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A cup of coffee in the morning may

provide more than just an energy


boost.
Health benefits, say some researchers, may range from
helping prevent diabetes to lowering the risk of liver
disease.
With over 400 billion cups of coffee thought to be
consumed every year, coffee is one of the world's most
popular drinks. But is it really healthful, or are there also
risks?

Benefits
The potential health benefits associated with drinking
coffee include protecting against type 2 diabetes,
Parkinson's disease, liver disease, liver cancer, and
promoting a healthy heart.3
1) Coffee and diabetes
Coffee may help protect against type 2 diabetes.
Researchers at UCLA identified that drinking coffee
increases plasma levels of the protein sex hormone-
binding globulin (SHBG). SHBG controls the biological
activity of the body's sex hormones (testosterone and
estrogen) which play a role in the development of type 2
diabetes.4
Dr. Simin Liu, one of the authors of the study, said that an
"inverse association" exists between coffee consumption
and risk for type 2 diabetes.
Increased coffee consumption may reduce risk of type 2
diabetes - the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH)
researchers gathered data from three studies. In these
studies, the diets of the participants were evaluated using
questionnaires every 4 years, with participants who
reported having type 2 diabetes filling out additional
questionnaires. In total, 7,269 study participants had type
2 diabetes.
The researchers found that the participants who increased
their coffee intake by more than one cup a day (on
average, an increase of 1.69 cups per day) over a 4-year
period had an 11% lower type 2 diabetes risk over the
subsequent 4 years, compared with people who did not
change their intake.

2) Coffee and Parkinson's disease


Researchers in the U.S. carried out a study that assessed
the link between coffee consumption and Parkinson's
disease risk. The authors of the study concluded that
"higher coffee and caffeine intake is associated with a
significantly lower incidence of Parkinson's disease".5
In addition, caffeine in coffee may help control movement
in people suffering from Parkinson's, according to a study
conducted at the Research Institute of the McGill
University Health Centre (RI MUHC) that was published in
the journal Neurology.6
3) Coffee and liver cancer
Italian researchers found that coffee consumption lowers
the risk of liver cancer by about 40%. In addition, some of
the results suggest that if you drink three cups a day, the
risks are reduced by more than 50%.7
The lead author of the study, Dr. Carlo La Vecchia, from
Milan's Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri,
said "our research confirms past claims that coffee is good
for your health and particularly the liver."
4) Coffee and liver disease
Regular consumption of coffee is linked to a reduced risk
of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), a rare
autoimmune disease of the bile ducts in the liver.8
In addition, coffee consumption can lower the incidence of
cirrhosis of the liver for alcohol drinkers by 22%, according
to a study at the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care
Program, California, USA.
The authors of the study concluded that the results
"support the hypothesis that there is an ingredient in
coffee that protects against cirrhosis, especially alcoholic
cirrhosis."9
Research published in the journal Hepatology in April
2014, suggested that drinking coffee is linked to a
decreased liver cirrhosis death risk. The researchers
suggested that drinking two or more cups of coffee every
day can reduce the risk of death from liver cirrhosis by
66%.16
A study published in the journal Hepatology indicates that
drinking decaf coffee also lowers liver enzyme levels,
suggesting the benefits are not linked to caffeine content.
5) Coffee and heart health
Researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
(BIDMC) and Harvard School of Public Health, concluded
that drinking coffee in moderation protects against heart
failure. They defined 'in moderation' as 2 European cups
(equivalent to two 8-ounce American servings) per day.10
People who drank four European cups on a daily basis
had an 11% lower risk of heart failure, compared to those
who did not.
The authors stressed that their results "did show a
possible benefit, but like with so many other things we
consume, it really depends on how much coffee you
drink."