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Foreign Literature

1. Sales and Inventory System

By gemmanavarro, Aug 2012

Computer is general purpose device which can be programmed to carry out a finite set arithmetic
or local operation. Computer has a big rule in our nation today because of our technology.
Wherever you go computer still exist, especially in business it makes the procedure easy and
secure by programming the manual system into a computerizing system. The rule of technology
in our life today has a big impact.

Technology is the marking, modification, usage, and knowledge of tools, machine techniques,
crafts system method of organization in order to solve a problem, achieve a goal or perform a
specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, modifications
arrangements and procedures. Technologies significantly affect human as well as other animal
species ability to control and adapt to their natural environment.

Everything now is becoming high technology, from manual to computerization. In computerizing system,
it is easy to document and secure data. Especially in terms of Sales and Inventory system, every day you
are counting your products then reconcile it with your sale while when you use the computerized system
you can save more time because it is automatically count and total the remaining item and the items that
was already both and sold. An additional benefit using a computerized inventory system is the accuracy it
ensures. When an inventory list is maintained by hand, the margin of error widens with each update. If
one mathematical calculation is wrong or one typo is made, disaster may occur. A small business operates
most efficiently when its processes are executed in a consistent manner. By using a computerized
inventory system, a business owner can ensures that all orders, reports and other documents relating to
inventory are uniform in their presentation regardless of who has created them.

Sales & Inventory Monitoring Systems

by Audra Bianca, Demand Media

2. Data Collection for Decision-Making

Using this type of system, a company makes strategic business decisions regarding raw
material purchases, production scheduling, pricing, logistics and other decisions in the supply
chain. Sales and inventory data enables the company to increase or decrease production in the
factory so the company won't have too many finished goods stored in its warehouses.
A sales and inventory monitoring system collects data to aid in production scheduling. For
example, some systems use recent sales data to forecast how many of a type of product will
be needed to meet consumer demand in the near future. This includes monitoring the levels of
a product at all locations. A good example is a global company with customers all over the
world. The customer may live in Japan, but the system must see if the warehouse in Canada
has a product available to ship to Japan.
How it Works
The system compares current inventory levels of a product and the number scheduled for
production with the number needed, and determines if the level of production must be
changed. If necessary, the system sends a message to the master production schedule to
increase production. Also, the inventory monitoring system slows down production when a
product's retail sales levels don't meet the sales forecast and the company overproduces the
Competitive Advantage
Automated sales and inventory monitoring gives a company a competitive advantage by
linking different automated processes within the supply chain. For example, automating the
ordering process for customers and the production scheduling, then adjusting manufacturing
based on up-to-date inventory levels, makes a company more flexible, capable of deciding
how to best satisfy customer orders. When automated activities are linked -- ensuring
information flows rapidly from one part of the supply chain to another -- a company can
exploit these linkages. Management can make rapid decisions to increase revenues, such as
ramping up production immediately in one location because of a sudden surge in demand in
another part of the world.
3. Inventory Management may seen complicated to some, but if one truly thinks about what the
word “inventory management” means, it is simple concept. Inventory basically a list of goods
and materials that are held by a business and are available in stock. Inventory Management is
the process of keeping track of inventory and having the delicate balance of supply and
demand firmly mastered. When having inventory, a company does not ever want to have too
much of a product, nor does it want to have not enough of that product to meet demand.
Inventory Management helps to ensure that a proper inventory is maintained at all
times.(Ronsworth , 2010)
4. Ensuring the availability of materials and goods is one of the major responsibilities and goals
of inventory management, requiring various techniques such as mathematical modeling and
computational methods. To introduce the basics of inventory systems and mathematical
assumptions for all models are grouped together, thereafter mathematical principles and
applications are treated as they relate to one another. With this clearly organized systematic
exposition and a unique balance is maintained between simplicity and rigor. (Sapra, 2010)
5. Inventory management systems do not make decisions directly, but help employees to make
decisions. A good inventory management system would also provide help in forecasting the
demand and supply apart from ensuring that the confusing paper work is done away with. It
makes sure that information about warehouse and links to suppliers of raw materials as well
as customers, retailers and wholesalers is readily available for use.(Patel, 2010)
6. An inventory management system can also create a warehouse management system that
makes it easier for shipping personnel to find products. Product return levels go down,
customer satisfaction goes up and the increase in customer repeat orders due to your excellent
order fulfillment service goes up. (Anderson, 2011)

7. Inventory Systems of Foreign Companies in a Newly Industrialized Country

By Jongsuwanrak, Wanida; Prasad, Sameer; Babbar, Sunil

This survey-based research identifies the different inventory models in use by multinationals operating in

Thailand. Unlike many of the newly industrialized countries, Thailand has received relatively less

attention in the international operations management literature. This article highlights key factors

affecting the type of inventory systems implemented in Thailand, which can be of value to developing

countries making the transition into newly industrialized ones. This study shows that inventory systems in
Thailand are affected by the type of production, location of the multinationals' headquarters, demands,

supply base, and the extent to which materials were either exported or imported.


Like any other country, Thailand is characterized by a unique set of infrastructural, regulatory, legal, and

economic conditions. Cheap labor coupled with a relatively stable economic and political climate has

attracted Multinational Corporations (MNCs) to Thailand. As multinationals invest billions of dollars into

Thai operations, it is essential that they design and manage systems that are congruent with the local

needs. One key operational area of interest is the management of inventories.

Inventory systems can be affected by a host of international, product, and supply factors. In this research

we attempt to empirically ascertain how inventory systems are influenced by industry type and look for

interactions with cultural, infrastructural and economic issues. This research is expected to be of value to

MNC managers in designing inventory systems that work more effectively in Thailand. In addition, it

could also provide direction to nations making the transition to Newly Industrial Countries (NIC) status

from that of developing one.

A significant amount of literature is available on inventory systems. A majority of the findings are

derived from experiences in the US, Japan and Western Europe. Some inventory systems however, can be

affected by variations in local conditions such as infrastructure, customs, duties, and regulations. Hence, it

is essential to view such systems in an international context. To frame this research, we will examine the

literature on operations in NIC countries followed by an analysis of local conditions in Thailand.

A number of articles are available that examine the inventory setups in Singapore, Hong Kong, and Korea

(Amsden, 1989). For example, Cheng (1988) and Hum and Ng (1995) examine the workings of Just In

Time (JIT) systems in Hong Kong and Singapore, respectively. Other studies related to inventory

management include facility location decisions (Sisodia, 1992; Nambiar, fielders, and Van Wassenhove,

L. N, 1989; Mathews,1997) and distributed systems. These studies indicate that Thailand is not as

industrialized as the other NIC countries such as Singapore, and infrastructure shortcomings play an

important role. Next, we will examine the literature on the quality of infrastructure in Thailand.
Infrastructure affects both the productivity and effectiveness of manufacturing companies. It has a direct

impact on the distribution of raw materials, parts, and finished goods to customers. The few studies

focused on Thailand have primarily addressed infrastructural problems in Thailand (Chalamwong,

Chalongphob and Wattanalee, 1994; Chalamwong, 1993). In identifying the infrastructure-related

problems, Yukio (1990) calls for the Thai government to pay closer attention to transportation systems in

their effort to attract more Japanese and foreign investment. Sibunruang (1986) also points to

infrastructural constraints having a bearing on the development of the Thai economy.

The present government, however, does realizes the importance of infrastructure for the country's overall

economy. In its efforts to improve infrastructure, the Thai government has privatized telecommunication

service and has started seeking help from private local and foreign companies to cope with the road


Foreign Studies

1. Sales and Inventory System

By jamjam123456, Mar 2011

According to the U.S. Small Business Administration, “Inventory refers to stocks of anything
necessary to do business” (U.S. Small Business Administration, 2010). The U.S. Small Business
Administration publication describes what constitutes successful inventory management
(balancing cost versus benefits of inventory), including;

1) Maintaining a wide assortment without spreading the rapidly moving items too thin,
2) Increasing inventory turnover without sacrificing service,
3) Keeping stock low without sacrificing performance,
4) Obtaining lower prices by making volume purchases,
5) Maintaining an adequate inventory without an excess of obsolete items.
Anyone in business must understand the business of inventory. Below is a look at six different
inventory systems as well as a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages.

Wal-Mart Inventory System

Wal-Mart runs its stores on a perpetual inventory system. This system records the quantity of
items sold as items are purchased. The computer system at Wal-Mart constantly keeps up with
additions or deductions from inventory and tells management what items are on hand. The
organization also conducts counts of employee manual counts of inventory periodically. When
an item arrives at the Wal-Mart distribution center it is scanned into the inventory system. When
the items are purchased by the consumer, the point-of-sale system reduces the inventory from that
purchase. According to Wal-Mart’s Gail Lavielle, a leaner inventory will help clear out store
clutter and help Wal-Mart focus on specific brands and products that consumers want (The
Associated Press, 2006).

Advantages and Disadvantages of the Wal-Mart Inventory System

The advantages of a perpetual inventory system are that inventory is quickly updated in real-time,
which gives a constant picture of the inventory status.

2. US PubMed.gov
Automating the purchasing and inventory control functions.

Factors involved in computerizing the purchasing and inventory control functions in hospital
pharmacies are described. When initiating an automated purchasing and inventory control system,
a feasibility study should first be conducted to determine the extent of automation needed to
develop a cost-effective system. The design of the system will depend on the extent to which the
department of materials management is involved with other hospital departments. The advantages
and disadvantages of decentralized versus centralized systems are discussed, and criteria for
selecting hardware and software vendors are presented. A return-on-investment analysis should
be performed to validate the benefits or savings expected from implementing the new automated
system. Factors to consider during implementation of the new system and future developments
affecting purchasing and inventory control systems, such as bar coding, are discussed. With the
current concern about rapidly rising health-care costs and the need to enhance productivity, the
development and implementation of automated purchasing and inventory control systems are
important strategies for institutions to pursue now.

3. CISS (Computer Inventory System Specialists Ltd.)

Purchase Order Management

Inventory Pro's Purchasing System allows you to order, track, and receive both inventory
items and assets. It also provides the ability to browse purchase orders, list currently outstanding
purchase orders, and generate reports based on purchase orders. Like most parts of Inventory Pro,
the Purchasing System can be customized with logos, messages, fields, and terms to adapt it to
your specific business.
 Purchase Assets or Inventory Items
 Purchase Order Approvals
 Delivery Schedule (Blanket PO's)
 Inbound Appointment Scheduling
 Supplier's Catalog
 Supplier History
 Term Agreement (Supplier Contracts)
 Automatic Generation of Purchase Orders
 Accounting Software Integration
 Cost History of Purchased Items
 Receiving (Partials and Complete Orders)
 Reporting

4. The Sales system challenges facing utilities are manifold, with huge amounts of
payments to accept, data to collect and accounts to manage. In every transactions made in
the cashier terminal it can encounter error of handling orders and payments.(SICSE ,
2010). Sales software is a growing product in the software market. The calculation aspect
of this type of software is well known. Data entry occurs when the cashier types in the
price for each item. Reduce Transaction Costs, offer alternative, lower cost payment
methods for person transactions and lower your overall processing costs.(Francois, 2010).
Fewer personnel hire for the cashier terminal, less employee because the system will
automatically compute for the customer’s bill. Effective use of time is not necessarily
about bundling more activities into every hour, but about achieving greater results in that
hour because of doing the right thing. This use of time planning means working a
“living” marketing plan that addresses both long and short term needs.(Kashima,
Matsumo & Ishii , 2010)
5. Sales tracking is actually the process that involves keeping up to date information about
the sales of a company. It stores information about the current sales of the product, the
profits earned and inventory management. It is very important in sales management as it
tells us everything about our sales and our products. It pinpoints those products whose
sales are on the high all time; these products are then evaluated for their costs and sales.
Companies have realized the importance of keeping track of their sales activities,
(Bagoro, Barlis, et al, 2014).
6. Stock-taking in shops with a lot of items is time consuming. Performing a store inventory
without a system would likely take two employees four days to complete. Using RFID
will save significant time and efforts of each customers and employees. The biggest
benefit of using RFID is in the inventory management. (Inventory Management in
Apparel with Epc/Rfid, Japanese Company Gains In-Store Efficiency, 2012)

7. Supply chain management seeks first to integrate all of the internal activities to supply
product to a customer. This system can decrease costs and improve service by optimizing
inventory. Through supply chain partnerships and information exchange. Sourcing now
comes under the supply chain umbrella. We can see that good supply chain management
is partly a matter of balance. This system would manage all finished goods in inventory
and have responsibility for its distribution. This will perform the forecasting and
inventory planning process. All inventories would be managed more intensively to avoid
excess and obsolete and active inventories would be deployed and re-deployed on the
forecast requirements. (Supply Chain and Inventory Management, 2013)

8. Korean Red Ginseng Enterprise

Sales and Inventory System
(J. De Leon, M. Ferrer, 2001)
Under the Koread Red Ginseng Enterprise Sales and Inventory System, the researchers came
upwith a computerized sales and inventory system. The proponents used database to easy
access of filesand for easier and faster processing of the selling and inventory transaction.
The program wasdesignated to generate reports such as monthly reports, inventory reports,
sales invoice and list of items.

In connection with the proposed system, the proponents proposed a new and faster way
of processing business transactions. The system also helped the user to know the availability
of theproducts. It also helped the manager to monitor the stocks and to get immediate notice
for acquisition of additional products.The Proponents acquires knowledge about the file
processing and report generations through this
study. It also gives the proponents ideas to create the proposed system’s report
s in online sales andinventory system. Automation is mandatory, thus automated report
generation for precise reports is to be
included in the proponent’s proposed system.

Local Literature

1. Online Sales Monitoring and Inventory System

Jan 2011

The problem of the conducted research is about the company’s sales monitoring and inventory
system. Keeping records of sales and inventories manually are the current method used by the
company. Due to this current method of inventory system, the company has encountered several
problems regarding the monitoring and stocks checking.

KONEK.COM management once said, “Manual method is very hassle and time consuming
process of inventory. It has many drawbacks as there are many mistakes while recording large
data and it disturb some important transaction sometimes”.

Upon hearing this, the researchers developed a system which will help the management keep
record of inventories in systematic way and help them produce report about the inventory or stock
currently available in their store in automatic way. Through this the hassle and committing
mistakes while recording large data could be avoided. Also the work of the management and the
time consume during inventory will be minimize.

KONEK.COM is a hardware store located at Mabini St., Molave Zamboanga del sur. It was
owned and managed by Mr. & Mrs. Roy Megapatan. They started at a very small scale business
selling cell phone accessories. But because of the company’s dedication for hard work and
determination to rise among others, the very small hardware store becomes one of those who are
trusted when it comes to supplying electronic devices such as computers, computer accessories,
cell phones, cell phone accessories, flash drives and etc. in its community.

Today KONEK.COM, having three branches with in the municipality, boasts its tag as one of its
community’s leading hardware store.

2. Sales and Inventory System

By eahm05, Jan 2013

Computerize sales and inventory system

Computers began from a wild imaginative idea to the world’s highly prioritized tool. Computers
today are now used as a substitute to manual processes and other past inventions like the radio,
television, etc. It is now used by people for much simpler, easier and faster way to do things.
Some used it as a hobby, and some use it as a job.

Technology has never stopped from advancing through the years. Its new innovations helps
answer the people’s further complex questions. Why not use these advantages to benefit

Many people use computers in their daily lives. Some use it for transactions, some use it for
educational purposes and others use it for data storage. Though it might sound unnecessary but in
some cases when storing a file for such a big company, can you manage it properly? Organizing,
finding a file, etc. With computers, it can help you simplify the process of storing and managing
the files you need for future use and make finding files easier than the manual process.

A Proposed Sales and Inventory System

In business like merchandising, Sales and Inventory system plays an important role. It is used to
track all the transactions made by the business and responsible for monitoring the items supplies.
All the business transactions must be properly recorded and must be fully secured by password. A
Computerized system is the best solution and most innovative answer for their needs.

The researchers had been motivated to do a study on this topic according to the above observation. The
result may help others to understand more about computer-generated data processing, especially on how
to deal with computers in terms of speed, accuracy and data security. Monitoring the transactions and
other significant information regarding the customer is the main concern of this study.

3. SAP Inventory System Philippines

Looking for Inventory System Providers in the Philippines? SAP is an ERP software that helps
businesses, manufacturers and retailers in managing their supply chain. SAP provides you and your
suppliers fast access and real time information. SAP creates a transparent system that implements
efficient collaboration for a better and responsive supply network.
Every business, companies, manufacturers and retailers are particular with their inventory. It is important
not to have an excessive inventory to avoid overhead expenses. Manufacturers and Retailers need to
ensure that they have enough number of a given item in stock depending on its trends of sales.
Our Inventory System software provides real time assessment of items in stock. As each item is sold, the
inventory database is automatically updated. When the inventory level is at its minimum, it automatically
creates a purchase order sent to the supplier. As soon as the order has arrived, the inventory database is
automatically updated and the system will issue a notification to the accounting department for the
supplier’s invoice and purchase order copy.
The Inventory System Software Advantage
 Automate the Order to Delivery Process

 Manage Inventory in Real Time

 Adapt to Changing Business Needs
The SAP Inventory Software enables you to streamline end to end operations. It lets you serve customers
faster and better and achieve profitable growth.
SAP Business One Inventory System
This business scenario shows how suppliers and manufacturers collaborate by sharing information and
exchanging plans. This map illustrates the business benefits of this supply chain collaboration process.
The process is a supplier-driven replenishment and planning process, which is based on min/max stock
balance levels, on current demand, in-transits and planned shipments.

[click image to enlarge]

The usual approach to replenishment at each step in the chain has been for the manufacturer to place an
order with the supplier. Typically, there would be no early warning signals on requirements from the
customer and thus the supplier would have to hold inventory in the form of safety stocks as a “buffer”
against this uncertainty. Likewise, the customer would also carry safety stocks on the same items to
safeguard against the possibility of none-supply. The result of this conventional approach were higher
levels of inventory in the chain and paradoxically lower levels of customer satisfaction and

Through this inventory system software, suppliers can offer their customers a value added service by
performing the replenishment planning task for their business partners. Besides giving the supplier
increased visibility into actual demand, it also recognizes that suppliers often may have more knowledge
and control over the logistical processes involved. By increasing visibility into actual demand as well as
inventory levels. This allows suppliers to make better decisions on how to deploy goods across various
customers locations, which leads to increased customer service levels, lower transportation costs,
reduced inventory levels and lower sales cost.

4. A computer is a device that accepts information in the form of digitalized data and
manipulates it for some result based on a program or sequence of instructions on how the data
is to be processed. Complex computers also include the means for storing data including the
program, which is also a form of data for some necessary duration. Computerization helps a
business by allowing them manually. It has the ability to synchronize task, bring down error
rates. (Ely, Montojo & Reonico, 2011)
5. A Transaction Processing System (TPS) is a system that supports the processing of an
organization’s transactions. For many businesses, a transaction refers to an exchange of
goods or services for money. The orders can be filed whenever a payment has done. For
every transaction, a decreased on the stocks occurs and all the transactions will be recorded.
Records can be used in generating reports such as sales report, inventory report, and list of
items in critical level. (Dela Cruz, Mesina, etal., 2011)
6. Inventory System is an essential portion of an industry for the reason that inventories are
typically the major expenditures acquired from the business processes. Most companies will
use an inventory management system that will track and maintain the inventory required to
meet the customer demand. Checking inventories on a precise premise during the time
consolidated with a procedure for consistent change in stock exactness will demonstrate a
much better technique for accomplishing exact inventories. The idea is extremely basic, in the
event that you create just what you require when you require it, then there is no space for
blunder. (Osita, Paragas, etal, 2011)
7. “Security us one of the best feature of the system; that uses a username and password to
secure the applicant files. The main objective of developing a system is to keep the
confidentiality and the security of the files and data of the users. In developing a system it is
important to improve one’s security measure for the credibility of the system and most
important for the company’s stability.” (Ocampo & Heras, 2010).
8. “Database may be local or remote”. Local databases are available only to one computer or to
a local area network of computers that are connected to one another and share software.
Remote databases or also known as on-line resources are stored on a computer at a different
location. (Cates, 2010).

9. Inventory Ordering System

By Globe Business Philippines

With just a few keystrokes, track your supplies using Globe’s Inventory Ordering System.
The cost-effective and highly innovative inventory management system gives you instant
access to stock levels, allowing for timely orders and zero wastage.
Get real-time reports
What the inventory system does is allow you to order supplies based on the most current data.
This minimizes overstocking and at the same time, frees up resources for more urgent needs.
Cut through red tape
The Inventory Ordering System gives you better control over your supply chain, affording
you the convenience of being able to place orders online or via SMS. And because the system
automatically generates inventory and sales reports, your employees will have less paperwork
to file and more time to focus on operations.

Perfect for businesses with franchise operations, this user-friendly inventory management
system can be customized for any multi-site company, commissary, or warehouse backend
ordering operation.

Features & Benefits

 Registration Module
 Order Management
 Inventory Management
 Sales Management
 Reports Module
 Text Broadcast

9. According to the study of Anna Marie Beltran Distor of Proposed Sales Monitoring System issued
1995, the accelerated work structure of the company proper monitoring is essential in order to keep track
of the company’s sales activities. Her system aims to come up with an efficient, and accurate mechanized
system of preparing invoices that will keep track of the daily transaction and generate reports. Important
information will be provided by this study in order to prove that the computerization of the company’s
operation and achieve a more reliable and efficient means of monitoring day to day activities. Her system
focuses on the analysis and design of the sales monitoring system which will monitor the stacks inventory
of the sales departments. This system of hers is somewhat related to our study but our system focuses
more on the inventory monitoring system of a trading company.

Local Studies

1. Online Practicum Monitoring System of the LPU Campus By: Ms. Janice Velasquez and Ms.
Jacqueline Vengco (2014)

The study is about the design and development of a software named Online Practicum Monitoring System
using Visual Basic.Net and SQL. The primary objective of the study is to provide a tool that will help
practicum coordinators monitor the OJT requirements submitted by students enrolled in the OJT course as
well as provide students with an aid to submitting the requirements in a timely manner.The Online
Practicum Monitoring System is equipped with features that provide access to the practicum coordinators
and students and can generate reports on the summary of students who : are enrolled in the subject; have
submitted requirements on time; were not able to submit requirements on time; have incomplete
requirements submitted and have complete requirements submitted.

The system is protected with security password. Only the practicum coordinators and the students
enrolled in the subject can access the system. There are two types of users: the admin and the student. The
admin users are the practicum coordinators who are capable of creating and deleting student accounts,
uploading requirements and forms, downloading requirements submitted by the students,
updating/checking the requirements submitted online.
On the other hand, the student users are capable of submitting the requirements by uploading them and
downloading OJT forms.

The system is not capable of providing or showing grades to the students and only the students and
practicum coordinators are allowed to use and access the system.

The Online Practicum Monitoring System is a generic system which may be utilized by practicum
coordinators of all the colleges in LPU. Once implemented, the system may be accessed only via a link
within the Lyceum of the Philippines University – Batangas web page. However, the Online Practicum
Monitoring System is not a stand-alone application and can be accessed only through the web page.

2. LC Pc Net Sales and Inventory System

October 2010

Technology has taken a big leap forward in 21st century, with computer programs, electronics
upgrading by the month & even by the day. Technology has influenced & greatly simplified
almost in every aspect of a student’s life today. It is amazing what technology has done to our
society and how dependent we have become on it. Having computers in the workplace has enable
the business to our more efficiently and has contributed in having on all around better businesses,
using computers cut down our work time, we don’t have to write everything out by hands or
type out on typewriters. This increase in usage of computer proves that computers have affected
every aspect of our lives and have become one of the necessities. Many developers have
contributed to such an advancement and widespread of computer technology.

Nowadays there are so many companies using technical system to improve the quality of service
of their company, but there are some companies still using manual computing for their product
inventory like LC Pc Net Sales & Services.

LC Pc Net Sales & Services is owned by Mr. Leo Boongaling. It is established on April 2010. It
is the first company that he built in order to apply his knowledge and skills in his past schooling,
together with his friends as employee. And it is located at 2nd floor L. Boongaling Commercial
Complex # 2 Rizal Street Poblacion Candelaria, Quezon. Their products are such peripherals.
And in the ground floor they have Louis and Nathalie Computer Shop.

3. Computerized Sales and Inventory System for Anthony's General Merchandise and
Construction Supply
By kentwatak, Jan 2013

Many people use computers in their daily lives. Some use it for transactions, some use it for
educational purposes and others use it for data storage. Though it might sound unnecessary but in
some cases when storing a file for such a big company, can you manage it properly? Organizing,
finding a file, etc. With computers, it can help you simplify the process of storing and managing
the files you need for future use and make finding files easier than the manual process.
Computerized Sales and Inventory System is a product of human knowledge with a use of
technology so why not use technology as an advantage and benefit ourselves. This proposed
system aims to lighten works and solve the problems involving strict and complex recording and

Anthony’s General Merchandise & Construction Supply is still under the manual method since
the business started back in April 2000. The business is located first at Riverside then they
transferred to Road BHS near Quezon City Polytechnic University. It is a family owned business
by Mrs. Herminia Baguino.
They have 1 cashier, 3 sales persons, 2 drivers, 4 delivery men, 1 staff that is in charge of the
warehouse. The cashier is the person who keeps the money in their money box, the sales person
are those who talks to the customers and responsible in providing the customers’ needs. The
driver and delivery men are those workers who are responsible for the delivery of the items to the

4. Sales and Inventory System for BC Home Furnishing and Appliance Center

Sales and inventory system is very important in business transactions and to that businessperson
who don’t want to be bankrupt and loss profits. That’s why several studies were conducted to
develop more reliable system and to help businessperson in doing their b business transaction and
process easier and faster providing the business more convenience and satisfaction.

According to Balbiran, Geronimo, Porters, and Ruiz (2001) who develop an automated sales and
inventory system for San Miguel Corporation Tubigon office that designing a system for involve
careful planning and the system analyst must consider some factors in order to have an
application program that is compact, efficient and could handle day-to-day transaction .The study
was conducted in San Miguel Corporation Tubigun Sales Office located at Pooc Oriental,
Tubigon Bohol. The researchers choose the warehouse, cashier and the sales territory sales super
visor as their respondents. An interview to the owner and other personnel and observation of the
flow of the present sales and inventory system were conducted to gather information and system
requirements. Based on the data gathered, the researchers find out that San Miguel Corporation
Tubigun Sales Office will be benefited if their sales and inventory system will be automated.
According to them the system enables to lessen workloads in retreivency the records and also
there will be no need to have another process to undergo. They concluded that using the manual
method in sales and inventory caused the delay of distribution of reports and error in calculating
customer’s credit.

An Automated Sales and inventory system for factory Depot incorporation was developed by
Sumsylo, Dolotina and Saligumba (2001).according to them the emphasis of the system design is
to develop a new system that overcomes the short coming and limitations of the existing system.
The study was conducted at Rednavela Trading Factory Depot. Incorporation Tagbilaran Branch.




Integrated inventory management is a compelling approach that is driving many of the organizational
changes in manufacturing today. This comprehensive manual covers the practical issues that must be
dealt with when managing inventory. Author Paul Bernard, a systems manager for over 20 years and an
active member of APICS, establishes the need for an inventory strategy that is integral to the business.
Writing for practitioners, he provides a method for streamlining and connecting all aspects of inventory
management, explaining how to implement projects, programs, and initiatives more effectively. Where
other books on the subject address every aspect of inventory management as a stand-alone topic, Bernard
describes each component in relation to all other aspects of the process, making inventory management
more understandable from a practical perspective. Using his integral strategy concept, Bernard covers the
translation of theory to practice throughout the book, with a heavy emphasis on tables, figures, and the
unique inclusion of computer screens for illustration. Integrated Inventory Management is a thorough
reference that offers even the most experienced professional a wealth of new information on the topic.
Applicable to APICS' CIRM and CPIM certification questions. Provides actual company examples to
illustrate the integral strategy.

Suppose your company has reached the point where senior management recognizes that “business as
usual” cannot ensure a competitive advantage or is not meeting customer expectations. Suppose further
that they ask you to lead or join a team to develop and implement a new (to the company) strategy to
achieve and sustain a competitive advantage. How quickly can you become an individual contributor to
your team's development of a business case for changing the status quo, convincing the organization of
the advantages of following a strategy which encompasses aspects of operational, organizational, and
technological change and creating an environment where significant improvement is the norm?

The fact is, this is the type of challenge faced every day by inventory practitioners. The more competitive
one company becomes, the more competitive it becomes for everyone else. One approach for developing
an inventory strategy in a highly competitive environment is to structure the strategy based on integration
principles. Integration strengthens the natural synergism between the infrastructural and operational areas
of the business.

This book is a continuation of other production and inventory management references. As such, it is not
so much about the subject of inventory management as it is about thepractice of managing inventory in a
variety of business environments. Its uniqueness is in the application of an integration methodology as a
unifying theme and in its scope from strategy development through implementation of projects and
programs. The basic structure is shown in Figure P. 1.

Key Integration Concepts Developed and Used Throughout This Book

Strategies are the means by which a company focuses and aligns their and their suppliers' resources and
capabilities to create a competitive advantage and provide value to their customers. Following a defined
strategy demonstrates commitment within the organization and establishes clear roles, responsibilities,
and performance measures.
There are two basic types of strategies referred to in this book. Traditional strategies focus inwardly on
one or more functional areas within the business.


6. Essentials of Inventory Management part 2(2011)

Inventory management is about more than counting what you've got. It's about understanding business
realities and making decisions that balance current demand with future needs while keeping overhead and
operating costs to a minimum.

Now in its Second Edition, Essentials of Inventory Management gives inventory professionals the
information they need to maximize productivity in key areas, from physical stock issues to problem
identification and resolution to technologies like RFID and other automated inventory mechanisms.
Perfect for novice and veteran managers alike, this ultra-practical book covers topics such as:

 Forecasting and replenishment strategies

 Differences between retail and manufacturing inventories
 Materials requirements planning and just-in-time inventory systems
 Simple formulas for calculating quantities and schedules
 Management of inventory as a physical reality and a monetary value
 Supply chain risk management

Complete with detailed examples, handy tools, and a revised and expanded chapter analyzing "Why
Inventory Systems Fail and How to Fix Them," this nontechnical yet throrough guide is perfect for both
instructional and on-the-job use.

The objective of this chapter is to provide you with a basic understanding of the nature of inventory as
both a tangible, physical item actually kept within the facility (“real life” or “shelf count”) and as an
intangible item existing within the company’s records (“paper life” or “record count”). Since you
frequently make purchasing, sales, customer service, production planning, and other decisions based on
whether an item is shown as being inhouse as per your records, an item’s paper life can be just as
important as its real life.

Inventory—Who Needs It?

All organizations keep inventory. “Inventory” includes a company’s raw materials, work in process,
supplies used in operations, and finished goods.

Inventory can be as simple as a bottle of glass cleaner used as part of a building’s custodial program or as
complex as a mix of raw materials and subassemblies used as part of a manufacturing process.

7. The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory: A Clinical Research Information Synthesis (1993)

This book presents state-of-the-art information on both the scientific and clinical aspects of the Millon
Clinical Multiaxial Inventory, a test that uniquely assesses both personality pathology and
psychopathology. The book presents original contributions from major researchers/clinicians who have
published seminal papers on the MCMI and who are recognized authorities in their specific areas. Clinical
examples of the MCMI with a variety of clinical populations are provided, and many chapters summarize
the research in that area as well as present clinical illustrations of the MCMI with actual cases.

The book provides the reader with the most accurate information on the MCMI -- a test that has made
exciting advances in the assessment of personality and psychopathology. The scientific and clinical status
of this instrument is presented with a variety of clinical populations, including major psychiatric
disorders, depression, substance abuse, anxiety disorders, eating and stress disorders, etc. Recent
applications and advances in special areas, such as the instrument's use with medical populations and non-
clinical populations, are also presented.

8. Essentials of Inventory Management (2003)

"Most inventory professionals would gladly trade all the ""latest thinking"" books for a guide they could
use to do their jobs better right now. Essentials of Inventory Management! presents ready-to-use
information in key areas from physical control and layout to problem identification and resolution.
Concentrating on daily-use inventory concepts, this practical workplace companion specifically
• Forecasting and replenishment strategies
• Differences between finished-goods (retail) inventories and materials or work-in-process
(manufacturing) inventories.
• Materials requirements planning (MRP) and just-in-time (JIT) inventory systems
• Managing inventory as both a physical object and a monetary value
• Applying simple formulas to calculating quantities
• Analyzing and remedying dysfunctionPlus, the book covers theft prevention, legal obligations, and the
managment of natural, technological, and incited emergencies. In all, it's the most thorough introduction
available to the inventory management profession."

The objective of this chapter is to provide you with a basic understanding of the nature of inventory as
both a tangible, physical item actually kept within the facility (“real life” or “shelf count”) and as an
intangible item existing within the company's records (“paper life” or “record count”). Since you
frequently make purchasing, sales, customer service, production planning, and other decisions based on
whether or not an item is shown as being in-house as per your records, an item's paper life can be just as
important as its real life.

Inventory—Who Needs It?

All organizations keep inventory. “Inventory” includes a company's raw materials, work in process,
supplies used in operations, and finished goods.

9. Inventory System is important and needed to be used by the companies in the industries. This will
speed up the filling of records, manpower utilization, security guidelines, the company will able to
track the money, stocks, updates, changes in the company and other matters that includes managing.
Manual systems are old fashion and has no assurance that the files have a security. The good
inventory system a database recording with security that will take care of the records, as such a good
system will organized and handles the integrity of the records. (Ely, Montojo&Reonico, 2011).
10. Inventory maintenance system is divided into separate procedures for reviewing, receiving, issuing,
or inventory on-hand. In this way, the system supervisor can control which employees can issue
stock, order, or adjust quantities based on stock inventories. Access is controlled through an easy to
use but very effective password authentication system. (Anabeza, Aycardo, et al., 2010)
11. Inventory management is primarily about specifying the size and placement of stocked goods.
Inventory management is required at different locations within a facility or within multiple locations
of supply network to protect the regular and planned course of production against the random
disturbance of running out of materials or goods. The scope of inventory management also concerns
the fine lines between replenishment lead time, carrying costs of inventory, asset management,
inventory forecasting, inventory valuation, inventory visibility, future inventory, price forecasting,
physical inventory, available physical space for inventory, quality management, replenishment,
returns and defective goods and demand forecasting. (Diesta, Garcia, et al., 2011)
12. Sales system is a process of sending a bill to customers for goods and services rendered. It is a
system that tracks customer usage of services and calculates the impact on a customer account based
on the price of the services. A sales system is very useful to the company as it will reflect the income
derives from various services it renders. (Binoman, De Leon, et al, 2011)
13. Point of Sale (POS) terminal keep track of the goods that it has in stock and to produce bills for
customers. Whenever an item is sold the product code of the item is read into a till by a barcode
scanner. Sometimes the barcode is not scanned properly. If this happens the till makes a beeping
sound and the product code must be rescanned or entered using a keyboard. Once the product code
has been entered the till looks up the price and name of the product in the supermarket’s stock
database. This information is printed on the customer’s receipt. It also updates the product’s record in
the stock files to indicate that the product has been sold. (Flores, Garcillan. & Lorzano, 2011)