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BAB IV

RASIO KEUANGAN DAN KEGUNAANNYA

1. Laporan Keuangan
a. Pengertian Laporan Keuangan
b. Pihak yang Berkepentingan terhadap Laporan Keuangan
c. Jenis Laporan Keuangan
1. Laporan Posisi Keuangan (Balance Sheet)
TRIAND CORPORATION
Laporan Posisi Keuangan
per 31 Desember
(dalam ribuan rupiah)
Assets Liabilities and Owners’ Equity
2016 2017 2016 2017
Current Assets Current Liabilities
Cash 2.080 3.200 Account Payable 4.640 5.320
Account Receivable 8.900 13.760 Notes Payable 3.920 2.460
Inventory 11.060 11.100 Total 8.560 7.780
Total 22.040 28.060 Long-term Debt 8.160 9.080
Fixed Assets Owners’ Equity
Net plant and equipment 33.080 34.180 Common stock and paid-in 12.000 12.800
surplus
Retained Earnings 26.400 32.580
Total 38.400 45.380
Total Assets 55.120 62.240 Total Liabilities and 55.120 62.240
Owners’ Equity

2. Laporan Laba Rugi (Income Statement)


TRIAND CORPORATION
Laporan Laba Rugi
per 31 Desember
(dalam ribuan rupiah)
Net sales 30.180
Cost of goods sold (15.000)
Depreciation (1.300)
Earnings before interest and taxes 13.880
Interest paid (1.400)
Taxable income 12.480
Taxes 4.240
Net Income 8.240
Dividends 2.060
Addition to retained earnings 6.180
3. Laporan Perubahan Ekuitas (Capital Statement)
4. Laporan Arus Kas (Cash Flow Statement)
TRIAND CORPORATION
Laporan Posisi Keuangan
per 31 Desember
(dalam ribuan rupiah)
Assets Liabilities and Owners’ Equity
2016 2017 Change 2016 2017 Change
Current Assets Current Liabilities
Cash 2.080 3.200 + 1.120 Account Payable 4.640 5.320 + 680
Account Receivable 8.900 13.760 + 4.860 Notes Payable 3.920 2.460 - 1.460
Inventory 11.060 11.100 + 40 Total 8.560 7.780 - 780
Total 22.040 28.060 + 6.020 Long-term Debt 8.160 9.080 + 920
Fixed Assets Owners’ Equity
Net plant and 33.080 34.180 +1.100 Common stock and 12.000 12.800 + 800
equipment paid-in surplus
Retained Earnings 26.400 32.580 + 6.180
Total 38.400 45.380 + 6.980
Total Assets 55.120 62.240 +7.120 Total Liabilities and 55.120 62.240 +7.120
Owners’ Equity
Sumber dana dan penggunaan dana
Sources of cash:
Increase in accounts payable 680
Increase in common stock 1.800
Increase in retained earnings 6.180
Total sources 7.660
Uses of cash:
Increase in accounts receivable 4.860
Increase in inventory 40
Increase in long-term debt 920
Decrease in notes payable 1.460
Net fixed asset acquisitions 1.100
Total uses 8.380
Net addition to cash 1.120

TRIAND CORPORATION
Laporan Laba Rugi
per 31 Desember
(dalam ribuan rupiah)
Net sales 30.180
Cost of goods sold (15.000)
Depreciation (1.300)
Earnings before interest and taxes 13.880
Interest paid (1.400)
Taxable income 12.480
Taxes 4.240
Net Income 8.240
Dividends 2.060
Addition to retained earnings 6.180
TRIAND CORPORATION
Laporan Arus Kas
per 31 Desember
(dalam ribuan rupiah)
Cash, beginning of year 2.080
OPERATING ACTIVITY
Net income 8.240
Plus:
Depreciation 1.300
Increase in accounts payable 680
Less:
Increase in accounts receivable (4.860)
Increase in inventory (40)
Net cash from operating activity 5.320
INVESTMENT ACTIVITY
Fixed asset acquisitions 1.100
Net cash from investment activity 1.100
FINANCING ACTIVITY
Decrease in notes payable - 1.460
Dividends paid - 2.060
Increase in long-term debt 920
Increase in common stock 800
Net cash from financing activity -1.800
Net cash from operating activity 5.320
Net cash from investment activity 1.100
Net cash from financing activity -1.800
Net increase in cash 4.620
Cash, end of year: 6.700
Cash, Beginning of year 2.080
Net increase in cash 4.620
Total 6.700

5. Catatan Atas Laporan Keuangan


d. Contoh Laporan Keuangan

2. Jenis Rasio Keuangan


a. Rasio Likuiditas (Short Term Solvency)
b. Rasio Aktivitas (Asset Management Ratio)
c. Rasio Profitabilitas (Profitability Ratio)
d. Rasio Solvabilitas (Long Term Solvency)
e. Rasio Nilai Pasar (Market Value Ratio)

3. Rasio Likuiditas (Short Term Solvency)


a. Current Ratio
𝐶𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑡𝑠
𝐶𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 =
𝐶𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝐿𝑖𝑎𝑏𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑒𝑠
b. Acid Test Ratio
𝐶𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑡𝑠 − 𝐼𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑦
𝑄𝑢𝑖𝑐𝑘 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 =
𝐶𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝐿𝑖𝑎𝑏𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑒𝑠

c. Cash Ratio
𝐶𝑎𝑠ℎ
𝐶𝑎𝑠ℎ 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 =
𝐶𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝐿𝑖𝑎𝑏𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑒𝑠

d. Net Working Capital to Total Assets


𝑁𝑒𝑡 𝑊𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐶𝑎𝑝𝑖𝑡𝑎𝑙
𝑁𝑒𝑡 𝑊𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐶𝑎𝑝𝑖𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑡𝑜 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑡𝑠 =
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑡𝑠

e. Interval Measure
𝐶𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑡𝑠
𝐼𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑣𝑎𝑙 𝑀𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 =
𝐴𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝐷𝑎𝑖𝑙𝑦 𝑂𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡𝑠

4. Rasio Aktivitas (Asset Management Ratio)


a. Inventory Turnover
𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝐺𝑜𝑜𝑑𝑠 𝑆𝑜𝑙𝑑
𝐼𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑦 𝑇𝑢𝑟𝑛𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟 =
𝐼𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑦

b. Days sales in Inventory


365 𝐷𝑎𝑦𝑠
𝐷𝑎𝑦𝑠 𝑠𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑖𝑛 𝐼𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑦 =
𝐼𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑦 𝑇𝑢𝑟𝑛𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟

c. Receivable Turnover
𝑆𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑠
𝑅𝑒𝑐𝑒𝑖𝑣𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑇𝑢𝑟𝑛𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟 =
𝐴𝑐𝑐𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑅𝑒𝑐𝑒𝑖𝑣𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒

d. Days sales in Receivable


365 𝐷𝑎𝑦𝑠
𝐷𝑎𝑦𝑠 𝑠𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑖𝑛 𝑅𝑒𝑐𝑒𝑖𝑣𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 =
𝑅𝑒𝑐𝑒𝑖𝑣𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑇𝑢𝑟𝑛𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟

e. NWC Turnover
𝑆𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑠
𝑁𝑊𝐶 𝑇𝑢𝑟𝑛𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟 =
𝑁𝑊𝐶

f. Fixed Assets Turnover


𝑆𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑠
𝐹𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑡𝑠 𝑇𝑢𝑟𝑛𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟 =
𝑁𝑒𝑡 𝐹𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑡

g. Total Assets Turnover


𝑆𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑠
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑡 𝑇𝑢𝑟𝑛𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟 =
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑡𝑠
5. Rasio Profitabilitas (Profitability Ratio)
a. Profit Margin
𝑁𝑒𝑡 𝐼𝑛𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑒
𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑓𝑖𝑡 𝑀𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑖𝑛 =
𝑆𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑠

b. Return on Assets
𝑁𝑒𝑡 𝐼𝑛𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑒
𝑅𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛 𝑜𝑛 𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑡 =
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑡𝑠

c. Return on Equity
𝑁𝑒𝑡 𝐼𝑛𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑒
𝑅𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛 𝑜𝑛 𝐸𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑡𝑦 =
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝐸𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑡𝑦

6. Rasio Solvabilitas (Long Term Solvency)


a Total Debt Ratio
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑡𝑠 − 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝐸𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑡𝑦
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝐷𝑒𝑏𝑡 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 =
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑡𝑠

b Debt to Equity Ratio


𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝐷𝑒𝑏𝑡
𝐷𝑒𝑏𝑡 𝐸𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 =
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝐸𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑡𝑦

c Equity Multiplier
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑡𝑠
𝐸𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑀𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑟 =
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝐸𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑡𝑦

d Long Term Debt Ratio


𝐿𝑜𝑛𝑔 𝑇𝑒𝑟𝑚 𝐷𝑒𝑏𝑡
𝐿𝑜𝑛𝑔 𝑇𝑒𝑟𝑚 𝐷𝑒𝑏𝑡 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 =
𝐿𝑜𝑛𝑔 𝑇𝑒𝑟𝑚 𝐷𝑒𝑏𝑡 + 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝐸𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑡𝑦

e Time Interest Earned Ratio


𝐸𝑎𝑟𝑛𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐵𝑒𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑒 𝐼𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑇𝑎𝑥
𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝐼𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝐸𝑎𝑟𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 =
𝐼𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑡

f Cash Covarege Ratio


𝐸𝑎𝑟𝑛𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐵𝑒𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑒 𝐼𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑇𝑎𝑥 + 𝐷𝑒𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛
𝐶𝑎𝑠ℎ 𝐶𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 =
𝐼𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑡

7. Rasio Nilai Pasar (Market Value Ratio)


a Earnings per Share
𝑁𝑒𝑡 𝐼𝑛𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑒
𝐸𝑎𝑟𝑛𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑆ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑒 =
𝑆ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑠 𝑂𝑢𝑡𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔
b Price Earnings Ratio
𝑃𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑒 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑆ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑒
𝑃𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑒 𝐸𝑎𝑟𝑛𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 =
𝐸𝑎𝑟𝑛𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑆ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑒

c Market to Book Ratio


𝑀𝑎𝑟𝑘𝑒𝑡 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑆ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑒
𝑀𝑎𝑟𝑘𝑒𝑡 𝑡𝑜 𝐵𝑜𝑜𝑘 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 =
𝐵𝑜𝑜𝑘 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑆ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑒