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Concept

Evaluation means the assessment of value or worth. Evaluation of training is the act of Judging or not it
is worthwhile in terms of set criteria (objectives).A comprehensive and effective evaluation plan is a
critical component of any successful training program. It should be structured to generate information
of the impact of training on the reactions; on the amount of learning that has taken place; on the
trainees I behavior; and its contribution to the Job/organization. Therefore evaluation of training is a
Measure of how well it has met the needs of its human resources. An index of contribution of training to
organizational success through evaluation strengthens training as a key organizational activity.

Definition

Hamblin (1970) defined evaluation of training as: “Any attempt to obtain information (feedback) 01) the
e~ of training program and to assess the value of training in the light of that information for improving
further training.”

Need for Evaluation

Since evaluation is an integral part of the whole process of training and development the details have to
be conceived much before the actual training activity; rather-than its ritualistic tagging at the end of
training. The trainer should be fairly clear of:

How to evaluate ,what to evaluate ,when to evaluate. Answers to these questions are dependent on
the need for evaluation.

Why Evaluate

Evaluation of training could be multipurpose

1. To determine the extent and degree of a training program fulfilling its set objectives and interalia
indication

2. The suitability and feasibility of the objectives set for training

3. Provide feedback on the performance of the trainees, and training staff, the quality of training, other
facilities provided during training

4. Identify and analyze whether the training inputs, training techniques and methods were in line with
the objectives intended t6 be achieved through training

5 .Enable improvements in the assessment of training needs

6. Aid the learning process of the trainee by providing knowledge of results

7. Provide a self-correcting feedback system to improve the design and implementation of current and
future training
8 . Highlight the impact of training on the behavior and performance of the individual

9. Determine the cost benefit returns from training investment

10. Judge the impact of training for organizational benefits .Unfortunately most organizations assess
training outcome in terms of the number of courses carried out, numbers trained cost incurred on such
training and the reaction of the participants towards the course, the- faculty and the overall training
facilities.

Obviously, multiple evaluation objectives call for different evaluative procedures and strategies. What to
be assessed, when and how, depends on the type. of data required through evaluation. Therefore, it is
always desirable to be clear of the criteria and objectives of the evaluation while setting the
objectives of training rather than postpone it to a later date.

Principles of Evaluation

In order to integrate training practices with business policy and objectives evaluation has to be based on
sound principles such as :

1.Trainer/ Evaluator must be clear about the purpose of evaluation to be able to set the standards and
criteria of evaluation.

2.For an objective evaluation, the methodology and criteria of evaluation should be based on observable
and as far as possible measurable standards of assessment which have been agreed upon by the
evaluators and the users of the training system.

3. Evaluation has to be accepted as a process than an end product of training.

4.As a process, it has to be continuous. The ‘one-spot’ assessment cannot guide trainers for improving
subsequent

programmers’ , therefore it has to begin before the actual training activity and end much after the
conclusion of visible training activity.

5. The training objectives should be an outcome of overall organizational goals to permit tangible
evaluation of training results.

6. Evaluation data should be directive rather than conclusive. It must be comprehensive enough to guide
trainers in the collection of information that will enable them to comment on current training
effectiveness and to improve subsequent training.

7. A good evaluation system is tailor-made and should provide specific data about its strength and
weakness. Generalisations drawn from one training activity may be in-applicable for training across
different levels and to meet different standards. Besides, they should refrain from using single instances
for conclusions and generalizations’.

8. A good evaluative system should provide sufficient scope for self- appraisal by the trainer/evaluator.
9. The Evaluative data should try to balance quantitative and qualitative information.

10. Role of the evaluator needs tone based on sound working relationship with the participants,
trainers, senior line managers and policy makers. Normally a researcher or a fresher is attached to the
trainer to carry out end of the course evaluation. This evaluator may have the expertise of developing
and designing-evaluative tools and techniques but it would be insufficient in promoting utilisation of
evaluation results. Evaluators acceptance by the participants and interpersonal sensitivity and trust for
frank sharing of feedback is a must. This would modify their role as one of giving and receiving feedback
rather than just receiving feedback. They have to be proactive than argumentatative.

11. Effective communication and coordination are essential. Training and evaluation plans should be
discussed so that there is commonality of purpose amongst the trainers, the evaluators and those
sponsoring the trainees.

12. Reporting system of evaluative data should be simple, clear, adequate and available for
interpretation. It requires the, evaluator to be sensitive to the feelings of the guidance, hasto be tactful
and honest. As far as possible terminology used should be concise and free from jargons.

13. Realistic targets must be set. A sense of urgency no doubt is desirable but deadline that are
unrealistically high will result in poor quality.

14. Finally, a trainer who is sincere about training, evaluation would always insist on complete, objective
and continuous feedback on the progress and deficiencies of training to be able to maintain the
momentum of the training program, its evaluation and subsequent improvement.

Cycle of Evaluation (Evaluation Design)


As a self-correcting aid to training, evaluation, it was mentioned in the previous chapter, is an integral
part of training. Having deliberated on the need (why) for evaluation in that chapter, it was stated that
the trainer ought to know - what to evaluate?

When to evaluate? and how to evaluate? The present chapter, while responding to these three
questions presents the evaluation design and methodology. Different typologies of evaluation have
been described by various authors, while some differ in terms of the actual design others are a mere
change of terminology. A particular methodology appropriate for in-company training may not be
relevant for external programmers’. An evaluation design may be applicable from one organization to
another; one situation to another while the results are not. It is therefore necessary that the evaluation
design is tailor-made to suit the situation within the broad frame-work of seeking to assess:

i. What needs to be changed/modified/improved

ii. What procedures are most likely to bring about this change

iii. Is there demonstrable and concrete evidence that change- has occurred
Typologies of Evaluation Design

Level/ Stage Hamblin (1)

Kirpatrick (2)

Warr (3)

Virmani & Premila (4)

1. Reaction Reaction Context Context

2. Learning Learning Input Input

3. Job-Behaviour Behaviour Process Reaction

Pre-Training

4. Functioning Results Outcome Learning

5. Job-improvement

6. On-the-job

Post-training

7. Follow-up and transfer

To mention you W Leslie Rae has written over 30 books on training and the evaluation of learning - he is
an expert in his field. His guide to the effective evaluation of training and learning, training courses and
learning program

To mention you W Leslie Rae has written over 30 books on training and the evaluation of learning - he is
an expert in his field. His guide to the effective evaluation of training and learning, training courses and
learning programmers’, is a useful set of rules and techniques for all trainers and HR professionals.

There have been several ‘surveys’ on the use of evaluation in training and development. Results initially
appear heartening; many trainers/organizations responding about the extensive approaches they use.
However when more specific and penetrating questions are asked, many professional trainers and
training departments are found to use only ‘reactionaries’’ (general vague feedback forms), including
the invidious ‘Happy Sheet’ where, for example, questions such as ‘How good did you feel the trainer
was?’, and ‘How enjoyable was the training course?’ are used. Even well-produced reactionaries do not
constitute validation or evaluation.
For effective training and learning evaluation, the principal significant questions
should be:

To what extent training objectives achieved by the programme?

To what extent were the learners’ objectives achieved?

What specifically did the learners learn or be usefully reminded of?

What commitment have the learners made about the learning they are going to implement on their
return to work? And back at work,

How successful were the trainees in implementing their action plans?

To what extent were they supported in this by their line managers?

To what extent has the action listed above achieved a Return on Investment for the organization, either
in terms of identified objectives satisfaction or, where possible, a monetary assessment.

Organizations commonly fail to perform these evaluation processes, especially


where:

The HR department and trainers, do not have sufficient time to do so, and/or

The HR department does not have sufficient resources -people and money - to do so. Obviously the
evaluation cloth must be cut according to available resources (and the culture atmosphere), which tend
to vary substantially from one organization to another. The fact remains that good methodical
evaluation produces a good reliable data; conversely, where little evaluation is performed, little is ever
known about the effectiveness of the training. Evaluation of training There are the two principal factors
which need to be resolved:

Who is responsible for the validation and evaluation processes?

What resources of time, people and money are available for validation/evaluation purposes?
(Within this, consider the effect of variation to these, for instance an unexpected cut in budget or
manpower. In other words anticipate and plan contingency to deal with variation.)
Responsibility for the Evaluation of Training

Traditionally, in the main, any evaluation or other assessment has been left to the trainers “because that
is their job...” My(Rae’s) contention is that a ‘Training Evaluation Quintet’ should exist, each member of
the Quintet having roles andresponsibilities in the process (see ‘Assessing the Value of YourTraining’,
Leslie Rae, Gower, 2002). Considerable lip service appears to be paid to this, but the actual practice
tends to be alot less. The ‘Training Evaluation Quintet’ advocated consists of:

• senior management
• the trainer

• line management

• the training manager

• the trainee Each has their own responsibilities, which are detailed next.

Senior Management - Training Evaluation Responsibilities

Awareness of the need and value of training to theorganization.



The necessity of involving the Training Manager (or equivalent) in senior management meetings where
decisions are made about future changes when training will be essential.

Knowledge of and support of training plans.

Active participation in events.

Requirement for evaluation to be performed and require regular summary report.

Policy and strategic decisions based on results and data.

The Trainer - Training Evaluation Responsibilities



Provision of any necessary pre-program work etc and program planning.

Identification at the start of the programme of the knowledge and skills level of the trainees/learners.

Provision of training and learning resources to enable the learners to learn within the objectives of the
programme and the learners’ own objectives.

Monitoring the learning as the programme progresses.

At the end of the programme, assessment of and receipt of reports from the learners of the learning
levels achieved.

Ensuring the production by the learners of an action plan to reinforce, practise and implement learning.

The Line Manager - Training Evaluation Responsibilities



Work-needs and people identification.

Involvement in training programme and evaluation development.

Support of pre-event preparation and holding briefing meetings with the learner.

Giving ongoing, and practical, support to the training programme.

Holding a debriefing meeting with the learner on their return to work to discuss, agree or help to modify
and agree action for their action plan.

Reviewing the progress of learning implementation.

Final review of implementation success and assessment ,where possible, of the Return
Final review of implementation success and assessment, where possible, of the Return on Investment.

The Training Manager - Training Evaluation Responsibilities



Management of the training department and agreeing the training needs and the programme
application

Maintenance of interest and support in the planning and implementation of the programmes, including
a practical involvement where required

The introduction and maintenance of evaluation systems, and production of regular reports for senior
management

Frequent, relevant contact with senior management

Liaison with the learners’ line managers and arrangement of learning implementation responsibility
learning programmes for the managers

Liaison with line managers, where necessary, in the assessment of the training

The Trainee or Learner - Training Evaluation Responsibilities



Involvement in the planning and design of the training programme where possible

Involvement in the planning and design of the evaluation process where possible

Obviously, to take interest and an active part in the training programme or activity.

To complete a personal action plan during and at the end of the training for implementation on return
to work, and toput this into practice, with support from the line manager.

Take interest and support the evaluation processes.N.B. Although the principal role of the trainee in the
programme is to learn, the learner must be involved in the evaluation process. This is essential, since
without their comments much of the evaluation could not occur. Neither would the new knowledge and
skills be implemented. For trainees to neglect either responsibility the business wastes its investment in
training. Trainees will assist more readily if the process avoids the look and feel of a paper-chase or
number-crunching exercise. Instead, make sure trainees understand the importance of their input -
exactly what and why they are being asked to do.
Training Evaluation and Validation Options
As suggested earlier what you are able to do, rather than what you would like to do or what should be
done, will depend note various resources and culture support available. The following summarizes a
spectrum of possibilities within these dependencies.

1. Do Nothing

Doing nothing to measure the effectiveness and result of any business activity is never a good option,
but it is perhaps justifiable in the training area under the following circumstances:

1. If the organization, even when prompted, displays no interest in the evaluation and validation of
the training and learning - from the line manager up to to the board of directors.

2. If you, as the trainer, have a solid process for planning training to meet organizational and
people-development needs.

3. If you have a reasonable level of assurance or evidence that the training being delivered is fit for
purpose, gets results, and that the organization (notably the line managers and the board, the
potential source of criticism and complaint) is happy with the training provision.

4. You have far better things to do than carry out training evaluation, particularly if evaluation is
difficult and co-operation is sparse. However, even in these circumstances, there may come a
time when having kept a basic system of evaluation will prove to be helpful, for example:

5. You receive have a sudden unexpected demand for a justification of a part or all of the training
activity. (These demands can spring up, for example with a change in management, or policy, or
a new initiative).

6. You see the opportunity or need to produce your own justification (for example to increase
training resource, staffing or budgets, new premises or equipment).

7. You seek to change job and need evidence of the effectiveness of your past training activities.
Doing nothing is always the least desirable option. At any time somebody more senior to you
might be moved to ask “Can you prove what you are saying about how successful you
are?”Without evaluation records you are likely to be at a loss forwards of proof...
2. Minimal Action

The absolutely basic action for a start of some form of evaluation is as follows: At the end of every
training programme, give the learners sufficient time and support in the form of programme
information, and have the learners complete an action plan based on what they have learned on the
programme and what they intend to implement on their return to work. This action plan should not only
include a description of the action intended but comments on how they intend to implement it, a
timescale for starting and completing it, and any resources required, etc. A fully detailed action plan
always helps the learners to consolidate their thoughts. The action plan will have a secondary use in
demonstrating to the trainers, and anyone else interested, the types and levels of learning that have
been achieved. The learners should also be encouraged to show and discuss their action plans with their
line managers on return to work, whether or not this type of follow-up has been initiated by the
manager.

3. Minimal Desirable Action Leading to Evaluation

When returning to work to implement the action plan the learner should ideally be supported by their
line manager, rather than have the onus for implementation rest entirely on the learner. The line
manager should hold a debriefing meeting with the learner soon after their return to work, covering a
number of questions, basically discussing and agreeing the action plan and arranging support for the
learner in its implementation. As described earlier, this is a clear responsibility of the line manager,
which demonstrates to senior management, the training department and, certainly not least, the
learner, that a positive attitude is being taken to the training. Contrast this with, as often happens, a
member of staff being sent on straining course, after which all thoughts of management follow-up are
forgotten. The initial line manager debriefing meeting is not the end of the learning relationship
between the learner and the line manager. At the initial meeting, objectives and support must be
agreed, then arrangements made for interim reviews of implementation progress. After this when
appropriate, a final review meeting needs to consider future action. This process requires minimal
action by the line manager - it involves no more than the sort of observations being made as

would be normal for a line manager monitoring the actions of his or her staff. This process of review
meetings requires little extra effort and time from the manager, but does much to demonstrate at the
very least to the staff that their manager takes training seriously.

4. Training Programme Basic Validation Approach

The action plan and implementation approach described in (3)above is placed as a responsibility on the
learners and their line managers, and, apart from the provision of advice and time, donor require any
resource involvement from the trainer. There are two further parts of an approach which also require
only the provision of time for the learners to describe their feelings and information. The first is the
reactionaries which seeks the views, opinions, feelings, etc., of the learners about the programme. This
is not at a ‘happy sheet’ level, nor a simple tick-list - but one which allows realistic feelings to be stated.
This sort of reactionnaire is described in the book (‘Assessing the Value of Your Training’, Leslie Rae,
Gower, 2002). This evaluation seeks a score for each question against a 6-point range of good to Bad,
and also the learners’ own reasons for the scores, which is especially important if the score is low.
Reactionnaires should not be automatic events on every course or programme. This sort of evaluation
can be reserved for new programmes (for example, the first three events) or when there are indications
that something is going wrong with the programme. Sample reactionaries are given after this lesson.
The next evaluation instrument, like the action plan, should be used at the end of every course if
possible. This is the Learning Questionnaire (LQ), which can be a relatively simple instrument asking the
learners what they have learned on the programme, what they have been usefully reminded of, and
what was not included that they expected to be included, or would have liked to have been included.
Scoring ranges can be included, but these are minimal and are subordinate to the text comments made
by the learners. There is an alternative to the LQ called the Key Objectives LQ (KOLQ) which seeks the
amount of learning achieved by posing the relevant questions against the list of Key Objectives
produced for the programme. When a reactionaries and LQ/KOLQ are used, they must not be filed away
and forgotten at the end of the programme, as is the common tendency, but used to produce a training
evaluation and validation summary. A factually-based evaluation summary is necessary to support
claims that a programme is good/effective/satisfies the objectives set’. Evaluation summaries can also
be helpful for publicity for the training programme, etc. Example Learning Questionnaires and Key
Objectives Learning Questionnaires are included in the set of evaluation tool given at the end of this
lesson.

5. Total Evaluation Process

The process is summarized below:


Training needs identification and setting of objectives by the organization

Planning, design and preparation of the training programmes against the objectives

Pre-course identification of people with needs and completion of the preparation required by the
training programme

Provision of the agreed training programmes

Pre-course briefing meeting between learner and line manager

Pre-course or start of programme identification of learners’ existing knowledge, skills and attitudes,
Interim validation as programme proceeds

Assessment of terminal knowledge, skills, etc., and completion of perceptions/change assessment
Completion of end-of-programme reactionnaire

Completion of end-of-programme Learning Questionnaire or Key Objectives Learning Questionnaire

Completion of Action Plan

Post-course debriefing meeting between learner and line manager

Line manager observation of implementation progress

Review meetings to discuss progress of implementation

Final implementation review meeting

Assessment of Return on Investment

Conclusion
Do something:

The processes described above allow consider-able latitude depending on resources and culture
environment, so there is always the opportunity to do something - obviously the more tools used and
the wider the approach, the more valuable and effective the evaluation will be. However be pragmatic.
Large expensive critical programmes will always justify more evaluation and scrutiny than small, one-off,
non-critical training activities. Where there’s a heavy investment and expectation, so the evaluation
should be sufficiently detailed and complete. Training managers particularly should clarify measurement
and evaluation expectations with senior management prior to embarking on substantial new training
activities, so that appropriate evaluation processes can be established

when the programme itself is designed. Where large and potentially critical programmes are planned,
training managers should err on the side of caution - ensure adequate evaluation processes are in place.
As with any invest-ment, a senior executive is always likely to ask, “What did we get for our
investment?”, and when he asks, the training manager needs to be able to provide a fully detailed
response.

The Trainer’s Overall Responsibilities - Aside from Training Evaluation

Over the years the trainer’s roles have changed, but the basicraison-d’être for the trainer is to provide
efficient and effective training programmes. The following suggests the elements of the basic role of the
trainer, but it must be borne in mind that different circumstances will require modifications of these
activities.

.The basic role of a trainer (or however they may be designated) is to offer and provide efficient and
effective training programmes aimed at enabling the participants to learn the knowledge, skills and
attitudes required of them.

2.A trainer plans and designs the training programmes, or otherwise obtains them (for example,
distance learning or e-technology programmes on the Internet or on CD/DVD),in accordance with the
requirements identified from the results of a TNIA (Training Needs Identification and Analysis) for the
relevant staff of an organizations ororganizations.

3.The training programmes cited at (1) and (2) must be completely based on the TNIA which has been:
(a)completed by the trainer on behalf of and at the request of the relevant organization (b) determined
in some other way by the organization.

4.Following discussion with or direction by the organization management who will have taken into
account costs and values (eg ROI - Return on Investment in the training), the trainer will agree with the
organization management the most appropriate form and methods for the training.
5.If the appropriate form for satisfying the training need is a direct training course or workshop, or an
Intranet provided programme, the trainer will design this programme using the most effective
approaches, techniques and methods ,integrating face-to-face practices with various forms of e-
technology wherever this is possible or desirable.

6.If the appropriate form for satisfying the training need is some form of open learning programme or e-
technology programme, the trainer, with the support of the organization management obtain, plan the
utilization and be prepared to support the learner in the use of the relevantmaterials.

7.The trainer, following contact with the potential learners, preferably through their line managers, to
seek some pre-programme activity and/or initial evaluation activities ,should provide the appropriate
training programme(s) to the learners provided by their organization(s). During and at the end of the
programme, the trainer should ensure that:(a) an effective form of training/learning validation is
followed (b) the learners complete an action plan for implementation of their learning when they return
to work.

8.Provide, as necessary, having reviewed the validation results an analysis of the changes in the
knowledge, skills and attitudes of the learners to the organization management with any
recommendations deemed necessary. The review would include consideration of the effectiveness of
the content of the programme and the effectiveness of the methods used to enable learning, that is
whether the programme satisfied the objectives of the programme and those of the learners.

9.Continue to provide effective learning opportunities as required by the organization.

10. Enable their own CPD (Continuing Professional Development) by all possible developmental means -
training programmes and self-development methods.

11. Arrange and run educative workshops for line managers on the subject of their fulfillment of their
training and evaluation responsibilities. Dependant on the circumstances and the decisions of the
organization management, trainers do not, under normalcircumstances:1.Make organizational training
decisions without the full agreement of the organizational management.2.Take part in the post-
programme learning implementation nor evaluation unless the learners’ line managers cannot or will
not fulfil their training and evaluation responsibilities. As a final reminder, unless circumstances force
them to behave otherwise, the trainer’s role is to provide effective training programmes and the role of
the learners’ line managers is to continue the evaluation process after the training programme, counsel
and support the learner in the implementation of their learning, and assess the cost-value effectiveness
or (where feasible) the ROI of the training. Naturally, if action will help the trainers to become more
effective in their training, they can take part in but not run any pre- and post-programme actions as
described, always remembering that these are the responsibilities of the line manager.

Article

Stephen M. Brown, Ed.D.


Dean of the Center for Adult Learning, Lesley College We are re-inventing government, reforming
education, restructuring organizations and re-engineering businesses. These environmental and
organizational changes are creating new demands on training, as well, altering whom we serve, how we
serve them, and why we serve them. We are experiencing a shift from training the individual to meeting
organizational objectives, and we are expected to serve our customers well. These changes create a
need to look at the evaluation of training differently. Evaluation of training must be multi-level,
customer-focused, and support continuous improvement of training.

Changing Expectations of Training

Organizational expectations for training have shifted dramatically. The most pronounced change is a
new and vigorous justification of the cost of training based on return on invest-

ment (ROI) and organizational impact. This transition has be endriven by the competitive nature of the
international economy and resulting changes in organizational structure, which produce flat, thinner,
and fewer administrative cost centers. in addition, training professionals are being asked to do more and
play an important role in the strategy of the organization. the ability to generate and apply knowledge is
a competitive advantage and source of new products, services, and revenue. The nature of training itself
is undergoing a transformation. Trainers no longer hold the privileged position of “all knowing” content
expert. Groups being trained often contain individuals with more depth of knowledge about, more
experience applying, or more time to access current knowledge on the subject of the training. The
training professionals thus become facilitators of learning and guides to available knowledge instead of
content experts who bring “the info” into the training room with them. Trainers no longer “own” the
knowledge. Instead, they synthesize and provide resources to clients who also have access to the
knowledge. As training has moved from satisfying trainees to improving organizational performance, the
definition of customer has broadened. Trainees themselves are still among the “customers” of training -
and the trainee’s evaluations are important sources of feedback for continuous improvement and
quality - but the trainee’s organizational unit and the organization as a whole are now part of the client
system. Training is performed to solve the business problems of the unit and have a positive impact on
the organization.

Evaluating Training - Recent Models


Business changes have resulted in increased pressure on training professionals to demonstrate their
worth. Do they do a good job? What is their impact on our work? Is there a cheaper way to do this?
What is the value added? What is the effect on our profitability - that is, will we have a return on our
investment in training? The literature of training evaluation provides a framework to answer these
questions and has addressed many of the current issues for trainers. Some time ago Donald Kirkpatrick
(1975)provided a framework of four levels of evaluation:


Level I - the effectiveness as perceived by the trainee

Level II - measured evaluation of learning

Level III - observed performance

Level IV - business impact.

More recently, Jack Phillips (1991) has written that evaluation must go beyond Level IV and focus on real
measurement of ROI. Dana Gaines Robinson, whose writing (1989) redirected the attention of trainers
to business impact, now (1995)exhorts trainers to become “performance consultants” and de-
emphasizes training as an intervention. Robert Brinkerhoff(1988) uses data gathering and evaluation to
make the training function more customer-focused and practice continuous improvement.

A New Way of Looking at Evaluating Training

However, these approaches do not, in the author’s opinion, represent choice. Kirkpatrick’s

Level I data is still needed to get feedback on the trainee’s perceptions of the experience.

Level II evaluation has probably become less important in today’s business environment.

Level III evaluation is all important to both trainees and their business units. Individual
performance(Kirkpatrick’s Level III) is not a level in itself; it is a focus only when individual performance
is the solution of a business problem or is integral to customer satisfaction.

Level I evaluation - the impact on the business problem – probably provides the most important data to
the unit and organization. Evaluators must respond to the new requirements by implementing all these
concepts and evaluating at multiple levels. These levels will measure training’s success at completing its
business tasks.

1. Customer Satisfaction:

The evaluation of customer satisfaction may be multi-dimensional for two reasons. First,

the definition of training has expanded to include the trainee’s unit manager, the unit, and the
organization - not just the trainee in the classroom. Second, we are measuring perception of quality,
convenience, and value. This information is crucial to continuous improvement.

2.Impact on the Business Problem:

This level is usually the most important to the business unit manager. It answers the question, “Did the
training make a positive difference in the business problem I have?” You work with the business unit
manager to identify the business problem up front, not what needs to be taught, delivery or trainees to
be serviced. This level of evaluation also makes trainers think of training as one problem-solving
intervention among many.

3.Return on Investment.
Training professionals have no choice but to demonstrate the effects of their work on corporate
profitability in today’s organization. This is true of every unit in the organization. Whereas it was once
considered impossible to measure the ROI of training, many organizations now are doing so. The
knowledge to achieve this goal is readily available to the practitioner, although the goal is still difficult,
complex, and dependent on a long-term perspective. Discussions with cost accounting experts are
helpful. However, the goal is reachable, and once you begin to measure ROI your process will improve.
The challenges to justifying investments in training are significant, and more meaningful methods of
evaluation will provide solutions. Training professionals are being asked to do more, to meet an
expanded definition of “customer.” But these changes and the changing organizational context have
created new roles and opportunities for training.

Conclusion

This lesson has exposed you about Training and Development Evaluation.

WHY

WHAT

WHEN

WHERE

HOW

WHOM

In coming Lessons of this unit you are going to study in depth about each of the following aspects and by
the end of this unit you will be in position to apply the same in your training

In coming Lessons of this unit you are going to study in depth about each of the following aspects and by
the end of this unit you will be in position to apply the same in your training programs.

Activity and Assignment

1.What is the significance of training evaluation in trainingprocess.

2.What are various methods of training evaluation.

3.Which method of training evaluation will you use for soft skill training.