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Indira Gandhi

National Open University


BPVI-015
School of Agriculture Dairy Products – II

Block

2
PANEER AND CHHANA
UNIT 5

Definition, Composition, Standards and Factors Affecting Quality


of Paneer and Chhana 5

UNIT 6

Methods of Manufacture of Paneer and Chhana 19

UNIT 7

Chhana Based Sweets 32

UNIT 8

Packaging, Storage, Common Defects, Shelf Life and


Preservation of Paneer and Chhana 45
Programme Design Committee
Prof. H.P. Dikshit Prof. Panjab Singh
Ex. Vice Chancellor Vice Chancellor
IGNOU, New Delhi Banaras Hindu University, Banaras (U.P.)

Prof. S.C. Garg, Shri A.N.P. Sinha


Acting Vice Chancellor Former Additional Secretary
IGNOU, New Delhi Ministry of Food Processing Industries
Delhi

Ministry of Food Processing Industries Milk Plant, Gwalior:


New Delhi : Shri M.E. Khan, Manager - Plant Operation
• Mr. K.K. Maheshwary
• Mr. R.K. Bansal, Consultant Delhi Milk Scheme, Delhi:
• Mr. V.K. Dahiya, Tech. Officer Shri Ashok Bansal, DGM
(Milk Products)
CITA, New Delhi:
NDRI, Karnal, Haryana: Shri Vijay Sardana
• Dr. S. Singh, JD (Academics)
• Dr. S.P. Agrawala, Head (Dairy Engg.) Mahaan Protein, Mathura (U.P.):
• Dr. Rajvir Singh, Head (Dairy Eco.) Dr. Ashwani Kumar Rathor, GM Technical
• Dr. K.L. Bhatia, Ex-Principal Scientist
• Dr. S.K. Tomar, Principal Scientist IGNOU, New Delhi (SOA Faculty Members):
• Dr. B.D. Tiwari, Ex. Principal Scientist • Dr. M.K. Salooja, Dy. Director
• Dr. Dharam Pal, Principal Scientist • Dr. M.C. Nair, Dy. Director
• Dr. A.A. Patel, Principal Scientist • Dr. Indrani Lahiri, Asstt. Director
• Dr. P.L. Yadav, Sr. Consultant
Mother Dairy, Delhi: • Dr. D.S. Khurdiya, Sr. Consultant
Dr. P.N. Reddy • Sh. Jaya Raj, Sr. Consultant
Former Quality Control Manager • Sh. Rajesh Singh, Consultant

Programme Coordinators : Prof. Panjab Singh, Dr. M.K. Salooja and Dr. P.L. Yadav

Block Preparation Team


Writer Course Coordinator
Dr. S.K. Kanwaojia Dr. M.K. Salooja
Dr. P.L. Yadav
Editors Dr. J.S. Sandhu
Dr. P.L. Yadav Dr. S. Singh
Dr. J.S. Sindhu
Dr. M.K. Salooja

Material Production
Mr. Rajiv Girdhar, SO (Publication) Secretarial Assistance
Mr. Vinay Sehgal

Word Processing
Mr. Bhim Singh

October, 2006
© Indira Gandhi National Open University, 2006
ISBN-81-266-2589-9
All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other
means, without permission in writing from the Indira Gandhi National Open University.
Further information on Indira Gandhi National Open University courses may be obtained from the
University's office at Maidan Garhi, New Delhi-110 068.
Printed and published on behalf of the Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi by
Director, School of Agriculture.
Paper Used : Agrobased Environment Friendly
Lasertypesetted at Graphic Printers, 204, Pankaj Tower, Mayur Vihar, Phase-I, Delhi-91.
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BLOCK INTRODUCTION
Paneer and Chhana are two heat and acid coagulated traditional product made
from milk in our country since score of centuries. These products contains fat and
proteins in concentrated form. In this block we will learn about the composition,
standard, method of preparation of Paneer and Chhana and chhana based sweets.
The factors affecting the quality of these products and how, the keeping quality of
these products can be increased with the use of improved method of their manufacture,
packaging and storage.
Unit – 5 In this unit Definition, composition, standard and factors affecting quality of
Paneer and Chhana are explained to us and these factors are associated with quality
of milk and method of preparation and type of coagulant used.
Unit – 6 In this unit we will learn about the method of manufacture of Paneer and
Chhana. Methods of manufacturing paneer from cow and buffalo milk, recombined
milk, reconstituted milk are given. Preparation, of Chhana from cow and Buffelo
milk are also explained to us. We will also learn improved and continuous method
of chhana making in this unit. After studying this unit we will be able to make good
quality paneer and chhana.
Unit – 7 Chhana based sweets are very popular in our country. We will learn
about the method of manufacture of Rasogulla, Sandesh, Rasmalai and Chhana
Murki in this unit.
Unit – 8 Packaging of Paneer, Chhana and Chhana based sweets is also discussed
in this unit. Microbiological quality of Paneer, Chhana and Chhana based sweets
are also explained in this unit. The defects in Chhana and Paneer and method of
their prevention to increase the shelf life of Paneer, Chhana and Chhana based sweets
are also given in this Unit.
COURSE INTRODUCTION
A number of products are manufactured from milk. In India Khoa, Paneer, Chhana,
concentrated milk and milk powder are manufactured from surplus milk. Khoa,
Paneer and Chhana are traditional product which are produced in very small quality
by small dealers or consumbers themselves. With the development of new technology
its possible to utilized surplus milk during flush season of year for making Paneer,
Chhana and Khoa, on large scale. Khoa, and Chhana are used for preparation of a
variety of sweets dishes in our country by small manufactures. These sweets are
very common throught the country. Milk production in our country has increased
many fold since independence. A number of milk processing and milk products
manufacturing plants are utilizing large quality of surplus milk for production of
concentrated milk and Milk Powders. These products can be stored for longer
period and utilized during the period of lean season. Milk powder has great
commercial value and can be used to meet the demand of milk and milk products in
deficit areas of country. In this course we will study about the manufacture of heat-
desiccated products specially khoa, and khoa sweets, Paneer, and Chhana, and
Chhana based sweets, concentrated milk and dried milk.
Block – 1 We will learn about the manufacturing of Khoa, Rabri and Basundi in this
block. We will know the principle involved in manufacture of these products.
Composition, standards and classification of heat-desiccated product are also given
in the text of this block. There are a numbers of sweets made from khoa like
Gulabjamun, Peda, Burfi, Kalakand and milk cake. We will learn about the
preparation, packaging, storage and common defects of the products. This will
help us to take care in preparation and handling of the products for subsequent use.
Block – 2 Paneer and Chhana are heat and acid coagulated products made from
milk. In this block we will learn about the composition, standard, factor affecting
quality, methods of manufacture, packaging and storage of these products. We will
also learn about the preparation of Chhana based sweets like Rasogulla, Sandesh,
Rasmalai, Chhana Murki etc. Microbiological quality of Paneer, Chhana, and Chhana
based sweets will also be discussed. Common defects in these products and their
prevention are also given in the text of this block.
Block – 3 Milk constituents in a concentrated form are preserved in the form of
concentrated milk or condensed milk with or without sugar. Concentrated milk can
be easily reconstituted to meet the fluid milk demand in scarcity period. In this
block we will learn about the definition, standard, nutritive value and principle of
evaporation for concentrated milk. Method of manufacture of sweetened condensed
and evaporated milk and their uses are also given in the block. We will also learn
about the packaging, storage, judging and grading of the products. Condensed milk
and evaporated milk has prolonged storage life, but sometime some defects develop,
the reason for occurance and measures to control these defects shall also be discussed
in this block.
Block – 4 Milk powder has many beneficial use in the milk and food industry. It
can be stored for longer period and can be easily transported to long distance without
deterioration. In this block we will study about the definition, compositions,
classification, legal standard and principle of drying milk. Milk is dried by roller
drier, spray drier, fluid bed drier. We will know about the engineering aspects of
these driers. In this block methods of manufacture of spray and roller dried milk
and production of value added products are given to educate us about the preparation
of products. We will also learn about the packaging, storage, and common defects
of dried milk, which will help us in maintaining the quality of dried milk.
UNIT 5 DEFINITION, COMPOSITION,
STANDARDS AND FACTORS
AFFECTING QUALITY OF
PANEER AND CHHANA
Structure
5.0 Objectives
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Definition of Paneer
5.3 Standards of Paneer
5.4 Chemical Composition of Paneer
5.5 Factors Affecting Quality of Paneer
5.6 Chhana
5.7 Standards of Chhana
5.8 Chemical Composition of Chhana
5.9 Factors Affecting Quality of Chhana
5.10 Let Us Sum Up
5.11 Key Words
5.12 Some Useful Books
5.13 Answers to check your Progress Exercises

5.0 OBJECTIVES
After reading this unit we should be able to:
• define paneer and chhana.
• understand the standards of paneer and chhana.
• know the chemical composition of paneer and chhana.
• explain the factors affecting the quality of paneer and chhana.

5.1 INTRODUCTION
Paneer and chhana are two important nutritious and wholesome indigenous, dairy
products, which occupy a prominent place among traditional milk products and
carry lot of market potential. These products are of great value in our diet because
of rich source of high quality proteins, fat, minerals and vitamins. Paneer is used as
base material for the preparation of a large number of culinary dishes and it is a
popular food product at the household level as well as even its use is increasing in
organized food chains. It is an excellent match of non-vegetarian food. Chhana, on
the other hand, is used as a base for preparation of a variety of sweets viz. rasogulla,
sandesh, rasmalai, cham-cham, chhana-murki, etc.
5
Paneer and Chhana
5.2 DEFINITION OF PANEER
Paneer refers to the milk product obtained by the acid coagulation of hot milk and
subsequent drainage of whey. The acids commonly used are citric, lactic, acetic,
etc. and sour whey or cultured whey can also be used for coagulation of milk. The
phenomenon of coagulation involves the formation of large structural aggregates of
proteins in which milk fat and other colloidal and soluble solids are entrained
with whey.
Paneer is a popular indigenous variety of soft cheese. Cheese manufactured using
high heat, acid precipitation and without starter culture is practiced in many countries
of South Asia and Central and South America Latin American. White cheese, found
throughout South and Central America, Mexico and the Caribbean Islands is a
product that is quite similar to paneer. Nomads of South West Asia regions were
probably the first to develop several distinctive cheese varieties. One of the unique
Iranian nomadic cheese is called paneer Khiki. It was originally developed by the
well-known Bakhtiari tribe that resided in Isfahan (in summer) and Shraz (in winter).
When salted, it is known as paneer-e-shour. White paneer is a staple food of
Nomads in Afghanistan. When made from raw milk, it is called paneer-e-khom,
and from boiled milk, panner-e-pokhta. Paneer is traditionally consumed in these
countries with dry fruits and nuts in form of dessert. The earliest form of paneer
might have obtained by curdling milk with a little sour milk, pieces of creeper called
putika, bark of Palasa tree or Kuyala (Jujuka).
It may be conjectured that term paneer was introduced into India by the Persian and
Afghan invaders who came through Baluchistan and Karakoram mountain pass of
Himalayas. It is probably for this reason that paneer making practice is mainly confined
to the North West Frontier region of India, and southern parts of Jammu and Kashmir
due to the influence of foreign settlers in these regions. However, it was only during
the past five decades that paneer has spread to other parts of India and enjoys the
status of national culinary dish in this country. It is a vegetarian’s delight.

5.3 STANDARD OF PANEER


The regulatory standards for paneer and Chhana are identical. It has been defined
under the prevention of Food Adulteration Act (PFA), 1954, as Paneer means the
product obtained from cow or buffalo milk or a combination thereof by precipitation
with sour milk, lactic acid or citric acid. It shall not contain more than 70.0 per cent
moisture, and milk fat content shall not be less than 50.0 per cent of the dry matter.
Skim Milk Paneer
Skimmed milk paneer means the product obtained from cow or buffalo skimmed
milk by precipitation with sour milk, lactic acid or citric acid. It shall not contain
more than 70.0 percent moisture. The milk fat content of the product shall not exceed
13.0 percent of the dry matter basin.

5.4 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PANEER


Paneer is made without starter culture or rennet and results from the acid precipitation
of milk at high temperatures. The phenomenon of coagulation involves the formation
of large structural aggregates of proteins in which milk fat and other colloidal and
soluble solids are entrained with whey. Good quality paneer is characterized by a
typical mild acidic flavour with a slightly sweet taste. It has a firm, cohesive and
spongy body and a closely knit, smooth texture. Paneer is a highly nutritious and
6 wholesome food. It is a rich source of milk protein and milk fat and is one of the best
methods of conserving milk solids in highly concentrated form. Paneer is used as a Definition, Composition,
Standards and Factors
base material for the preparation of large number of culinary dishes. Paneer contains Affecting Quality of Paneer
on an average approximately 54.0 per cent moisture 27% milk fat, 17.5 per cent and Chhana
protiens, 1.5 per cent minerals and lactose.
The chemical composition of paneer depends mainly on the type of milk, composition
of milk, the conditions of coagulation, the technique of straining/ pressing and the
losses of milk solids in the whey. An average chemical composition of paneer is
given in Table 5.1.
Table 5.1. Typical chemical composition of paneer

Product Moisture Fat Protein Lactose Ash


(%) (%) (%) (%) (%)
Paneer (Buffalo milk) 52.3 27.0 15.8 2.3 1.9
Paneer (cow milk) 52.5 25.0 17.3 2.2 2.0

5.5 FACTORS AFFECTING QUALITY OF PANEER


Good quality paneer is characterized by a white colour, mildly acidic, nutty flavour,
spongy body and a closely-knit texture. Paneer is best made from buffalo milk.
Cow milk yields an inferior product in terms of body and texture. It is criticized to be
too soft, weak and fragile and unsuitable for frying and cooking. The quality of
paneer depends mainly on the initial composition of milk, type of milk, the conditions
of coagulation, the technique of straining/pressing and the losses of milk solids in the
whey.
A minimum of 5.5 per cent fat in buffalo milk and 4.5 per cent fat in cow milk is
necessary for producing a desirable good quality paneer whereas a lower fat level
than the above in milk results in a hard body and coarse texture with increased
chewiness. The higher fat content in milk is also not desirable since it produces
greasiness, softness and weak body and texture in paneer. The higher fat in milk
results in more loss of fat in whey.
For manufacture of good quality paneer sweet milk (fresh milk) is the best suitable
raw material, developed acidity or sour milk tends to produce sour flavour and
bitter taste, which makes it unsuitable for preparation of culinary dishes. Acceptable
quality paneer could be produced from slightly acidic and neutralized milk. Buffalo
milk admixed with sweet butter milk could be utilized for making acceptable quality
paneer having good frying and cooking characteristics. The various technological
parameters affecting the quality of paneer are discussed here under.
i. Technological Parameters
The manufacture of paneer involves standardization of milk, heat treatment,
coagulation, draining, pressing, dipping in chilled water and packaging. Some of the
parameters that affect the quality of paneer are discussed here.
ii. Fat level in milk
The fat content in milk has profound bearing on organoleptic quality of paneer which
provides richness and yield of the product. The respective average composition of
paneer obtained from buffalo milk with fat adjusted to different levels (SNF 9.5 per
cent) is given in Table 5.2. The moisture content in paneer varies inversely with fat
7
Paneer and Chhana level in milk. The fat content in paneer increases with the increase in fat level in milk
while the protein and carbohydrate percentage decreases. To meet the PFA standards
for paneer which require a minimum of 50 per cent fat on dry matter basis, a minimum
of 5.8 per cent fat in buffalo milk having 9.5 per cent SNF is essential. A fat: SNF
ratio of 1 : 1.65 has to be maintained. High values of fat in milk for paneer making
would result in unnecessary economic loss to the paneer trade. Higher fat in milk
also results in lower moisture retention in paneer and, therefore, a loss in terms of
yield. Paneer of good quality can never hold moisture beyond 60 per cent and thus
the value of 70 per cent as the maximum limit for moisture in paneer as stipulated in
PFA standards appears to be too high.
Table 5.2. Effect of fat content of milk on paneer composition

Fat in milk Moisture Fat Protein Carbohydrates Ash FDM*


Per cent
5.5 54.6 22.2 18.9 2.5 1.9 48.7
5.8 54.1 23.5 18.2 2.4 1.8 51.2
6.0 53.2 24.9 17.9 2.3 1.7 53.4

• Fat on dry matter basis


iii. Heat treatment
The yield and total solids recovery increases with the increase in heating temperature
while solids in whey decreases. This is due to complex formation between whey
proteins and casein. At higher temperatures casein acts as a scavenger for serum
proteins, which are otherwise lost in whey. Temperatures beyond 90oC, however,
cause deposition of milk solids on the heating surface resulting in an overall solids
loss. Milk heated at 90oC without any holding, results in paneer with a total solids
recovery of about 66.0 per cent. The recovery does not increase appreciably on
holding the milk at 90oC and is, therefore, not required.
iv. Temperature of Coagulation
The moisture and yield of paneer decreases consistently with an increase in
temperature of coagulation as shown in table 5.3. The recovery of total solids increases
directly with the coagulation temperature while the solids loss in whey decreases.
The effect of coagulation temperature is conspicuous on the body and texture of
paneer. Coagulation at 60oC results in paneer with a very soft, loose and weak
body and also more loss of solids in whey. Coagulation temperatures higher than
70oC result in hard and dry paneer. Coagulation at 70oC produces desirable body
and texture characteristics in paneer.
Table 5.3. Effect of coagulation temperature on yield and solids recovery
of paneer

Coagulation Temp. oC Moisture Yield T.S. T.S. in


Recovery Whey
Per cent
60 59.5 22.8 59.9 6.2
70 55.1 21.7 63.0 6.0
80 49.9 20.1 65.3 5.9

8 90 48.8 20.0 66.3 5.8


v. pH of coagulation Definition, Composition,
Standards and Factors
The pH of coagulation affects the yield, solids recovery and quality of paneer. Paneer Affecting Quality of Paneer
and Chhana
obtained on coagulation above pH 5.4 is flat in flavour and has a soft, weak and
crumbly body. When coagulated at pH 5.1 paneer has a coarse flavour and a hard
body. The optimum solids recovery and sensory properties are obtained when the
pH of coagulation is in the range of 5.30 – 5.35. Approximately 2 gm of citric acid
is required per litre of milk for achieving the proper coagulation.
vi. Type and strength of coagulants
Strong solutions of citric acid result in paneer with acidic taste, hard body and higher
losses in whey. Dilute solutions (0.5 per cent) give slightly better solids recovery but
the volume of the coagulant required increases too much making handling difficult. A
solution of 1 per cent concentration is optimum for effective coagulation to get good
quality paneer. Certain non-conventional, low cost coagulants can also be used in
the manufacture of paneer without any loss of its yield and quality. These include
inorganic acids such as hydrochloric and phosphoric (0.6 per cent solutions) and
acidophilus whey. Hydrochloric acid is the most economical among the chemical
coagulants. The use of citric acid in partially soured whey instead of water reduces
the requirements of citric acid and increases the solids recovery without any loss of
paneer quality. Whey cultured with Lactobacillus acidophilus @ 2 per cent and
incubated overnight at 37oC can be effectively used as a substitute for citric acid.
vii. Method of Straining/ Pressing
The straining and pressing of coagulated mass affect the body and texture of paneer,
moisture retention and solids recovery in paneer. The coagulated mass should be
collected in fine cloth or hoop with fine cloth and gently pressed with appropriate
application of weight/pressure.
Check your Progress I
1) Define paneer. Give PFA standards for paneer.
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2) What is the gross chemical composition of paneer?
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3) Enlist the factors affecting the quality of paneer.
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4) What is the effect of temperature of coagulation on yield and solids recovery in
paneer?
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9
Paneer and Chhana ...................................................................................................................
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5) What is the effect of heat treatment given to milk on yield and solids recovery
in paneer?
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6) What is the effect of pH of coagulation of milk on paneer making?
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5.6 CHHANA
Chhana is an Indian traditional milk product formed by heat and acid coagulation of
milk followed by draining of whey. It is used as a base and filler for the preparation
of a large number of Bengali Sweets such as rasogulla, sandesh, rasmalai, cham-
cham, chhana-murki, rajbhog, etc. Its preparation is mainly confined to the cottage
sector, largely in the eastern parts of India, notably West Bengal, Bihar and Orissa,
and more recently, in Bikaner district of Rajasthan. However, chhana based sweets
are gaining popularity in other parts of country.

5.7 STANDARDS OF CHHANA


Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) Act does not differentiate between paneer
and chhana. The PFA Act terms chhana as a product obtained from cow or buffalo
milk or a combination thereof by precipitation with sour milk, lactic acid or citric
acid. It should contain not more than 70 per cent moisture and its milk fat content
should not be less than 50 per cent on the dry matter basis (Total solids). Milk solids
may also be used in preparation of this product.
Skim milk chhana is the product obtained from skim milk of cow or buffalo by
precipitation with sour milk, lactic acid or citric acid. It should contain not more than
70 per cent moisture, and its milk fat content should not exceed 13 per cent of the
dry matter.

5.8 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CHHANA


The chemical composition of chhana is influenced by the type of milk, fat level in
milk, temperature of heating, condition employed for coagulation of milk, draining of
whey and moisture content in the finished product. The amount of whey removed
and the fat loss in the whey indirectly affect the composition of chhana. A comparative
chemical composition of chhana made from cow and buffalo milk is presented in
table 5.4.

10
Table 5.4. Typical chemical composition of chhana Definition, Composition,
Standards and Factors
Affecting Quality of Paneer
Product pH Moisture Protein Fat Lactose Ash
and Chhana
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%)
Cow milk Chhana 5.7 53.4 17.4 24.8 2.2 2.1
Buffalo milk 5.4 51.7 14.4 29.7 2.3 1.9
Chhana

Production of chhana involves coagulation of casein along with entrapped fat and
colloidal and water soluble components of milk (in proportion to the serum retained
such as lactose, whey proteins, minerals and vitamins) by addition of a suitable
coagulant to hot milk, followed by draining of whey from the coagulated curd. Chhana
contains fairly high level of fat and proteins as well as some minerals. It is also a
good source of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. So, its nutritive value is fairly
high. Its nutritive value is further enhanced due to the entrapment of whey proteins
that are rich sources of essential amino acids. The nutritive value of chhana is presented
in table 5.5.
Table 5.5. Nutritive value chhana and casein

Parameter Chhana Casein

Biological value 88 --

Digestibility coefficient 92 --

PER value 3.1 2.8

NPU 71.5 83.5

NPR 5.25 4.55

Calorific value (kcal)/100g 250-280 --

5.9 FACTORS AFFECTING QUALITY OF


CHHANA
Cow milk is preferred for chhana making because it yields soft and spongy body
and smooth textured product, which is suitable for making chhana based sweets.
Buffalo milk, because of many inherent differences in physico-chemical make-up
than that of cow milk, poses, many technological problems in preparation of chhana
and chhana based sweets. The quality of chhana depends mainly on the initial
composition of milk, type and quality of milk, the conditions of coagulation, the
technique of straining/pressing and the losses of milk solids in the whey.
i. Type of Milk
Cow milk produces chhana with moist surface, light yellow colour, soft body, smooth
texture and mildly acidic flavour. Cow milk chhana is more suitable for Bengali
sweets preparation than buffalo milk chhana; the latter being hard in body and coarse
in texture, besides whitish in colour and a greasy surface. Sweets particularly rasogulla
prepared from buffalo milk chhana are comparatively hard, coarse and less spongy.
Goat milk can also be converted into acceptable quality chhana, which is suitable
for sweet preparation. 11
Paneer and Chhana ii. Quality of Milk
Minimum fat level of 4 per cent in cow milk and 5 percent in buffalo milk is necessary
for producing good quality chhana. The low fat milk results in a hard body and
coarse texture in chhana, whereas higher fat level is also not desirable as it produces
greasiness and stickiness in the chhana sweets. For manufacture of good quality
chhana sweet milk (fresh milk is the best suitable raw material, as developed acidity
or sour milk tends to produce too acidic flavour and bitter taste, which makes it
unsuitable for preparation of sweets). The addition of neutralizer to acidic milk,
however, helps in obtaining chhana which can be satisfactorily used for making
sandesh of an acceptable quality. The adulteration of milk with starch results in a
gelatinous mass on coagulation, which is undesirable for sweet making. The mixing
of colostrum in milk tends to produce a weak and pasty body and texture in the
coagulated mass, which exhibits its unsuitability for sweet making.
iii. Type and Strength of Coagulant
The body and texture of chhana is influenced by the conditions of coagulation such
as pH of coagulation, strength of coagulating solution, type of acid, speed with
which the milk is stirred during coagulation and temperature and time of coagulation.
In order to obtain desirable body and texture milk should be sufficiently heated to
near the boiling temperature for better protein-to-protein interaction. The optimum
pH of coagulation of milk is around 5.4 and the temperature of coagulation is about
82oC. The coagulation of milk should be effected within one minute with gentle
stirring. A satisfactory strength of the coagulating acid solution is 1-2 percent. Lactic
acid tends to produce a granular texture, which is desirable for rasogulla making,
whereas, citric acid tends to produce a pasty product, which is suitable for Sandesh
manufacture.
Generally organic acids like citric, lactic or their salts (calcium lactate), lemon juice
and sour whey are used as coagulants. Sour whey with about 0.9 percent acidity is
most widely used for chhana making. Calcium lactate is another commonly used
coagulant.
The concentration of coagulant solution is also an important factor which affects the
quality of chhana. Low acid strength (0.5 percent) results in very soft body and
smooth texture suitable for rasogulla but unsuitable for sandesh making, while high
acid strength (8 per cent) results in hard body and less smooth texture, suitable for
sandesh making but not for rasogulla. The optimum strength of coagulant solution
should be between 1 to 2 per cent citric acid or lactic acid to produce good quality
chhana suitable for making both kinds of sweets. To get a satisfactory quality chhana
from buffalo milk, 1 per cent citric acid solution or 0.5 per cent lactic acid solution is
recommended. Sour whey of 0.9 per cent acidity is suitable for chhana making. Six
per cent calcium lactate solution produces most satisfactory quality chhana.
The amount of coagulant required to achieve optimum coagulation depends upon
the type of milk as also on its acidity and buffering capacity. Usually, 2.5 to 3.5 g of
citric acid or 3.0 to 3.9 g of lactic acid per litre of milk is necessary for complete
coagulation. The requirement of acid is lower in case of buffalo milk. Nearly 600 ml
of sour whey is needed to produce suitable quality chhana from 1 litre of milk. The
quantity will largely depend upon the extent of acidity developed in the sour whey.
About 6 to 12 g of calcium lactate is required per kg of milk for coagulation, depending
on the coagulation temperature.

12
iv. Coagulation Temperature Definition, Composition,
Standards and Factors
Chhana of satisfactory quality from cow milk can be obtained at a coagulation Affecting Quality of Paneer
and Chhana
temperature of about 82oC. The optimum coagulation temperature for making chhana
from buffalo milk is around 50oC. The amount of coagulant required for completing
the coagulation of milk is increased with the lowering of coagulation temperature. As
the coagulation temperature decreases, the moisture retention in chhana increases
leading to its softer body and smoother texture.
v. pH of Coagulation
The optimum pH for chhana making from cow and buffalo milk is 5.4 and 5.7
respectively. The pH of coagulation principally regulates the moisture content and
the body and texture which are best obtained at the above pH. An optimum pH of
5.35 has been reported when making chhana from cow milk using calcium lactate as
coagulant. Higher speed of stirring during coagulation reduces the moisture content
in chhana and increases its hardness, whereas with lower speed the reverse holds
true. Slow stirring (40-50 rpm) is preferred to avoid foam formation.
vi. Method of Straining
The method of straining of coagulated mass effect the body and texture of paneer,
moisture retention and solids recovery in chhana. The coagulated mass should be
collected in fine cloth and hung to remove moisture.
In case of chhana external pressure is not applied for removal of moisture from the
coagulated mass. Method of straining is an important factor which affects the body
and texture of chhana by influencing the moisture retained in it. In general two types
of straining is employed viz. immediate or delayed. Immediate straining is carried
out by promptly gathering the coagulated mass and tying it up in a piece of fine cloth
and then hung up for draining out the whey and cooling the chhana. In case of
delayed straining process, the coagulated mass is left in the whey either as such or
loosely enclosed in a piece of cloth, so as to cool it to ambient temperature and
thereafter it is hung for removal of whey. The delayed straining results in more retention
of moisture in chhana as compared to immediate straining method. Delayed straining
produces a comparatively soft and smooth texture chhana than immediate straining.
Higher moisture, increased yield, improved recovery of milk solids and lower hardness
in chhana is obtained when delayed straining is employed. Chhana made by delayed
straining process is useful for rasogulla making and is particularly recommended for
buffalo milk chhana production.
Check Your Progress 2
1) Define chhana. What is the mode of utilization of Chhana?
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2) Write down the PFA standard for chhana.
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Paneer and Chhana 3) Give compositional differences of chhana made from cow and buffalo milk.
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4) Write down the nutritive value of chhana.
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5) Enlist the various factors affecting the quality of Chhana.
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6) What is the effect of quality of milk on chhana?
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7) What is the effect of temperature of coagulation on quality of chhana?
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8) How does method straining affect the quality of chhana?
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5.10 LET US SUM UP


The importance of milk and milk products in this country has been recognized since
Vedic times, and the variety of ways in which milk is used for the preparation of
indigenous products has developed more or less as an art. However, now a great
deal of work has been done to optimize various technological parameters for
manufacture of several traditional milk products employing scientific knowledge.
Paneer and chhana are two important nutritious and wholesome indigenous dairy
products, which occupy a prominent place among traditional milk products and
carry lot of market potential. These are of great value in diet because of rich source
of high quality proteins, fat, minerals and vitamins. Paneer is used as base material
for the preparation of a large number of culinary dishes and it is a popular food
product at the household level as well for increasing organized food chains. It is an
excellent match for non-vegetarian food. Chhana, on the other hand, is used as a
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base for preparation of a variety of sweets viz. rasogulla, sandesh, rasmalai, cham- Definition, Composition,
Standards and Factors
cham, chhana-murki, etc. (Bangali sweets) Affecting Quality of Paneer
and Chhana
Paneer refers to the milk product obtained by the acid coagulation of hot milk and
subsequent drainage of whey. The acids commonly used are citric, lactic, acetic,
etc. and sour whey or cultured whey can also be used for coagulation of milk. The
regulatory standards for paneer and chhana are identical. Paneer means the product
obtained from cow or buffalo milk or a combination thereof by precipitation with
sour milk, lactic acid or citric acid. It shall not contain more than 70.0 per cent
moisture, and milk fat content shall not be less than 50.0 per cent of the dry matter.
Skimmed milk paneer means the product obtained from cow or buffalo skimmed
milk by precipitation with sour milk, lactic acid or citric acid. It shall not contain
more than 70.0 percent moisture. The milk fat content of the product shall not exceed
13.0 percent of the dry matter.
Good quality paneer is characterized by a typical mild acidic flavour with a slightly
sweet taste. It has a firm, cohesive and spongy body and a closely knit, smooth
texture. Paneer is a highly nutritious and wholesome food. It is a rich source of milk
protein and milk fat and is one of the best methods of conserving milk solids in highly
concentrated form. Paneer is used as a base material for the preparation of large
number of culinary dishes. Paneer contains on an average approximately 54.0 per
cent moisture 17.5 per cent carbohydrates and 1.5 per cent minerals. The chemical
composition of paneer depends mainly on the type of milk, composition of milk, the
conditions of coagulation, the technique of straining/ pressing and the losses of milk
solids in the whey.
Chhana is an Indian traditional milk product formed by heat and acid coagulation of
milk followed by draining of whey. It is used as a base and filler for the preparation
of a large number of Bengali Sweets such as rasogulla, sandesh, rasmalai, cham-
cham, chhana-murki, rajbhog, etc.
According to the Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) Act chhana is a product
obtained from cow or buffalo milk or a combination thereof by precipitation with
sour milk, lactic acid or citric acid. It should contain not more than 70 per cent
moisture and its milk fat content should not be less than 50 per cent on the dry
matter basis (Total solids). Milk solids may also be used in preparation of this product.
Skim milk chhana is the product obtained from skim milk of cow or buffalo by
precipitation with sour milk, lactic acid or citric acid. It should contain not more than
70 per cent moisture, and its milk fat content should not exceed 13 per cent of the
dry matter.
The chemical composition of chhana is influenced by the type of milk, fat level in
milk, temperature of heating, condition employed for coagulation of milk, draining of
whey and moisture content in the finished product. Cow milk is preferred for chhana
making because it yields soft and spongy body and smooth textured product, which
is suitable for making chhana based sweets. Buffalo milk, because of many inherent
differences in physico-chemical make-up than that of cow milk, poses, many
technological problems in preparation of chhana and chhana based sweets. The
quality of chhana depends mainly on the initial composition of milk, type and quality
of milk, the conditions of coagulation, and the technique of straining/pressing and the
losses of milk solids in the whey.

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Paneer and Chhana
5.11 KEY WORDS
GRAS status : Generally recognized as safe; effect of
preservatives/ additives in food, milk or milk
products which are harmless.
Heat stability of milk : The time required to ensure coagulation in
milk; it is the relative resistance of milk to
coagulate during heat processing.
Biological Value (BV) : The biological value of a protein refers to the
how much of the nitrogen content of food is
retained by the body. Animal proteins have
biological values of 70 percent or higher, and
plant proteins have biological values of 50 to
70.
Net protein Utilization (NPU) : The net protein utilization, or NPU, is the ratio
of amino acid converted to proteins to the
ratio of amino acids supplied.
Experimentally, this value can be determined
by determining dietary protein intake and then
measuring nitrogen excretion. One formula for
NPU is:
NPU = [(0.16 x (24 hour protein intake in
grams)] – [(24 hour urinary urea nitrogen) +
2] – [0.1 x (ideal body weight in kilograms)]
[0.16 x (24 hour protein intake in grams)].
Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) : Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) is based on
the weight gain of a test subject divided by its
intake of a particular food protein during the
test period.
Calorific Value : The calories or thermal units contained in one
unit of a substance and released when the
substance is burned.
Net Protein Ratio (NPR) : The weight gain of a test animal plus weight
loss of a control animal per gram of protein
consumed.
Digestible Energy (DE) : That portion of energy of a feed that can be
digested or absorbed into the body by an
animal.
Digestible Protein (DP) : The amount of protein of feed that is absorbed
by the digestive tract; it may be computed
using the formula: Percent DP = percent crude
protein of feed x digestion coefficient for
protein in the feed.
Digestibility : That percentage of food ingested, which is
absorbed into the body as opposed to that
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which is excreted as feces.
Digestion coefficient : The digestion coefficient of feed ingredients Definition, Composition,
Standards and Factors
(DCFI) may be calculated using the formula: Affecting Quality of Paneer
Wt. Of ingredient consumed – Wt. Have and Chhana
undigested ingredient in feces. DCFI = St. of
ingredient consumed x 100.

5.12 SOME USEFUL BOOKS


Anantakrishnan, C.P. and Srinivasan, M.R. (1964). Milk Products of India, ICAR
Publications. New Delhi.
Aneja, R.P., Mathur, B.N., Chandan, R.C. and Banerjee, A.K. (2002). Technology
of Indian Milk Products. A Dairy India Publications, Delhi.
De, S. (1980). Outlines of Dairy Technology. Oxford University Press, New Delhi.
Rangappa, K.S. and Achayya, K.T. (1974). Indian Dairy Products. Asia Publishing
House, New Delhi.

5.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS


Check Your Progress 1
1) i. Paneer is a heat and acid coagulated milk product.
ii. According to PFA (1976), paneer means the product obtained from cow
or buffalo milk or a combination thereof by precipitation with sour milk,
lactic acid, or citric acid. It shall not contain more than 70.0 per cent
moisture, and milk fat content shall not be less than 50.0 percent of the
dry matter.
2) Paneer contains on average approximately 54.0 per cent moisture, 24 per cent
milk fat, 17.0 percent protein, 2.0 percent lactose and 1.5 percent ash.
3) The following factors affect the quality of paneer: (i) type and quality of milk,
(ii) processing conditions such as extent of heat treatment given to milk,
temperature of coagulation, type and quantity of coagulants, temperature of
coagulation, pH of coagulation, method of straining and pressing, and (iii) the
losses of milk solids in the whey.
4) The moisture and yield of paneer decreases with an increase in temperature of
coagulation. The increase in recovery of total solids is directly related with the
coagulation temperature while the solids loss in whey decreases as temperature
of coagulation increases.
5) The yield and total solids recovery increases with the increase in heating
temperature while solids in whey decreases. This is due to complexing of whey
proteins with casein. At higher temperatures casein acts as a scavenger for
serum proteins which are otherwise lost in whey.
6) The pH of coagulation affects the yield, solids recovery and quality of paneer.
Paneer obtained on coagulation of milk above pH 5.4 results in flat flavour
soft, weak and crumbly body. When coagulated below pH 5.2 paneer has
hard and coarse body and texture. The optimum solids recovery and sensory
properties are obtained when the pH of coagulation is in the range of 5.30 –
5.35.
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Paneer and Chhana Check Your Progress 2
1) i. Chhana is an Indian traditional milk product formed by heat and acid
coagulation of milk followed by draining of whey.
ii. It is used as a base material or filler for the preparation of a large number
of sweets such as rasogulla, sandesh, rasmalai, cham-cham, rajbhog,
chhana murki.
2) According to PFA Act, chhana is a product obtained from cow or buffalo milk
or a combination thereof by precipitation with sour milk, lactic acid; or citric
acid. It should contain not more than 70 percent moisture and its mik fat content
should not be less than 50 percent on the dry matter basis.
3) i. The moisture, protein, fat, lactose and ash content in cow milk chhana are
53.4, 17.4, 24.8, 2.2 and 2.1 percent, respectively.
ii. Buffalo milk chhana contains an average of 51.7 percent moisture, 14.4
percent protein, 29.7 percent fat, 2.3 percent lactose and 1.9 percent
ash.
4) The nutritive value of chhana in terms of biological value, digestibility coefficient,
PER value, NPU, NPR and calorific value are 99, 92, 3.1, 71.5, 5.25 and
1300-1700, respectively.
5) The factors which affect the quality of chhana are type and quality of milk, type
and strength of coagulants, coagulation temperature, pH of coagulation, and
method of straining.
6) For manufacture of good quality chhana, fresh cow milk is highly suitable raw
material. It gives desirable flavour, body and texture characteristics. A minimum
fat level of 4 percent in cow milk and 5 percent in buffalo milk is necessary for
producing good quality chhana and chhana based sweets. The low fat milk
results in a hard body and coarse texture in chhana, whereas high fat level
yields greasiness and stickiness in product. The high acidic or sour milk and
adulterated milk is also not desirable for chhana making.
7) The temperature of coagulation is one of the important steps in chhana making.
A temperature of 70oC is found to produce satisfactory chhana from cow milk.
The optimum coagulation temperature for making chhana from buffalo milk is
50oC. The higher temperature of coagulation produces hard and coarse chhana,
whereas lower temperature results in very soft and weak body and texture,
which is unsuitable for preparation of sweets.
8) Method of straining is an important factor, which affects the body and texture
of the chhana by influencing the moisture retention in the product. In general
two methods of straining are employed viz. immediate and delayed. In case of
immediate straining the coagulated mass is collected in a muslin cloth and hanged
immediately for draining of whey. Whereas in case of delayed straining, the
coagulated mass is collected in a piece of muslin cloth, cooled to ambient
temperature and thereafter it is hanged for draining of complete whey. Delayed
straining produces a comparatively soft and smooth body and texture, higher
yield, more moisture and total solids retention as compared to immediate
straining.

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