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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijpvp

Effect of the weld groove shape and pass number on residual stresses

in butt-welded pipes

I. Sattari-Far*, M.R. Farahani

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: This study used ﬁnite element techniques to analyze the thermo-mechanical behaviour and residual

Received 7 August 2008 stresses in butt-welded pipes. The residual stresses were also measured in some welds by using the Hole-

Received in revised form Drilling method. The results of the ﬁnite element analysis were compared with experimentally measured

11 May 2009

data to evaluate the accuracy of the ﬁnite element modelling. Based on this study, a ﬁnite element

Accepted 15 July 2009

modelling procedure with reasonable accuracy was developed. The developed FE modelling was used to

study the effects of weld groove shape and weld pass number on welding residual stresses in butt-

Keywords:

welded pipes. The hoop and axial residual stresses in pipe joints of 6 and 10 mm thickness of different

Residual stresses

Elasto-plastic analysis groove shapes and pass number were studied. It is shown that these two parameters may have signif-

Groove shape icant effects on magnitude and distribution of residual stresses in welded pipes.

Pass number Ó 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Butt weld

Finite element method

complexity of problem, the analytical methods are normally used

As a consequence of the non-uniform temperature distribution for simple geometries, and the experimental methods are costly to

during welding, part of the material close to the weld joint is use. However, by advancing in computer technology (soft- and

subjected to different rates of expansion and contraction. This hard-wares), it is now possible to use numerical techniques, like

develops a three-dimensional complex residual stress state in the ﬁnite element methods, to satisfactorily calculate (estimate) the

welded object. Welding residual stresses in welded structures are residual stresses in welded structures.

affected by several parameters and their interactions [1]. In Brickstad and Josefson employed two-dimensional axissym-

particular, the structural and material factors and welding param- metric models to numerically simulate multi-pass circumferential

eters impact signiﬁcantly. The structural factors include the type of butt-welds of stainless steel pipes up to 40 mm thick in a non-linear

geometry and sizes, the type of weld joint and weld groove shape. thermo-mechanical ﬁnite element analysis [4]. Mochizuki et al.

Among the material factors, the mechanical and physical properties used inherent strain analysis and thermo-elastic–plastic analysis to

of the parent and ﬁller materials are important to be considered. predict residual stresses in carbon steel pipes, and they veriﬁed

Welding process parameters include among other things, type of their numerical models using neutron diffraction measurement [5].

the process employed, welding current, welding voltage and arc Mohr estimated internal surface residual stresses in girth butt-

travelling speed [2]. welded steel pipes [6]. Michaleris computed residual stresses for

Welding residual stresses may enhance occurrence of brittle circumferential girth welds on thin and thick walled pipes for

fracture, fatigue, structural buckling and stress-cracking-corrosion single-V type weld joints using thermo-elastic–plastic analyses [7].

(SCC) [3]. Therefore, correct estimating of the magnitude and Jiang and co-workers used a three-dimensional FE model to predict

distribution of welding residual stresses and evaluation of their temperature distributions in a multi-pass welded piping branch

effects are important in structural integrity assessments of welded junction [8]. Deng and Murakawa simulated the temperature ﬁeld

structures. Many investigators have developed analytical and and residual stress in multi-pass welds in stainless steel pipes by 2-

D and 3-D ﬁnite element models and compared their results with

experimental measurements [9]. It should be noted that in the most

* Corresponding author. Tel.: þ98 21 64543426; fax: þ98 21 6641 9736. published studies only the joints with the V-groove shape are

E-mail address: sattari@aut.ac.ir (I. Sattari-Far). investigated. Veiga et al. studied experimentally the effect of the

0308-0161/$ – see front matter Ó 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.ijpvp.2009.07.007

724 I. Sattari-Far, M.R. Farahani / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 86 (2009) 723–731

weld groove shape on welding residual stress in but welded plate temperature of the radiation heat source. The radiation heat

[10]. Furthermore, there are very limited studies on the effect of transfer coefﬁcient is expressed as:

weld pass number on welding residual stresses independent from

others geometrical and welding parameters. hr ¼ seF T 2 þ Tr2 ðT þ Tr Þ (6)

In this work, the development of welding residual stresses in

steel pipes is studied by using 3-D ﬁnite element method (FEM). where s is the Stefan–Boltzmann constant, e is the effective emis-

The FEM results are compared with experimentally measured data sivity and F is a conﬁguration factor.

obtained from the hole-drilling method. Then, effects of the weld Solving Eq. (3) by considering the boundary conditions

groove shape on magnitude and distributions of residual stresses expressed in Eqs. (4) and (5) gives the temperature distribution in

are studied. The most common weld groove shapes of, V-groove, the body. This temperature ﬁeld will then be applied to the

X-groove and U-groove types are studied here. In addition, effects mechanical model to calculate the welding residual stresses and

of weld pass number on welding residual stresses are studied by strains (distortions).

models considering three different pass numbers. In each study

other impacting parameters are kept ﬁx. 2.2. Elasto-plastic mechanical analysis

2. Theoretical aspects The equilibrium and constitutive equations used here in con-

ducting the mechanical analysis are as follow [11].

Welding residual stresses are calculated here by using ﬁnite

element method. Theoretical considerations of the thermal and Equilibrium equations:

mechanical analyses are brieﬂy described below.

sij; j þ rbi ¼ 0 (7)

2.1. Transient thermal analysis Here, sij is the stress tensor and bi is the body force. It is assumed

that the stress tensor is symmetrical, i.e. sij ¼ sji.

When a volume is bounded by an arbitrary surface, the balance

relation of the heat ﬂow is expressed by: Constitutive equations:

vRx vRy vRz vTðx; y; z; tÞ The thermal elasto-plastic material model, based on the von

þ þ þ Q ðx; y; z; tÞ ¼ rC (1)

vx vy vz vt Mises yield criterion and the isotropic strain hardening rule, is

considered. Stress–strain relations are expressed as:

where Rx, Ry and Rz are the rates of heat ﬂow per unit area, T(x,y,z) is

the current temperature, Q(x,y,z) is the rate of internal heat h i

generation, r is the density, C is the speciﬁc heat and t is the time. ½ds ¼ Dep ½d3 C th dT (8a)

The model can then be completed by introducing the Fourier heat

ep

ﬂow as D ¼ De þ Dp (8b)

vT e p

where [D ] is the elastic stiffness matrix, [D ] is the plastic stiffness

Rx ¼ kx (2a)

vx matrix, [Cth] is the thermal stiffness matrix, ds is the stress incre-

ment, d3 is the strain increment and dT is the temperature

vT increment.

Ry ¼ ky (2b)

vy Since thermal elasto-plastic analysis is a non-linear problem, the

incremental calculation technique is employed here in solving the

vT problem. The incremental stress is obtained by using the full

Rz ¼ kz (2c) Newton–Raphson method [1].

vz

where kx, ky and kz are the thermal conductivities in the x, y and z 3. Experimental investigation

directions, respectively. Generally, the material parameters kx, ky, kz,

r and C are temperature dependent. Inserting Eq. (2) into Eq. (1) Experimental tests were conducted to collect data on residual

yields: stresses on the outside surfaces of butt-welded pipes. The experi-

mental results were used to verify the ﬁnite element model.

v vT v vT v vT vT

kx þ ky þ kz þ Q ¼ rC (3)

vx vx vy vy vz vz vt

3.1. Specimen preparation

Eq. (3) is the governing differential equation of the problem. The

general solution is obtained by applying the following initial and Two pipes, with outer diameter of 320 mm, thickness of 10 mm

boundary conditions: and length of 500 mm were prepared with V-grooved edges and

ﬁtted by using six equal-distance tack welds from the start point of

Tðx; y; z; 0Þ ¼ T0 ðx; y; zÞ (4) welding. Dimensions of the weld preparation are shown in Fig. 3.

Annealing was carried out to relieve initial residual stresses in pipes

vT vT vT before welding.

kx Nx þky Ny þ kz Nz þ qs

vx vy vz Welds were carried out in a robotic TIG welding system with

þ hc ðT TN Þ þ hr ðT Tr Þ ¼ 0 ð5Þ advanced control system. This system controls the Power source,

Gripper chuck, Torch driving vehicle, Inert gas supplier and Auto-

where Nx, Ny and Nz are the direction cosines of the outward drawn matic wire feeder simultaneously. The schematic view of this

normal to the boundary, hc is the convection heat transfer coefﬁ- automatic circumferential welding system is shown in Fig. 1. Three

cient, hr is the radiation heat transfer coefﬁcient, qs is the boundary weld beads were deposited to complete the weld and then one

heat ﬂux, TN is the surrounding temperature and Tr is the pass without ﬁller used to make a uniform weld surface. Argon

I. Sattari-Far, M.R. Farahani / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 86 (2009) 723–731 725

Fig. 1. Automatic circumferential welding system used in this study. technique and recommended data analysis method in this standard

are used.

After measuring the released strains by a strain indicator, the

with high purity was used as the shielding gas during welding. stresses in the axial and hoop directions are calculated according

Welding by this automatic welding system provided good accuracy to the following equations, based on the ASTM E837-92

in determining the welding parameters that should be used in the standard:

ﬁnite element welding simulation. These parameters for each pass

are given in Table 1. The material used here is AISI 304 stainless sx ¼ E 3x þ n3y 1 n2 (9)

steel. Its thermal and mechanical properties in different temper-

atures are illustrated in Fig. 2 from Ref. [9]. The Young’s modulus

and yield strength of the base metal are measured at room sy ¼ E 3y þ n3x 1 n2 (10)

temperature. They are close to data given in Ref. [9]. The other

material properties are assumed to be the same as given in where 3x and 3y are the released strain in the circumferential and

reference [9]. axial directions, respectively. E is Young’s modulus, and y is Pois-

The ﬁller metal was of type 309 stainless steel, but in FEM son’s ratio. Effect of plasticity is accounted in the stress calculations

modelling its thermal and mechanical properties were assumed to according to a work performed by Moharami and Sattari-Far [15].

be the same as for the base metal. Measuring the residual stresses by hole-drilling method is shown

in Fig. 4.

3.2. Measurement of residual stresses

technique for measuring residual stress. Reference [12] discusses in

details the application of this method and calculating residual

stresses.

The stress measurements were made in eleven points at outer

surface of the pipes. These points are located on a straight line

along the axial direction of the pipe, as shown in Fig. 3. Strain

gauges of the rosette type were mounted on the pipe at the selected

points to measure the released strains after drilling in the centre

point of the gauges by a very high-speed drill. As the welded pipe

was symmetric with respect to the weld, only the stresses in one

half of the pipe were measured. Surface preparation technique was

Table 1

Welding parameters for each pass.

No (volt) Speed (cm/min) (cm/min) Welding (s)

1 ER 310 295 5 17 16 85 1590

2 ER 310 295 5 17 14 70 215

3 ER 310 265 5 20 12 115 270

4 Without 265 5 20 12 – –

ﬁller

Fig. 3. Dimensional details of the pipe specimens used in this study.

726 I. Sattari-Far, M.R. Farahani / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 86 (2009) 723–731

200

theta=0

150

theta=90

100

theta=180

50 theta=270

0

0 20 40 60 80 100

-50

-100

-150

-200

Distance from the weld center line (mm)

Fig. 6. Distribution of the hoop residual stress in the axial direction on the outer

surface of the pipe.

stresses.

The FEM model in this study adopts the technique of element

birth and death to simulate the deposit ﬁlling during the welding.

This technique activates or deactivates elements during the anal-

ysis. In this method, elements were deactivated by multiplying

their stiffness by a severe reduction factor. Although zeroed out of

Fig. 4. Hole drilling measuring system.

the load vector, element loads associated with deactivated

elements still appear in element-load lists. Similarly, mass, damp-

4. Finite element calculations ing, speciﬁc heat, and other such effects are set to zero for deacti-

vated elements.

4.1. Welding simulation The weldment is assumed to be symmetric in the axial direction,

so only one half of the body is needed to be modeled. Fig. 5 shows

Welding residual stresses are calculated here by using 3-D the ﬁnite element mesh for the welded joint used in these analyses.

thermal and mechanical ﬁnite element method. The problem is All of the welding parameters, boundary conditions and cycle

considered as an uncoupled problem. This means that ﬁrst time of each pass in both thermal and mechanical models are

a thermal analysis is conducted to determine the temperature selected to be the same as those used in the specimen preparation.

history in the body, and then the temperature results are applied

calculated from the thermal model. The ﬁrst order elements were

used in the thermal analysis. The heat from the moving welding arc

150

100

50

Axial Stress (Mpa)

0

0 20 40 60 80 100

-50

theta=0

-100

theta=90

-150

theta=180

-200 theta=270

-250

-300

Distance from the weld center line (mm)

Fig. 7. Distribution of the axial residual stress in the axial direction on the outer

Fig. 5. Finite element mesh used for the analysis of butt-welded joints. surface of the pipe.

I. Sattari-Far, M.R. Farahani / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 86 (2009) 723–731 727

proposed by Goldak et al. [13]. Ratio of heat ﬂux in each weld metal

150

nodes was calculated by Goldak equation and then the total heat

EXP FEM

input was distributed on those nodes by the calculated ratio. The

100

Goldak equation is expressed by the following form:

For the front heat source: 50

pﬃﬃﬃ 0

6 3ff Q ð3x2 =a2 Þ ð3y2 =b2 Þ ð3x2 =c2 Þ 0 20 40 60 80 100

qf ¼ pﬃﬃﬃ e e e (11a)

abcf p p -50

pﬃﬃﬃ

6 3fr Q ð3x2 =a2 Þ ð3y2 =b2 Þ ð3z2 =c2 Þ -150

qr ¼ pﬃﬃﬃ e e e (11b)

abcr p p

-200

where x, y and z are the local coordinates of the double ellipsoid Distance from the weld center line (mm)

model aligned with the welded pipe; ff and fr are parameters which

Fig. 8. Experimental and FEM results of the hoop residual stresses on the outer surface

give the fraction of the heat deposited in the front and rear parts,

of the studied pipe.

respectively. Here it is assumed that ff is 1.5 and fr is 0.5. This is based

on the fact that the temperature gradient in the front leading part is

steeper than in the tailing edge. Q is the power of the welding heat

source. It can be calculated by knowing the welding current and 4.3. Mechanical analysis

voltage and considering the arc efﬁciency. The robotic welding used

in this study gave precise recording of these parameters during In the mechanical analysis, the temperature history obtained

welding. The arc efﬁciency of the TIG welding process is assumed to from the thermal analysis is input into the structural analysis as

be 70% according to the catalogue of the welding machine used. a thermal loading. Thermal strains and stresses are then calculated

The parameters a, b and c in Eq. (11a,11b) are related to the at each time increment. First order elements were used in a non-

characteristics of the welding heat source. These parameters are linear large displacement mechanical analysis. It is assumed that no

adjusted to create a desired melted zone according to the welding solid-state phase transformation occurs for stainless steels. During

conditions in each model. The moving heat source is modeled by the welding process, the total strain rate can be decomposed into

a user subroutine in the ANSYS code. three components as follows:

In ANSYS, latent heats of phase changes in thermal analysis can

be handled using thermal enthalpy method. In this paper, equiva- 3 ¼ 3e þ 3p þ 3th (14)

lent speciﬁc heat method is adopted to deal with latent heat. The components on the right hand side of Eq. (14) correspond to

Enthalpy can be expressed as: elastic strain, plastic strain and thermal strain, respectively.

Z The welding residual stresses and strains (distortions) are the

H ¼ r cðTÞdT (12) accumulated results at the ﬁnal stage of the calculation, when the

whole model is cooled down. The materials are assumed to follow

The temperature difference of solid phase and liquid phase is DT, the von Mises yield criterion and ﬂow rule. Isotropic bilinear strain

so the equivalent speciﬁc heat is considered to be C* ¼ H/rDT, as hardening is assumed in the calculations.

proposed in Ref. [14]. The equivalent speciﬁc heat is assumed By studying the development of stresses in the whole model, it

a constant in the region between solid phase and liquid phase. is observed that the stresses at the start point of the weld and its

The thermal boundary conditions include the radiation and vicinity are different from the other locations. In Figs. 6 and 7,

convection to the environment from all sides of the welded pipe distributions of the hoop and axial residual stresses in the axial

except the symmetry surface and the area upon which the heat is

applied. Radiation losses are dominating for higher temperatures

near and in the weld zone, and convection losses for lower 150

temperatures away from the weld zone. A user subroutine was

100

developed to simulate the combined thermal boundary condition.

The total temperature-dependent heat transfer (w/m2) coefﬁcient 50

is given by [4].

Axial Stress (Mpa)

0

0 20 40 60 80 100

ah ¼ 0:0668T for 0 < T 500

(13) -50

ah ¼ 0:231T 82:1 for T > 500

-100

where T ( C) is the temperature. Above the melting point, the

thermal conductivity is assumed to be doubled to simulate the -150 EXP FEM

convective stirring effect in a molten material [14].

-200

By comparing the temperature versus time at different points in

the circumferential direction (q ¼ 90 , 180 , 270 ) and the same -250

distance from the weld centre line on the inner surface, it could be

-300

concluded that the temperature ﬁled was very steady when the

Distance from the weld center line (mm)

welding torch was moving around the pipe. From this analysis it

was observed that the maximum temperature at the weld pool was Fig. 9. Experimental and FEM results of the axial residual stresses on the outer surface

around 2000 C. of the studied pipe.

728 I. Sattari-Far, M.R. Farahani / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 86 (2009) 723–731

300

250 V

200

X1

150

U

100

X2

Fig. 10. Schematics of three different weld groove shapes studied here. 50

from the start point of the weld. When q is 0 , the hoop residual 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

stresses in the weld zone are slightly lower than other three angles. -50

The axial residual stresses in this zone are more compressive than

others. -100

Distance from the weld center line (mm)

Except the location around the start point of the weld, the

stresses along the circumferential direction have almost similar Fig. 12. Distribution of the axial residual stress in the axial direction on the inner

distributions. Thus, the experimental measurements of welding surface of the 10-mm pipes in the four-pass weld.

residual stresses are conducted at points with circumferential angle

q of180 from the start point of the weld.

The diameter and length of the pipes in all models are the same

and equal to 300 mm and 500 mm, respectively, using the same

4.4. Veriﬁcation of FEM modelling

material properties in all analyses. Heat input magnitude for each

pass was adjusted to get a melted zone similar to the expected

Residual stresses in butt-welded pipes are developed mainly

form, as shown in Fig. 3.

from circumferential expansions and contractions during the

welding process. Along the weld line, a high tensile residual stress

arises near the weld toes, and then decreases as distance from the

weld line increases. As the residual stresses in a body are self- 5.1. 6-mm thick pipe model

balancing, the distribution of the stresses becomes compressive

away from the weld zone. A welded pipe of 6 mm thickness was studied with three

To verify the result of ﬁnite element simulation, a FE model with different groove shapes, as shown in Fig. 10. The pipes are welded in

same geometrical, material and welding parameters with those two passes. Because the thickness of the pipe is relatively small

used in the specimen preparation is generated. Figs. 8 and 9 show (6 mm), the inside surface near the weld zone can reach a very high

the hoop and axial stresses on the outside surface along the axial temperature (>1000 C) when the outside is welded. Thus, the

direction obtained from the FE analysis and the experimental plastic deformation is prone to produce in the whole cross-section

measurements. It is observed that the predicted results from the FE in the weld zone and its vicinity during the second pass welding.

analysis are in relatively good agreement with the experimental During the cooling, because the weld zone and its vicinity shrink,

measurements. the diameters in this part become smaller, and a bending moment

is generated due to the deformation. Therefore, a tensile axial stress

5. Study of weld groove shape is produced on the inside surface, and compressive axial stress on

the outside surface.

Three weld groove shapes of type V-groove, X-groove and As a result of comparison between the axial residual stresses of

U-groove are studied here. The effect of groove shape is studied for these three groove shapes at the inner and outer surfaces of the

two different thicknesses of 6 mm and 10 mm. pipes, it is observed that, in general, the weld groove shape in these

350 200

V V

300

X1 150 X1

250

200 U 100 U

Hoop Stress (Mpa)

150

X2 50 X2

100

0

50

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

0 -50

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

-50

-100

-100

-150 -150

Distance from the weld center line (mm) Distance from the weld center line (mm)

Fig. 11. Distribution of the hoop residual stress in the axial direction on the inner Fig. 13. Distribution of the hoop residual stress in the axial direction on the outer

surface of the 10-mm pipes in the four-pass weld. surface of the 10-mm pipes in the four-pass weld.

I. Sattari-Far, M.R. Farahani / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 86 (2009) 723–731 729

100 350

V

50

250

X1

0

Axial Stress (Mpa)

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 150 U

-50

V X2

50

-100

X1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

-50

-150

U

-200 -150

X2

-250 -250

Distance from the weld center line (mm) L (mm)

Fig. 14. Distribution of the axial residual stress in the axial direction on the outer Fig. 16. Distribution of the axial residual stresses through the wall thickness of the 10-

surface of the 10-mm pipes in the four-pass weld. mm pipes in the four-pass weld.

6-mm thick welded pipes has no signiﬁcant effect on the magni- weld centre line, the hoop stresses at the other points are lower

tude of the hoop residual stresses. than the V and U models.

Figs. 15 and 16 show a comparison between the hoop and axial

residual stresses through wall thickness of the 10-mm pipe at the

5.2. 10-mm Thick pipe model weld centre line in the four-pass weld. The magnitudes of residual

stresses in the middle of pipe thickness for the X2 and V models are

In these models two pipes with 10 mm thickness were studied the minimum and maximum, respectively. The axial residual

with three different groove shapes that are schematically shown in stresses in this region are tensile for the V models, while they are

Fig. 10. These joints were welded in four passes. For the X-groove compressive for the X2 model.

shape, two different pass sequences are studied, denoted as X1 and

X2 as shown in Fig. 10. 6. Study of weld pass number

Figs. 11 and 12 show the comparison between the hoop and

axial residual stresses of these four models at the inner surface of Effect of weld pass number on residual stresses distribution is

the pipes. Because of very little difference between stress distri- studied for two different pipe thicknesses of 6 mm and 10 mm.

butions in each pipe part, only stresses in one half of the welded Heat input magnitude for each pass was adjusted to get a melted

pipes are shown. zone similar to the expected form, as shown in Fig. 3.

It is observed that all four models have almost the same peak in

the hoop stresses. The compressive hoop stress in the V-model is 6.1. 6-mm Thick pipe model

greater than others. It is also observed that the maximum of the

axial stresses in the weld zone of these different shapes occur in the A welded pipe of 6 mm thickness was studied with three

X2 model. different pass numbers (2, 4 and 6 passes), as shown in Fig. 17.

Figs. 13 and 14 show the results of the hoop and axial residual Comparison between the hoop residual stresses of these three

stresses of these four models at outer surface of pipes. Except for pass numbers in the inner surfaces of the pipes is shown in Fig. 18. It

a little increase in the hoop stresses for the X1 and X2 models in is observed that, the peak of the tensile hoop residual stresses at

inner surface of the weld decreases with increasing pass number.

As a result of comparison among these three models, it is

350

observed that pass number has a minor effect on the magnitude

300

Hoop Stress (Mpa)

V

250

X1

200

U

150 X2

100

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

L (mm)

Fig. 15. Distribution of the hoop residual stresses through the wall thickness of the 10-

Fig. 17. Schematics of different weld pass numbers.

mm pipes in the four-pass weld.

730 I. Sattari-Far, M.R. Farahani / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 86 (2009) 723–731

350 axial residual stress in the outer surface of the 4-pass model is

about 30% higher than in the other two models.

300

Figs. 21 and 22 show a comparison between the hoop and axial

2-Pass

250 residual stresses through wall thickness of the 10-mm pipe of

Hoop Stress (Mpa)

200

4-Pass

150 100

100 6-Pass 50

50

0

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

-50 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 -50

4-Pass

-100

-100

-150

9-Pass

Distance from the weld center line (mm) -150

Fig. 18. Distribution of the hoop residual stresses in the axial direction on the inner -200 13-Pass

surface of the 6-mm pipes of different pass number.

-250

and distribution of residual stresses on the inner surface along the

Distance from the weld center line (mm)

axial direction.

Furthermore, it is observed that pass number in these models Fig. 20. Distribution of the axial residual stress in the axial direction on the outer

has no signiﬁcant effect on the magnitude of the residual stresses surface of the 10-mm pipes.

on the outer surface of the welded pipe.

350

6.2. 10-mm Thick pipe model

Hoop Stress (Mpa)

250

It is observed that, on the inner surface, all three models have 4-Pass

almost the same hoop stress distribution. The peak of this stress

decreases some what as the pass number increases. 200

Fig. 19 shows the comparison between the axial residual stresses 9-Pass

that when the pass number increases from 4 to 13 passes, the peak 150

13-Pass

of axial residual stress at the inner surface increases about 15%.

On the outer surface of pipes, the peak of hoop residual stress

100

increases when the pass number increases. Out of the weld zone, all 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

models give almost the same hoop residual stress at the outer

L (mm)

surface.

Fig. 20 shows the comparison between the axial residual Fig. 21. Distribution of the hoop residual stresses through the wall thickness of the 10-

stresses of these models on the outer surface of pipes. Compressive mm pipes of different pass number.

250 250

4-Pass

200

4-Pass

200

150 9-Pass

150 9-Pass 100

Axial Stress (Mpa)

Axial Stress (Mpa)

50 13-Pass

100

13-Pass 0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

50 -50

-100

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 -150

-5 0 -200

-250

-100

Distance from the weld center line (mm) L (mm)

Fig. 19. Distribution of the axial residual stress in the axial direction on the inner Fig. 22. Distribution of the axial residual stresses through the wall thickness of the 10-

surface of the 10-mm pipes of different pass number. mm pipes of different pass number.

I. Sattari-Far, M.R. Farahani / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 86 (2009) 723–731 731

different pass numbers at the weld centre line. The magnitude of At the weld centre line in thick pipes (10 mm thick) the

residual stresses in the middle of pipe thickness increased when magnitude of residual stresses in the middle of pipe thickness

the pass number decreased. The axial residual stresses in this increased when the pass number decreased.

region are tensile for the 4-pass model, while they are compressive

for the 9- and 13-pass models.

References

7. Conclusion residual stresses of the butt-welded joints. Computational Materials Science

2004;29:511–22.

[2] Tso-Liang T, Chih-Cheng L. Effect of welding conditions on residual stresses

This study employed the ﬁnite element method (FEM) to due to butt welds. International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping

determine (estimate) residual stresses in butt-welded pipe joints. 1998;75:857–64.

By comparisons with the experimental measurements, it has been [3] Krebs J, Kassner M. Inﬂuence of welding residual stresses on fatigue design of

welded joints and components. Welding in the World 2007;51:54–68.

shown that the used computational procedure is a very effective [4] Brickstad B, Josefson BL. A parametric study of residual stresses in multi-pass

method for predicting the welding residual stresses. Based on the butt-welded stainless steel pipes. International Journal of Pressure Vessels and

results obtained in this study, the following conclusions may be Piping 1998;75:11–25.

[5] Mochizuki M, Hayashi M, Hattori T. Numerical analysis of welding residual

made:

stress and its veriﬁcation using neutron diffraction measurement. Journal of

Engineering Materials and Technology 2000;122:98–103.

The weld groove shape has no signiﬁcant effect on residual [6] Mohr W. Internal surface residual stresses in girth butt-welded steel pipes.

stresses distribution on the surfaces of butt welded joints in ASME, Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference 1996;327:37–45.

[7] Michaleris P. Residual stress distributions for multi-pass welds in pressure

thin pipes (6 mm thick). vessels and piping components. ASME, Pressure Vessels and Piping Confer-

In thick welded pipes (10 mm thick), the weld groove shape ence 1996;327:17–27.

has no signiﬁcant effect on peak of hoop stresses at inner [8] Jiang W, Yahiaoui K, Hall FR. Finite element predictions of temperature

distribution in a multipass welded piping branch junction. Journal of Pressure

surface. Vessel Technology 2005;127:7–12.

In thick pipes (10 mm thick) with X2-groove shape, signiﬁcant [9] Deng D, Murakawa H. Numerical simulation of temperature ﬁeld and residual

increase in the axial tensile stress on the inner surface of the stress in multi-pass welds in stainless steel pipe and comparison with experi-

mental measurements. Computational Materials Science 2005;29:340–55.

pipes are observed compared with U- and V-groove shapes. [10] Veiga C, Loureiro A, Pina JA, Castanhola Batista A. Residual stress distribution

At the weld centre line in thick pipes (10 mm thick) the in butt welded jointsdeffect of the weld groove shape. International Journal

magnitude of residual stresses in the middle of pipe thickness of Material Science 2002:387–92.

[11] Tso-Liang T, Peng-Hsiang C, Wen-Cheng T. Effect of welding sequences on

for X2 models are maximum and for V models are minimum. residual stresses. Computers and Structures 2003;81:273–86.

The weld pass number has no signiﬁcant effect on residual [12] Technical note, TN-503 Measurement of residual stresses by the hole drilling

stresses distribution in the outside surface of thin butt-welded strain gauge method. Measurement Groups Press; 1993.

[13] Goldak K, Chakaravarti A, Bibby M. A new ﬁnite element model for welding

pipes.

heat sources. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions 1984;15B:299–305.

Hoop residual stresses in the inner surface of thin pipes [14] Fenggui L, Shun Y, Songnian L, Yongbing L. Modeling and ﬁnite element

signiﬁcantly decrease when pass number increases. analysis on GTAW arc and weld pool. Computational Materials Science

In thick welded pipes, increase in pass number signiﬁcantly 2004;29:371–8.

[15] Moharami R, Sattari-Far I. Experimental and numerical study of measuring

increases the axial tensile stresses on the inner surface of the high welding residual stresses by using the blind-hole-drilling technique.

pipe. Journal of Strain Analysis 2007;43:141–8.

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