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PETROLEUM ENGINEERING 411
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Presentation on theme: "PETROLEUM ENGINEERING 411"—


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PowerPoint Slides
1 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING 411
Oil and Gas Petroleum Lesson 2A
Drilling Systems
Drilling Rigs
Drilling a Well
2 Homework Read ADE to p. 21 Learn the De nitions in Lesson 2B
ADE # 1.1, 1.2, (on the internet)
due Monday, September 8, 2003
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

3 Rotary Drilling CHAPTER 1 (ADE) Drilling Team Drilling Rigs


Rig Power System
Hoisting System
Circulating System . . .
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

4 Rotary Drilling - cont’d


The Rotary System
The Well Control System
Well-Monitoring System
Special Marine Equipment
Drilling Cost Analysis
Examples
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

5 From the Houston Chronicle, August 2001, 2002 and 2003


The Rig Count
From the Houston Chronicle, August 2001, 2002 and 2003
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

6 From the Houston Chronicle, Sunday, September 1, 2002


2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

7 From the Houston Chronicle, Sunday, August 31, 2003


2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

8 Noble Drilling’s Cecil Forbes A Jack-Up Rig


2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

9 Sonat’s George Washington A Semi-Submersible Rig


2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling
10 Zapata’s Trader A Drillship
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

11 FLOATING PRODUCTION SYSTEMS


Deep Water Development Options
SUBSEA COMPLETIONS
FIXED PLATFORMS
COMPLIANT TOWERS
FLOATING PRODUCTION SYSTEMS
TENSION LEG PLATFORMS
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

12 2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well


PETE 411 Well Drilling

13 TENSION LEG PLATFORM


2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

14 Shell’s Auger Tension Leg Platform


2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

15 Shell’s Bullwinkle World’s tallest o shore structure 1,353’ water


depth Production began in ,000 b/d 80MM scf/d
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

16 To TENSIONERS SLIP JOINT MARINE RISER GUIDE LINES BOP


STACK GUIDE BASE
MUDLINE
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

17 Fig. 1.3 - Typical drilling rig organization


2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

18 Fig. 1.4 The rotary drilling process


2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

19 Fig. 1.5 Classi cation of rotary drilling rigs


2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

20 Fig. 1.13 Engine power output


P=F.V
Power = Force * Velocity
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

21 TABLE 1.1 - HEATING VALUE OF VARIOUS FUELS


2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

22 Solution: The angular velocity, w , is given by


Example 1.1. A diesel engine gives an output torque of 1,740 ft-lbf at an
engine speed of 1,200 rpm. If the fuel consumption rate was 31.5 gal/hr,
what is the output power and overall e ciency of the engine?
Solution: The angular velocity, w , is given by
w = 2p (1,200) = 7,539.8 rad/min.)
The power output can be computed using Eq.1.1
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

23 Since the fuel type is diesel, the density is 7.2


lbm/gal and the heating value H is 19,000 Btu/lbm (Table 1.1). Thus, the fuel
consumption rate w f is:
wf = 3.78 lbm/min.
The total heat energy consumed by the engine is given by Eq. 1.2:
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

24 E ciency = (Power Out / Power in)


Qi = w f H
Thus, the overall e ciency of the engine at 1,200
rpm given by Eq. 1.3 is
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

25 Drilling a Well Steps in Drilling a Well Duties of Drilling Engineer


Making a Connection
Making a Trip
Rig Selection Criteria
Derrick Loading
De nitions (Lesson 2B) (separate)
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

26 Steps to Drill A Gas/Oil Well


1. Complete or obtain seismic, log, scouting information or other data.
2. Lease the land or obtain concession.
3. Calculate reserves or estimate from best data available.
4. If reserve estimates show payout, proceed with well.
5. Obtain permits from conservation/ national authority.
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

27 Steps to Drill a Well - cont’d


6. Prepare drilling and completion program.
7. Ask for bids on footage, day work, or combination from selected drilling
contractors based on drilling program.
8. If necessary, modify program to t selected contractor equipment.
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

28 Steps to Drill a Well - cont’d


9. Construct road, location/platforms and other marine equipment necessary
for access to site.
10. Gather all personnel concerned for meeting prior to commencing drilling
(pre-spud meeting)
11. If necessary, further modify program.
12. Drill well.
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

29 Steps to Drill a Well - cont’d


13. Move o contractor if workover unit is to complete the well.
14. Complete well.
15. Install surface facilities.
16. Analysis of operations with concerned personnel.
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

30 Drilling Operations Field Engineers, Drilling Foremen


A. Well planning prior to SPUD
B. Monitor drilling operations
C. After drilling, review drilling results and recommend future improvements
- prepare report.
D. General duties.
What are the well requirements?
Objectives, safety, cost
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

31 Making a Connection Making a Trip


2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

32 Making a mouse hole connection


2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

33 Making a mouse hole connection - cont’d


Moving Kelly to Single in Mousehole
Single Added. Ready to Drill
Stabbing the Pipe
Making a mouse hole connection - cont’d
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

34 Making a trip Why trip? Use Elevators for Put Kelly in Rathole
tripping
Put Kelly in Rathole
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

35 Tripping one stand at a time


60-90 ft
Making a trip - cont’d
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

36 Criteria for determining depth limitation


Derrick
Drawworks
Mud Pumps
Drillstring
Mud System
Blowout Preventer
Power Plant
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

37 LD = 2W (no friction in sheave)


TW
WW
2W
FIG 1-1 Simple Pulley System
T=W
LD = 2W (no friction in sheave)
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

38 W = 4 T T = W/4 LD = 6 T = 6 W/4 n = number of lines W = weight


(hook load)
LD = load on derrick
FIG 1-2 Block and Tackle System
Assuming no friction
W = 4 T T = W/4
LD = 6 T = 6 W/4
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

39 Example 1.1 (no friction)


The total weight of 9,000 ft of 9 5/8-inch casing for a deep well is determined
to be 400,000 lbs. Since this will be the heaviest casing string run, the
maximum mast load must be calculated. Assuming that 10 lines run between
the crown and the traveling blocks and neglecting buoyancy e ects, calculate
the maximum load.
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

40 Solution:
The tension, T, will be distributed equally between the 10 lines. Therefore,
T = 400,000/10 = 40,000 lbf
The tension in the fast line and dead line will also be 40,000 lbf, so the total
load is
40,000 X 12 = 480,000 lbf
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

41 Solution, cont. Example 1.1 demonstrates two additional points.


1. The marginal decrease in mast load decreases with additional lines.
2. The total mast load is always greater than the load being lifted.
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling
42 A Rotary Rig Hoisting System
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

43 Projection of Drilling Lines on Rig Floor


TOTAL
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

44 Load on Derrick (considering friction in sheaves)


Derrick Load = Hook Load
+ Fast Line Load
+ Dead Line Load
Fd = W + Ff + Fs×
E = overall e ciency, e.g., E = en = 0.98n
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

45 Example 1.2
A rig must hoist a load of 300,000 lbf. The drawworks can provide an input
power to the block and tackle system as high as 500 hp. Eight lines are
strung between the crown block and traveling block. Calculate
1. The static tension in the fast line when upward motion is impending,
2. the maximum hook horsepower available,
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

46 Example 1.2, cont. 3. the maximum hoisting speed,


4. the actual derrick load,
5. the maximum equivalent derrick load, and,
6. the derrick e ciency factor.
Assume that the rig oor is arranged as shown in Fig
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

47 Solution
1. The power e ciency for n = 8 is given as in Table 1.2. The tension in the
fast line is given by Eq. 1.7.
Tension in the Fast Line,
(=)
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

48 Solution 2. The maximum hook horsepower available is


Ph = E·pi = 0.841(500) = hp.
2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

49 Solution 3. The maximum hoisting speed is given by


2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

50 Solution to 3., cont. To pull a 90-ft stand would require


2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

51 Solution 4. The actual derrick load is given by Eq.1.8b:


2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

52 Solution 5. The maximum equivalent load is given by Eq.1.9:


2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

53 Solution 6. The derrick e ciency factor is:


2A. Rigs, Drilling a Well
PETE 411 Well Drilling

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