge, a minimum of one question from each
category listed within tl1is Body of Knowledge will be included on the API certification exan1ination. Only inspection
information covered in one of the references outlined in this body of knowledge will be utilized for the examination

questions.

The examination consists of two parts. The closed book part tests the candidate on knowledge and tasks requiring everyday
working knowledge of API Standard 510 and the applicable reference documents. The open book portion of the examination
requires the use of morc detailed information that the inspector is expected to be able to find in the documents, but would not
nonnally be COllunitted to memory.

REFERENCE PUBLICATIONS:

API publications and ASME codebooks must be brought to the examination site to be used as reference materials for the
open-book part of the examination.

A. API Publications:

API 510, Pressure Vessel Inspection Code


API RP 571, Damage Mechanisms Affecting Equipment in Refilling Industry
API RP 572, Inspection of Pressure Vessels
API RP 576, Inspection of Pressure-Relieving Devices
API RP 577, Welding Inspection and Metallurgy

B. ASME Publications:

Section V, Nondestructive Examination


Section VIII, Division I, Rules for Constructing Pressure Vessels
Section lX, Welding and Brazing Qualifications

Note: Refer to the Publications Effectivity Sheet in the application package for a list of specific editions, addenda, and
supplements ofilie reference publications tl1at are effective for your ex.am date.

05105
I. THICKNESS MEASUREMENTS, INSPECTION INTERVALS AND VESSEL INTEGRITY

A. Code calculation questions will be oriented toward existing pressure vessels, not new pressure vessels. API
Authorized Pressure Vessellnspcctors should be able to check and perfonn calculations relative to in-service deterioration,
repairs, rerates, or alterations. Only internal and external pressure loadings will be considered for the API 510 examination.
The following categories describe the minimum necessary knowledge and skills:

I. CORROSION RATES AND INSPECTION INTERVALS

The Inspector should be able to take inspection data and deternline the internal and external inspection intervals.

The Inspector must be able to calculate:

a. Metal Loss (including corrosion averaging) (API-51O, Para 5.7, d)


b. Corrosion Rates (API-SIG, Para 6.4)
c. Remaining Corrosion Allowance (API-51O, Para 6.4)
d. Remaining Service Life (API-510, Para, 6.4)
e. Inspection Interval (API-SIO, Para, 6.4)

The fonnulas for perfonning the above calculations and rules for setting the inspection intervals may be "closed-book"
during the exam.

2. JOINT EFFICIENCIES

The inspector must be able to detennine the joint efficiency "E" of a vessel weld. Inspector should be able to detennine:

a. Weld Joint Categories from UW-3;


b. Type of radiography (full, spot, or none) performed basis the nameplate markings (RT-I, RT-2, etc.);
c. Joint efficiency by reading Table UW-12;
d. Joint efficiency for seamless heads and vesscls Sections per UW -12 (d); and
e. Joint efficiency for weldcd pipe and tubing per UW- 12 (e).

Detenllining joint efficiency may be part of the internal pressure problem since joint efficiency "E" is used in the
formulas for deternlining required thickness or Vessel Part MA WP.

3. STATIC HEAD

The inspector must be able to compensate for the pressure resulting from static head. All static head wiIl be based upon a
Specific Gravity of 1.0. The inspector should be able to:

a) List the static head/pressure conversion factor (0.433 psilft);


b) Know the difference between vessel MA WP and vessel part MAWP (UG-98);
c) Calculate static head pressure on any vessel part;
d) Calculate total pressure (MA WP + static head) on any vessel part;
e) Calculate maximum vessel MA WP given vessel parts MA WP and elevations

Static head calculations may also be required during the internal pressure calculations if static head data is given in the
examination problem.

05/05 2
The inspector should be able to detennine:

a) The rcquired thickness of a cylindrical shell based (In circllnlferel\ti.d ,tr<:ss gi,'<:n a pr<:ssure (UG-27(c)(l »)i
b) The vessel part MA WP for a cylindrieal shell ba.,cd on cir.:umtcr.:nllal strcs, given a metal thickness (UG-27(c)(I));
c) The rcquircd thickncss ofa head (ellipsoidal. and hCOlisphcrh;al) ~i\(;n a pre-;surc. (UG-32 (d), (e), (f) and (g))
d) The vessel part MAWP for a head (ellipsoidal. and hCOlisphcn-:;d) ~i"en a -neta\ thickness. (UG-32 (d), (e), (f) and
(g).
e) Whether a head (ellipsoidal, torispherical or hcmlsph,Ti<a: I mect. ( ode rcquiremcnts given both prcssure and metal
thickness (UG 32(d), (e), (f) and (g).

The inspector should also be able to compensate for thc corro_i0n d1l0wanee: add or subtract based on requirements of
tbe exam problem. The Appendix I fonnula for cylinders, which IS bascd on outside diamcter, can be used. The
Appendix I fonnulas for non-standard heads will not be required.

5. EXTERNAL PRESSURE

The inspector should be able to:

a) Calculate the maximum allowable external pressure (specific MaterialfTemperature Charts supplied with the
examination) (UG-28(c)(l); and
b) Calculate whether a cylindrical shell or tube meets Code design for external pressure given a wall thickness and
a pressure (UG 28 (c )( I).
Note: Factors from the external pressure charts will be given in the wording of the question. Use of the actual
charts is not required.

6. PRESSURE TESTING

The inspector should be able to:

a) Calculate a test pressure compensating for temperature. (UG-99 & UG-IOO)


b) Be familiar with the precautions associated with hydrostatic and pneumatic testing, such as minimum test
temperatures, protection against overpressure etc.
c) Be familiar with all steps in a hydrotest Procedure (UG 99 and UG 100)
d) Be fanliliar with all steps in a pneumatic test procedure (UG 100 and UG 102)

7. IMPACT TESTING

The inspector should be able to:

a) Determine the minimum metal temperature of a material which is exempt from irnpacttesting (UG-20 (f), UCS-66,
UCS-68(c).)

8. WELD SIZE FOR ATTACHMENT WELDS AT OPENINGS

The inspector must be able to determine if weld sizes meet Code requirements. The inspector should be able to:

a) Convert a fillet weld throat dimension to leg dimension or visa versa, using conversion factor
(0.707); and
b) Detennine the required size of welds at openings (UW -16).

05/05 3
Thc inspector should:

a) Undcrstand thc kcy conccpts of reinforcement, such as replacement of strength removed and limits of
rcinforccmcnt.
Credit can be takcn for cxtra metal in shell and nozzle
b) Be able to calculate the required areas for reinforcement or check to ensure that a designed pad 1S large
enough. To simplify the problem:

All fr = 1.0
All F = \.0
All E = 1.0
All required thicknesses are given
c) There will be no nozzle projecting inside the shell
d) Be able to compensate for corrosion allowances.
e) Weld strength calculations are excluded.

B. The following are typical ASME code engineering requirements that API certification candidates will NOT be
expected to know for purposes of the certification examination.

I. Required thickness calculations for wind., earthquake, and other secondary stress loadings;
2. Supplementary design formulas and calculations for non-cylindrical shell components;
3. Most external pressure calculations;
4. Nozzle calculations for external loads;
5. Flange calculations;
6. Brazing requirements;
7. Ligament calculations;
8. Stayed flat heads and sizing of stays;
9. Tubesheet calculations (stayed or unstayed) and tube to tubesheetjoints and loads;
10. Relief valve sizing;
II. Lifting lug and other structural type calculations;
12. Proof testing requirements;
13. Required inspections for new construction, except as they apply to alterations and repairs;
14. Zick analysis;
15. Integrally forged pressure components;
16. Cryogenic vessels (below -50 f);
17. Dimpled., embossed., jacketed, and non-metallic vessels and assemblies;
18. NDE requirements for acoustic emission, eddy current, and motion radiography;
19. ASME Sections UF, DB, UNF, UHA, UCI, UCL, UCD, UHT (except UHT-6), ULW, and ULT;
20. Code Cases and interpretations;
2 \ . \V elding process requirements other than shielded metal arc welding (SMA W), gas tungsten arc welding (OT A W),
gas metal arc welding (OMA W), or submerged arc welding (SAW);
22. Requirements for pressure vessels for human occupancy; and
23. Rules for natural resource vessels, API-5 10, Section 8.

05/05 4
II. WELDING PROCEDURE AND QUALIFICATION EVALUATION BASEl) 0" ..••S\It. BOILER
AND PRESSURE VESSEL CODE, SECTION IX

/\. WELD PROCEDURE REVIEW

I. The inspector should be able to detern1ine if procedure and qualtfi.::ation record., al\: .n ,::olllpliance with applicable
ASME boiler and pressure vessel code and any additional requirem<:nt$ .,f API 5 10 (\ 1'1·51 (I requirements will take
preccdencc ovcr any ASME requirements covcring the same technic.tl .lrca ..
The weld procedurc review may include:
a. Welding Procedure Specification (WPS); and
b. Proccdure Qualification Record (PQR).
The wcld procedure review may include: SMA W, GT A W, GMA \\'. OK SA \\ . ""ilh thl f(llhm ing Iimiwtions:
a) No more than one process will be included on a single WPS or PI)R, ..mJ the wrs 10 bc rcviewcd will bc
supported by a single PQR.
b) filler metals limited to one-pcr-proccss for SMAW, GTAW, GMA W. or ~A W.
c) Thc PQR will be the supporting PQR for thc WPS.

2. The inspector should be able to determine:


a) Whether numbcr and type of mechanical test listed on PQR arc appropriate
b) Whether the results of the tests are acceptable
c) Whether all required essential and non-essential variables have been properly addressed. (Supplemental essential
variables will not bc a part of the WPS). The following limitations or conditions will apply:

• Base metals limited to PI, P3, P4, P5, and P8.


• Dissimilar base metal joints, and dissimilar thicknesses of base metals are excluded.
• Supplemental powdered filler metals and consumable inserts are excluded.
• Special weld processes such as corrosion-resistant weld metal overlay, hard-facing overlay, and dissimilar
metal are excluded
• Welds with buttering of ferritic member are excluded.
• For PI, P3, P4, and P5, for the purpose of the examination the lower transfonnation temperature will be
o
13330F and the upper transformation tempcrature will be 1600 F.

B. ASME Section VIII. Div. I and API-51O: GENERAL WELDING REOUIREMENTS:

I. ASME Scction VIII, Div. I


The inspector should be familiar with and understand the general rules for welding in
ASME Section VIII, Div. I, Parts UW and UCS such as:

a) Typical joints and definitions


b) Weld sizes
c) Rcstrictions on joints
d) Maximum allowable reinforcement
c) Inspection requirements
f) Heat treatmcnt

2. API510
Thc inspector should be familiar with and understand any rules for welding in API-51O. Any rules for welding given in
API-510 shall take precedence over those covering the same areas in ASME, Section VIII, Div. 1.
3. "Editorial" and non-technical requirements for the welding subject matter, the candidate is to be tested on, are excluded.
This includes items such as the revision level of the WPS, company name, WPS numbcr and date, and name of testing
lab. Howcver, the API 510 applicants shall know tbat the PQR must be certified by signing and dating.

C. The inspector shall be familiar with all the requirements of and infonnation in API RP 577.

05/05 5
1Il.NONDESTRUCTlVE EXAMINATION

A~ME Section V. l'J9ndestluctive Examination

NOTE: The examination will cover ONLY the main body of each referenced Article, except as noted

A. Article I, General Requirements:


The inspector should be familiar with and understand;

I. The Scope of Section V,


2. Rules for use of Section Vas a referenced Code,
3. Responsibilities of the Owner / User, and of subcontractors,
4. Calibration,
5. Definitions of "inspection" and examination",
6. Record keeping requirements.

8. Article 2, Radiographic Examination:


The inspector should be familiar with and understand;

1. The Scope of Article 2 and general requirements,


2. The rules for radiography as typically applied on pressure vessels such as, but not limited to:
a. Required marking
b. Type, selection, number, and placement ofIQI's,
c. Allowable density
d. Control of backscatter radiation
e. Location markers
3. Records

C. Article 6, Liquid Penetrant Examination, including Mandatory Appendices II and III:


The inspector should be familiar with and understand:

I. The Scope of Article 6,


2. The general rules for applying and using the liquid penetrant method such as, but not limited to;
a) Procedures
b) Contaminants
c) Techniques
d) Examination
e) Interpretation
f) Documentation and
g) Rccord keeping

D. Article 7, Magnetic Particle Examination (Yoke and Prod techniques only):


The inspector should bc fanliliar with and understand the general rules for applying and using the magnetic particle
method such as, but not linlited to;

1. The Scope of Article 7,


2. General requirements such as but not limited to requirements for:
a. Procedures
b. Techniques (Yoke and Prod only)
c. Calibration
d. Examination
e. Interpretation
2. Documentation and record keeping

E. Article 23, Ultrasonic Standards, Section SE-797 only - Standard practice for mea<;uring thickness by manual ultrasonic
pulse-echo contact method:

05105 6
The inspector should be familiar wnh and und<:rsland.

I) The Scope of Article 23, Section SE-797,


2) The general rules for applying and using th<:ll(lra~llir ll't.:t:)od
3) The specific procedures for Ultrasonic thldness lTl<.:a,ure!a'nl JS' ontallled in paragraph 7.

AS ME Section VIII, Div. I and API-510 Genna; [K)p(k-;t;u,ti\c e\amillJtion requirements:

I.ASME Section VIII, Div. 1:


The inspector should be familiar Withand u!xkrs:aI,d :hc F,;r><:ral
ruk, for \,fDE (UG, UW, Appendices 4, 6, 8, and
12)
2. API 510, The inspector should be famiiiar \.'it~ .u1\1 unl~r-;t.U)dthe general rules for NDE in API-51 O.

IV. PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE - GENERAL

The following topics may be covered in the examination. More infonnation relative to each of the categories is contained in
section V. PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE - SPECIFIC

1. Organization and Certification Requirements.


2. Types and Definitions of Maintenance Inspections.
3. Types of Process Corrosion and Deterioration.
4. Modes of Mechanical, Thennal, and High Temperature Dcterioration.
5. Pressure Vessel Materials and Fabrication Problems.
6. Welding on Pressure Vessels.
7. Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Methods.
8. Corrosion and Minimum Thickness Evaluation.
9. Estimated Remaining Life.
10. Inspection Interval Determination and Issues Affecting Intervals.
11. Relief Devices.
12. Maintenance Inspcction Safety Practices.
13. Inspection Records and Reports.
14. Repairs/Alterations to Pressure Vessels.
15. Rerating Pressure Vessels.
16. Pressure Testing After Repairs, Alterations, or Rerating

05/05 7
V. PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE - SPECIFIC

A PI-51 0, Pressure Vessclluspc'crio,r Code

\fOTE: All of A PI 510 is applic able 10 Ih~ "XdDlm..ll"Jll unk.-ss s[}Ccifically cxcluded. ror cxample: Scction 8 and
Appcndix E arc excludcd.

I. Organization and ('ertiflcati. >n Rcq,liremc'll~

a) Certification for API A ulh0roe(! Pce-.5l,rc \ ~s.;cl Insrectors (API-510, Section 4.2 and Appcndix B).
b) Authorized Inspeni011 ,\/--,cllcles (AP -: 1('. '\ection 3.4)
c) Vessel Repair Organlzati'Jn'; (API- 510. Section 3.16)
d) Relief Device Testing and Repa,r ()rga:linllons (API-510, Section 6.6)

2. Typcs and Dcfinitions of Maintcnance Inspcction

a) Internal Inspection (API 5 10,6.4)


b) Defcct Inspection (API-51O, 5.5)
c) Inspcction of Parts (API-51O, 5.6)
d) External Inspection & Buried Vessels (API 510, 6.3)
e) Atmospheric Corrosion and Corrosion Undcr Insulation (API-5 10, 6.3)
1) On-Stream Inspcction (API-51O, 3.1 I & 6.4)
g) Visual Examination (API-51O, 5.5)
h) Thickness Measurements (API-51O, 5.3, 5.7, 6.3 & 6.4)
i) Nondestructive Examination (API-5 I 0,5.5 & 5.7)
j) Assessment of Inspection Findings (5.8)

3. Welding on Pressure Vessels

a) Welding Inspection Requirements (API-51O, 5.6 & 7.2)

4. Corrosion and Minimum Thickness Evaluation

The inspector should havc a general knowledge of the following principles, and may be required to make
calculations using these principles.

a) Corrosion Rate Determination (API 510, 5.3)


b) Corrosion Averaging (API 510, 5.7)
c) Widely Scattered Pitting (API 510,5.7)
d) Surfaccs Remote From a Weld (API, 5.7)
e) Corrosion in Central Portion of Dished Heads (API 510,5.7)

5. Estimated Remaining Life and Corrosion rate (API 510,6.4)

6. Inspection Interval Determination and Issues Affecting Intervals

a) Rjsk-based inspection (API 510, 6.2)


b) Internal or On-Stream Inspection Intervals (API 510, 6.4)
c) Intcrnal and On-stream inspection Intervals for Estimated Life (API 510, 6.4)
d) External Inspection Intervals «API-51O, 6.1-6.3)
e) Dcterioration Other Than Metal Loss (API 510, 5.2)
f) Different Zones of a Vessel (API 510, 6.4)
g) Change of Service Conditions (API 510, 6.4)
h) Change in Location and Ownership (API 510,6.4)

7. Relief Devices

05'05 8
a) Repair Organizations (API-51O, Section 6.6)
b) Minimum Requirements for Quality Control Systems (API 510, 6.6)
c) Maximum Service Intervals (API-51O, 6.6)

8. Maintenancc Inspcction Safety Practices

a) Pressurc Vcssel Inspection (API-51O, Section 5.1)

9. Inspcction Rccords and Reports

a) Permanent and Progressive Inspection Records (API-510,6.7)

10. Repairs and Alterations, to Pressure Vessels

a) Authorization (API 510, 7.1.1)


b) Approval (API 510, 7. \.2)
c) Design Requirements (API 510, 7.2.7)
d) Materials Requirements (API 510, 7.2.8)
e) Welding Requirements (API 510, 7.2.1, 7.2.2,7.2.3,7.2.6, & 7.2.11)
f) Heat Treating Requirements, including
• Preheating (API 510, 7.2.3)
• Post weld Heat Treating (API 510, 7.2.3)
• Local Postweld Heat treatment (API 510, 7.2.5)

g) Repairs to Stainless Steel Weld Overlay and Cladding (API 510, 7.2.6)
h) Inspection (API 510, 7.2.9)
i) Rerating of Pressure Vessels (API 510, 7.3)
j) Pressure Testing After Repairs, Alterations or Rerating (API-51 0, 6.5 and 7.2.10)
k) Nondestructive Examination of Welds (API 510, 7.2.4)

API RP 571, Damaf!e Mechanisms Affectinf! Fixed equipment in the Refini,,!! Industry

ATTN: Test questions will be based on the following mechanisms only:

Par. 4.2.3 - Temper Embrittlement


4.2.7 - Brittle Fracture
4.2.9 - Thermal Fatigue
4.2.14 - Erosion/Erosion-Corrosion
4.2.16 - Mechanical Failure
4.3.2 - Atmospheric Corrosion
4.3.3 - Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI)
4.3.4 - Cooling Water Corrosion
4.3.5 - Boiler Water Condensate Corrosion
4.4.2 - Sulfidation
4.5.1 - Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking (CrscC)
4.5.2 - Corrosion Fatigue
4.5.3 - Caustic Stress Corrosion Cracking (Caustic Embrittlement)
5.1.2.3 - Wet H2S Damage (Blistering/HIC/SOHIC/SCC)
5.1.3.1 - High Temperaturc Hydrogen Attack (HTHA)

API RP-572, If/sf/eetio" of Pressure Vessels

05/05 9
I. Types and Definitions of Maintenance Inspections

a) Types of Pressure Vessels (API RP-572, Section 4)


b) Construction Standards (API RP-572, Section 5)
c) Maintenance Inspection (API RP-572, Section 6)
d) Reasons for Inspection (API RP-572, Section 7)
e) Causes of Detcnoration (API RP-572, 8.1- 8.10)
f) Frequency and Time of Inspection (API RP-572, Section 9)
g) Internal Inspection (API RP-572, lOA)
11) External Inspection, Typical Items Checked (API RP-572, 10.3)
i) Visual Examination (API-RP-572, Section 10)
j) Thickness Measurements and Limits (API RP-572, Section 10)
k) Nondestructive Examination (API RP-572, Section 10)
\) Repair Methods (API RP-572, Section 11)

2. Pressure Vessel Materials and Fabrication Problems

a) Material and Fabrication Problems (API RP-572, 8A & 8.5)

3. Maintenance Inspection Safety Practices

a) Pressure Vessel Inspection (API RP-572, 10.2)

2. Inspection Records and Reports (API RP-572, Section 12)

API RP 576, Inspection of Pressure-RelievinF! Devices:

1. Relief Devices

a) Description of Types -- General Knowledge of Application and Limitations (API RP-576, Section 2)
b) Causes of Improper Performance (API RP-576, Section 4)
c) Reasons for Inspection and Frequency Detennination (API RP 576, Sections 3 & 5)
d) Inspection and Test Service Procedures (API RP-576, Sections 6 and 7)
e) Maintenance Inspection Safety Practices (API RP 576, Section 6)
f) Inspection Records and Reports (API RP-576, Section 8)

API RP 577, Weldine Inspection alld Metallurf!1J

I. Definitions
2. Welding Inspection
3. Welding Processes
4. Welding procedure
5. Welding Materials
6. Welder qualifications
7. Non-destructive examination
8. Metallurgy
9. Refinery and Petrochemical Plant Welding Issues
10. Ternlinology and symbols
II. Actions to Address improperly made production welds
12. Welding procedure review
13. Guide to common filler metal selection
14. Example report ofRT results

OS/OS 10
Publications Effectivity Sheet
API 510, Pressure Vessel Inspector Certification Exam
For Exam Administration: December 7, 2005

Listed below are the effective editions of the publications required for the December 7,2005 Examination.
• API Standard 510, Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: Maintenance Inspection, Rating, Repair. and Alteration, 8th Edition,
June 1997, Addenda 1,2,3 and 4 (August 2003). Global Engineering Product Code API CERT 510
• API Recommended Practice 571, Damage mechanisms Affecting fIXed equipment in the refining industry, 1" Edition,
December 2003
A TTENTION: Only the following mechanisms to be included:
Par. 4.2.3 - Temper Embrittlement
4.2.7 - Brittle fracture
4.2.9 - Thennal Fatigue
4.2.14 - Erosion/Erosion-Corrosion
4.2.16 - Mechanical failure
4.3.2 - Atmospheric Corrosion
4.3.3 - Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI)
4.3.4 - Cooling Water Corrosion
4.3.5 - Boiler Water Condensate Corrosion
4.4.2 - Sulfidation
4.5.1 - Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking (CrscC)
4.5.2 - Corrosion fatigue
4.5.3 - Caustic Stress Corrosion Cracking (Caustic Embrittlement)
5. \.2.3 - Wet H2S Damage (Blistering/HIC/SOHIC/SCC)
5.1.3.] - High Temperature Hydrogen Attack (HTHA)
• AP I Recommended Practice 572, Inspection of Pressure Vessels, 2nd Edition, February 200 I.
Global Engineering Product Code API CERT 572
• API Recommended Practice 576, Inspection of Pressure-Relieving Devices, 2nd Edition, December 2000.
Global Engineering Product Code API CERT 576
• API Recommended Practice 577 - Welding Inspection and Metallurgy. First edition, October 2004.
Global Engineering Product Code API CERT 577

• American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, 2001 edition with 2002 and
2003 addenda.

1. Section V, Nondestructive Examination, Articles 1. 2, 6, 7 and 23 (section S£-797)


ii. Section VIII, Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels, Division 1, UG, urv, UCS, UHT, Appendices 1-4, 6, 8
Gnd 12
Ill. Section lX, Welding and Brazing Qualifications. We/ding OIlZF

Global Engineering Product Code for the ASME package API CERT 510 ASME. Package includes only the above excerpts
necessary for the exam.

API and ASME publications may be ordered through Global Engineering Documents at 303-397-7956 or 800-854-
7179. Product codes are listed above. Orders may also be faxed to 303-397-2740. More infonnation is available at
hUp://www.global.ihs.com. API members are eligible for a 50% discount on all API documents; exam candidates
are eligible for a 20% discount on all API documents. When calling to order, please identify yourself as an exam
candidate and/or API membcr. Prices quoted will reflect the applicable discounts. No discounts will be made for
ASME documents.

Note: API and ASME publications are copyrighted material. Photocopies of API and ASME publications
are not pennitted. CD-ROM versions of the API documents are issued quarterly by Information Handling
Services and are pemlitted. Be sure to check your CD-ROM against the editions noted on this sheet.
API 510 PREPARP,TORY COURSE
EXAMPLES OF REPAIRS AND ALTERATIONS

INTRODUCTION

The following examples are intended to provide owners, users,


repair organizations and Inspectors the assistance in evaluating
whether contemplated work on a pressure retaining item should be
categorized as a repair or alteration.

EXAMPLES OF REPAIRS

J. Weld repairs or replacement of pressure parts or


('
attachments that have failed in a weld or in the base
material:

2. Corrosion resistance strip lining or weld overlay:


:; Weld bUildup of wasted areas;

4. The addition of welded attachments to pressure parts,


such as;

a. studs for insulation or refractory lining


b. ladder clips

c. brackets, having loading Y"hich do not affect the


design of the pressure retaining item to which they
are attached
d. tray support rings

5 Replacement of heat exchanger tube sheets in accordance


with the original design.

rs Replacement of boiler and heat exchanger tubes where


welding is involved.

7 The installation of a flush patch to a pressure retaining


Itern

1
8. Replacement of pressure parts identical to those existing
on the pressure retaining item f such as,
a. replacement of a shell or head in accordance with
the original design.

b. Re-welding a circumferential or longitudinal seam in


a shell or head

c. Replacement of nozzles of a size whet~e


reinforcement is not a consideration
9. Installation of new nozzles or openings of such a size that
reinforcement is not a consideration {for example the
( installation of a 3 NPS nozzle to a shell or head of 3/8 in.
or less in thickness or the addition of a 2 NPS nozzle to a
shell of head of any thi~kness}.
i o. The addition of a nozzle where reinforcement is a
consideration may be considered to be a repair if the
nozzle is identical to one in the original design, located in
a similar part of the vessel.

11. The replacement of a shell course in a cylindrical pr·essure


vessel:

12. Welding of wasted or distorted flange faces:


13. Replacement of slip-on flanges with weld neck flanges 01-
(
vice-versa:

14. Seal welding of butt straps and rivets;

15 The repai r or replacement of a pressure part with a Code


accepted material that has a normal composition and
strength that is equivalent to the original material,
16 Replacement of a pressure retaining part with material of
different nominal composition, equal to or greater tn
allowable stress from that used in the or-iginal design,

2
provided the replacement material satisfies the material
and design requirements of the original code of
construction under which the vessel was built.

c. EXAMPLES OF ALTERATIONS

1. An increase in the maximum allowable working pressure


(internal or external) Or temperature of a pressure retaining
item regardless of whether or not a physical change was
made to the pressure retaining item;

2. A decrease in the minimum temperature such that additional


( mechanical tests are required.

3. The addition of new nozzles or opening (in a bOiler or


pressure vessel) of new sizes other than existing sizes and
requiring new reinforcement calculations

4. A change in the dimensions or contour of a pressu re


retaining item;

5. In a boiler, an increase in the heating surface or steaming


capacity such that increase in the relieving capacity is
required;

6. The addition of pressurized jacket to a pressure vessel;

7. Except as permitted in Repair, repiacement of a pressure


retaining part in a presSure retaining item with a material of
different allowable stress or nominal composition from that
used in the presSure retaining item to which it is attached.
8. The addition of a braCket Or an increase in ioading on an
existing bracket which affects the design of the pressure
retaining item to which it is attached.

')
J
-------------_._-------_."----~ ..~~"~~.~-

GUIDELINES FOR
API 510 CERllFICA liON EXAMINA liON

Contents

1. Examination Scheme

2. Distribution of Marks

3. Salient Features of the Examination

4. How to Prepare for the Examination

5. API-510 -Chapter wise Tips for Maximizing the Score

6. Time Management During the Examination


1. EXAMINATION SCHEME

1.1 General:

As per the present scheme, API 510 examination is one-day, 8-hour, 2


session examination, comprising of pre-lunch session (4 hours) for "open-
book" examination and post-lunch session (4 hours) for "closed-book"
examination.

1.2 Total marks:

There are a total of 150 questions carrying 1 mark each, (total of 150
marks), split into open-book (approximately 50 questions) and c1osed-
book (approximately 100 questions). The distribution of 50 and 100
questions respectively for open-book and closed-book examinations is
approximate; however the total is always 150 questions.

1.3 Question pattern:

Each question,( in open book as well as closed book part ) is multiple-


choice question with given FOUR possible choices. Only ONE out of these
four is the correct choice. The candidate has to pick-up the correct choice,
and indicate the same on separate answer sheet. The answer sheet along
with the question paper should be returned back to the Supervisor. In the
answer sheet you will find four blank circles for each question. The correct
answer is to be indicated by blackening (filling) the relevant circle by a
pencil. Each correct answer will carry one mark. There is no set passing
percentage. However a score of about 100 to 110 out of 150 is a good
estimate of passing score.

please note the followinq:

• Fill only one circle out of four given

2
-_._--------------------~-~-~~---~------==
• Fill the circle fully and completely. Half or less than half blackened
circle is not reckoned for answer.

• Never indicate the answers by ticking (....J) the circles.


• There is no negative marking.

During the "open-book" session. you are permitted to refer to the codes

and other documents as per "Effectivity Sheets". Code pages may be


tabbed. highlightened, underlined or notes in margin of the pages are

accepted. Additional new pages to codes are not accepted. Always carry
the following to the exam hall.

• 2 Nos. 8 or 28 pencils and eraser

• Non-programmable calculator

• Photo identity (passport, driving license, etc.)


• Exam confirmation letter

Be present in the exam hall at least 15 minutes prior to scheduled start of

exam. The Supervisor announces important instructions during this period.


Do not miss them. Now relax and attempt the exam calmly. Time is always
more than enough.

3
2. DISTRIBUTION OF MARKS

2.1 Codes for Study:

As per the Effectivity Sheet for API-510 exam. there are total 7 codes prescribed
for examination. However. all of them are not equally important and do not
therefore require equal emphasis. About 45 percent questions are asked from
one code API 510 which is hardly a total of 20 pages, while all other 6 codes
contribute 55% marks which are more than 1.500 pages.

2.2 Code-wise marks distribution:


Following distribution scheme will help the participant to decide how much time
he should spend for each document during preparation.

Approx. Weightage Approx.Questions


S.N. Code
(in %) Out of Total 150

1 API 510 Code 42-45 63 - 68

2 ASME Sec.vlll Div.1 20-22 30-33

3 ASME Sec IX 12 - 18

4 ASME Sec. V 12 18

5 API RP 572 4 6

6 API RP 576 5 8

~ IRE Chap II 1 c;' I -'


2 ." (

b(
J
,{ ;,"' ~'
, l: 0-
,.-
__

8 General Knowledge 2 3
~-- ----------------
--
______
L___

4
___________________________ ~ ~' ~="o=~=·.,"_._

3. SALIENT FEATURES OF THE EXAMINATION

3.1 How the questions are set:

As stated earlier, the examination comprises of open book and closed book
parts. The closed-book examination includes such questions which the inspectm
is normally expected to know without referring the Codes, i.e., the questions are

.
"awareness level" questions. Whenever you find a very definitive or quantitative
statement in body of the Code, a closed book question may be expected on it.
Thus, the basic requirements of a code, specific "DO" and "DON'T" statements,
important quantified statements, important definitions and well-known inspection
principles will constitute such questions.
Where the student is required to refer to the diagrams or formulas or tables or
graphs and curves from the Codes, it will always be an "open-book" question. All
calculation oriented questions will normally be "open-book" type. The Code
information which is not short and crisp, (i.e., large paragraphs, several
descriptive statements clubbed together) will normally be asked in "open-book"
part. Here the participant is expected not to remember the information but should
know where to find it in the body of the Code.

The questions asked in closed book part are straight forward statements directly
taken form Code without much of the modifications and therefore are easy to
answer. To answer open-book questions, one only needs to know where to find
the answer in the code and therefore tabbing of Code pages, highlighting the
paragraphs or additional explanatory notes in page margins is useful for saving
time. Closed-book part of the exam (100 marks) can be finished in 2 to 2"12
hours, though 4 hours are allotted. While "open-book" part (50 marks) takes a
little longer and may require all the 4 hours that are allotted.

5
4. HOW TO PREPARE FOR EXAM:

A ) If your aim is only to get "certified" only, i.e., to obtain just around 110-
115 marks, then, Follow the steps given below

1) .Detailed study of documents nos. 1 to 4 above (Ref. Chap.2 distribution of


marks,) may be adequate.

2) Additionally, one should try to remember all the "Points to Recall" given each
day during the preparatory course and review the mock examinations attempted
during the Preparatory Course. If two or more participants from same
organization are appearing for exam, then joint discussions and one putting
question to another and vice versa has been found very effective during
preparation.

3) Other 3 codes (Le., Serial No.5 to 7) may be studied in detail if there is


additional preparation time available. An overall "awareness" level knowledge of
these 3 Codes may be okay. These contribute only 10% weightage. Still, the
Open book Questions from these can always be found out and answered plus
the points to recall can help to answer other questions.

B) .If your objective is to get certified and also to obtain a good score, (say
135+) then prepare for exam as follows:

In addition to preparation as per 1&2 above, It is worthwhile to study the 3


Codes also. (Serial No.5 to 7). However, please remember that study of API 510
has to be "thorough" and total, while study of ASME Sec. VIII Oiv.1, ASME Sec.
IX and ASME Sec. V should be such that it can cover the topics mentioned in the
"Body of Knowledge".

6
- _.----------------------~-------~'~-.,~='-~-

The last 3 Codes should be read at least once and note the important points. A
very "thorough" study of these documents however will not result in "gains"
commensurate with the efforts put in.

If you are about a month away from examination, read all the Codes at least
once and concentrate on highlighted text in the Codes and also try to solve the
question bank.

If you are about two weeks away from the exam, concentrate on highlighted text
as well as the mock examinations conducted during the course.

In the last week of preparation, focus on Points to Recall and and highlighted text
from the codes.

************

7
- ------------------------~------~=,~-~~
..
~._._._
...
_,-=-

The last 3 Codes should be read at least once and note the important points. A
very "thorough" study of these documents however will not result in "gains"
commensurate with the efforts put in.

If you are about a month away from examination, read all the Codes at least
once and concentrate on highlighted text in the Codes and also try to solve the
question bank.

If you are about two weeks away from the exam, concentrate on highlighted text
as well as the mock examinations conducted during the course.

In the last week of preparation, focus on Points to Recall and and highlighted text
from the codes.

************

7
5. API-510 CHAPTERWISE TIPS FOR
MAXIMIZING THE SCORE

a. From Chapter 1, just note the scope, application and

. exclusions. Two questions will be asked from these, usually


closed book.

b. Chap. 2 lists only the reference documents. At the most one


question is asked from this chapter

c.Chapter 3. There are only 5 or 6 important definitions from

Chapter 3 of API 510. Normally 3 to 4 definitions are asked


in closed-book exam.

d. From Chapter 4, usually 2 or 3 questions are asked.

Concentrate on responsibilities clause. Also see App. B for


certification requirements.

e. From Chapter 5, about 15-18 questions are asked. About

10-12 in closed book and 4-S in open book. Para 5.2 to 5.6,

average of 1 or 2 questions are asked while on para 5.7,

about 6 to 8 questions ( both open & close book) are asked.

f. From Chapter 6, about 15-18 questions are asked.

Particularly pay attention to Inspection intervals, which

attracts at least 5 to 6 questions and they could be either


open book or closed book.

g. F rom Chapter 7 also 15-18 questions are asked. This is only

four page chapter and almost all chapter is important. Pay

8
particular attention to authorisation, defect repair, and
inspection requirements.

h. There may be 2 or 3 questions on overall API-510 code for


the purpose of assessing the overall under standing of code.

I. Chapter 8 as well as App. E are excluded from examination.

J. As regards ASME Sec. VIII Oiv.1, the course content is


categorised in 9 categories. 7 of them are listed under
calculations while 8 and 9 are listed under welding and NOT
. You may expect at least one open book and one closed
book question on each of these. Additionally, under the
category internal pressure, you may expect 4 open book
questions one each for thickness calculation for the 4 types
of end closures.

********

9
-----.'----------- ·----------·~~~~._=.;.....::..._-_'r~." ...
I..'_""L·_ .•• ~ _

6. TIME MANAGEMENT DURING EXAM

Both "open" and "closed" book sessions are 4 hours each. This means about
25 to 28 questions per hour for closed book and 12 to 15 questions per hour
for open book. For proper time management following are useful suggestions.

a) You may start from Question NO.1 and proceed. If after 1 hour you
feel that you are maintaining the required progress as mentioned
above proceed serially.

b) If, however, you are behind the required rate, start jumping the
questions, i.e., start attempting those questions you can answer,
deleting whose answer you, do not know. Proceed like this till the end.
Do not leave any question unanswered whose answer you know.

c) Then come back to "deleted" questions and attempt them using your
"feel" factor. Go on like this till say last 10-15 minutes are remaining.

d) If there are still some questions where you have no clue at all just mark
the answer at random in last 10-15 minutes. This may give you few
chance marks. Do not leave any question unattempted.

e) After completion of writing exam, if you have still time (which you
normally have) you may go through your answers just to check quickly
if you have filled a wrong circle.

***********

------------------------------.T---=~._..r><,~, _
10
1. SAMPLE API-510 EXAM QUESTIONS
The Questions below are examples of what exam question might look like. The questions are
furnished by API web site www.api.org. Reproduced here for guidance to the students
Correct Answer: 4

A The nondestructive examination method to be used for a


particular inspection should be determined by the:

1. availability of certified .NDE examiners.


2. length of time since the last inspection.
3. age of the component to be inspected.
4. type, location, and orientation of the
expected flaws.

Correct Answer: 3

B. In planning for an internal inspection of a vessel


that has contained acidic corrodents, what type and
location of corrosion would you ·expect to find on the
vessel shell, away from the welds?

1. Hydrogen blistering in the vapor


space
2. Hydrogen embrittlement in the vapor
space
3. Hydrogen blistering near the liquid
level -
4. Hydrogen embrittlement below the
liquid level

Correct Answer: 1

C. A pressure vessel is scheduled for pneumatic


testing using the methodology of ASME Code,
Section VIII, Division 1, with the maximum allowable
working pressure = 635 psig at 375 F. The vessel is
0

constructed of SA-516 Gr. 65 material and is neither


enameled nor lined. The test metal temperature will
0
be a minimum of 50 F, per the owner's specifications.
How many pressurization steps are needed to
achieve the minimum required test pressure, and at
what minimum pressure will the visual examillation be
performed?

1. 6 steps; 635 psig


2. 6 steps; 793.75 psig
3. 9 steps; 635 psig
4. 9 steps; 793.75 psig

Correct Answer: 4

D. The principal reason for inspecting a pressure


relief device is to determine:

1. the remaining life.


2. the spring coil diameter.
3. the body thickness.
4. if it is functioning properly.

Correct Answer: 1

E. A pressure vessel has been in service for 12 years


and has a history of corrosion over its service life. The
original thickness was 1.9375 inches; the current
thickness is 1.405 inches. What is the corrosion rate
for this vessel?

1. 0.044 inch per year


2. 0.089 inch per year
3. 0.266 inch per year
4. 0.532 inch per year

Correct Answer: 3

F. What can be done to extend the life of a vessel


with a corroded area in the shell plate 6 inches from
the weld, a joint efficiency of less than 1, and a
corrosion thickness currently near the minimum
required thickness?
1 . Recalculate t minimum for current operating conditions
using E < 1.
2. Recalculate t minimum for current operating conditions
=
using E 1.
3. Recalculate t minimum for design conditions using E = 1.
4. Monitor the thickness during the run.

~~~------~-- -

Correct Answer: 2

G. Temporary repairs to pressure vessels:

1. must be replaced with permanent repairs during the


next scheduled shutdown.

2. may remain in place for long periods if approved by


the pressure vessel engineer.

3. may remain in place for long periods if approved by


the API-authorized pressure vessel inspector.

4. may remain in place permanently if approved by the


pressure vessel engineer and the API authorized
pressure vessel inspector.

Correct Answer: 2

H. Who must be consulted before the repair of a crack


at a discontinuity where stress concentrations may be
serious?

1. The owner-user
2. The pressure vessel engineer
3. The National Board inspector
4. The vessel manufacturer

Correct Answer: 4

I. The WPS and the PQR are used to determine: