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International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 86 (2009) 723–731

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International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijpvp

Effect of the weld groove shape and pass number on residual stresses
in butt-welded pipes
I. Sattari-Far*, M.R. Farahani
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: This study used finite element techniques to analyze the thermo-mechanical behaviour and residual
Received 7 August 2008 stresses in butt-welded pipes. The residual stresses were also measured in some welds by using the Hole-
Received in revised form Drilling method. The results of the finite element analysis were compared with experimentally measured
11 May 2009
data to evaluate the accuracy of the finite element modelling. Based on this study, a finite element
Accepted 15 July 2009
modelling procedure with reasonable accuracy was developed. The developed FE modelling was used to
study the effects of weld groove shape and weld pass number on welding residual stresses in butt-
Keywords:
welded pipes. The hoop and axial residual stresses in pipe joints of 6 and 10 mm thickness of different
Residual stresses
Elasto-plastic analysis groove shapes and pass number were studied. It is shown that these two parameters may have signif-
Groove shape icant effects on magnitude and distribution of residual stresses in welded pipes.
Pass number Ó 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Butt weld
Finite element method

1. Introduction experimental methods to predict welding residual stresses. Due to


complexity of problem, the analytical methods are normally used
As a consequence of the non-uniform temperature distribution for simple geometries, and the experimental methods are costly to
during welding, part of the material close to the weld joint is use. However, by advancing in computer technology (soft- and
subjected to different rates of expansion and contraction. This hard-wares), it is now possible to use numerical techniques, like
develops a three-dimensional complex residual stress state in the finite element methods, to satisfactorily calculate (estimate) the
welded object. Welding residual stresses in welded structures are residual stresses in welded structures.
affected by several parameters and their interactions [1]. In Brickstad and Josefson employed two-dimensional axissym-
particular, the structural and material factors and welding param- metric models to numerically simulate multi-pass circumferential
eters impact significantly. The structural factors include the type of butt-welds of stainless steel pipes up to 40 mm thick in a non-linear
geometry and sizes, the type of weld joint and weld groove shape. thermo-mechanical finite element analysis [4]. Mochizuki et al.
Among the material factors, the mechanical and physical properties used inherent strain analysis and thermo-elastic–plastic analysis to
of the parent and filler materials are important to be considered. predict residual stresses in carbon steel pipes, and they verified
Welding process parameters include among other things, type of their numerical models using neutron diffraction measurement [5].
the process employed, welding current, welding voltage and arc Mohr estimated internal surface residual stresses in girth butt-
travelling speed [2]. welded steel pipes [6]. Michaleris computed residual stresses for
Welding residual stresses may enhance occurrence of brittle circumferential girth welds on thin and thick walled pipes for
fracture, fatigue, structural buckling and stress-cracking-corrosion single-V type weld joints using thermo-elastic–plastic analyses [7].
(SCC) [3]. Therefore, correct estimating of the magnitude and Jiang and co-workers used a three-dimensional FE model to predict
distribution of welding residual stresses and evaluation of their temperature distributions in a multi-pass welded piping branch
effects are important in structural integrity assessments of welded junction [8]. Deng and Murakawa simulated the temperature field
structures. Many investigators have developed analytical and and residual stress in multi-pass welds in stainless steel pipes by 2-
D and 3-D finite element models and compared their results with
experimental measurements [9]. It should be noted that in the most
* Corresponding author. Tel.: þ98 21 64543426; fax: þ98 21 6641 9736. published studies only the joints with the V-groove shape are
E-mail address: sattari@aut.ac.ir (I. Sattari-Far). investigated. Veiga et al. studied experimentally the effect of the

0308-0161/$ – see front matter Ó 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.ijpvp.2009.07.007
724 I. Sattari-Far, M.R. Farahani / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 86 (2009) 723–731

weld groove shape on welding residual stress in but welded plate temperature of the radiation heat source. The radiation heat
[10]. Furthermore, there are very limited studies on the effect of transfer coefficient is expressed as:
weld pass number on welding residual stresses independent from  
others geometrical and welding parameters. hr ¼ seF T 2 þ Tr2 ðT þ Tr Þ (6)
In this work, the development of welding residual stresses in
steel pipes is studied by using 3-D finite element method (FEM). where s is the Stefan–Boltzmann constant, e is the effective emis-
The FEM results are compared with experimentally measured data sivity and F is a configuration factor.
obtained from the hole-drilling method. Then, effects of the weld Solving Eq. (3) by considering the boundary conditions
groove shape on magnitude and distributions of residual stresses expressed in Eqs. (4) and (5) gives the temperature distribution in
are studied. The most common weld groove shapes of, V-groove, the body. This temperature field will then be applied to the
X-groove and U-groove types are studied here. In addition, effects mechanical model to calculate the welding residual stresses and
of weld pass number on welding residual stresses are studied by strains (distortions).
models considering three different pass numbers. In each study
other impacting parameters are kept fix. 2.2. Elasto-plastic mechanical analysis

2. Theoretical aspects The equilibrium and constitutive equations used here in con-
ducting the mechanical analysis are as follow [11].
Welding residual stresses are calculated here by using finite
element method. Theoretical considerations of the thermal and  Equilibrium equations:
mechanical analyses are briefly described below.
sij; j þ rbi ¼ 0 (7)

2.1. Transient thermal analysis Here, sij is the stress tensor and bi is the body force. It is assumed
that the stress tensor is symmetrical, i.e. sij ¼ sji.
When a volume is bounded by an arbitrary surface, the balance
relation of the heat flow is expressed by:  Constitutive equations:
 
vRx vRy vRz vTðx; y; z; tÞ The thermal elasto-plastic material model, based on the von
 þ þ þ Q ðx; y; z; tÞ ¼ rC (1)
vx vy vz vt Mises yield criterion and the isotropic strain hardening rule, is
considered. Stress–strain relations are expressed as:
where Rx, Ry and Rz are the rates of heat flow per unit area, T(x,y,z) is
the current temperature, Q(x,y,z) is the rate of internal heat   h i
generation, r is the density, C is the specific heat and t is the time. ½ds ¼ Dep ½d3  C th dT (8a)
The model can then be completed by introducing the Fourier heat
 ep     
flow as D ¼ De þ Dp (8b)
vT e p
where [D ] is the elastic stiffness matrix, [D ] is the plastic stiffness
Rx ¼ kx (2a)
vx matrix, [Cth] is the thermal stiffness matrix, ds is the stress incre-
ment, d3 is the strain increment and dT is the temperature
vT increment.
Ry ¼ ky (2b)
vy Since thermal elasto-plastic analysis is a non-linear problem, the
incremental calculation technique is employed here in solving the
vT problem. The incremental stress is obtained by using the full
Rz ¼ kz (2c) Newton–Raphson method [1].
vz
where kx, ky and kz are the thermal conductivities in the x, y and z 3. Experimental investigation
directions, respectively. Generally, the material parameters kx, ky, kz,
r and C are temperature dependent. Inserting Eq. (2) into Eq. (1) Experimental tests were conducted to collect data on residual
yields: stresses on the outside surfaces of butt-welded pipes. The experi-
      mental results were used to verify the finite element model.
v vT v vT v vT vT
kx þ ky þ kz þ Q ¼ rC (3)
vx vx vy vy vz vz vt
3.1. Specimen preparation
Eq. (3) is the governing differential equation of the problem. The
general solution is obtained by applying the following initial and Two pipes, with outer diameter of 320 mm, thickness of 10 mm
boundary conditions: and length of 500 mm were prepared with V-grooved edges and
fitted by using six equal-distance tack welds from the start point of
Tðx; y; z; 0Þ ¼ T0 ðx; y; zÞ (4) welding. Dimensions of the weld preparation are shown in Fig. 3.
Annealing was carried out to relieve initial residual stresses in pipes
 
vT vT vT before welding.
kx Nx þky Ny þ kz Nz þ qs
vx vy vz Welds were carried out in a robotic TIG welding system with
þ hc ðT  TN Þ þ hr ðT  Tr Þ ¼ 0 ð5Þ advanced control system. This system controls the Power source,
Gripper chuck, Torch driving vehicle, Inert gas supplier and Auto-
where Nx, Ny and Nz are the direction cosines of the outward drawn matic wire feeder simultaneously. The schematic view of this
normal to the boundary, hc is the convection heat transfer coeffi- automatic circumferential welding system is shown in Fig. 1. Three
cient, hr is the radiation heat transfer coefficient, qs is the boundary weld beads were deposited to complete the weld and then one
heat flux, TN is the surrounding temperature and Tr is the pass without filler used to make a uniform weld surface. Argon
I. Sattari-Far, M.R. Farahani / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 86 (2009) 723–731 725

Fig. 2. Temperature-dependent material properties of AISI-304 stainless steel [9].

done according to ASTM E837 standard. Incremental hole drilling


Fig. 1. Automatic circumferential welding system used in this study. technique and recommended data analysis method in this standard
are used.
After measuring the released strains by a strain indicator, the
with high purity was used as the shielding gas during welding. stresses in the axial and hoop directions are calculated according
Welding by this automatic welding system provided good accuracy to the following equations, based on the ASTM E837-92
in determining the welding parameters that should be used in the standard:
finite element welding simulation. These parameters for each pass

 
are given in Table 1. The material used here is AISI 304 stainless sx ¼ E 3x þ n3y 1  n2 (9)
steel. Its thermal and mechanical properties in different temper-
atures are illustrated in Fig. 2 from Ref. [9]. The Young’s modulus 
 
and yield strength of the base metal are measured at room sy ¼ E 3y þ n3x 1  n2 (10)
temperature. They are close to data given in Ref. [9]. The other
material properties are assumed to be the same as given in where 3x and 3y are the released strain in the circumferential and
reference [9]. axial directions, respectively. E is Young’s modulus, and y is Pois-
The filler metal was of type 309 stainless steel, but in FEM son’s ratio. Effect of plasticity is accounted in the stress calculations
modelling its thermal and mechanical properties were assumed to according to a work performed by Moharami and Sattari-Far [15].
be the same as for the base metal. Measuring the residual stresses by hole-drilling method is shown
in Fig. 4.
3.2. Measurement of residual stresses

The Hole Drilling Strain-Gauge (HDSG) method is an established


technique for measuring residual stress. Reference [12] discusses in
details the application of this method and calculating residual
stresses.
The stress measurements were made in eleven points at outer
surface of the pipes. These points are located on a straight line
along the axial direction of the pipe, as shown in Fig. 3. Strain
gauges of the rosette type were mounted on the pipe at the selected
points to measure the released strains after drilling in the centre
point of the gauges by a very high-speed drill. As the welded pipe
was symmetric with respect to the weld, only the stresses in one
half of the pipe were measured. Surface preparation technique was

Table 1
Welding parameters for each pass.

Pass Filler I (A) V Travelling Feeding Speed Cooling Time After


No (volt) Speed (cm/min) (cm/min) Welding (s)
1 ER 310 295  5 17 16 85 1590
2 ER 310 295  5 17 14 70 215
3 ER 310 265  5 20 12 115 270
4 Without 265  5 20 12 – –
filler
Fig. 3. Dimensional details of the pipe specimens used in this study.
726 I. Sattari-Far, M.R. Farahani / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 86 (2009) 723–731

200
theta=0
150
theta=90
100
theta=180

Hoop Stress (Mpa)


50 theta=270

0
0 20 40 60 80 100
-50

-100

-150

-200
Distance from the weld center line (mm)

Fig. 6. Distribution of the hoop residual stress in the axial direction on the outer
surface of the pipe.

incrementally to the mechanical model to calculate the residual


stresses.
The FEM model in this study adopts the technique of element
birth and death to simulate the deposit filling during the welding.
This technique activates or deactivates elements during the anal-
ysis. In this method, elements were deactivated by multiplying
their stiffness by a severe reduction factor. Although zeroed out of
Fig. 4. Hole drilling measuring system.
the load vector, element loads associated with deactivated
elements still appear in element-load lists. Similarly, mass, damp-
4. Finite element calculations ing, specific heat, and other such effects are set to zero for deacti-
vated elements.
4.1. Welding simulation The weldment is assumed to be symmetric in the axial direction,
so only one half of the body is needed to be modeled. Fig. 5 shows
Welding residual stresses are calculated here by using 3-D the finite element mesh for the welded joint used in these analyses.
thermal and mechanical finite element method. The problem is All of the welding parameters, boundary conditions and cycle
considered as an uncoupled problem. This means that first time of each pass in both thermal and mechanical models are
a thermal analysis is conducted to determine the temperature selected to be the same as those used in the specimen preparation.
history in the body, and then the temperature results are applied

4.2. Thermal analysis

During each weld pass, the temperature distribution was


calculated from the thermal model. The first order elements were
used in the thermal analysis. The heat from the moving welding arc

150

100

50
Axial Stress (Mpa)

0
0 20 40 60 80 100
-50
theta=0
-100
theta=90
-150
theta=180
-200 theta=270
-250

-300
Distance from the weld center line (mm)

Fig. 7. Distribution of the axial residual stress in the axial direction on the outer
Fig. 5. Finite element mesh used for the analysis of butt-welded joints. surface of the pipe.
I. Sattari-Far, M.R. Farahani / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 86 (2009) 723–731 727

was applied in weld metal with a double ellipsoidal distribution 200


proposed by Goldak et al. [13]. Ratio of heat flux in each weld metal
150
nodes was calculated by Goldak equation and then the total heat
EXP FEM
input was distributed on those nodes by the calculated ratio. The
100
Goldak equation is expressed by the following form:

Hoop Stress (Mpa)


For the front heat source: 50

pffiffiffi 0
6 3ff Q ð3x2 =a2 Þ ð3y2 =b2 Þ ð3x2 =c2 Þ 0 20 40 60 80 100
qf ¼ pffiffiffi e e e (11a)
abcf p p -50

For the rear heat source: -100

pffiffiffi
6 3fr Q ð3x2 =a2 Þ ð3y2 =b2 Þ ð3z2 =c2 Þ -150
qr ¼ pffiffiffi e e e (11b)
abcr p p
-200
where x, y and z are the local coordinates of the double ellipsoid Distance from the weld center line (mm)
model aligned with the welded pipe; ff and fr are parameters which
Fig. 8. Experimental and FEM results of the hoop residual stresses on the outer surface
give the fraction of the heat deposited in the front and rear parts,
of the studied pipe.
respectively. Here it is assumed that ff is 1.5 and fr is 0.5. This is based
on the fact that the temperature gradient in the front leading part is
steeper than in the tailing edge. Q is the power of the welding heat
source. It can be calculated by knowing the welding current and 4.3. Mechanical analysis
voltage and considering the arc efficiency. The robotic welding used
in this study gave precise recording of these parameters during In the mechanical analysis, the temperature history obtained
welding. The arc efficiency of the TIG welding process is assumed to from the thermal analysis is input into the structural analysis as
be 70% according to the catalogue of the welding machine used. a thermal loading. Thermal strains and stresses are then calculated
The parameters a, b and c in Eq. (11a,11b) are related to the at each time increment. First order elements were used in a non-
characteristics of the welding heat source. These parameters are linear large displacement mechanical analysis. It is assumed that no
adjusted to create a desired melted zone according to the welding solid-state phase transformation occurs for stainless steels. During
conditions in each model. The moving heat source is modeled by the welding process, the total strain rate can be decomposed into
a user subroutine in the ANSYS code. three components as follows:
In ANSYS, latent heats of phase changes in thermal analysis can
be handled using thermal enthalpy method. In this paper, equiva- 3 ¼ 3e þ 3p þ 3th (14)
lent specific heat method is adopted to deal with latent heat. The components on the right hand side of Eq. (14) correspond to
Enthalpy can be expressed as: elastic strain, plastic strain and thermal strain, respectively.
Z The welding residual stresses and strains (distortions) are the
H ¼ r cðTÞdT (12) accumulated results at the final stage of the calculation, when the
whole model is cooled down. The materials are assumed to follow
The temperature difference of solid phase and liquid phase is DT, the von Mises yield criterion and flow rule. Isotropic bilinear strain
so the equivalent specific heat is considered to be C* ¼ H/rDT, as hardening is assumed in the calculations.
proposed in Ref. [14]. The equivalent specific heat is assumed By studying the development of stresses in the whole model, it
a constant in the region between solid phase and liquid phase. is observed that the stresses at the start point of the weld and its
The thermal boundary conditions include the radiation and vicinity are different from the other locations. In Figs. 6 and 7,
convection to the environment from all sides of the welded pipe distributions of the hoop and axial residual stresses in the axial
except the symmetry surface and the area upon which the heat is
applied. Radiation losses are dominating for higher temperatures
near and in the weld zone, and convection losses for lower 150
temperatures away from the weld zone. A user subroutine was
100
developed to simulate the combined thermal boundary condition.
The total temperature-dependent heat transfer (w/m2) coefficient 50
is given by [4].
Axial Stress (Mpa)

0
0 20 40 60 80 100
ah ¼ 0:0668T for 0 < T  500
(13) -50
ah ¼ 0:231T  82:1 for T > 500
-100
where T ( C) is the temperature. Above the melting point, the
thermal conductivity is assumed to be doubled to simulate the -150 EXP FEM
convective stirring effect in a molten material [14].
-200
By comparing the temperature versus time at different points in
the circumferential direction (q ¼ 90 , 180 , 270 ) and the same -250
distance from the weld centre line on the inner surface, it could be
-300
concluded that the temperature filed was very steady when the
Distance from the weld center line (mm)
welding torch was moving around the pipe. From this analysis it
was observed that the maximum temperature at the weld pool was Fig. 9. Experimental and FEM results of the axial residual stresses on the outer surface
around 2000  C. of the studied pipe.
728 I. Sattari-Far, M.R. Farahani / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 86 (2009) 723–731

300

250 V

200
X1

Axial Stress (Mpa)


150
U

100
X2
Fig. 10. Schematics of three different weld groove shapes studied here. 50

direction on the outer surface are compared in different angles q 0


from the start point of the weld. When q is 0 , the hoop residual 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
stresses in the weld zone are slightly lower than other three angles. -50
The axial residual stresses in this zone are more compressive than
others. -100
Distance from the weld center line (mm)
Except the location around the start point of the weld, the
stresses along the circumferential direction have almost similar Fig. 12. Distribution of the axial residual stress in the axial direction on the inner
distributions. Thus, the experimental measurements of welding surface of the 10-mm pipes in the four-pass weld.
residual stresses are conducted at points with circumferential angle
q of180 from the start point of the weld.
The diameter and length of the pipes in all models are the same
and equal to 300 mm and 500 mm, respectively, using the same
4.4. Verification of FEM modelling
material properties in all analyses. Heat input magnitude for each
pass was adjusted to get a melted zone similar to the expected
Residual stresses in butt-welded pipes are developed mainly
form, as shown in Fig. 3.
from circumferential expansions and contractions during the
welding process. Along the weld line, a high tensile residual stress
arises near the weld toes, and then decreases as distance from the
weld line increases. As the residual stresses in a body are self- 5.1. 6-mm thick pipe model
balancing, the distribution of the stresses becomes compressive
away from the weld zone. A welded pipe of 6 mm thickness was studied with three
To verify the result of finite element simulation, a FE model with different groove shapes, as shown in Fig. 10. The pipes are welded in
same geometrical, material and welding parameters with those two passes. Because the thickness of the pipe is relatively small
used in the specimen preparation is generated. Figs. 8 and 9 show (6 mm), the inside surface near the weld zone can reach a very high
the hoop and axial stresses on the outside surface along the axial temperature (>1000  C) when the outside is welded. Thus, the
direction obtained from the FE analysis and the experimental plastic deformation is prone to produce in the whole cross-section
measurements. It is observed that the predicted results from the FE in the weld zone and its vicinity during the second pass welding.
analysis are in relatively good agreement with the experimental During the cooling, because the weld zone and its vicinity shrink,
measurements. the diameters in this part become smaller, and a bending moment
is generated due to the deformation. Therefore, a tensile axial stress
5. Study of weld groove shape is produced on the inside surface, and compressive axial stress on
the outside surface.
Three weld groove shapes of type V-groove, X-groove and As a result of comparison between the axial residual stresses of
U-groove are studied here. The effect of groove shape is studied for these three groove shapes at the inner and outer surfaces of the
two different thicknesses of 6 mm and 10 mm. pipes, it is observed that, in general, the weld groove shape in these

350 200
V V
300
X1 150 X1
250

200 U 100 U
Hoop Stress (Mpa)

Hoop Stress (Mpa)

150
X2 50 X2
100
0
50
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
0 -50
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
-50
-100
-100

-150 -150
Distance from the weld center line (mm) Distance from the weld center line (mm)

Fig. 11. Distribution of the hoop residual stress in the axial direction on the inner Fig. 13. Distribution of the hoop residual stress in the axial direction on the outer
surface of the 10-mm pipes in the four-pass weld. surface of the 10-mm pipes in the four-pass weld.
I. Sattari-Far, M.R. Farahani / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 86 (2009) 723–731 729

100 350
V
50
250
X1
0
Axial Stress (Mpa)

Axial Stress (Mpa)


0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 150 U
-50
V X2
50
-100
X1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-50
-150
U

-200 -150
X2

-250 -250
Distance from the weld center line (mm) L (mm)
Fig. 14. Distribution of the axial residual stress in the axial direction on the outer Fig. 16. Distribution of the axial residual stresses through the wall thickness of the 10-
surface of the 10-mm pipes in the four-pass weld. mm pipes in the four-pass weld.

6-mm thick welded pipes has no significant effect on the magni- weld centre line, the hoop stresses at the other points are lower
tude of the hoop residual stresses. than the V and U models.
Figs. 15 and 16 show a comparison between the hoop and axial
residual stresses through wall thickness of the 10-mm pipe at the
5.2. 10-mm Thick pipe model weld centre line in the four-pass weld. The magnitudes of residual
stresses in the middle of pipe thickness for the X2 and V models are
In these models two pipes with 10 mm thickness were studied the minimum and maximum, respectively. The axial residual
with three different groove shapes that are schematically shown in stresses in this region are tensile for the V models, while they are
Fig. 10. These joints were welded in four passes. For the X-groove compressive for the X2 model.
shape, two different pass sequences are studied, denoted as X1 and
X2 as shown in Fig. 10. 6. Study of weld pass number
Figs. 11 and 12 show the comparison between the hoop and
axial residual stresses of these four models at the inner surface of Effect of weld pass number on residual stresses distribution is
the pipes. Because of very little difference between stress distri- studied for two different pipe thicknesses of 6 mm and 10 mm.
butions in each pipe part, only stresses in one half of the welded Heat input magnitude for each pass was adjusted to get a melted
pipes are shown. zone similar to the expected form, as shown in Fig. 3.
It is observed that all four models have almost the same peak in
the hoop stresses. The compressive hoop stress in the V-model is 6.1. 6-mm Thick pipe model
greater than others. It is also observed that the maximum of the
axial stresses in the weld zone of these different shapes occur in the A welded pipe of 6 mm thickness was studied with three
X2 model. different pass numbers (2, 4 and 6 passes), as shown in Fig. 17.
Figs. 13 and 14 show the results of the hoop and axial residual Comparison between the hoop residual stresses of these three
stresses of these four models at outer surface of pipes. Except for pass numbers in the inner surfaces of the pipes is shown in Fig. 18. It
a little increase in the hoop stresses for the X1 and X2 models in is observed that, the peak of the tensile hoop residual stresses at
inner surface of the weld decreases with increasing pass number.
As a result of comparison among these three models, it is
350
observed that pass number has a minor effect on the magnitude

300
Hoop Stress (Mpa)

V
250

X1

200
U

150 X2

100
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
L (mm)

Fig. 15. Distribution of the hoop residual stresses through the wall thickness of the 10-
Fig. 17. Schematics of different weld pass numbers.
mm pipes in the four-pass weld.
730 I. Sattari-Far, M.R. Farahani / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 86 (2009) 723–731

350 axial residual stress in the outer surface of the 4-pass model is
about 30% higher than in the other two models.
300
Figs. 21 and 22 show a comparison between the hoop and axial
2-Pass
250 residual stresses through wall thickness of the 10-mm pipe of
Hoop Stress (Mpa)

200
4-Pass
150 100

100 6-Pass 50
50
0

Axial Stress (Mpa)


0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
-50 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 -50
4-Pass
-100
-100
-150
9-Pass
Distance from the weld center line (mm) -150

Fig. 18. Distribution of the hoop residual stresses in the axial direction on the inner -200 13-Pass
surface of the 6-mm pipes of different pass number.

-250
and distribution of residual stresses on the inner surface along the
Distance from the weld center line (mm)
axial direction.
Furthermore, it is observed that pass number in these models Fig. 20. Distribution of the axial residual stress in the axial direction on the outer
has no significant effect on the magnitude of the residual stresses surface of the 10-mm pipes.
on the outer surface of the welded pipe.

350
6.2. 10-mm Thick pipe model

The welded pipes with 10 mm thickness were studied with 300

three different pass numbers (4, 9 and 13 passes), as schematically


Hoop Stress (Mpa)

shown in Fig. 17.


250
It is observed that, on the inner surface, all three models have 4-Pass
almost the same hoop stress distribution. The peak of this stress
decreases some what as the pass number increases. 200
Fig. 19 shows the comparison between the axial residual stresses 9-Pass

of these three models at the inner surface of the pipes. It is observed


that when the pass number increases from 4 to 13 passes, the peak 150
13-Pass
of axial residual stress at the inner surface increases about 15%.
On the outer surface of pipes, the peak of hoop residual stress
100
increases when the pass number increases. Out of the weld zone, all 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
models give almost the same hoop residual stress at the outer
L (mm)
surface.
Fig. 20 shows the comparison between the axial residual Fig. 21. Distribution of the hoop residual stresses through the wall thickness of the 10-
stresses of these models on the outer surface of pipes. Compressive mm pipes of different pass number.

250 250
4-Pass
200
4-Pass
200
150 9-Pass
150 9-Pass 100
Axial Stress (Mpa)
Axial Stress (Mpa)

50 13-Pass
100
13-Pass 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
50 -50

-100
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 -150
-5 0 -200

-250
-100
Distance from the weld center line (mm) L (mm)

Fig. 19. Distribution of the axial residual stress in the axial direction on the inner Fig. 22. Distribution of the axial residual stresses through the wall thickness of the 10-
surface of the 10-mm pipes of different pass number. mm pipes of different pass number.
I. Sattari-Far, M.R. Farahani / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 86 (2009) 723–731 731

different pass numbers at the weld centre line. The magnitude of  At the weld centre line in thick pipes (10 mm thick) the
residual stresses in the middle of pipe thickness increased when magnitude of residual stresses in the middle of pipe thickness
the pass number decreased. The axial residual stresses in this increased when the pass number decreased.
region are tensile for the 4-pass model, while they are compressive
for the 9- and 13-pass models.
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