Il
111
(D) 5.0 rn/s2
(n) 67 000 Ill
1
3. The elevator in a 12 story building has a nrnss of 3 m/s
1000 kg. Its maximum velocit.y and maximum accelera
tion are 2 1tt/s and m/s2, respect.ively. A passenger
with a mass of 75 kg st. ands on a batluoom scale iu the
elevator as the elevator ascends at its ma."Xim11m accel
erat.ion. What is most nearly the scale readiug just as
the elevator reaches its maximum acceleration?
(A) 75 N (A) 3.0 rn/s
(B) L 50 N (B) 3.4 m/s
(C) 810 N (C) 3.8 m/s
( D) 890 N (D) 4.2 m/s
P P I • www.ppl2pass.com
DE X2 F E M E c II A N I c A L R E v l E w M A N u A L
(�111)
JI =
( �)
(B) 2.0 rad/s
(C) 3.9 rad/s 9.81
t2  1000 1 1 1. sin 30° + (  1500 m) = O
( 500 :1 1) 2 ( �1;)
[quarlrat ic formula]
2a
�s
(D) lineRr momentum
9. A ball is dropped from rest at a point 12 m above the  (4) 4.905
gTotmd into a smooth, frictionless chute. The ball exits
( �)
500 ±
the chute 2 m above t.he ground anrl at an angle 115° x (  1500 m)
from the horizontal. Air resistance is negligible .
Approximately bow far will the ball travel in the hori (2) 4.905
zontal direct.ion before hitting the ground?
= +104.85 s, 2.!J LGG s
0
t
The horizontal distance is
( :)
:z;= votcosB
11
= 1000 ( 104.85 s)cos 30°
12 m
= 90803 m ( !J I 000 m)
�50

.....
\

' The answer is (DJ.
t
/
/ '
/ '
"nshe1111an = 1 � + vl"'al
(C) 22 m / 111 I
(D) 24 m
1 O. A 6 kg sphere moving at. 3 m/s collides with a 10 kg Use the conservatio11 of momentum.
sphere traveling at 2.5 m/s in the same direct.ion. The
6 kg sphere comes to a complete stop after the collision.
\\That is most nearly the new velocity of the 10 kg sphere 11lfishennan Vfisl1ern1011 vfi.shenn:)n
71lfishC'nnan
immediately after t.he collision?
+mix)[lt Vb<Jat + 11l boat v;>Olll
(A) 0.50 m/s
(n) 2.8 m/s
(C) 4.3 m/s
(D) 5.5 m/s
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
D I A G N 0 s T I c E x A M : D v N A M I c s J K I N E M I\ T I c s J A N D v I B R A T I 0 N s DE X3
 nlfi,lwm>n11
duwge i11 its rnowe11tum (t.11e i111pulsc111omc11tuu1
( l Ill )
0 +
/
+ 711 1,.iat \r'boat
principle).
S
(
Imp = !J.p = !J.mv = m(!J.v)
)( )
 1ilji,!1e1111<111
vIlx1at = S = m ( v2  v 1 )
illfi.shennun + 111boat
�
km km
(500 kg) 75  50 1000
h h km
3600 �
80 kg + 300 kg h
= 0.2 1 1 rn/s = 3472 N·s (3500 N·s)
( �1 1)
The distnnce the fisherman will have to jump is The answer is (A).
(
= m.(9 + o )
F = ma
s2 )
:�
B
lll
= (75 kg) 9.81 + 1 /2
= r2 + r2 [Pyt.hagorean t.heorem]
= 81 1 N (810 N) = (0.8 rn) 2 + (0.8 rn) 2
= 1.28 m2
The answer is (C).
t= vi . 28
2
1 . 13 m
The vclocit.y of point A is
m
( :' 1)
=
F1 = p N = /.L ( mg  Fy)
(uoo kg) ( :�)
the applied force. Tl1e frictional force is
( l . 1 3 m) 3
VA =  = 
lv
o
�
The answer is (A).
(0.2)
=
0.5 111
= 1.98 ra<l/s (2.0 rad/s)
The answer is (B).
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
DE X4 FE M E c M A N I c A L R E v I E w M A N u fl L
8. Siucc Lhc system is frictionless, t.here is no moment Solve for I usi11g the quadratic formula.
causing the sphere to rotate or stop rotating. Therefore,
:1 1 ) 2  (11 ) (un ) ( 2 m)
augular velocity is constant. Since the system is friction l
=  b ± jb2  "'(l r.
less, total energy is constant. l<inctic e11erg}' is co11
j(
verted to potent.ial energy. As the linear velocity 2a
decreases, so <locs tLe linear mo111e11tum. 0.fJ :1 1 ± 9.9 Ill

10 m Tile answer is (C).
1:
1
\

r
1nv
m.g6.h = 
?
9.81
=
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
D
....
Components
. ......................... 377
12. Relative �dot.ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 A body in motion can be considered a particle if rotation
of the body is absent or insignificant. A particle does not
13. Linear and Rotational Variables . . . . . . . . . . 378
possess rotational kinetic energy. All parts of a particle
1,1. Projectile Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
have the same instantaneous displacement, velocity,
and acceleration.
Nomenclature
a accelerat.ion m/s2 A rigid body does not deform when loaded and can be
cocfficien t of frict.ion considered a combination of two or more particles that
f
I frequency Hz remain at a foced, finite distance from each other. At
gravitational accelenHion, 9.81 m/s2 any given instant, the parts (particles) of a rigid body
g
,
. posit.ion Ill can have different displacements, velocities, and accel
s distance 111
s position Ill
time s
v velocity m/s
Equation 37 . 1 and Eq. 37 .2: Instantaneous
:1: horizontal distance m
Velocity and Acceleration
elevation m
dr/dl
y
a = dv/dl
Symbols
v= 37. I
Q angular acceleration rad/s2 37.2
B angular position rad
p radius of curvature Ill Variation
w angular velocity rad/s
Subscripts
0 initial Description
constant
v,
c
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
372 F E M E C ll A N I C A L n E V I E W M A N U /\ L
and I is in seconds. \Vliat is most nearly t.he velocity of Figure 37. 1 Rectangular Coordinates
Lhc par tic l ewhe11 I = 5 s?
y
(A) 9.0 m/s
(B) 10 ut/s
(C) 1 1 m/s
(D) 1 2 m/s
Solution
The velocity equat. ion is the first deri va t.ive of t.ltc posi
tion equation wit.h respecL Lo time.
= 9.0 m/s The vector form of the par ticle 's position is r, where t.he
vector r h as both magnitude and direct.ion. The Carle
form) is (:r, y, z) .
Tl1e answer is (A). sinn coordinate system Jann ( rectangular coordinate
Example
The position of a particle in Cartesian coordinates over
t.i me is x = in the :i'direction, y = in t.hc ydirection ,
51. 6t
Similarly, "velocity" and "speed" have different mean and z = 5t in the zclirection. What i s t.he vector form of
ings: velocity is a vector, h a vi u g both magni tud e and the particle's position, r?
direction; speed is a scalar quantity, equal to the mag
nitude of velo ci ty. When specifyi11g speed, direction is (A) r = 6/j + 5/k
5li +
not considered. (B) r = 5ti + 6/j + 6tk
( C) 6fi + 5/j + 51/c
1· =
P P I • w w W . Jl p l 2 p a s s . c o m
l< I N E M A T I C S 373
v2 = v� + 2nn(s  so)
+ 2a, l
v = v0 + Ocl 37.7 37. 17
l 2
s = ·'i<l + vu I 37.8
j dt
v1 = v� + 2a, (s  s ) Variations
11 37.9
Description v(t) = ao
jj dt2
A rectilinear system is one in which particles move only
in st.might lines. (Anot.her name is linear system.) The
relationships among posit.ion, velocity, and acceleration s(l) = oo
Description
The velocity and acceleration are the first two deriva
tives of the posit.ion vector, as shown in Eq. and 37. 10
Eq. 37.11.
7500 N
18quation 37.6 cnn be derived from a di= d\• and v di= ds by cli1ninnt
ing di. One scenario where the ncceleration depends on position is a
particle being acct'lcrated (or decelerated) by a compression spring.
The spring force depends on the spring extension, so the acceleration
does also.
10000 N
2The NCEES FE Refere11ce lla11dbook (NCEES Ha11dbook) is incon
sistent in what it uses subscripts to designate. For cxa111ple, in its
Dynamics section, it uscs subscripts to designate the location of the
What is most nearly the velocity of block A 2.5 s after
accelerating point (e.g., c in ac for acceleration of t h e centroid), the the blocks are released?
direction or related axis (e.g., x in a, for acceleration in the :i;.
direction), the type of accelerat ion (e.g., in an for normal accelera
11 (A) 0 m/s
tion), and the moment in time (e.g., 0 in 0o for initial acceleration). In
Eq. 37.7 through Eq. 37.9, the NCEES Ha11dbook uses subscripts to
(B) 3.5 m/s
drsignate the nature of the accrlcration (i.e., the subscript c indicates
constant acceleration). Elsewhere in the NCEES Ha11dbook, the sub
(C) ,1.4 m/s
script c is used to designate centroid and mass center. (D) 4.9 m/s
P P I • www.ppl2pass.com
374 F E M E C H A N I C A L R E V I E W M A N U A L
( i.4 s2111) (
Use Eq. 37.15 to solve for the velocity of block A. Equation 37.22 and Eq. 37.23: Velocity and
s  0 s) + O
Displacement for NonConstant
m
V A = aA ( l  lu) + vn = 2 .5 Acceleration
s
= 3.5 m/s
I
ou(t  lo) + wo
=
consta11t acceleration, a(t), arc calculated using Eq. 37.22
w( t) = 37. 19 and Eq. 37.23.
w1 = w� + 2ao(t9  Bo)
A particle initially traveling at 10 m/s experiences a
37.21
linear increase in acceleration in the direction of motion
in 6 seconds.
as shown. The particle reaches an acceleration of 20 m/s2
Description
Equation 37.18 through Eq. 37.21 give Lhe equations for a
constant angular acceleration.
Example 20 m/s2
A flywheel rotates at 7200 rpm when the power is
suddenly cut off. The flywheel decelerates at a constant
rate of 2 . 1 rad/s2 and comes to rest 6 min later. \'\lhat is
most nearly the angular displacement of the flywheel? 6s
(A) 43 x 103 rad "tvfost nearly, what is the distance traveled by the parti
(B) 93 x 1 0 3 rad cle during those 6 seconds?
(C) 140 x 103
rad (A) 60 m
(D) 270 3
x 10 rad (13) 70 Ill
(C) 120 m
m
Solution
(D) 180
From Eq. 37.20, the angular displacement is
Solution
(
The expression for the acceleration as a function of
)( ) ()
2 time is
O(t) = a·o(l  lo) / 2 + wo( t  lo) + Oo
60 � ( 6 min  0 min) 2
2
a.(l) =
2.1
rad Ill Ill
20 20
( )( )
s2 111111 s2 s3 /,
t = 
2 6 s 6
rev 2rc
rad min  0 min)
+ 1200 _ (6
111111 rev From Eq. 37.22, the velocity function is
+o rad
= 135.4 x 103 ra<l ( 140 x 103 rad)
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
l< I N E M A T I C S 375
s(t) = =
y
= 20 (J + 10/ + c2
36
111 a cakulat.io11 of distance trnvelecl, the init.ial clisla11cc
(posit.ion) is s(O) = 0, so C2 = 0. Th e distance traveled
 0 Ill
0 3G
= 180 Ill
Equation 37.26 Through Eq. 37.3 1 : x, y, z
Coordinates
= 180 Ill
v,, = !J 37.27
v. = z 37.28
Equation 37.24 and Eq. 37.25: Variable
Angular Acceleration (IT = :1; 37.29
z
= 37.24
= 37.31
lu
o,
Description
For 11011constant angular acceleration, n( t), the angular
velocity, w, and a11gular displacement, 0, can be calcu
lated from Eq. 37.24 and Eq. 37.25. Equation 37.32 Through Eq. 37.37: Polar
Coordinates
= ..
/'  /'il
linear paths, the position, velocity, and acceleration
may he specified in rectangular coordinates as they were a, 37.35
for rect.ili11car motion, or it may be more convenient t o
express t.he kinematic variables in terms o f other coor
dinate systems (e.g., polar coordinates) .
uu = rB + 2;.(J 37.36
a, = z 37.37
Description
Ln polar coordinates, the posit.ion of a particle is
9. CURVILINEAR MOTION: PLANE
described by a radius, r, and au angle, 0. Equation 37.32
Plane ci1'c11la1· motion ( also known as rotational particle
CIRCULAR MOTION
through Eq. 37.37 give t.he relationships between veloc
motion, angular motion, or circular motion) is motion of it.y and acceleration for part.iclcs i11 plane circular
a particle around a fixed circular path. (See Fig. 37.2. ) motion in a polar coorcliuate system.
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
376 F E M E C H A N I C A L R E V I E W M A N U A L
w (3) = (3)(3) 2  ( 4 ) (3 )  4
= 1 1 racl/s
u1 = v= 37.39
ds
1!11 = 
(J
\ '2
37.40 The answer is (C).
[ l + ( dy/d:1/J312
1�:.;1
37.41 1 0. CURVILINEAR MOTION: TRANSVERSE
AND RADIAL COMPONENTS FOR
fJ =
............F.'.��.�.':\.� .IYI.9.I..19..�
. . . . .... . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. .. . . . . . .. ... .
v = i·e, + 37.46
i· = rlr/ di
Equation 37 .42 Through Eq. 37 .44: Particle a = 37.47
i·
Angular Motion 37.48
= d2r/rit2 37.49
W= dB/di 37.42
Variation
c/2()
O=
Description
2 dt The position of a particle in a polar coordinate system
may also be expressed as a vector of mag11itude 1 · and
Description direct.ion specified by unit, vector e,.. Since the velocity of
The behavior of a rotating particle is defined by its a particle is not usually di_rected radially out from the
angular position, B, angular velocity, (u, and angular center of the coordinate system, it can be divided into
acceleration, O'. These variables are analogous to the s, two components, called radial and transverse, which are
v, and a variables for linear systems. Angular variables parallel and perpendicular, respectively, to the unit radial
can be substitut.ed oneforone for linear variables in vector. Figure 37.3 illustrates the radial and transverse
most equations. components of velocity in a polar coordinate system, and
the unit radial and unit. transverse vectors, e,. and e0, used
in the vector forms of the motion equations.
Example
Figure 37.3 Radial and Transverse Coorc/inates
The position of a car traveling around a curve is
described by t.he following function of time ( in seconds ) . y
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
l·t l N E M A T I C S 377
Description
A particle moving in a curvilinear path will have instan Equation 37 .57 Through Eq. 37 .59: Relative
taneous li11ear velocity and linear acceleration. These Motion with Translating Axis
linear variables will be directed t angentially t o the path,
r,1 = 1'8 + l'A/ fJ
and arc know11 as la119e11tial ue/ocit.y, v" and la119c11lial
37.57
acce/eralio11, a" respectively. The force that constrains
t.J1c particle to the cmved path will generally be directed V,i = VB + w x l'AfJJ = V 8 + VA/8 37.58
toward the center of rotation, and the particle will
experience an inward acceleration perpendicular to the a.1 = fin + n x r..i/ 8 + w x (w x r,.1/JJ) = "8 + "r11n
tangential velocity and acceleration, known as t.he nor 37.59
mal accc/cralio11, a,,. The resultant. acceleration, fl, is the
vector sum of t.he tangential and normal accelerations. Description
Normal and tangential components of acceleration are
The relative position, rA, velocity, v ,i, and acceleration,
illnstraled in Fig. 37.4. The unit vectors en and e1 arc
a,i, with respect to a translating ax.is CRn be calculated
normal and t angential to the path, respectively. p is the
from Eq. 37.57, Eq. 37.58, and Eq. 37.59, respectively.
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
378 F E M E C H A r,i I C fl L Fl E V I E W M A N U A L
A
\12
y a,, = _i
,.
Description
Equation 37.63 through Eq. 37.65 are used to calculate
tangential velocity, v1 1 tangential acceleration, a1, and
normal acceleratiou, a,,, respectively, rrom their cor
respondi11g angular variables. If the path radius, r, is
constant, as it woul<l be in rotat.ional motion, the linear
x distance (i.e., t.he arc length ) I.raveled, s, is calculated
from Eq. 37.66.
13. LINEAR AND ROTATIONAL VARIABLES
.................... . ................. . .. .. . .... . . . . . ... ... .... . .. ....... .. ... ........ . ......... ....... . ..... ..... . ..
lr#IA
v,
(350 )( )
w = angular velocity of the crank in rad/s
a, = ra 37. 64
rev rad
. 2 rr
nun rev
u,. =  rw2 [toward thecircle
center]
of the
37. 65
60 8
min

s = rO 37 . 66 = 36.65 rad/s
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
I< I N E M A T I C S 379
( )
UsP Eq. 37.G3. riq11re 37.8 Pro1cctile Motion
·1 4, PROJECTILE MOTION
x
A projectile is placed into motion by an initial impulse.
( K i n em a tics deals only with dynamics during t.he night. Description
.
The force acting 011 the projectile during the launch
phase is covered i n k i neL ics ) Neglecting air drag, once
the projectile is in motion, it is act ed upon o nly by t he
.
The equatiolls of projectile mot.ion are deri ved from the
laws of uniform acceleration and conser va t i on of energy.
dow11ward gra vil at io nal acceleration (i.e., its own Example
weigh t ) . Project.ile motion is a special case of motion A gol fer on level ground at the edge of a 50 m wide pond
under constant acceleration.
atle111pls to drive a golf ball across the pond, hitting the
Consider a general projectile set. into motion at a11 angle hall so that it travels initially at 25 m/s. The ball travels
B from the horizontal plane and initial vel oci ty, v0, as at au iuitial a11gle of 45° to the horizontal plane.
shown in Pig. 37.8. The ape;i_: is the poi11t where the Approximately how far wi l l the golf ba l l travel?
( )
37.71 g
y = yf /2 + vo sin {B)t + Yu
2
37.72
= 25 111 cos45° ( s
Variations s n 9.81 ;
+Om
s
= 63.7 m (64 m )
Vy(i.) = Vy.O  gl
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
0 s
l!l
38I
3. Newton's First and Secon<l Laws of The vector linear moment.um. ( momentum), p , is defined
i'vlot.ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . by the following equation. It has the same direction as
t.he velocity vector from which it is a lcula t ed Momen
t um has units of force x time (e g. N·s) .
. . . . . . . . 381
ti . Weight . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . ... ..... .
. . . . . . . 383 c .
5. Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 383 . . ,
G. l(inetics of a Particle . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 384
=
.
p mv
Nomenclatm·e
1\lornent wuis conserved when no external forces act ou
particle. If
(/ acceleration 111/s2
F force N a no forces act on a particle, t.he velocity anct
1
fl gravitational acceleration, 9.81 111/s� direction of the part.ide are 1mchangcd. The law of con
serua/.ion of 111ome11/.11m st.ates t.hat. t.he linear momen
1J1ass mu111e111. of inertia kg m2
tum is unchanged if no unbalanced forces act on the
·
Ill mass kg
i\1 lllOllJelll Nm particle. This docs not prohibit the mass and velocity
N normal force N
from changing, however. Only the product of mass and
p monlentum Ns velocity is constant.
R resultant N
time s
3. NEWTON'S FIRST AND SECOND LAWS OF
,. velocit.y m/s
MOTION
II' weight N
;1: displacement or position 111 Newton 's fil'st law of motion states that. a particle will
remain in a stat.e of rest or will continue to move with
Symbols coustant velocity unless au unbalanced external force
(1 angular acceleration rnd/s2 acts on it..
fl coefficient of fricti011
This law can also be stated in terms of conservation of
p radius of cnrvat nrn 111
moment.um: If the res l tan t external force acting on a
tp
u
deg
angle
particle is zero, then the linear momentum of the parti
cle is constant.
Subscripts
() initial
Newto11 1s second law of motion (conservation of momen
c cent roidnl
tum) states that the acceleration of a p rticle is directly a
I final or frictional
proportional to the force acting ou it and is i ve ely n rs
initial
proportional to the part.icle mass. The direction of accel
k dynamic
eration is the same as the <lirection of force.
11 normal
pc from point p to point c
Lite uct (resultant ) fo rce , F, Oll a11 objccL i11 auy directio11
lo t.he acceleratio n , a0 of the objecL's cent.raid in thaL
Description
(A) 10 k.t\l
nearly
axis. The ceutroid remains stat.ionary as clements of the
rigi d body. Equation 38.5 per tai ns to rotation about any
(B) 1 3 kN pa rt i cular m.:fa , p, where p1,c is the perpendicular vector
from axis p to the object's centroidal axis.
(C) 1 5 kN
(D) 19 kN Example
A net unbalanced torque acts on a 50 kg cylinder that is
Solution allowed to rotate around its longitudi1rnl cent.roidal a'(is
Prom Newt.on's second law, Eq. 38.2, t.he force required on frictionless bearings. The cyli nder has a rad i us of
to stop a constant. mass of 3 kg moving at a speed of 40 cm and a mass moment of inertia of 4 kg·m2 . The
5 m /s is cylinder accelerates from a standstill with an angular
( )1�)
·
acceleration of 5 rnd / s2 .
I F= m dv/dl = ni(t:..v/t:.. l)
� �
(
m m 40 cm
S O
= (3 kg) s s friction less
(8
beari ng
x 10� s) 1000
IF = fll(I,. 38.3
(C) 200 N·m
I1\fr1 = fr<x +
38. 4
( )
t. he cylinder is
A rigid body is a complex shape that cannot be described
J,�o
as a particle. Geuerally, a rigid body is 11011homogeneous
'°' M . , = = (4 kg·m2 ) 5
rad
(i.e., the center of mass does not coincide wit.h t.he volu L,, s2
metric center) or is constructed of sub compo nen t s In
= 20 N111
.
('
rigid body, but the law must be applied twice: once for 2
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
l<I N E 'f l C S 383
LJ\J,,. = I , u 38.8
A 1nan weighs himself twice i11 a11 elevalor. When the
elevator is at rest, lte weighs 7 1 3 N; when the elevator
L,F, = 111(11a) . 38. 9 st.arts 1 1 10ving upward, he wei ghs 8H:i N. What. is most
L,Fv = 111(i1a ),, 38. 1 0 nearly the man's actual mass?
L, Mc = f c;o (A) 70 kg
L i\I f' = l:::C 1\ I,)/>
38. 1 1
38.12 (8) 73 kg
(C) 78 kg
Description (D) 83 kg
(73 kg)
s2
tion 38. 1 1 calculates the sum of moments about a rigid
= 72. 7 kg
body's cent.er of gravity (mass center, etc.), G. Equa
l.ion 38. 1 2 calculates the sum of moments about a11y
point, P.'1 The answer is (8).
5. FRICTION
4. WEIGHT
Friction is a force that always resists motion or impend
Equation 38.13: Weight of an Object ing motion. It always acts parallel to t.he con t act ing
surfaces. ff t he body is moving, the friction is known as
dynamic friction. If the body is stationary, friction is
II' = 111y 38. 1 3
known as static fric/.ion.
4(1) Equation :38.<l th rough Eq. 38.8 are prefaced in the NCEES Hand
book wit h , "\Vithont loss of generality, the body 111ay be m•s11mc<l l o be
in the i;y pl;rn('." Tltis statement sounds as though all ho<liC's cnn be
simplified to pla1111r 111otion, which is not true. The more gc 11C'rril three �(l) The NCEES Hum/book introduces Eq. 38.13 with the s<'ction
dimensional c;1sc is not specifically presented, so there is no generality heading, "Concept. of Weigh!." Units of weight are specified as new
to lose. !11 fact, Eq. 38.8 represents the sum of 111oml'11ts nbont any tons. Jn fact, the concept. of weight is entirely abst'11l in the SI system.
point, so this cquntion is the more general case, not the lri;..5 grncrnl Only the concepts of 11ias.� and force nre used. The SI system d<X'S not
case. (2) Equation 38.!), Eq. 38.10, and Eq. 38.11 arc functionally the support the concept of '110dy weight" in newtons. It only supports the
same as Eq. 38.6, Eq. :38.7, and Eq. 38.8 and are redundant. Both sets concept of the force needed to accelerate a body. ln preS<'nting
of equations rire lilnite<I to the xy plane. (3) The subscripts c (crn Eq. 38.13, the NCEES Handbook perpetuates the incorrect idC'as that
troidal or center of mass) rind G (center of gravity) refer to the �mne mass and wei ght arc sy11uny1ns, and that weight s i a fixed property of a
thing. The clrnnge in notation is unnecessary. (4) The subscripts G and body. (2) The NCEES H1111dbook indmies a parenthelical "(!bf)" as the
P rire not defined. (5) The subscript k is not defined, but probably unit of weight for U.S. equat ions. Howe\'C'r, Eq. 38.13 cannot be used
meaning of 1\h must be i nferml. (6) Equation 38.11 specifies the point
represents an 11ncon1 1 no1 1 choice for the first summation variable, with customary and normal U.S. units (i.e., mass in pounds) without
normally i. Since k docs not ap1X'al' in the summation symbol, the i11cl 11ding the gra,•itatioual cunslmll, g" In orrlrr to make Eq. 38.13
111ass is known as a slug, something that is 11ol C'alled out in the NCEES
C'Onsistent, the NCEES Handbook is forced lo speci fy the unit of mass
through which the rotatioual axis passc·s, Intl it does not specif y an for U.S. equal ions as lbfsec2/ft. This (cs:;c nt ial ly now obsolete) unH of
axis, ns does Eq. 38.8. Since the equations are limited to t he xy plane,
the rotational axis can on ly be parallel to the zaxis, as in Eq. 38.8. Hc111dbook. Since a slug is 32.2 times largl'r tha n a ponn<I, nn examinee
(7) The subscri p t c has been omit t ed on n, the n11g11lar acceleration u.'iing Eq. 38.13 with customary and normal U.S. 1111its conlrl easily be
·
about the crntcr of mnss, in Eq. 38.8 and Eq. 38.1 l . misdirected by the lbf label.
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
384 FE M E C 11 A N I C A L n E V I E W M A N U IJ. l.
The stati<.: coefficicut of friction is mmally denoted with Equation 38.1 4 Through Eq. 38.1 7: Laws of
the snbsrript s while the dynamic ( i . e . , kinetic) coeffi Friction
cient of friction is denoted with the subscript. k. /lk is
F � 11_, N
often assu1ncd lo be 75% of the value of JI,. The!:>e
38. 14
rnefficim1ts ::ire complex functions of surface properties.
Experimentally determined v::ilues for various cont.act. F< 11,N [110 slip ot·ru 1 ring] 38.15
ing conclit.ions ca11 be found in Landbuolrn.
F = 11,N [poi1 1 t nf ii1 1pP11ding �lip] 38. 16
For a body resting 011 a horizontal surface, the nornrnl
force, N, is the weight, W, of the body. If I he body rests F= 11 1 N [sLip orc1 m i n�] 38. 17
011 au iucli11ed surface, the normal force is calculated as
t. he component of weight normal to that surface, as Values
i llustrated in Fig. 38. l. Axes in Fig. 38. 1 are defined as
parallel a11d perpcmlicLt!ar to the inclined plane.
Description
JV = mg cos <f> = Wcos ¢1
The laws of friction state t.hat. t.he 11rnx.imum value of t.he
total friction force, F, is independent of the mag11itmle
iv'/
Figure 38. 1 Frictional and Normal Forces
of the area of co11t. act. Tlic 1naximum tot.al frict.iou force
is proportional to t.he nornrnl force, N. For low velocities
W = mg
!�!·,
of sliding, the max.imum total frictional force is nearly
independent of t.he velocity. However, experiments shmv
that. the force necessary to initiate slip is greater thau
� =
N
that, necessary l o 1naintai11 t.he mot.ion.
,, =
Fr p. impending motion
Example
R= W A boy pulls a sled with a mass of 35 kg horizo11tally over
R N <!> arctanµ5
a surface wil.h a dynamic coefficient. of friction of 0. 1 5 .
\Vliat i s most uearly t.he force required for t.he boy to
pull the sled?
The frictional force acts only iu response t o a distmbing
(A) 49 N
force, and i t increases as the disturbing force increases.
The motion of a stationary body is impending when the (B) 52 N
disturbing force reaches the maximnm frictional force, (C) 55 N
/tsN. Figure 38. 1 shows the condition of impending
(
Once mot.ion begi11s, the coefficient of friction drops
slightly, and a lower frictional force opposes JHoverncnt. Fb = F1 = 111.;N = / lkmg
This is illustrated ill Fig. 38.2.
6. KINETICS OF A PARTICLE
·················· ·····  ······················
PPI • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
I< I N E TI C S 385
Variation
Equation 38.22 Through Eq. 38.24: Equations
F, = 11111,.
of Motion with Constant Mass and Force
Description
a = F,/m
= 11,(l  111 ) +
38.22
Equation 38. 1 8 is Newton's second law iu recla11gulor
( )
Example
(B) 42 N
Description
(C) 680 N
If fi', is constant (i.e., is i11dependc11l of Lime, displace
(D) •1200 N
ment, or velocity) and mass is constant, then the equa
Solution
l.ions of mot.ion are given by Eq. 38.22, Eq. 38.23, and
Eq. 38.211.
Use Newton's second law.
for 2 s.
Example
llr = Fr/111
��1)
A force of 15 N acts on a 1 6 kg body If the body
F, = ma,.
(
is i n i t ially aL rest., approximately how fa r is i t displaced
by the force'!
( 1 700 kg) 40
= 
(A) 1 . 1 m
cm
100
Ill
(B) 1.5 111
2
= 680 kg·m/s (680 N) (C) l .9 m
(D) 2. 1 m
The answer is (C).
Sofution
Equation 38. 1 9 Through Eq. 38.21 : Equations
The acceleration is found using Newton's second law,
of Motion with Constant Mass and Force as a
Eq. 38.22.
Function of Time
15 N =
a,. = Fr/m. = k
J o,(t)dl + Vrtu
ar(t) = Fr (l)/m 38. 19 
_ 0.94 m/s
2
1G g
vr ( t )
I
J
'"
elapsed time of 2 s, the horizontal displacemc11t is found
.t(I)
38.24 .
I
from Eq.
(0.94 82 ) (2 s  0 s)2
= + :c1.,
) (2
'" :t
+ 0 s +0m
!,, F, (t)
(
Variation 111
111
s  0 s)
r 2
v.r(I) = __· dt + v,.'o
I, l1l = 1.88 111 ( 1 .9 111)
P P I • www.ppi2pass.com
386 F E M E C H A N I C A l R E V I E W M A N U A L
Equation 38.25 and Eq. 38.26: Tangential Radial and Transverse Components
Por a µarticle moving along a cirr.11lnr path, the radial
and Normal Components
and t.ransverse compo11cnts of force are
'L,F1 = m a 1 = 111 dvtf rlf 38.25
Description
For a parl.icle moving along a circular path, the tangen
tial and non11al components of force, acceleration, aml
velocity arc related.
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
l. Mass Momcut of Inertia . 391 1 . MASS MOMENT OF INERTIA
2. Plane Motion of a R igid Body .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
396
3. Rotation About a Fixed Axis
. . . . . . . . . . .
396
4. Centripetal and Centrifugal Forces
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
!
NomenclatLu·e
[=. 1· rlu1
2
acceleration m /s
.! (!/ + _z°')dm
a
2
39. 1
A area 111 'l
j (:1? + i:l)dm
39.2
1;1 force N
2
g gravitational acceleration, 9.81 m/s
H
Ii height 111 1 ,1 =
/c:c
39.3
1
angular moment.um N·m·s
2
mass moment. of inertia kg·m
I length m 1, = + .1/)r1 111 39.4
L lengl:h Ill
1
m mass kg
1
M mass kg
J\[ moment. N·111
1l quant.ity
Description
I' radius of gyration Ill The mass moment of ·inertia measures a solid object's
R wean radius Ill resistance to changes in rotational speed about a specific
time s a.xis. Equation 39.l shows that the mass moment of
v velocit.y m/s inertia is calculated as the second moment of the mass. 2
IV weight. N When the origin of a coordinate system is located a t the
object's center of mass, the radius, r, to the differential
Symbols element can be calculated from the components of posi
a· angular aecclerat.ion ra<l /s
2
tion as
J:i;2 + y2 + z2
0 angular posit.ion rad
r=
ti coefficient of friction
3
p density kg/ m
w angular velocity ra<l/s
{ r2 d \I
initial
JI'
centrifugal or cent.roidal
I =p
c
f frictional
G center of gravity
J 1, or JJJ.
total mass of nonparticles (i.e., cylinders) . Care must be taken when labeled "�lass �lament of Inertia," each covering the same topic.
solving problems involving both mass and moment, as equations for (2) The integral shown in Eq. 3!J. l is implicitly a triple integral
both quantit ies use the same symbol. (volume integral), more properly shown as
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
392 I' E M E C f1 A N I C A L R E V I E W M A N U A L
Equation 39.5 and Eq. 39.6: Paral lel Axis Equation 39. 7: Mass Radius of Gyration
�
Theorem
r,,, = 39. 7
' "'''" =
I = I c: m 1/2
I, + 11/(p 39.5
Variation
1 39. 6
T = ,.2 m
Variation
Description
The mass radius of gyration, r,,,, of a solid object repre
scuts the distance from the rotat.ional axis aL which the
Description object's ent.ire mass could be located without changing
The centroidal 111ass moment of ine1tia, lei is obtained the mass moment. of inertia.
when t.he origin of t.he axes coincides with Lhe object's
center of gravity. 3 The parallel m:is theorem, also known
as the transfC1' a:cis theure111, is used to find the mass
y
Equation 39.8 Through Eq. 39.1 9: Properties
momenL of inertia about any axis. Tn Eq. 39.5, d is t.he of Uniform Slender Rods
distance from the center of ma&; to t.he new ax_is.
For a composite object, the parallel axis theorem must
be app]jecl for each of the const.ituc11t objects, as shown
in the variation equation. z
Example
The 5 cm long uniform slender rod shown has a mass of
20 g. The origin of the yaxis corresponds with the rod's
center of gravity. The centroidal mass moment of inertia mass and cent.raid
y' y
is 42 g·cm 2 .
i\J = pLA 39.8
Y< = 0 39. 1 0
x
39. 1 1
2 cm 0 5cm
z, =
I r = Ir. = 0
I y, = I,, = J\/ L'I.I l 2
vVhat. is most nearly Lhe mass moment of inertia of the
rod about the y axis 2 cm to the left?
1
39. 12
39. 13
( A ) 0 . 2 kg·cm2 I ti = ML /3
. 'l.
Iz = 39. 14
= = £2/3
,.1
y,.
= , .2:,
= L2/12 39. 1 6
Solution
1'2 /''/.
39. 1 7
The y axis is 2 crn from the yaxis. The center of grnvity of
!I z
t.he rod is located halfway along its length. Use Eq. 39.5.
42 g·c m2 + (20 g)( 2.5 cm + 2 cm ) 2
product of inertia
IJ, y, = 0
111 = le + m d2 = g
1000 39. 18
kg
J J!I = 0 39. 1 9
= 0.45 kg·cm2
The answer is (C).
Description
Equation 39.8 through Eq. 39. 1 9 give the properties of
3
Equation 39.5 and Eq. 39.6 both appear on the same page in the
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
l< I N E T I C S O F R O T A T I O N A L M O T I O N 393
r1 R2 /2
The vrodnct of inertia is zero if the object is symmet
rical about an axis perpendicular to the plane defined =
R
I
= r'l 39.28
I/,
by t.he s11bscripted axes. r» 2 =
?
39.29
r., = =
?
'l
'JR·/2
,:� = 3R'!
l',1 39 .30
Example
A uni form rod is 2.0 m long and has a mass of 15 kg. 39 .31
\Vhat is most. nearly the rod's mass moment. of
inertia? product. of i11m·t.ia
(D) 31 kg·m2
Description
Solution
Equal.ion 39.20 tluough Eq. 39.34 give the properties of
located aL (:i;c, ) designated point c, and measured
From Eq. 39.14, the mass moment of inertia of the rod is slender rings. The center of mass ( ceutcr of gravity) is
Ye, zc ,
Example
z
The period of oscillation of a clock balance wheel is 0.3 s.
x The wheel is coustructed a slender ring with its 30 g
m;
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
394 F E M E C H A N I C A L R E V I E W M A N U A L
( )( )
designated a,xis from t.he centroid where all of the mass
I = MR2 can be assumed to be concentrated. ry, is the radius of
2 gyration of the cylinder about an axis parallel to the
30 g Q. 6 cm g
yaxis and passing throu h the centroid. /cy is Lhe prod
= uct of inertia, a measure of symmetry, with respect to a
10 kgg 100 cm
:1 plane containing the subscripted axes. The product of
inertia is zero if the object is symmetrical about a n axis
Ill
mass and cent.raid Find the mass moment of inertia using Eq. 39.41.
!Cc = Q 39.36
r2 = r2 = R2/2
y, y
39. 43
I
r; r; (3R2 + 4h2)/12
= = 39. 44 c
I
I
h
1
product of inertia  ,1'
/ x
39. 45
39. 46
mass and centroid
rr(Ri  R�)p!t
Description
M is the total mass; p is the mass density, equal to the Ye = h/2 39.49
mass divided by the volume; 1 is the mass moment of Zr = 0 39.50
inertia about the subscripted axis, used in calculating
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
l{ I N E T I C S O F R O T A T I O N A L M O T I O H 395
mass moment of inertia \·Vhat. is most nearly the cylinder's mass mornent of
i11ertia about an axis perpendicular to the cylinder's
39.51 longitudinal axis and located at the cylinder's encl?
39.52 (A) 0.41 kg·m2
39.53 (B) 0.79 kg·m2
(C) 0.87 kg·m2
( radi11s of gyralion) 2
(D) 1.5 kg·m2
�
r2= 1:2� = (3R.lI + 3 ll?2 + h2 )/12 39.54
111
v. !/ I 2
39. 56
The outer radius, R.1 , and inner radiut;, R2 , are
T
prodllcl of inertia R 1 = 1 = 0.5 m
I ,,,,, = ( ) 39.57
R.2 = 
0.8 111 = 0.4 111
2
II// = () 39.58
Example
A hollow cylinder has a mass of 2 kg, a height of 1 m, an
outer diameter of 1 m, and an inner diameter of 0.8 m.
mass and centroid
I
I
39. 59
I
I lm
II
39.60
I
Yr = 0 39.6 1
('
 �/
 mass moment. of inerlfo
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
396 F E M E C M A N I C A L R E V I E W M A N U A L
( rndi11s of 9yralio11) 2 which t.hc body could be fixed (pinned) without chang
,.� � = '2. R2 /5
ing the instantaneous angular velocities of any point. on
2 R1 /5
= r 39.66 the body. For angular velocitie:;, the body seems to
r2 rotate about a fixed, instantaneous cent.er.
2n 1ri
'l
= r =
39.67
'h t/
'l
,. = r
'l
= ')
39.68
The instantaneous center is located by fiuding two
points for which the absolute velocity directions arc
product of inertin known. Lines drawn perpendicular to these two veloc
ities will intersect. at t.he i11sla11taneous center. (This
graphic procedure is slightly different if the two veloc
39. 69
ities are parallel, as Fig. 39.2 shows.) For a rolling wheel,
the instantaneous center is the point. of contact. wit.h t.hc
Description supporting surface.
Equation 39.59 t.lnough Eq. 39.69 give the properties of
at. (x,,, Ye, zc), designated point M is the total mass; p is
spheres. The center of mass (center of gravity) is located Figure 39.2 Graphic Method of Finding Ille Instantaneous Center
c.
plane motion
ll c
11 ( 11  1)
translation rotation
2
C = '
  39. 70
Hu = d( /ow)/ di = M 39.74
+L J M11i1li
f,
Variations
(A) 3
( C) 5
(B) 1l
M = dHo
dt
(D) 6
=
dw =
li1 I la
Solution dt
This is a fourbar linkage. The fotuth bar consists of the
Description
fixed link between points 0 and C. Use Eq. 39.70. The
number of instantaneous centers is Alt.hough Newtou's laws do not specifically deal wit.Li
rotation, there is an analogous relationship between
l)
6.
n(n  1) (4)(4 
applied moment ( torque) and change in angular

c 


2


momeutmn. For a rotating body, the moment ( torque) ,
2 Ivl, required to change the angular momentum is given
by Eq. 39.74.
The answer Is (0).
Tl1e rotation of a rigid body will be about the center of
gravity unless the body is constrained otherwise. The
scalar form of Eq. 39. 74 for a constant moment of inertia
Equation 39. 71 Through Eq. 39. 73: Angular is shown in the second variation.
Momentum
For a collection of particles, Eq. 39. 74 may be expanded
as shown in Eq. 39.75. Equation 39.75 determines the
Ho = r x mv 39.71 angular moment.um H t. time � from the angular momen
L,J I2Mo;dt.
H0 = f11tv tum at time li , "" (H u; )1 , and the angular impulse of the
L,_,
39.72 I
moment. between t1 and /?., ""
l:(sysl. H)1 = l:(syst. H)2 39.73 11
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
398 F E M E C H A N I C A L R E V I E W M A N U A L
1 N·m
Use Eq. 39.83 to find lhe augulm accelcratiou of the
wheel when subjected to a 1 N · I l l moment.
L,M'/ = 1 qO 39.76
2 I<g·m2
a = M.,/ I q =
a =
dw
(generalJ 39.77
di
c/O = 0.5 rad/s2
w =  [g.enm1IJ
)
39.78
(
clI
From Eq. 39.84, the angular velocity artcr 5 s is
1
W = W11 + ll, f rad (
w dw = o dO [gt'ucrnl] ,'J9.79
39.80 = 0 ;
rad
; +
0= +2
O.fJ 5 s)
( 3 racl/s)
,,; = ,,;0 + a· t
s2
fin + Wuf Cl, l1 39.81
= 2.5 rad/s
w2 = w121 + •2or(O  Oo) 39.82
Tfle answer is (8).
= J\1,1 / ]'/
(\ 39.83
0 = Ou + Wo l + o12/2
w = L<:o + o f 39.84
4. CENTRIPETAL AND CENTRIFUGAL
J 1\J"dO
39.85 FORCES
,1w�1 2 = 2 • r
/ qw11/2
II
NewLon 's second law states that there is a force for every
I 39.86 accelerat.ion LhaL a body experiences. For a body moving
u,, around a curved path, t.he total acceleration can be
separated into tangential and normal compo1 1e11ts. By
j a dl (A:) t.
Variations Newton's second law, there are corresponding forces i n
+
the tnngential and normal cfaections. The force nsso
w= = wo ciatcd with the normal acceleraL!on is known as the
cenl.ripetal force. The centripetal force is a real force
Oil the body toward the center or rotation. The socalled
Fc = ma,. =  = mrw2
when the angular acceleraLio11 of the rotating body is
variable. Equation 39.80 through Eq. 39.82 apply when mv�
the angular acceleration of the rotating body is con ,.
staut. 6 Equation 39.83 through Eq. 39.85 apply when
the moment applied to the fn•ed axis is constant. The 5. BANKING OF CURVES
change in kinetic energy (i.e., the work done to acceler
ate from w0 to w) is calculated using Eq. 39.86. If avehicle travels in a circular path on a flat plane with
instantaneous radius r and tangential velocity v1, it will
(C ) 5 rad/s
(B) 3 rad/s
For large banking angles, the centrifugal force contrib
utes to the normal force. If the roadway is banked so
(D) 1 0 rad/s that friction is noL required to resist the centrifugal
force, the superelevation augle, e, can be calculated from
&The use of subscript c in the NCEES Hnndbook Dynamics section to
drsignate a constant angular acceleration is nut a normal and custom \12
ury engineering usage. Since subscript c is routinely used in dynamics
to designate ccntroidal (mass center), the subscript is easily
tan e = _..!_
gr
misinterpreted.
P P I • w w w . p 1> i 2 p a s s . c o m
r
F
e
E energy J
fo rce N t.han one force ca.ii be found by superposition.
!I gravitational accelerat ion, 9.81 1 1 1/s2
" height Ill
.I Fdr
k spring constant N/rn Equation 40.1 Through Eq. 40.6: Work 1
m mass kg
/ Fcos
M moment N·111
p
p linear rno1ne11l11111 kg·m/s II' = 40. 1
[variable force}
power w
,. {/ F =
= (F. cos O)b.8 fcom;laul force}
distance 111 ()ds 40.2
s position Ill
I
I time s
(/ F 40.3
Uw =  11'6y
·l•·(s.12
T k inelic energy J fw<'ight) 40. 4
u potential energy J _ 2
\' velocit.y lll/S U,   s1 ) fspring] 40.5
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
402 F E M E C H A N I C A l. R E V I E \'/ M A N U A L
earth's
cJroppPd, nnd the cJifferPntial ds replaced with /1s, as i11 A 35()() kg cicir lraveliug at 65km/h skids. The cnr hits a
Eq. 40.3.3
Equal.ion 40.4
represents the work done i11 a wall 3 s later. Tllf• coefficient of frict. ion bet ween t.lw
moving weight, II', a vertical cJistam:P, /1y, nga inst tires and t.he road is 0.GO, a 11<l the spPed of the car when
gravitat.ional field. 1 Eqnation 40.5 represents Lhc work it. !tits t.he wall is 0.20 m/s. \Vhat. is most nParly Lhc
nssociaLccJ wit,h a cl1a11gc extension or cowpression i11 a energy t. hat the bumper must absorb i11 order to prnvent
work performed by a couple ( i.P., a 111011ient ), M, rota ting
spring wit.h a spring constant. k." Eqna t.i o n
(A) 70 .]
2. r<INETIC ENERGY (Il) 140 J
x
change in ('11ergy to stored C'nrrgy.
';Tbe NGEES Hn11dbook a.<;SOdatl'S Eq . .JO.G wi t h a ''couple momrnt,"
z
an uncommo11 term. A prope1 ty of a rnuple is the 111oincnt it impnrls,
so it is nppropriate to speak of tho moment of n couple. Similarly, n
properly of n hurricane s i its wind speed, but rcfc1 1 ing to the hm ricnnr CivPn an a11gular velocity of 30 rad/s about the :rr::t..xis
itself as n hurricane speed would be improper. If Eq. 40.G is meant to
describe a pure moment causing rotat ion wit honl trnnslatio11, the
a11<l 3rad/s about the yaxis, t.hc kinetic energy of the
term.� co111ife, pure mo111enl, or torque wonlcl nil lie <tppropriate. disk is most nearly
7(1) The NGRBS ffondbook nsrs different vmiabit"':S lo represent kinot ir
energy. 111 its section on Units, l<E is used. In its Dynamics section, T
(A) 0.62 J
i use<I. (2) 111 its description of Eq. •10.7, the NGBl.!.:S liawlbook n&'S
s
bold l', indirnting a l'ector quu ntity, but s11hscq11e11tly, does not indi
(B) 1 7 .J
ca te n vector quru1tity in the equation. I<inctic cner�· is not n vector
qunntit.y, and a vector 1·elucit,1· is not required to calcnlate k i netic
(C) 18 J
en<'rgy. (D) 34 .1
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
E N E R G V f\ N D W 0 l'l I< 403
 
of inertia for t.he disk, the kiuet.ic energy is most ne<1rly .J
(B) 1 200 .J
2 f,<vr 2 J
y(v ,1 l ,tv, 2 1 (C) 1<100 .1
T = l1rcv / 2 =
( )
=2 +o Solution
2 2
 
The linear velocity is
(!) 3 0 rad ,_
)
(
0 kg)
5 cm
2 (I I 00 cm
2
( s
kJll )
2)
= "'"'
Ill (50 �)
h
( 1000 �
�) (oo min

2
( 10 kg)(0. 5 m)
2
I
'u
=
)
)
(GO mm h
+
2
+o
13.8!)
Ill
= ( 1 7 J) W = Vo S
16 . D .1
r
=
0.5 m
2
= 55.56 rad/s
Tile answer is (8).
I l \
of Rigid Bodies
�) 2
40.9
=  +
T ( ,2" + ,,2,. , )/2 + I, w2, /2 40. 10 2 2
(10 kg) l3.89(
40. t 1
Description
The change i n kinetic energy is calculated from the dif
ference of squares of velocity, uot from t.he square of lhe
velocity difference (i.e., m (v�  vT}/2 =J m(v 2  v 1 ) 2 /2).
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
404 F E M E C H A N I C A L R E V I E W M A N U A L
U = myh 40. 12
Description
A spring is an energy storage device beca11se a compressed
spri11g has t.he ability to perform work. In a perfect spring, h=6m
the amount of energy stored is equal to the work required
to compre&<; the spring in.it.ially. The stored spring energy
does not. clcpeud on the mass of the spring.
compressed
Equation 40.13 gives Lhe force in a spring, which is the
m = 40 kg
position
product of the spring constant (stiffness), k, and the k = 3000 Nim
displacement of the spring from its origi11al position, x.
k.c2/2 =
(D) 63 N/m
2
u= __ __.:.
11
=1____
= 375 .1
Solution (380 J)
The gravitational force on the mass is t.he sa111e for both
springs. From Hooke's law,
25 cm
'
=
11
1 .
_ __
Equation 40.1 5: Change in Potential Energy
X2
= 60 N/m
40. 15
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
E N E R G Y A N D w o n •< 405
Description 4. ENERGY
. ... CONSERVATION .. ..
PRINCIPLE
.. . . .. .. ...... . . . ..
The change in potential energy storc<l iu Lite spring Aceording to the e11eryy co11sernalio11 7ll'i11cip/e, energy
when the defon11atio11 iu the spring changes rrom posi cannot be created or dest.royed. However, energy ca11 be
tion :i:1 to position :i:.i is found from Eq. '10 . 15. 8 transfornlf'd into different forllls. Therefore, t.he sum of
Equivalent Spring Constant all euergy forws of a system is r.onstnnt.
The ent.ire applied load is felt by each spring in a series
of springs linked endloend. The e1J11 ivo/enf (composite)
[ spri11g,s
L E = constant.
J
spri11y collslcml for springs in series is
Because energy can neither be created 11or dcst.royed,
J 1 l 1 series external work performed on a conservative system must
= +++ · · ·
k,..I k1 k2 /.:3 go into changing t.he system's total energy. Tbis is
known as [.he workenergy pri11cip/e.
Springs in parallel (e.g., concentric springs) share the
[ pnr
applied load. Tht> equivalent spring constant. for springs
in parallel is
� llcl ] Ce1wrally, the priuciple of conservation of energy is
sprmgs applfo<l to mechanical energy problems (i.e., conversion
of work into kinetic or p0Le11t.ial energy).
Equation 40. 1 6 Through Eq. 40.18: Combined Conversion of one form of energ)' i11Lo anot.her does not
Potential Energy violate the conservation of energy law. �fost problems
involving conversion of energy are really special cnses.
I' = \f,1 + \I, 40. 16 Por example, consider a falling body t.hat is acted 11po11
by a grnvital.ional force. The co11versio11 of pot.ent.ial
\l� = ± ll'y 40. 1 7
energy into kinetic energ)' can be interpretecl as equat
\I, = + 1 /2/.:.</ 40. 18 ing the work clone by the constant gravitational force lo
l.he change in kinetic energy.
Description
In mechanical systems, there are two conunon co111po
ncnls or what is normally referred to as potential energy: Equation 40.19: Law of Conservation of
gravitational potential energy and st.rain encrgy.9 For a Energy (Conservative Systems)
system containing a linear, elastic spring t.hat. is locatecl
at some elevation in a gravitational field, Eq. 110.16 gives
the total of these two components. 1 0 Equation 40. 1 7 40. 19
gives the potential energy of a weight i n a gravitational
fiekl. 1 1 Equation 40. 18 gives t.l1e strain energy in a lin Description
ear, elastic spri11g. 1 2 fi'or conser11ative systems where there is no energy dis
8 sipation or gain, the total energy of t.hc ll)USS is equal to
The NCEES fl1111tlbook nsrs the notation T to denote positio n, HS in
Eq. 40.14, and lo drnotc change n length (i.e., a cha nge in position
t.he sum of the kinetic and potential (gravitational an<l
1h), a.s in Eq. 40.15.
i
In E<J. •I0.5 and Eq. 40.18, the NCEES fln111/buok elastic) energies.
uses s inslcad of ,. ns in Eq. •l0.15, but the meaning is the �a 1 n1 '.
�
Equation 40. 1 6 is nol lirnited to mechanical systems. Potential rnrrgy
storn�e cxisls in cil'tlricnl, magnetic, fluid, pneumatic, and thl' 1 1 11al
Example
systems idso. A projectile with a rnass of L O kg is fired directly upward
1 ( 1 ) Although P8 is used in the Units St:ction of from ground level with an iuitial velocity of 1000 111/s.
1 1
lhl' NCEES llantf
book lo identify pot e ntial energy, and U is dl'finl'd as energy in the
Dy1w111irs spct ion, the NCl!'ES Ha11tf/Jook introduces ll 1 u �w Vllfinble, I',
Neglect.ing the effects of air resistance, what will be lhe
for potenlial energy. Outside of the con�rvation of c·nt•rgy cquntion, speed of the projectile when it impacts t.he ground?
this new v:irialile does not seem to be used clsewhC'rc in the NCEES
f/111111/muk. (:.1) \19 11nd I', h<we previously (i11 the NCEES flrrndbook)
(A) 710 m/s
bc<n rl'presentl'<l hy Uw 11nd U,, among other:;. (3) The suhsciipls y (B) 980 m/s
and c arc 1 111ddi11rd, hul grnvitational accelC'ration is i1nplil'<l for y.
(C) 1000 m/s
)
The llll'Hlling of P is unclear but almost certainly rt'fl'rs lo an elast ic
)
 uses y whill• olh<'r C'quations in the Dynamics
section of the NCEES ffo11dbook 6y :md h. !I is implit'itly thl'
1 1( 1
use
distance from some arbitrary C'lcvalio11 for which y= 0 is assigned. Equ11t ion cl0.18 has prm·iously l>1.'t'n prrs<'nlecl with different
(2) This use o f ± is iuco1 1sistr11l wil h a thenn<Xlynamic interpretation \'aririhll':> in th is section as Eq. 40. 1 4. (2) Equa t ion 40.18 uses s wlLi lc
of rnrrgy, ns wns apparently used in Eq. •IO..t. The sign of the ener�· othcr eqm1tiuns in the Dynamics section of the NCF:RS llmrdbuok use
�
would 1101 rnnlly be derived fro111 t11c position, which can be posith·e or The + sy111hol is ambiguous, but prob11bly should be interpreted
�
(3)
11C�lll i\'C. B.v using ±, the implication is that y is nlw11ys a positi\'e
s.
a� 111ea11i11g ki11rtit enrrgy s
i always positin.>. Tiu• + is rl'dnndant,
q11a11lity, rc·gnrdle;;
s of whether the uiass is <ilJO\'C nr hrlow I he refer becausc lhc s1 tcrn1 is ulw11ys gitive.  ·l) Equation 4 0 . 1 8 should not
_
cncc datu1n. be mterprcted as one u\'l'r two t 11nes k.c
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o rn
406 F IE M E C 11 A N I C /I L A E V I E W M A N U /I L
 + mghi =  + 111.11'11
I mp
mv� 111vi
2 2 1, 12
111v�  mv�
( 111qh 1  mgh1) + =0
2
Equation 40.21 and Eq. 40.22: Impulse·
111(vi  v�)
o+ =o Momentum Principle for a Particle
2
\,22  ,,2I
111 dv/tll
dv Fdl
= F 40.21
111 = 40.22
= 1000 lll/s
Va1 latlon
If air resistance is 11cglccted, the impact. velocity will be
the same as the initial velocity. F ( /2  1 1 ) = Ll(mv)
40.20 Example
( 1 �) ( 1 000 �)
vector momentum. Units o f linear impulse are the same The original velocity of the GO 000 kg railcar is
, Felt
t.rates that impulse is represented by the nrea under the
(60 �) (
.! 11,
forcetime curve.
v= h k�ll
111111
)
Imp =
Go
llllll h
= 0.2777 m/s
I f t.he applied force is constant, impulse 1s easily Use the impnlsemorncntulll principle.
�)
calc11l<1tecl.
FtJ.t. = mtJ.v
11
1  0.2
111(VJ  V2 ) (60 000 kg)(0.27 77 '
The change i11 momentum is equal t o the impulse. This F
   
S 
S
�  
Imp = Llp
The answer is (D).
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
E N E R G Y A N D W O R K 407
J F, dl
coupled to a st atio11ary 40 000 kg railcar. What is most
1. nearly the speed of the coupl<�<l rars?
L
(8) O.GO km/h
2:111,(v,),. = 2:111,(v,)11 + 40.23 (A) 0.110 km/it
,,
(
/.,
1:�1
t.he velocit.y of two particles after collision. v 1 and v2 are
t.hc init.ial velocit.ies of I.he particles, and v� and v'2 are
the velocities alter impact..
P. =
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
408 F E M E C 11 A N I C A L R E V I E W M A N U A L
The value of Lhc cocfficie11t of rest.it.11tion ran he used Lo Equation 40.26 and Eq. 40.27: Velocity After
categorize thP rollision as elastic or iuclm;tic. For a Impact
perfectly i11clastic collision (i.e., a plast.ic collision), as
Solution
v� = v'1 = v'
m1 v 1 + 1112v2 = ( m 1 + m2 )v'
v v
v' = m1 1 + m2 2
m1 + m2
(2 kg) (4o �) + (5 kg) (10 �)
2 kg + 5 kg
= 18.6 m/s (19 m/s)
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
1. Types of Vibrations . . . .. . 411 1 . TYPES OF VIBRATIONS
2. 411
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ideal Components .
3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
as forced vibration.
9. 415
. . . . . . . . .
Undamped Forced Vibrations \\lithin both of the categories of natural and forced
10. Vibration lsolat.ion and Control . . . 416
. . . . . . . . . . . .
D
Ill
2. IDEAL COMPONENTS
Symbols
8 deflect.ion
\Vhen used to describe components in a vibrating sys
0 angular position
Ill
rad
tem, the adjectives ve1fect and ·ideal generally imply
linearity and the absence of friction and damping. The
period s
r
behavior of a linear compone11l can be described by a
=
natural frequency rad/s
w
linear equation. For example, the linear equation F = kx
describes a linear spring; however, the quadratic equa
Subscripts tion F Cv2 describes a nonlinear dashpot. Similarly,
0 initial F = ma and F = Cv are linear inertial and viscous
c complementary forces, respectively.
I forcing
11 natural
p particular 1
Although t.he convention is by no means universal, the variable .z; is
st. static commonly used as the position variable in oscillatory systems, even
I torsional when the motion is in the vertical (y) direction.
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
4 12 F E M E C H A N I C A L R E V I E W M A N U A L
Figure 41.2 Single and Mulliple Degree of Freedom Systems Figure 41.4 Simple SpringMass System
t + deflected
k x position of static
I position
equilibrium
t x
.'.  equilibrium
m
x
3.. STATIC DEFLECTION
Au import.ant concept. used in calculating t.he behavior
of a vibrating system is the static deflect·ion, 6,,1• This is
the deflection of a mechanical system due to gravita t or w t
tional force alone. 2 (The disturbing force is not consid
erecl.) In calculating the static deilcction, it is extremely
important to distinguish between mass and weight. Fig
ure 4 1 .3 illustrates two cases of static deflect.ion. Description
Example
_
k
Sst 
_
(weight)L3
A pump with a mass of 30 kg is supported by a spring
r   1
48£/
I I with a spring constant of 1250 N/m. The motor is con
I
(b)
J
J_ strained to allow only vertical movement.. What is most
�
_ _ _
4. FREE VIBRATION
The simple mass and ideal spring illustrated in Fig. 4 1 .4
{D) 0.31 Il
{ C ) 0.211 m

k6st
released, it will oscillate up and clown. Since there is no
friction {i.e., the vibration is undamped), the oscillations mg=
Il )
{j
(
will continue forever. (See Fig. 4 1 .5.) mg
sl k
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
V I B A A I I 0 N S 4 1�3
Equation 4 1 .5 Through Eq. 41 .8: General Equation 4 1 .9: Specific Solution to Simple
Solution to Simple SpringMass System SpringMass System
w,, = Ji71J:,
Description
41.7
ff fl
ity) an be used to determine t.he constants of integra
tion, C'i and C2, i n Eq. 41.5. Equation 41.9 is the
Tn
41.8 c
k g
\ ;{ \ 8.1 solution to the initial value problem.
Example
Vari ations
A mass is hung from a spring, which causes the spring to
be displaced by 2 cm. The mass is then pulled down
G cm and released. What is most nearly the position of
the mass after 0.142 s?
IIl l
2rr
T = f1 =  (A) 0.0G m
w
(B) 0.02
Description
C1 and C2 are constants of integration that depend on
the initial displacement and velocity of the mass. w is
known as the natural frequency of vibrnt.ion or a11gular
(C) 0.04
(D) 0.08 Il
frequency. It has units of radians per second. It is not
the same as t he linear frequency, f, which has units of
Solution
lJ
The initirll velority of lhe mass is rad/s, and the initial
position of t.hc 111ass is G cm. From Eq. 4 1 .!J, t he position
7. NATURAL FREQUENCY
····· ······· · · ··· . . ...... . . . . ..... .. ....... . .
(l�Oc�)
placement. For t.hc spriugurns8 system shown i.11
r d Fig. 4 1 .6, the energy conservation equal.ion is
= cos ( (22 . 1 : ) (0. 1 4 2 s) )
�
U=k
ll1
+
2 2
( 1° ) ,; n ( ( 22 1 ':d) ( O J 42 sl)
22 � The velocit.y ftmction is derived by t aking the derivative
of the position function .
= 0.05!)!) m (0.06 m)
The negative sign indicates that the location is on the :i; ( l) = :1:11wx sin w/
opposite side of the neutral ( eqttilibrium) point from
d:v( l)
where I.he syslcrn was released.
Tile answer is (A). v(t.) =
1 = iu:i;m�x cos wt
( /,
The previou8 equation shows that v"'""' = iu:i.;11ax· Sub
5. AMPLITUDE OF OSCILLATION stituting this into the energy conservation equatiou
derives the naturnl circular frequency of uibmtion.
With natural, undamped vibrations, the initial condi
Lions (i.e., initial posit.ion and velocity) do 11ot. affect the k
natural period of oscillation. The amplitude, A, of l.hc (<)2 = 
oscillations will be affected, as shown. Tllis mean:;, no
111.
matter how far I.he spring is initially displaced before 8. TORSIONAL FREE VIBRATION
release, the frequency of oscillatiou and period will be
the same. However, the excursions of each oscillatio11 The torsional pendulum shown in Fig. 41. 7 can be ana
will depend on the initial displacement. For a perfect lyzed in a manner analogous to the springmass
lossless system, the mass will return to the point of co111bination.
initial displacement in each oscillation.
Figure 41.7 Torsional Pendulum
J G L
6. VERTICAL VERSUS HORIZONTAL
OSCILLATION
As long as friction is absent, the two cases of oscillation
shown in Fig. 4 1 .6 are equivalent (i.e., will have the
same frequency and amplitude). Although it. may seem
that there is an extra gravitational force with vertical
motion, the weight of the body is completely canceled
by the opposite spring force when the system is in Equation 41 .1 0 and Eq. 41 . 1 1 : Differential
equilibrium. Therefore, vertical oscillations about an Equation of Motion for Simple Torsional
equilibrium point are equivalent to horizout.al oscilla Spring
tions about. t.he unstressed point.
Figure 41.6 Vertical and Horizontal Oscillations "ii + (k,/ 1)0 = 0 41. 10
k Description
The differential equation of mot.ion, Eq. 41. 10, disre
gards the mass and moment of inertia of the shaft.
m The solution to the differential equation, shown
i n Eq. 4 1 . 1 1 , is directly analogous to the solution for
t.he springmass system.
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
V I D fl A T I 0 N S 4 15
Equation 4 1 . 1 2: Torsional Spring Constant Using Eq. 4 1 . 13, the 1111damped natural circ11lar fre
quency is
k1 = C:J/L 41. 12 N·m
0.625
rad
W11 = /f;fJ =
0 . 1 563 kg·m2
Variation
k1 = w1 I = 2.0 rad /s
{ffk, = lf1
Equation 4 1 . 1 5: Undamped Natural Period
= ,2rr/.,;11 =
2n 2n 41. 15
\T IL
C:.J
Tn
Equation 4 1 . 1 3 and Eq. 4 1 . 1 4: Undamped
Circular Natural Frequency
= /C:Jj LL 41.14
Similar to the undamped natural p riod of vi e brat.ion for
a linear system (sec Eq. 111.8), t he undamped natural
wn
Description
period for a torsional system can be
calcnlated from
Eq. 4 1 . 15.
t
Eq11at.ion 4 1 . 1 3 gives he undamped 11at11rol circular
frequency, w,,, for a solid, round supporting rod used as
9. UNDAMPED FORCED VIBRATIONS
a torsional spring. Using the relationship from
Eq. 4 1 . 12, t he undamped circular natural frequency When an external F( t), act on the
disturbing force, s
can be r ewr itten as Eq. 4 1 . 14. J is
the polar area sy::;tem, the system is said be
to forced. A I t ho ugh the
moment of inertia of the vertical support, with un i ts of forcing function is usually considered to per io i , it
be dc
m4 . I is the polar mass moment of i er ia of he oscillat
n t t need not. b e ( as in the case of impulse, step, and random
ing inertial disk, with units of kg·m2 . They are not the functions) .3 However an initial disturbance (i.e., when a
,
same. mass is displaced and released oscillate freely) is not
to
nn example of a forcing function. (Sec Fi 41 .8.) g .
Solution
F(I)
The mass moment of inert ia of the disk ( a cylinder) is
I = MR2 2 /
(5 kg)(0.25 m ) 2
2
= 0 . 1 563 kg·m2 a
Thc sinusoidal case is important, since rourier transforms can be used
lo model an�' forcing fnncl ion in tcn11s of sinusoids.
P P I • www.ppl2pass.com
4 16 F E M E C ti A N I C A L R E V I E W M I\ N U A L
The solntiou lo t.he d i rferent.ial equat.ion of mot.ion co11 1 ·1 . ISOLATION FROM ACTIVE BASE
sists of l he sum of two parts: a complementary solulion
and a particular solulio11. The co111ple111e11lary sol111io11 In sorne cases, a machine is to he i:;olaled from au active
is obtaiucd by sell ing Fu = 0 (i.e., solving t.he ho1110 base. The base ( floor, supports, etc.) vibrates, and tbe
geneous di ITerential equal ion). As was showu iu Eq. <I l .[i magn i t ude of t.he vibration seen by the 111achine is to be
and Eq. d U ) , the solution is li1uj[,ed or reduced. This case is 110t runclame11tally dif
ferPnt. from the cnse of a vibrating machine being iso
•••••••• .. . . . .
1 2. '11BRATIONS
•••••• ••••••• u. . ... . ... . . . . ..... . . . .. ... . . , . .. .. . .
..... . ..SHAFTS
IN .. . .. .. ' . .. . .. . . . . . .
The sol11tio11 of t h e di fferential equatiou of mot.ion is A shaft's natural freq11ency of vibration is refcnecl to as
the critical speed. This is the rotational speed in revolu
t ions per second t hat. j11st equals Lhe lateral natural
:1: ( 1. ) = A cos wl + Bsiuwl
( )
freq11e11cy of vibration. Therefore, vibration in shafts is
basically an extc11sion of lateral vibrat ions (e.g., whip
111(w  w )
+ 2
Fo cos w1 l ping "up a11d down") i 1 1 bea1ns. Rotation is disregarded,
_9
1 0. '11BRATION ISOLATION AND CONTROL The shaft will have multiple modes of vibrat.ion. C:eucral
fast
practice is to keep the operating speed well below the
·· ·· · ····· •··· ········ · · ·· ·· ·· · ······ · · · ·· · ·· · · · · · ··· · · ·· ·· ····· · · ·· • • > 0· · · · · · ·· · · · · · . . · · · · ··· ·  . .····. .· · · · .......... .
It. is oftc11 desired to isolate a rotating machine fro111 i t s first critical speed (rorresponding to the node). For
surr01111dings, t o li111it. t.he vibrations that. are t.nms shafts with dist.ribuled or m11ltiple loadings, it 111ay be
mitted lo the supports, and to reduce the amplitude o f important to know the second crit.ical speed. However,
t h e machine's vibrations. higher critical :;pccds are nsually well out of tbe range of
operation.
The t.ransmissibility (i.e., linear lransmissibility) is t.he
ratio of the transmitted force (i.e., the force transmitted For shafts with constant crosssectional areas and
to the supports) to the applied force ( i .e., the force from si1nple loading configurations, the static deflection due
t.he imbalance). lit some n1ses, the transmissibility may t o pulleys, gears, and selfweight can be found from
be rcµorled in units of decibels. beam formulas. Shafls with single anLifriction (i.e., ball
and roller) bearings at each end can be considered to be
The magnit.nde of oscillations in vibrating equipment
sirnply supported, while shafts with sleeve beari ngs or
cau be reduced and t.he equipment isolated from the
two sidebyside a n t i frictiou bearings at each shaft em!
surroundi ngs by mounting on resilient pads or springs.
than 1/ J2 =
can be considered to have fL".:ed builtin supports.'1
The isolated system mnst have a nat ural frequenc;y less
0.707 t.imes the disturbing (forcing) fre A sl1aft carrying no load other than its own weight. ran
Wf /w > J2.
quency. That is, the trnnsmissi bility will be reduced be considered as a nnifornily londed beam. The maxi
below 1 .0 only i f Otherwise, the attempted murn deflection at midspan can be found from beam
isolation will actually increase the t.ransmitted force. tablPs.
The amonnt of isolation is characterized by the iso/at.ion The das:;ical analysis of a shaft. carrying single or multi
efficiency, also known as the percent of iso/atio11 and ple inertial loads (flywheel, pulley, etc.) as
sumes that
degree of isolation. t.he shaft i tself is weightless.
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
Muito mais do que documentos
Descubra tudo o que o Scribd tem a oferecer, incluindo livros e audiolivros de grandes editoras.
Cancele quando quiser.