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OS x

A projectile i s fired from a cannon wit,h a n initial

·1 . 4. A 100 kg block is pulled along a s moo t h , flat surfat:e
velocity of I 000 m/s and at au angle of 30° from the by an external 500 N fo rce. l f Lite coefficient of frict.ion
horizontal. Approximately what distance from the can­ bctwee1t the block and the surface is 0. 15, approxi­
non will the projectile st. rikc the ground if the point of mately what horiwntal acceleration is experienced by
impact. is 1500 m below the point of release? the block due to the external force?
1000 m/s ----------
.... .... ....
....
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
\

x (B) 3.8 m/s2
(C) 4.3 m/s2
( A ) 8200

Il
111
(D) 5.0 rn/s2
(n) 67 000 Ill

(D) !H 000 nt trniler accelerate front 50 km/h to 75 km/h at a rate of

1 m/s2. The linear impulse that the car imparts to t.he
!.railer is most nearly
2. A fisherman cuts his boat's engine as it. is entering a
harbor. The boat comes to a dead stop with its front end (A) 3500 N·s
touching the clock. The fisherman's mass is 80 kg. He (B) 8700 N·s
moves 5 m from his scat in the back to the front of the
boat in 5 s, expecting to be able t o reach t.he dock. If the (C) 13 000 N·s
empty boat has a mass of 300 kg, aud disregarding all (D) 17 000 N ·s
friction, approximately how far will the fisherman have
to julllp to reac h the duck?
6. A wheel with a radius of 0.8 m rolls along a flat
(A) 1 . 1 m surface at 3 m/s. If arc A B on the wheel's perimeter
(B) 1 .3 m measures 90°, what is most nearly the velocity of point A
when poi nt B contac ts the ground?
(C) 1 .9 m
(D) 5.0 m

1
3. The elevator in a 12 story building has a nrnss of 3 m/s
1000 kg. Its maximum velocit.y and maximum accelera­
tion are 2 1tt/s and m/s2, respect.ively. A passenger
with a mass of 75 kg st. ands on a batluoom scale iu the
elevator as the elevator ascends at its ma."Xim11m accel­
erat.ion. What is most nearly the scale readiug just as
the elevator reaches its maximum acceleration?
(A) 75 N (A) 3.0 rn/s
(B) L 50 N (B) 3.4 m/s
(C) 810 N (C) 3.8 m/s
( D) 890 N (D) 4.2 m/s

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7. A 10 kg block is resting 011 a horizo11Lal circular disk SOLUTIONS

(e.g., t urntable) at a radius of 0.5 m from the center.
The coefficient of frictio11 bctwcc11 the block and disk is 1 . y = - 1500 m since it is below t.he launch plane.
0.2. The disk rotates wit.h a uniform angular velocity.
'vVhat is most nearly the minimum augular velocity of g t.2
y = v0/sin {} - -
the disk that will cause Lhe block to slip? 2
( A ) 1 .4 rad/s � t2 - vol si11 0 + 0

(�111)
JI =

( �)
(C) 3.9 rad/s 9.81
t2 - 1000 1 1 1. sin 30° + ( - 1500 m) = O

(t1.905 ��) t2 - (500 :1 1) t. + ( - 1500 m) = O

8. A perfect sphere is projectetl up a friction less incline
by a spring. \Vhich property increases?
(A) angular velocity
(B) total energy The time to impact is
(C) potential energy /1 ± Vb2 - 4 a c
/. = -

( -500 :1 1) 2 ( �1;)
[quarlrat ic formula]
2a

�s
(D) lineRr momentum
9. A ball is dropped from rest at a point 12 m above the - (4) 4.905
gTotmd into a smooth, frictionless chute. The ball exits

( �)
500 ±
the chute 2 m above t.he ground anrl at an angle 115° x ( - 1500 m)
from the horizontal. Air resistance is negligible .
Approximately bow far will the ball travel in the hori­ (2) 4.905
zontal direct.ion before hitting the ground?
= +104.85 s, -2.!J LGG s
-0
t
The horizontal distance is

( :)
:z;= votcosB
11
= 1000 ( 104.85 s)cos 30°
12 m
= 90803 m ( !J I 000 m)

�50
-----
.....

\
--
' The answer is (DJ.

t
/
/ '
/ '

2. The velocity of the fisherman relative to the boat is

2m
'\ s 5m
v = - = --
t 5s
r
= 1 m/s
(A) 12 m If the boat moves as the fisherman moves, t.he velocity or
(B) 20 m the fisherman relative t o the dock is

"nshe1111an = 1 � + vl"'al
(C) 22 m / 111 I

(D) 24 m
1 O. A 6 kg sphere moving at. 3 m/s collides with a 10 kg Use the conservatio11 of momentum.
sphere traveling at 2.5 m/s in the same direct.ion. The
6 kg sphere comes to a complete stop after the collision.
\\That is most nearly the new velocity of the 10 kg sphere 11lfishennan Vfisl1ern1011 vfi.shenn:)n
71lfishC'nnan
immediately after t.he collision?
+mix)[lt Vb<Jat + 11l boat v;>Olll
(A) 0.50 m/s
(n) 2.8 m/s
(C) 4.3 m/s
(D) 5.5 m/s

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
D I A G N 0 s T I c E x A M : D v N A M I c s J K I N E M I\ T I c s J A N D v I B R A T I 0 N s DE X-3

(·l Ill \ boat )

However, Vfi<hermn 11 = v00a1 = 0 init ially, so 5. The impulse delivered lo a system is equal lo the

- nlfi,lwm>n11
duwge i11 its rnowe11tum (t.11e i111pulsc-111omc11tuu1

( l -Ill )
0- +
/
+ 711 1,.iat \r'boat
principle).
S

(
Imp = !J.p = !J.mv = m(!J.v)

)( )
- 1ilji,!1e1111<111
vIlx1at = S = m ( v2 - v 1 )
illfi.shennun + 111boat

km km
(500 kg) 75 - 50 1000
h h km
3600 �
80 kg + 300 kg h
= -0.2 1 1 rn/s = 3472 N·s (3500 N·s)

( �1 1)
The distnnce the fisherman will have to jump is The answer is (A).

S = v(.,n t /. = -0.211 (5 s) 6. The wheel's radius is 0 . 8 n1. Point. becomes the B

i11sta11ta11cous cc11ter of rotation when it is in contact
= - 1 .05 rn (1 . 1 m) [backward] with the ground.

3. This is a direct. application of Newton's second law.

The accelerat.ion of Lhe elevalor adds l.o t.he gravita­
tional acceleration.

(
= m.(9 + o )
F = ma

s2 )
:�
B
lll
= (75 kg) 9.81 + 1 /2
= r2 + r2 [Pyt.hagorean t.heorem]
= 81 1 N (810 N) = (0.8 rn) 2 + (0.8 rn) 2
= 1.28 m2
The answer is (C).
t= vi . 28
2
1 . 13 m
The vclocit.y of point A is
m

( :' 1)
=

4. The weight. is reduced by the vertical component of

F1 = p N = /.L ( mg - Fy)
(uoo kg) ( :�)
the applied force. Tl1e frictional force is
( l . 1 3 m) 3
VA = - = ------
lv
o

= 4.24 m/s (4.2 m/s)

= 110 N
Tile answer is (D).
Use Newton's second law.
7. For the block to begin to slip, the centrifugal force
111Clr = L Fr = Fr - Ff lllllSt equal the rrictional force.
Fr, - Ff Fe = F1
llr =
m
m rw2 = 1 1 N = 1 ung
(500 N)cos 30° - 1 1 0 N l
f [}
100 kg
w2 = ­
,.
2
= 3.23 m/s ( 3 . 2 m/s2)
fi!i!.
(n.s1 s2111)
Vr
W=

The answer is (A).
(0.2)
=
0.5 111
= 1.98 ra<l/s (2.0 rad/s)
The answer is (B).

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
DE X-4 FE M E c M A N I c A L R E v I E w M A N u fl L

8. Siucc Lhc system is frictionless, t.here is no moment Solve for I usi11g the quadratic formula.
causing the sphere to rotate or stop rotating. Therefore,

:1 1 ) 2 - (11 ) (un -) ( -2 m)
augular velocity is constant. Since the system is friction­ l
= - b ± jb2 - "'(l r.
less, total energy is constant. l<inctic e11erg}' is co11-
j(
verted to potent.ial energy. As the linear velocity 2a
decreases, so <locs tLe linear mo111e11tum. 0.fJ :1 1 ± 9.9 Ill

The answer is (C). = �������

s2
(2) (4.91 ��)
9. The clrnnge in elevation bet.ween points A and B
represents a dccrc<Jse in the ball's potential e11ergy. = 2.2 s, -0.2 s
The kinetic energy increases correspondingly.
A
Calculate the distance tn1veled from the :v-componeut of
U1e velocit.y.

= v0t. cos B
:c

= 21.8 Ill (22 m)

------
10 m Tile answer is (C).

'

'
'
'

1:
1
\

· 1 = (6 kg) (0 1:1) + (10 kg)v'2

����� 1 -�������-
\\C (6

----
r

1nv­
m.g6.h = --
?

The velocity of the 10 kg sphere is

2
v2 = 296.h '13 kg·m
V = j2g6.h v� = -10-8kg- = ' .3 m/s
1
(2) (9.81 ��) (lo m) Tfle answer is (C).
= 14.0 m/s
The ball follows the path of a projectile between points B
and C.
y= T
-qt2 + vosin(B)t.
(�) /.2 - (vo sin B)t + y 0 =

y=-2 Ill .

9.81
=

(4.91 �;) t2 - (9.9 1:1 ) t. + (-2 m) =

0
0

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
D
....

l. Tntroduct.ion to l(inematics . . . . ........... 37-1 1 . INTRODUCTION TO mNEMAYICS

........................ . .... . . . . . . . . .......... . . . . . ........... ......

2. Particles and Rigid Bodies . .............. 37-1

3. Distance and Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37-2 Dynamics is the study of moving objects. The subject. is
divided into kinematics and kinet.ics. Kinematics is the
4. Rectangular Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37-2
study of a body's motion independent of the forces on
5. Rectilinear Mot.ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37-3
6. Constant Accelerat,io11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37-3 the body. It. is a study of the geometry of motion with­
out consideration of the causes of motion. K inematics
7. Non-Constant Acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37-4
deals only with relationships among position, velocity,
8. Curvilinear :Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37-5
acceleration, and time.
9. Curvilinear l\fot.ion: Plane Circular
Motion . . . . .... . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . .... . 37-5
10. Curvilinear Motion: Transverse and Radial

? � �A.:\�I..IC:..�l!:.�...':\.� �--�-1.�.1.t?....IJ.<.>.��-� �---·····

Components for Planar Motion . .... ... . 37-6
11. Curvilinear Motion: Normal and Tangential
. . ...

Components
. ......................... 37-7
12. Relative �dot.ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37-7 A body in motion can be considered a particle if rotation
of the body is absent or insignificant. A particle does not
13. Linear and Rotational Variables . . . . . . . . . . 37-8
possess rotational kinetic energy. All parts of a particle
1,1. Projectile Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37-9
have the same instantaneous displacement, velocity,
and acceleration.
Nomenclature
a accelerat.ion m/s2 A rigid body does not deform when loaded and can be
cocfficien t of frict.ion considered a combination of two or more particles that
f
I frequency Hz remain at a foced, finite distance from each other. At

gravitational accelenHion, 9.81 m/s2 any given instant, the parts (particles) of a rigid body
g
,
. posit.ion Ill can have different displacements, velocities, and accel­

·

s displacement. ill tional motion.

s distance 111
s position Ill
time s
v velocity m/s
Equation 37 . 1 and Eq. 37 .2: Instantaneous
:1: horizontal distance m
Velocity and Acceleration
elevation m

dr/dl
y

a = dv/dl
Symbols
v= 37. I
Q angular acceleration rad/s2 37.2
B angular position rad
p radius of curvature Ill Variation
w angular velocity rad/s

Subscripts
0 initial Description
constant

v,
c

I final For the position vector of a particle, r, the instantaneous

1l normal velocity, and acceleration, a, are given by Eq. 37.1
,. radia l and Eq. 37.2, respectively.
tangent.ial
:i; horizont a l Example
y vertical The position of a particle moving along the :iraxis ts
B transverse given by r( t) = t2 - t + 8, where r is i n units of meters

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
37-2 F E M E C ll A N I C A L n E V I E W M A N U /\ L

and I is in seconds. \Vliat is most nearly t.he velocity of Figure 37. 1 Rectangular Coordinates
Lhc par tic l ewhe11 I = 5 s?
y
(A) 9.0 m/s
(B) 10 ut/s
(C) 1 1 m/s
(D) 1 2 m/s

Solution
The velocity equat. ion is the first deri va t.ive of t.ltc posi­
tion equation wit.h respecL Lo time.

v(l) = dr( t)/d t

= .!!:_
dt
( l2 - t + 8)
= 2t - l
v(5 ) = (2)(5) - I

= 9.0 m/s The vector form of the par ticle 's position is r, where t.he
vector r h as both magnitude and direct.ion. The Carle­

form) is (:r, y, z) .
Tl1e answer is (A). sinn coordinate system Jann ( rectangular coordinate

3. DISTANCE AND SPEED

The terms "disp lace men t" aml "distance" have diCfcrcnt Equation 37.3: Cartesian Unit Vector Form
meanings in kinematics. Displacement (or li11enr dis­

det.errnined from the posit.ion fw1ctio11, 1 ( t). Distnnce

placement) is the net change in a particle's posit.ion as
r= :ri + !U + zk 37.3

/.raveled is the accumulated length of the path traveled

during all direction reversals, and it can be found by Description
adding the path lengths covered during periods in which
The unit. vector form of a posit ion vector is given by
the veloc ity sign does not change. Therefore, dist ance is
Eq. 37.3.
always greater t.han or equal to displacement.

Example
The position of a particle in Cartesian coordinates over
t.i me is x = in the :i'-direction, y = in t.hc y-direction ,
51. 6t
Similarly, "velocity" and "speed" have different mean­ and z = 5t in the z-clirection. What i s t.he vector form of
ings: velocity is a vector, h a vi u g both magni tud e and the particle's position, r?
direction; speed is a scalar quantity, equal to the mag­
nitude of velo ci ty. When specifyi11g speed, direction is (A) r = 6/j + 5/k
5li +
not considered. (B) r = 5ti + 6/j + 6tk
( C) 6fi + 5/j + 51/c
1· =

4. RECTANGULAR COORDINATES (D) r=61i + 5/j + 61/c

The position of a part.iclc is specified with reference to a
coordinate system. Three coordinates arc necessary to Solution
i den tify the posit.ion in three-dimensional space; in two Using Eq. 37.3, the vector form of the particle's
d imension s, two coord ina tes are uecessary . A coord in ate position is
can represent a linear position, as in t.hc rectm1gular
coordinate system, or i t ca11 represent an ang ula r posi­
t.ion, as in the polar system. r=:ri + yj + zk
Consider the pa rt.icle shown i n F ig. 37. 1 . Its position, as = 5li + 6tj + 5tk
well as its velocity and acceleration, can be specified in
three primary forms: vector form, rectangular coordi­
nate form , and unit vector form. Tile answer is (A).

P P I • w w W . Jl p l 2 p a s s . c o m
l< I N E M A T I C S 37-3

5. RECTILINEAR MOTION 6. CONSTANT ACCELERATION

Equation 37 .4 Through Eq. 37 .9: Particle Equation 37. 1 4 Through Eq. 37 .17: Velocity
Rectilinear Motion and Displacement with Constant Linear
Acceleration
dv
11 = - [grnrrnl] 37.4

v(l) = ao(t - lu) + vn

di a(t) = no 37.14
ds

.� (!) = au(t - lo) / + ''o ( I - lo)

v=- [gt'nPral] 37.5 37.15
di
'l
II d.s = \' dv [general] 37.6 2 + .s11 37.16

v2 = v� + 2nn(s - so)
+ 2a, l
v = v0 + Ocl 37.7 37. 17
l 2
s = ·'i<l + vu I 37.8

j dt
v1 = v� + 2a, (s - s ) Variations
11 37.9

Description v(t) = ao

jj dt2
A rectilinear system is one in which particles move only
in st.might lines. (Anot.her name is linear system.) The
relationships among posit.ion, velocity, and acceleration s(l) = oo

for a linear system are given by Eq. through 37.4

Eq. 37.9.Equation 37.4
through Eq. 37.6 show relation­
ships for general (including variable) acceleration of Description
particles. 1 Equation 37. 7
through Eq. 37.9 show rela­ Acceleration is a constant in many cases, such as a free­
tionships given constant acceleratio11, ac.2 falling body with constant acceleration g. If the accel­
When values of time are substituted into these equa­ eration is constant, the acceleration term can be taken
tions, the position, velocity, and acceleration are kHown out of the integrals shown in Sec. 37.5.
The iuit.ial
as insta11la11eo11s values. distance from the origin is s0; the initial velocity is a
constant, v0; and a constant acceleration is denoted o0.

Equation 37 . 1 0 Through Eq. 37 .13: Cartesian Example

Velocity and Acceleration In standard gravity, block A exerts a force of N, 10000
and block B exerts a force of 7500
N. Both blocks are
:'ri + iti + zk
!Ti + Yi + zk
v = 37.10 initially held stationary. There is no friction, and the
pulleys have no mass. Pulley A has an acceleration of
n= 37. 1 1
1.4 m/s2 once the blocks are released.
:i: = dx/clt = Vz 37.12

x= ct2 x/ dt2 = llr 37.13

Description
The velocity and acceleration are the first two deriva­
tives of the posit.ion vector, as shown in Eq. and 37. 10
Eq. 37.11.
7500 N
18quation 37.6 cnn be derived from a di= d\• and v di= ds by cli1ninnt­
ing di. One scenario where the ncceleration depends on position is a
particle being acct'lcrated (or decelerated) by a compression spring.
The spring force depends on the spring extension, so the acceleration
does also.
10000 N
2The NCEES FE Refere11ce lla11dbook (NCEES Ha11dbook) is incon­
sistent in what it uses subscripts to designate. For cxa111ple, in its
Dynamics section, it uscs subscripts to designate the location of the
What is most nearly the velocity of block A 2.5 s after
accelerating point (e.g., c in ac for acceleration of t h e centroid), the the blocks are released?
direction or related axis (e.g., x in a, for acceleration in the :i;.
direction), the type of accelerat ion (e.g., in an for normal accelera­
11 (A) 0 m/s
tion), and the moment in time (e.g., 0 in 0o for initial acceleration). In
Eq. 37.7 through Eq. 37.9, the NCEES Ha11dbook uses subscripts to
(B) 3.5 m/s
drsignate the nature of the accrlcration (i.e., the subscript c indicates
constant acceleration). Elsewhere in the NCEES Ha11dbook, the sub­
(C) ,1.4 m/s
script c is used to designate centroid and mass center. (D) 4.9 m/s

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37-4 F E M E C H A N I C A L R E V I E W M A N U A L

Solution 7. NON°CONSTANT ACCELERATION

( i.4 s2111) (
Use Eq. 37.15 to solve for the velocity of block A. Equation 37.22 and Eq. 37.23: Velocity and

s - 0 s) + O
Displacement for Non-Constant
m
V A = aA ( l - lu) + vn = 2 .5 Acceleration
s
= 3.5 m/s
I

v{I) = J o(t) dt -+ v1., 37.22

The answer is (B). I.,
I

s(t) = J v(l) dl + s1., 37.23

Equation 37. 1 8 Through Eq. 37.2 1 : Velocity '"
and Displacement with Constant Angular
Acceleration
Description

o ( t) a11 37. 18 The velocity and displacement, respectively, for nou­

ou(t - lo) + wo
=
consta11t acceleration, a(t), arc calculated using Eq. 37.22
w( t) = 37. 19 and Eq. 37.23.

O(t) = a0{1 - ln) 2 /2 + w0( t. - lo) + Oo 37.20 Example

w1 = w� + 2ao(t9 - Bo)
A particle initially traveling at 10 m/s experiences a
37.21
linear increase in acceleration in the direction of motion

in 6 seconds.
as shown. The particle reaches an acceleration of 20 m/s2
Description
Equation 37.18 through Eq. 37.21 give Lhe equations for a
constant angular acceleration.

Example 20 m/s2
A flywheel rotates at 7200 rpm when the power is
suddenly cut off. The flywheel decelerates at a constant
rate of 2 . 1 rad/s2 and comes to rest 6 min later. \'\lhat is
most nearly the angular displacement of the flywheel? 6s

(A) 43 x 103 rad "tvfost nearly, what is the distance traveled by the parti­
(B) 93 x 1 0 3 rad cle during those 6 seconds?
(C) 140 x 103
rad (A) 60 m
(D) 270 3
x 10 rad (13) 70 Ill

(C) 120 m
m
Solution
(D) 180
From Eq. 37.20, the angular displacement is
Solution

(
The expression for the acceleration as a function of

)( ) (--)
2 time is
O(t) = a·o(l - lo) / 2 + wo( t - lo) + Oo

60 � ( 6 min - 0 min) 2
2

a.(l) =
-2.1
20 20

( )( )
s2 111111 s2 s3 /,
t = --
2 6 s 6
rev 2rc
rad min - 0 min)
+ 1200 _ (6
111111 rev From Eq. 37.22, the velocity function is
= 135.4 x 103 ra<l ( 140 x 103 rad)

Tlw answer is (C). Since v(O) = 10, C1 = 10.

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
l< I N E M A T I C S 37-5

J v(l)dl J (;� t.2 + l O) di

1-igme 37.2 Plane Circular Motion

s(t) = =
y
= 20 (J + 10/ + c2
36
111 a cakulat.io11 of distance trnvelecl, the init.ial clisla11cc
(posit.ion) is s(O) = 0, so C2 = 0. Th e distance traveled

1(j v(l.) rlt

during the first 6 seconds is
x
- t3 + LOl
G
I
s(6) = 20
= 0

- 0 Ill
0 3G
= 180 Ill
Equation 37.26 Through Eq. 37.3 1 : x, y, z
Coordinates
= 180 Ill

The answer is (D). v, = J' 37.26

v,, = !J 37.27

v. = z 37.28
Equation 37.24 and Eq. 37.25: Variable
Angular Acceleration (IT = :1; 37.29

I Uy = !I 37.30

z
= 37.24
= 37.31
lu
o,

0(1) J w(t)dl. + flt,,

t
Description
= 37.25 Equatiou 37.26 through Eq. 37.31 gi ve Lite relationships
between acceleration, velocity, and the Cartesian coor­
dinates of a particle in plane circular mot.ion.
'"

Description
For 11011-constant angular acceleration, n( t), the angular
velocity, w, and a11gular displacement, 0, can be calcu­
lated from Eq. 37.24 and Eq. 37.25. Equation 37.32 Through Eq. 37.37: Polar
Coordinates

Curvilinear motion describes the motion of a particle vo = 1·iJ

along a path that is not a straight Ji11e. Speci a l examples
37.33
of curvilinear motio11 include pl ane circular motion and
projectile motion. For particles traveling along curvi­
v, = z 37.34

= ..
/' - /'il
linear paths, the position, velocity, and acceleration
may he specified in rectangular coordinates as they were a, 37.35
for rect.ili11car motion, or it may be more convenient t o
express t.he kinematic variables in terms o f other coor­
dinate systems (e.g., polar coordinates) .
uu = rB + 2;.(J 37.36

a, = z 37.37

Description
Ln polar coordinates, the posit.ion of a particle is
9. CURVILINEAR MOTION: PLANE
described by a radius, r, and au angle, 0. Equation 37.32
Plane ci1'c11la1· motion ( also known as rotational particle
CIRCULAR MOTION
through Eq. 37.37 give t.he relationships between veloc­
motion, angular motion, or circular motion) is motion of it.y and acceleration for part.iclcs i11 plane circular
a particle around a fixed circular path. (See Fig. 37.2. ) motion in a polar coorcliuate system.

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
37-6 F E M E C H A N I C A L R E V I E W M A N U A L

Equation 37 .38 Through Eq. 37 .41 : Solution

Rectilinear Forms of Curvilinear Motion The angular velocity is
dO
,. = .� w( I.) = - = 3/. - 4 t. - 4
2
37.38
di.
dv
.

w (3) = (3)(3) 2 - ( 4 ) (3 ) - 4
= 1 1 racl/s
u1 = v=- 37.39
ds
1!11 = -
(J
\ '2
37.40 The answer is (C).

[ l + ( dy/d:1/J312

1�:.;1
37.41 1 0. CURVILINEAR MOTION: TRANSVERSE
AND RADIAL COMPONENTS FOR
fJ =
............F.'.��.�.':\.� .IYI.9.I..19..�
. . . . .... . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. .. . . . . . .. ... .

Description Equation 37.45 Through Eq. 37.49: Polar

The relationship between acceleration, velocity, and Coordinate Forms of Curvilinear Motion
position in an nib c oo rdi n a t e system is given by
Eq. 37.38 through Eq. 37.41. 37.45
1'0eo
I' = rer

v = i·e, + 37.46

(i" - rO )e, + ( rfJ + 2i·O)en

·2 .. .

i· = rlr/ di
Equation 37 .42 Through Eq. 37 .44: Particle a = 37.47

Angular Motion 37.48
= d2r/rit2 37.49
W= dB/di 37.42

ac/O = wdw 37.44

Variation

c/2()
O=-
Description
2 dt The position of a particle in a polar coordinate system
may also be expressed as a vector of mag11itude 1 · and
Description direct.ion specified by unit, vector e,.. Since the velocity of
The behavior of a rotating particle is defined by its a particle is not usually di_rected radially out from the
angular position, B, angular velocity, (u, and angular center of the coordinate system, it can be divided into
acceleration, O'. These variables are analogous to the s, two components, called radial and transverse, which are
v, and a variables for linear systems. Angular variables parallel and perpendicular, respectively, to the unit radial
can be substitut.ed one-for-one for linear variables in vector. Figure 37.3 illustrates the radial and transverse
most equations. components of velocity in a polar coordinate system, and
the unit radial and unit. transverse vectors, e,. and e0, used
in the vector forms of the motion equations.
Example
Figure 37.3 Radial and Transverse Coorc/inates
The position of a car traveling around a curve is
described by t.he following function of time ( in seconds ) . y

'Vhat is most nearly the angular velocity after 3 s of

travel?
(A ) -16 rad /s
(B) -4.0 rad /s
(C) 11 rad /s
(D) 15 rad/s x

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
l·t l N E M A T I C S 37-7

1 1 . CURVILINEAR MOTION: NORMAL AND Description

TANGENTIAL COMPONENTS . ·-········
For plane circular rnotio11, the vector forr11s of position,
velocity, and acceleration arc given by Eq. 37.52,
Equation 37.50 and Eq. 37.51 : Velocity and
Eq. 37.53, and Eq. 37.5<1. The magniLudes of the angi.1lar
Resultant Acceleration
velocity and angular acceleration iue defined by
Eq. 37.55 and Eq. 37.5G.
v = v(l)e1 37.50

fl = o( t)e1 + (v1/11)en 37.51 1 2. RELATIVE MOTION

The term re/a/.iue motion is used when mot.ion of a
pmticle is described with respect Lo something else in
Variation
n1otion. The particle's position, velocity, and accclera­
dv 1
ell.
v 2 t.ion rnay be specified with respect to anotl1Pr moving
a = - e1 + -1 e,, particle or with respect to a moving fran1e of reference,
p
known as a Ne11Jlo11ia11 or i11alial frnme of reference.

Description
A particle moving in a curvilinear path will have instan­ Equation 37 .57 Through Eq. 37 .59: Relative
taneous li11ear velocity and linear acceleration. These Motion with Translating Axis
linear variables will be directed t angentially t o the path,
r,1 = 1'8 + l'A/ fJ
and arc know11 as la119e11tial ue/ocit.y, v" and la119c11lial
37.57
acce/eralio11, a" respectively. The force that constrains
t.J1c particle to the cmved path will generally be directed V,i = VB + w x l'AfJJ = V 8 + VA/8 37.58
toward the center of rotation, and the particle will
experience an inward acceleration perpendicular to the a.1 = fin + n x r..i/ 8 + w x (w x r,.1/JJ) = "8 + "r11n
tangential velocity and acceleration, known as t.he nor­ 37.59
mal accc/cralio11, a,,. The resultant. acceleration, fl, is the
vector sum of t.he tangential and normal accelerations. Description
Normal and tangential components of acceleration are
The relative position, rA, velocity, v ,i, and acceleration,
illnstraled in Fig. 37.4. The unit vectors en and e1 arc
a,i, with respect to a translating ax.is CRn be calculated
normal and t angential to the path, respectively. p is the
from Eq. 37.57, Eq. 37.58, and Eq. 37.59, respectively.

the magnitudes of the relative position vector, r111 8. ( See

instantaneous radit1s of c11ruat11re.
The angular velocity, w, and angular acceleration, n, arc
Figure 37.4 Normal ancl Tangen/la/ Co111ponents
Fig. 37.5. )
y
instantaneous Figure 37.5 Translating Axis
center of rotation
w, a
y A
y

Equation 37.52 Through Eq. 37.56: Vector x

Quantities for Plane Circular Motion
Equation 37.60 Through Eq. 37.62: Relative
Motion with Rotating Axis
37.52
37.53 r,1 = r n + "NO 37.60

(J) = b 37.55 "A = an + n x ''A /JJ + w x (w x "A/ 8 )

37.56 + 2w x v,11n + a r1/8 37.62

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
37-8 F E M E C H A r,i I C fl L Fl E V I E W M A N U A L

Descr iplion Variations

Eq11atio11 37.60, Eq. 37.6 1 , and Eq. 37.62 give t.he rela­ v1 = r(2 rr/)
tive posit.ion, r,i, velocity, v,i, and acceleration, n,i, with
respect. to a rotating a,-xis, respectively. (See Fig. 37.G.)
dv1
a, = -
Figure 37.6 notating A:.;is dl

A
\12
y a,, = _i
,.

Description
Equation 37.63 through Eq. 37.65 are used to calculate
tangential velocity, v1 1 tangential acceleration, a1, and
normal acceleratiou, a,,, respectively, rrom their cor­
respondi11g angular variables. If the path radius, r, is
constant, as it woul<l be in rotat.ional motion, the linear
x distance (i.e., t.he arc length ) I.raveled, s, is calculated
from Eq. 37.66.
13. LINEAR AND ROTATIONAL VARIABLES
.................... . ................. . .. .. . .... . . . . . ... ... .... . .. ....... .. ... ........ . ......... ....... . ..... ..... . ..

A particle moving in a curvilinear path will also have Example

instantaneous linear velocity and linear acceleration. For the reciprocating pump shown, the radius of the
These linear variables will be directed tangentially to crank is 0.3 m, and the rotational speed is 350 rpm.
the path and, therefore, are known as langential i1elocity Two seconds after t.be pump is activated, the angular
and ta11ge11lial accelera tion, respectively. (See Fig. 37.7.) position of point A is 35 rad.
Tn general, the linear variables can be obtained by multi­
plying the rotational variables by the path radius.

lr#IA
v,

What is most nearly the tangential velocity of point A

two seconds a�er the reciprocating pump is activated?
(A) 0 m/s
(B) 1 . 1 m/s
(C) 10 m/s
Equation 37 .63 Through Eq. 37 .66: (D) 1 1 m/s
Relationships Between Linear and Angular
Variables
Solution
= rw Use the relationship between the tangential an<l angular
variables.
v1 37. 63

(350 )( )
w = angular velocity of the crank in rad/s
a, = ra 37. 64

. 2 rr
nun rev
u,. = - rw2 [toward thecircle
center]
of the
37. 65

60 8
min
--

s = rO 37 . 66 = 36.65 rad/s

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
I< I N E M A T I C S 37-9

( )
UsP Eq. 37.G3. riq11re 37.8 Pro1cctile Motion

v1 = rw = ( 0.3 m) 3G.G5 rad y

s
= 1 1 m/s v(t) path of projectile
The ta ngen t ia l velocity is the same for a ny point on t.hc
crank a t ,. = o.:l 111.
The answer is (0).

·1 4, PROJECTILE MOTION
x
A projectile is placed into motion by an initial impulse.
( K i n em a tics deals only with dynamics during t.he night. Description

.
The force acting 011 the projectile during the launch
phase is covered i n k i neL ics ) Neglecting air drag, once
the projectile is in motion, it is act ed upon o nly by t he
.
The equatiolls of projectile mot.ion are deri ved from the
laws of uniform acceleration and conser va t i on of energy.
dow11ward gra vil at io nal acceleration (i.e., its own Example
weigh t ) . Project.ile motion is a special case of motion A gol fer on level ground at the edge of a 50 m wide pond
under constant acceleration.
atle111pls to drive a golf ball across the pond, hitting the
Consider a general projectile set. into motion at a11 angle hall so that it travels initially at 25 m/s. The ball travels
B from the horizontal plane and initial vel oci ty, v0, as at au iuitial a11gle of 45° to the horizontal plane.
shown in Pig. 37.8. The ape;i_: is the poi11t where the Approximately how far wi l l the golf ba l l travel?

of air d rag , the following rules apply to the case of travel

projectile is at i t s maximum elevation. In the absence (A) 32 in

over a horizontal plane. (8) 45 m

o The traj ect ory is pa ra bolic . (C) 58 m
o The impact. velocity is equal to i nitia l velocity, v0 . (D) 6<1 m
tt The range is maximum when B = 45°. Solution
• The Lime for the project.ile to travel from the launch To determ i ne the distance traveled by the golf ball, t.he
point to t he apex is equal to t.he time to travel from
ti me of i mpac t must be found. A t a time o f 0 s and the
apex t.o impact point..
time of impact. , the elevat.ion of the ball is known to be
o The Lime for the projccl.ile to t ravel from the apex of 0 m. R ea rra nge Eq. 37. 72 to solve for t.ime, substituting
its flight pat.h to impact is the same time an i11it.ially a value of 0 m for the elevation at a time of 0 s a nd the

from that height .

stationary object would take to fall straight down time of impact.
y = - gt.2 /2 + vo sin{B) t + Yo
2
-gt- + vo sin{B)t + 0
0m =-
2
111
Equation 37 .67 Through Eq. 37. 72: Equations
of Projectile Motion l = 2vo si n 0
g
Substitute the e}.1Jressiou for the time of impact. into
37.67

Vr = Vo cos(O)
ay 37.68

( 0)
37.69

(2) ( 25 m) sin 45° )

2vo sin
37.70
= vocosO + 1·0
:r = vu cos(B)l + :i·n

( )
37.71 g
y = -yf /2 + vo sin {B)t + Yu
2
37.72

= 25 111 cos45° ( s
Variations s n 9.81 ;
+Om
s
= 63.7 m (64 m )
Vy(i.) = Vy.O - gl

y(t) = Vy,Ot - �g£2

The answer is (0).

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
0 s
l!l

l. Int.ro<luction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38-1 2. MOMENTUM

2. i\fome ntum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..................... ............. ······· ············

38-I
3. Newton's First and Secon<l Laws of The vector linear moment.um. ( momentum), p , is defined
i'vlot.ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . by the following equation. It has the same direction as
t.he velocity vector from which it is a lcula t ed Momen­
t um has units of force x time (e g. N·s) .
. . . . . . . . 38-1
ti . Weight . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . ... ..... .
. . . . . . . 38-3 c .

5. Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 38-3 . . ,

G. l(inetics of a Particle . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 38-4
=
.

p mv
Nomenclatm·e
1\-lornent wuis conserved when no external forces act ou
particle. If
(/ acceleration 111/s2
F force N a no forces act on a particle, t.he velocity anct
1
fl gravitational acceleration, 9.81 111/s� direction of the part.ide are 1mchangcd. The law of con­
serua/.ion of 111ome11/.11m st.ates t.hat. t.he linear momen­
1J1ass mu111e111. of inertia kg m2
tum is unchanged if no unbalanced forces act on the
·

Ill mass kg
i\1 lllOllJelll N-m particle. This docs not prohibit the mass and velocity
N normal force N
from changing, however. Only the product of mass and
p monlentum N-s velocity is constant.
R resultant N
time s
3. NEWTON'S FIRST AND SECOND LAWS OF
,. velocit.y m/s
MOTION
II' weight N
;1: displacement or position 111 Newton 's fil'st law of motion states that. a particle will
remain in a stat.e of rest or will continue to move with
Symbols coustant velocity unless au unbalanced external force
(1 angular acceleration rnd/s2 acts on it..
fl coefficient of fricti011
This law can also be stated in terms of conservation of
p radius of cnrvat nrn 111
moment.um: If the res l tan t external force acting on a
tp
u
deg
angle
particle is zero, then the linear momentum of the parti­
cle is constant.
Subscripts
() initial
Newto11 1s second law of motion (conservation of momen­
c cent roidnl
tum) states that the acceleration of a p rticle is directly a

I final or frictional
proportional to the force acting ou it and is i ve ely n rs

initial
proportional to the part.icle mass. The direction of accel­
k dynamic
eration is the same as the <lirection of force.
11 normal
pc from point p to point c

,. radial Equation 38. 1 and Eq. 38.2: Newton's

fl resultant, Second Law for a Particle
8 static
I tangent.in!
8 transverse LF = d(mv)/rlt, 38. 1

Kinetics is t.1 e study of motion and t.he forces that cause

1
V a r i ation
motion. l(inetics includes an analysis of the relat.iom;hip
between force and mass for tra11slati01ial motion and
between torque and moment of inertia for rotational F = dp
di.
motion. Newton's laws form the basis of the governing
theory in the subject of killetics.
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
38-2 F E: M E C H A N I CA L R E V I E W M A N U A L

Lite uct (resultant ) fo rce , F, Oll a11 objccL i11 auy directio11
lo t.he acceleratio n , a0 of the objecL's cent.raid in thaL
Description

i11erLial mass, m. Equal.ion 38.4 pertains to angular

Newton's second law can be stated in terms of th e force
clirection. 2 The acceleration is "resisted" by the object's

moment.um and relales the net. ( resultant. ) moment. or

veclor required lo cause a cl1auge i11 momentum. Tl1e
result an t force is equal t.o the rate of change of linear
.

mome11turn. For a constant mass, Eq. 38.2 applies.

torque, M,,, on an object about a cent.roidal mus to the
angular rotational acceleration, o: , around Lhc cent.roi­
Example d11l a"".:is.:1 The angular accPlerat.ion is resisted by the
A 3 kg block is moving at a speed of 5 m / s. The force object's ceutroidal mass 111omeut of iuertia, /,..
required to bri11g the block to a stop in 8 x 10- 1 s is most
In pure rot.at.ion, the object. rotates about a centroidal

(A) 10 k.t\l
nearly
axis. The ceutroid remains stat.ionary as clements of the
rigi d body. Equation 38.5 per tai ns to rotation about any
(B) 1 3 kN pa rt i cular m.:fa , p, where p1,c is the perpendicular vector
from axis p to the object's centroidal axis.
(C) 1 5 kN
(D) 19 kN Example
A net unbalanced torque acts on a 50 kg cylinder that is
Solution allowed to rotate around its longitudi1rnl cent.roidal a'(is
Prom Newt.on's second law, Eq. 38.2, t.he force required on frictionless bearings. The cyli nder has a rad i us of
to stop a constant. mass of 3 kg moving at a speed of 40 cm and a mass moment of inertia of 4 kg·m2 . The
5 m /s is cylinder accelerates from a standstill with an angular

( )1�)
·
acceleration of 5 rnd / s2 .
I F= m dv/dl = ni(t:..v/t:.. l)
� �
(
m m 40 cm
S -O
= (3 kg) s s friction less

(8
beari ng
x 10-� s) 1000

The answer is (D).

What is most. nearly the unbalanced torque on the
cyl i n der?
Equation 38.3 Through Eq. 38.5: Newton's (A) 20 N·m
Second Law for a Rigid Body 1
(B) ,10 N-111

IF = fll(I,. 38.3
(C) 200 N·m

I1\fr1 = fr<x +
38. 4

f>r,, x 111a,. 38. 5

Solution
Description Using Eq. 38.4, the magnit.11cle of the moment acting on

( )
t. he cylinder is
A rigid body is a complex shape that cannot be described
J,�o
as a particle. Geuerally, a rigid body is 11011homogeneous
'°' M . , = = (4 kg·m2 ) 5
(i.e., the center of mass does not coincide wit.h t.he volu­ L,, s2
metric center) or is constructed of sub compo nen t s In
= 20 N-111
.

mot.ion (conservation of momentum) can be applied to a

rotation as well as translation. Newton's second law of
The answer is (A).

('
rigid body, but the law must be applied twice: once for 2

cnlls "111ass cc 1 1l ('r .

The NCEES Hmulbonk is i11ronsistent in its m an i ng of lie- Ill
linear momentum and once for angular momentum.
Equation 38.3 pertains to linear momcnturn and relates
Eq. 38.3, a. rC'fc>rs lo the uccel!'rnlion of the centroid, which the
NCEES H1111d/Jook " 11, dot's not mra11 ro1L�lant
accC'IPrntim1 as iL did eurlicr i11 the NCF:ES Haw/book Oynn111ics
1
111 Eq. 38.3 through Eq. 38.5, t he NCEES FE Re.ferwce Hmtcl&ook scdio11.
Thc NCEES Ho11dbook i8 ill(:o nsist en t. in d<'signat ing the cc11t roidnl
3
(NCEES Hamibonk) 11S<'S hold rlmrnctNs lo desi�natc vector quanti­
ties ( i.e., F, 1\1, a, a, and p). Rectilinear ro1np011e11ts of v1·cton; 111uy he parn111clers. \Vhcrcas 11r rcprcsl'llts lite nccrlc•rnlion of the centroid in
aclded; and, cross-prod ne t s arc used for 111ult iplicl\lion. In 111ost calcu­ Eq. 38.3, nnd f, rep resen t s lhc Cl nt roid al
! 1110111ent of inertia in
latio11s, howC\'C'r, the \'CClor mHurc of th('se quanti lic•s is disregarded, Eq. 38.4, the subscript c has brcn 0111iltcd 011 tt, the angular accelera­
and only the 1nagnitudcs of the quantities arc used. tion about the ce11troidal axis, in Eq. 38.5.

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
l<I N E 'f l C S 38-3

Equation 38.6 Through Eq. 38.1 2: Rectilinear Description

The wciqhl, IV, of au object. is t he forre t.he objec;t exert s
Equations for Rigid Bodies
due to i t s position i n a gravitatio11al field.''
L, F . = m11,. 38.6

L, Fll = 11111,11 .'18. 7

Example

LJ\J,,. = I , u 38.8
A 1nan weighs himself twice i11 a11 elevalor. When the
elevator is at rest, lte weighs 7 1 3 N; when the elevator
L,F, = 111(11a) . 38. 9 st.arts 1 1 10ving upward, he wei ghs 8H:i N. What. is most
L,Fv = 111(i1a ),, 38. 1 0 nearly the man's actual mass?
L, Mc = f c;o (A) 70 kg
L i\I f' = l:::C 1\ I,)/>
38. 1 1

38.12 (8) 73 kg
(C) 78 kg

Description (D) 83 kg

These equa t ious arc t l ie sea lar forms of Newton's sccon<l

Solution
law equations assn mi ng the rigid bo<ly is constrained to
move in an :1;. y plane. The subscr ipt zc dPscribes t.hc The mass of t he man ca n he determ ined from his weight
z-axis passing t.hro11gh the body's cen troid. Placing the at. rest .
origin nt. the body's centroid, the acceleration of the
body in the :1;. a nd y- direc tions is arc and a11r, respec­ W = mg
tively. a- is the angular acceleration of the body about 713 N
to motion in the J:- y pl a ne (i.e., two d i mensions) . Equa­
IV = -
m=- -�
the z-axi:-;. Equat ion 38.6 th rough Eq. 38. 1 2 are limited Ill
.g 9 .8 1

(73 kg)
s2
tion 38. 1 1 calculates the sum of moments about a rigid
= 72. 7 kg
body's cent.er of gravity (mass center, etc.), G. Equa­
l.ion 38. 1 2 calculates the sum of moments about a11y
point, P.'1 The answer is (8).

5. FRICTION
4. WEIGHT
Friction is a force that always resists motion or impend­
Equation 38.13: Weight of an Object ing motion. It always acts parallel to t.he con t act ing
surfaces. ff t he body is moving, the friction is known as
dynamic friction. If the body is stationary, friction is
II' = 111y 38. 1 3
known as static fric/.ion.

The magnitude of the frictional force depends on t.he

normal force, N, and the coefficient of friction, 11,
betw ee n the body and the contacting surface .

4(1) Equation :38.<l th rough Eq. 38.8 are prefaced in the NCEES Hand­
book wit h , "\Vithont loss of generality, the body 111ay be m•s11mc<l l o be
in the i;-y pl;rn('." Tltis statement sounds as though all ho<liC's cnn be
simplified to pla1111r 111otion, which is not true. The more gc 11C'rril three­ �(l) The NCEES Hum/book introduces Eq. 38.13 with the s<'ction
dimensional c;1sc is not specifically presented, so there is no generality heading, "Concept. of Weigh!." Units of weight are specified as new­
to lose. !11 fact, Eq. 38.8 represents the sum of 111oml'11ts nbont any tons. Jn fact, the concept. of weight is entirely abst'11l in the SI system.
point, so this cquntion is the more general case, not the lri;..5 grncrnl Only the concepts of 11ias.� and force nre used. The SI system d<X'S not
case. (2) Equation 38.!), Eq. 38.10, and Eq. 38.11 arc functionally the support the concept of '110dy weight" in newtons. It only supports the
same as Eq. 38.6, Eq. :38.7, and Eq. 38.8 and are redundant. Both sets concept of the force needed to accelerate a body. ln preS<'nting
of equations rire lilnite<I to the x-y plane. (3) The subscripts c (crn­ Eq. 38.13, the NCEES Handbook perpetuates the incorrect idC'as that
troidal or center of mass) rind G (center of gravity) refer to the �mne mass and wei ght arc sy11uny1ns, and that weight s i a fixed property of a
thing. The clrnnge in notation is unnecessary. (4) The subscripts G and body. (2) The NCEES H1111dbook indmies a parenthelical "(!bf)" as the
P rire not defined. (5) The subscript k is not defined, but probably unit of weight for U.S. equat ions. Howe\'C'r, Eq. 38.13 cannot be used

meaning of 1\h must be i nferml. (6) Equation 38.11 specifies the point
represents an 11ncon1 1 no1 1 choice for the first summation variable, with customary and normal U.S. units (i.e., mass in pounds) without
normally i. Since k docs not ap1X'al' in the summation symbol, the i11cl 11ding the gra,•itatioual cunslmll, g" In orrlrr to make Eq. 38.13

111ass is known as a slug, something that is 11ol C'alled out in the NCEES
C'Onsistent, the NCEES Handbook is forced lo speci fy the unit of mass
through which the rotatioual axis passc·s, Intl it does not specif y an for U.S. equal ions as lbf-sec2/ft. This (cs:;c nt ial ly now obsolete) unH of
axis, ns does Eq. 38.8. Since the equations are limited to t he x-y plane,
the rotational axis can on ly be parallel to the z-axis, as in Eq. 38.8. Hc111dbook. Since a slug is 32.2 times largl'r tha n a ponn<I, nn examinee
(7) The subscri p t c has been omit t ed on n, the n11g11lar acceleration u.'iing Eq. 38.13 with customary and normal U.S. 1111its conlrl easily be
·
about the crntcr of mnss, in Eq. 38.8 and Eq. 38.1 l . misdirected by the lbf label.

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
38-4 FE M E C 11 A N I C A L n E V I E W M A N U IJ. l.

The stati<.: coefficicut of friction is mmally denoted with Equation 38.1 4 Through Eq. 38.1 7: Laws of
the snbsrript s while the dynamic ( i . e . , kinetic) coeffi­ Friction
cient of friction is denoted with the subscript. k. /lk is

F � 11_, N
often assu1ncd lo be 75% of the value of JI,. The!:>e
38. 14
rnefficim1ts ::ire complex functions of surface properties.
Experimentally determined v::ilues for various cont.act.­ F< 11,N [110 slip ot·ru 1 ring] 38.15
ing conclit.ions ca11 be found in Landbuolrn.
F = 11,N [poi1 1 t nf ii1 1pP11ding �lip] 38. 16
For a body resting 011 a horizontal surface, the nornrnl
force, N, is the weight, W, of the body. If I he body rests F= 11 1 N [sLip orc-1 m i n�] 38. 17
011 au iucli11ed surface, the normal force is calculated as
t. he component of weight normal to that surface, as Values
i llustrated in Fig. 38. l. Axes in Fig. 38. 1 are defined as
parallel a11d perpcmlicLt!ar to the inclined plane.

Description
JV = mg cos <f> = Wcos ¢1
The laws of friction state t.hat. t.he 11rnx.imum value of t.he
total friction force, F, is independent of the mag11itmle

-iv'/­
Figure 38. 1 Frictional and Normal Forces
of the area of co11t. act. Tlic 1naximum tot.al frict.iou force
is proportional to t.he nornrnl force, N. For low velocities
W = mg

!�!·,
of sliding, the max.imum total frictional force is nearly
independent of t.he velocity. However, experiments shmv
that. the force necessary to initiate slip is greater thau
� =
N
that, necessary l o 1naintai11 t.he mot.ion.

,, =
Fr p. impending motion
Example
R= W A boy pulls a sled with a mass of 35 kg horizo11tally over
R N <!> arctanµ5
a surface wil.h a dynamic coefficient. of friction of 0. 1 5 .
\Vliat i s most uearly t.he force required for t.he boy to
pull the sled?
The frictional force acts only iu response t o a distmbing
(A) 49 N
force, and i t increases as the disturbing force increases.
The motion of a stationary body is impending when the (B) 52 N
disturbing force reaches the maximnm frictional force, (C) 55 N
/tsN. Figure 38. 1 shows the condition of impending

R, of the frictional force

motion for a block on a plane. Just. before motion starts, (D) 58 N
the result.a nt, and normal force
equals the weight of the block. The angle at. which Solution
mot.ion is just i111pc11di11g can be calculated from the
coefficient of static frict. io11. N is the normal force, and /lk is the dynamic coefficient
of friction. The force that the boy must pull with, Fb,
efJ = arctan /ls must be large enough to overcome the frictional force.
From Eq. 38.17,

(
Once mot.ion begi11s, the coefficient of friction drops
slightly, and a lower frictional force opposes JHoverncnt. Fb = F1 = 111.;N = / lkmg
This is illustrated ill Fig. 38.2.

Figure 38.2 Frictional Force Versus Disturbing Force

= (0. 1 5 ) (35 kg) 9.8 1 �;)
2
= 5 1 .5 kg·m/s (52 N)

The answer is (B).

6. KINETICS OF A PARTICLE
--·······-··-···-······- --····· - ···-··-·······-·······--·-··-

� motion Newtou 's second law can be applied separately to any

direct.ion in which forces are resolved into components.
The law can be expressed i n rectangular coord inate form
( i . e . , in terms of ;i� aud !fCOillponent forces), in polar
µ5N disturbing force coordinate form (i.e., in t.angenLial and normal compo­
nents), or in radial and transverse component form.

PPI • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
I< I N E TI C S 38-5

Equation 38. 1 8: Newton's Second Law Description

If F, is a function o f time only, t lwn the equat.ious o f
11, = F /111 38. 18 motion are given by Eq. 38.HJ, Eq. 38.20, a n d E q . 38. 2 1 .

Variation
Equation 38.22 Through Eq. 38.24: Equations
F, = 11111,.
of Motion with Constant Mass and Force
Description
a = F,/m
= 11,(l - 111 ) +
38.22
Equation 38. 1 8 is Newton's second law iu recla11gulor

1., ( l - l11 ) + .r1,,

coord inote form and refers tu motion in t.he �v-clirect.ion.
\', v,,., 38.23
Similar equations can be written for the y-dired. ion or .r = o ( t - lof/2 + v 38.24
any other coordinate direction. In ge11cral, F, may bP. n

( )
Example

vr(t) = ''.r,o + -,. (1 - 111)

A car moving at 70 km/h has a mass of 1700 kg. The F
2
force necessary l o dPcPlerate i t at a rale of 40 cm/s is Ill

(A) 0.68 :1:(t) = :i·u + v,,0(1 - lo) +

most ne11rly
F,(t. - to)2
2 Ill
N

(B) 42 N
Description
(C) 680 N
If fi', is constant (i.e., is i11dependc11l of Lime, displace­
(D) •1200 N
ment, or velocity) and mass is constant, then the equa­

Solution
l.ions of mot.ion are given by Eq. 38.22, Eq. 38.23, and
Eq. 38.211.
Use Newton's second law.

for 2 s.
Example
llr = Fr/111

��1)
A force of 15 N acts on a 1 6 kg body If the body
F, = ma,.

(
is i n i t ially aL rest., approximately how fa r is i t displaced
by the force'!
( 1 700 kg) 40
= -------
(A) 1 . 1 m
cm
100
Ill
(B) 1.5 111
2
= 680 kg·m/s (680 N) (C) l .9 m

(D) 2. 1 m
The answer is (C).
Sofution
Equation 38. 1 9 Through Eq. 38.21 : Equations
The acceleration is found using Newton's second law,
of Motion with Constant Mass and Force as a
Eq. 38.22.
Function of Time
15 N =
a,. = Fr/m. = k-

J o,(t)dl + Vrtu
ar(t) = Fr (l)/m 38. 19 -
_- 0.94 m/s
2
1G g

vr ( t )
I

= 38.20 For a body undergoing co11sta11t accclcraLion, wit.h a n

initial velocity o f 0 1 1 1/s, a n i11it.ial t.ime of 0 s, a n d a total

J
'"
elapsed time of 2 s, the horizontal displacemc11t is found

.t(I)
38.24 .
I
from Eq.

= ar(t - fo)2 /2 + Vr10 (1. - lu) + �r;,0

vr ( t ) il t 38.21

(0.94 82 ) (2 s - 0 s)2
= + :c1.,

) (2
'" :t

+ 0 s +0m
!,, F, (t)
(
Variation 111
111
s - 0 s)
r 2
v.r(I) = __· dt + v,.'o
I, l1l = 1.88 111 ( 1 .9 111)

T/Je answer is (C).

P P I • www.ppi2pass.com
38-6 F E M E C H A N I C A l R E V I E W M A N U A L

Equation 38.25 and Eq. 38.26: Tangential Radial and Transverse Components
Por a µarticle moving along a cirr.11lnr path, the radial
and Normal Components
and t.ransverse compo11cnts of force are
'L,F1 = m a 1 = 111 dvtf rlf 38.25

'L,F,, = 11w11 = 111(\·:/p) 38.26

Description
For a parl.icle moving along a circular path, the tangen­
tial and non11al components of force, acceleration, aml
velocity arc related.

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
l. Mass Momcut of Inertia . 39-1 1 . MASS MOMENT OF INERTIA
2. Plane Motion of a R igid Body .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39-6
3. Rotation About a Fixed Axis
. . . . . . . . . . .

39-6
4. Centripetal and Centrifugal Forces
. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . 39-8 Equation 39.1 Through Eq. 39.4: Mass

5. Banking of Curves
. . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39-8 Moment of Inertia

!
NomenclatLu·e
[=. 1· rlu1
2
acceleration m /s

.! (!/ + _z°')dm
a
2
39. 1
A area 111 'l

c number of instantaneous centers

d lengt.h m I, =

j (:1? + i:l)dm
39.2
1;1 force N
2
g gravitational acceleration, 9.81 m/s

H
Ii height 111 1 ,1 =

/c:c
39.3
1
angular moment.um N·m·s
2
mass moment. of inertia kg·m
I length m 1, = + .1/)r1 111 39.4
L lengl:h Ill
1
m mass kg
1
M mass kg
J\[ moment. N·111
1l quant.ity
Description
I' radius of gyration Ill The mass moment of ·inertia measures a solid object's
R wean radius Ill resistance to changes in rotational speed about a specific
time s a.xis. Equation 39.l shows that the mass moment of
v velocit.y m/s inertia is calculated as the second moment of the mass. 2
IV weight. N When the origin of a coordinate system is located a t the
object's center of mass, the radius, r, to the differential
Symbols element can be calculated from the components of posi­
a· angular aecclerat.ion ra<l /s
2
tion as

J:i;2 + y2 + z2
0 angular posit.ion rad

r=
ti coefficient of friction
3
p density kg/ m
w angular velocity ra<l/s

For a homogeneous body with density p, Eq. 39.1 can be

Subscripts written as
0

{ r2 d \I
initial

JI'
centrifugal or cent.roidal
I =p
c

f frictional
G center of gravity

m mass

respect. to the :v- , y-, and z-axes, respectively. They are

I! normal
0
not components of a resultant value.
origin or center
s st atic
tangent.ial

1 The NCEES FE Rcfe1"C11cc Handbook (NCEES Hn11dbook) is incon­

sistent in its nomenclature usage. It. uses both m and M to designate
the mass of a object. It gl'nerally uses uppercase ,\/ to designate the 2(1) There arc two closely adjacent sections in t.he NCEES lla11dbooJ.:

J 1, or JJJ.
total mass of non-particles (i.e., cylinders) . Care must be taken when labeled "�lass �lament of Inertia," each covering the same topic.
solving problems involving both mass and moment, as equations for (2) The integral shown in Eq. 3!J. l is implicitly a triple integral
both quantit ies use the same symbol. (volume integral), more properly shown as

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
39-2 I' E M E C f-1 A N I C A L R E V I E W M A N U A L

Equation 39.5 and Eq. 39.6: Paral lel Axis Equation 39. 7: Mass Radius of Gyration

Theorem
r,,, = 39. 7
' "'''" =
I = I c: m 1/2
I, + 11/(p 39.5
Variation
1- 39. 6
T = ,.2 m
Variation
Description
The mass radius of gyration, r,,,, of a solid object repre­
scuts the distance from the rotat.ional axis aL which the
Description object's ent.ire mass could be located without changing
The centroidal 111ass moment of ine1tia, lei is obtained the mass moment. of inertia.
when t.he origin of t.he axes coincides with Lhe object's
center of gravity. 3 The parallel m:is theorem, also known
as the transfC1' a:cis theure111, is used to find the mass

y
Equation 39.8 Through Eq. 39.1 9: Properties
momenL of inertia about any axis. Tn Eq. 39.5, d is t.he of Uniform Slender Rods
distance from the center of ma&; to t.he new ax_is.
For a composite object, the parallel axis theorem must
be app]jecl for each of the const.ituc11t objects, as shown
in the variation equation. z

Example
The 5 cm long uniform slender rod shown has a mass of
20 g. The origin of the y-axis corresponds with the rod's
center of gravity. The centroidal mass moment of inertia mass and cent.raid

y' y
is 42 g·cm 2 .
i\J = pLA 39.8

Y< = 0 39. 1 0

x
39. 1 1

-2 cm 0 5cm
z, =

mass moment. of -inert.ia

I r = Ir. = 0
I y, = I,, = J\/ L'I.I l 2
vVhat. is most nearly Lhe mass moment of inertia of the
rod about the y axis 2 cm to the left?
1
39. 12

39. 13

( A ) 0 . 2 kg·cm2 I ti = ML /3
. 'l.
Iz = 39. 14

(I3) 0.33 kg · cm2

(C) 0.45 kg·cm2
( radius of gyraf.ion)2

(D) 0.91 kg·cm2 /·r = ,.

2
r,
=0 39. 15

= = £2/3
,.1
y,.
= , .2:,
= L2/12 39. 1 6
Solution
1'2 /''/.
39. 1 7
The y axis is 2 crn from the y-axis. The center of grnvity of
!I z

t.he rod is located halfway along its length. Use Eq. 39.5.
42 g·c m2 + (20 g)( 2.5 cm + 2 cm ) 2
product of inertia

IJ, y, = 0
111 = le + m d2 = g
1000 39. 18
kg
J J!I = 0 39. 1 9
= 0.45 kg·cm2
The answer is (C).
Description
Equation 39.8 through Eq. 39. 1 9 give the properties of
3
Equation 39.5 and Eq. 39.6 both appear on the same page in the

slender rods. The center of mass (center of gravity) i s

NCEES J/andbook using different notation. The inconsL�lcnt sub­
scripts c and G both refer lo the same concept: ccntroidol (center of
gravity, center of 1nnss, etc. ) . located at (xc, Yci zc), designated point c . M is the total

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
l< I N E T I C S O F R O T A T I O N A L M O T I O N 39-3

mass; A is the cross-sectional area perpendicular to mass moment uf inertia

t.he longitudinal axis; is the 111ass density, equal to
p
t.he mass divided by the volume; ! is t.he mass moment I = l ,1, =
MR2 /2 39.24
of inertia about the subscripted axis, used in calculat­ I = MR2 39.25
ing rotational acceleration and 1J1ou1e11(.s about that
: J\/ R'!
axis; and r is t.he radius of gyration, a dist.ance from I, = I,, 3i\IR2/2
= 39.26
the dcsiguated axis from the centroid where all of the lz =3 39.27
mass can be assumed to be concentrated. IIv is the
product of inel'l:ia, a measure of symmetr�·, with
respect to a plane containiug the subscripted axes. ( mdius of gyml.ion ) 2

r1 R2 /2
The vrodnct of inertia is zero if the object is symmet­
rical about an axis perpendicular to the plane defined =

R-
I
= r'l 39.28
I/,
by t.he s11bscripted axes. r» 2 =
?
39.29

r.,- = =
?
'l
'JR·/2
,:� = 3R'!
l',1 39 .30
Example
A uni form rod is 2.0 m long and has a mass of 15 kg. 39 .31
\Vhat is most. nearly the rod's mass moment. of
inertia? product. of i11m·t.ia

(C) 27 kg·m2 l.r: = ly, = 0 39.34

(D) 31 kg·m2

Description
Solution
Equal.ion 39.20 tlu-ough Eq. 39.34 give the properties of
located aL (:i;c, ) designated point c, and measured
From Eq. 39.14, the mass moment of inertia of the rod is slender rings. The center of mass ( ceutcr of gravity) is
Ye, zc ,

I.rod = U£2 /3 = ( 15 kg)(2.0

11�
111)2 from the mean radius of t.he ring. M is the total mass;
-
3
----�
A is the cross-sectional area of the ring; p is the mass
= 20 kg·m2
density, equal to the mass divided by the volume; I is
the mass rnomcnt of inertia about the subscripted axis,
used in calculating rotational acceleration and moments
The answer is (8). about that axis; and r is the radius of gyration, a dis­
tance from the designated a.xis from the ceutroi<l where
all of the mass can be assumed to he concentrated. is r,
the radius of gyration of the ring about an axis parallel
Equation 39.20 Through Eq. 39.34: to the z-ax:is and passing through the centroid. f,.y is the
Properties of Slender Rings product of inert.ia, a measure of symmetry, with respect.
to a plane containing the subscripted axes. The product
of inertia is zero if the object is symmetrical about an
a.xis perpendicular to the plane defined by the sub­
scripted axes.

Example
z
The period of oscillation of a clock balance wheel is 0.3 s.
x The wheel is coustructed a slender ring with its 30 g
m;

mass and centroid

mass concentrated at a 0.6 cm radius. \\1hat is most
nearly the wheel's moment of inertia?
M = 2rrRpA 39. 20
(A) 1.1 x 10-li kg·m2
R
y,. = R
�:,. = 39.21
(13) 1 .6 x 10-G kg·m2
39.22
(C) 2.1 x 10-G kg·m2
Zc = 0 39.23
( D) 2.6 x 1 0-ti kg·m2

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
39-4 F E M E C H A N I C A L R E V I E W M A N U A L

Solution rotational acceleration and moments about that axis;

Frolll Eq. 39.25, tlte wheel's moment of inertia is and r is the radius of gyratio11, a distauce from the

( )( )
designated a,-xis from t.he centroid where all of the mass
I = MR2 can be assumed to be concentrated. ry, is the radius of
2 gyration of the cylinder about an axis parallel to the
30 g Q. 6 cm g
y-axis and passing throu h the centroid. /cy is Lhe prod­
= uct of inertia, a measure of symmetry, with respect to a
10 kgg 100 cm
:1 plane containing the subscripted axes. The product of
inertia is zero if the object is symmetrical about a n axis
Ill

= 1.08 10-0 kg·m2 (1.1

x 10-u kg·m2) x perpeadicular to the pla11e defined by the subscripted
a,-xes.
Tl1e answer is (A).
Example
A 50 kg g
solid cylinder has a hei ht of m and a radius of 3
Equation 39.35 Through Eq. 39.46: 0.5 m. The cylinder sits on the ;!i-a.-x:is and is oriented
Properties of Cylinders g
with its l on i tudinal a,xis parallel to t.he y-axis. What is
most nearly the mass moment of inertia about the J.r.
.· ?
axis.
y
(A) 4.1 kg·m2
(B) 16 kg·m2
h (C) 41 kg·m2
2
(D) IG O kg·m
x
z Solution

mass and cent.raid Find the mass moment of inertia using Eq. 39.41.

(50 kg) ((3)(0.5 m) 2 + (4)(3 m)2 )

II = M(3R2 + 4h2)/12
i\f = rrR�ph 39.35

!Cc = Q 39.36

y.. = h/2 39.37 12

Zr = 0 39.38
= 153.1 kg·m2 (150 kg·m2)

mass moment of inertia

The answer is (D).
Ir, = I,, = M(3R2 + 112)/12 39.39

I, = I ,
39. 40

= M(3R2 + 4h2)/12 39. 4 1 Equation 39.47 Through Eq. 39.58:

Properties of Hollow Cylinders
( radi11s of gyratfon)2
y
r2 = r2 = (3R2 + h�)/12
z, z,.
39. 42

r2 = r2 = R2/2
y, y
39. 43
I
r; r; (3R2 + 4h2)/12
= = 39. 44 c
I
I
h
--1
product of inertia - ,1'
/ x
39. 45

39. 46
mass and centroid

rr(Ri - R�)p!t
Description

solid (right) cylinders. The center of mass ( center of

Equation 39.35
throu h Eq. g 39.46
give the properties of M= 39. 4 7

gravity ) is located at. (xc, Ye, zc), designated point c. Xe = 0 39. 48

M is the total mass; p is the mass density, equal to the Ye = h/2 39.49
mass divided by the volume; 1 is the mass moment of Zr = 0 39.50
inertia about the subscripted axis, used in calculating

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
l{ I N E T I C S O F R O T A T I O N A L M O T I O H 39-5

mass moment of inertia \·Vhat. is most nearly the cylinder's mass mornent of
i11ertia about an axis perpendicular to the cylinder's
39.51 longitudinal axis and located at the cylinder's encl?
39.52 (A) 0.41 kg·m2
39.53 (B) 0.79 kg·m2
(C) 0.87 kg·m2
( radi11s of gyralion) 2
(D) 1.5 kg·m2

r2= 1:2� = (3R.lI + 3 ll?2 + h2 )/12 39.54

Solu/ion

r; = r: = (3RT + 3R� +'lh2)/12

39.55

111
v. !/ I 2

39. 56
The outer radius, R.1 , and inner radiut-;, R2 , are

T
prodllcl of inertia R 1 = 1 = 0.5 m
I ,,,,, = ( ) 39.57
R.2 = --
0.8 111 = 0.4 111
2
II// = () 39.58

Use Eq. 39.53.

Description
1 = M(3R� + 3R� + 4h )/12
2
Equat.ion 39.47 through Eq. 39.58 give t.he properties of
hollow (right) cylinders. Due to symmetry, the proper­ (2 kg) ( (3)(0.5 m)2 + (3)(0.4 m)2 + (4)(1 m)2)
ties are the same for all axes. R1 is the outer radius, and 12
R.2 is the inner radius. The center of mass (center of
gravity) is located at (xc, Ye, Zc), designated point c. M is = 0.87 kg·m2
the total mass; p is the mass deusity, equal to the mass
divided by the volume; I is the mass moment of inertia · The answer is (C).
about the subscripted axis, used i11 calculating rota­
tional acceleration and moments about that axis; and r
is the radius of gyration, a distance from the designated
axis from the centroid where all of the mass can be Equation 39.59 Through Eq. 39.69:
assumed to be concentrated. r11 is the radius of gyration Properties of Spheres
of the hollow cylinder about an ,axis parallel to the y-axis
and passing through the centroid. I,!I is the product of v
iuertia, a measure of symmetry, with respect to a plane
containing the subscripted axes. The product of inertia
is zero if the object is symmetrical about an axis per­
pendicular to the plane defined by the subscripted axes. x

Example
A hollow cylinder has a mass of 2 kg, a height of 1 m, an
outer diameter of 1 m, and an inner diameter of 0.8 m.
mass and centroid

I
I
39. 59

I
I lm
II
39.60

I
Yr = 0 39.6 1

/�;:: == = = :::: ::-.:'1�....

Zc =0 39.62

('
------ �/
- mass moment. of inerlfo

0.8 m 2fl1f R2/5

l:r, = I:r = 39.63

I,, = I, = 2MR2/5 39.65

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
39-6 F E M E C M A N I C A L R E V I E W M A N U A L

( rndi11s of 9yralio11) 2 which t.hc body could be fixed (pinned) without chang­
,.� � = '2. R2 /5
ing the instantaneous angular velocities of any point. on
2 R1 /5
= r 39.66 the body. For angular velocitie:;, the body seems to
r2 rotate about a fixed, instantaneous cent.er.
2n- 1ri
'l
= r =
39.67
'h t/
'l
,. = r
'l
= ')
39.68
The instantaneous center is located by fiuding two
points for which the absolute velocity directions arc
product of inertin known. Lines drawn perpendicular to these two veloc­
ities will intersect. at t.he i11sla11taneous center. (This
graphic procedure is slightly different if the two veloc­
39. 69
ities are parallel, as Fig. 39.2 shows.) For a rolling wheel,
the instantaneous center is the point. of contact. wit.h t.hc
Description supporting surface.
Equation 39.59 t.lnough Eq. 39.69 give the properties of
at. (x,,, Ye, zc), designated point M is the total mass; p is
spheres. The center of mass (center of gravity) is located Figure 39.2 Graphic Method of Finding Ille Instantaneous Center
c.

the mass density, equal to the mass divided by the

volume; I is the mass moment of inertia about the sub­
scripted axis, used in calculating rotational acceleration
and moments about that a.xis; and r is the radius of
gyration, a distance from the designated axis from the
centroid where all of the mass can be assumed to be
concent.rated. The product of inertia for any plane pass­ IC
ing through the centroid is zero because the object is IC
synunctrical about an axis pcrpcncUcular to t.hat plane.
The absolute velocity of any point, P, on a wheel rolling
2. e>LANE MOTION OF A RIGID BODY (sec Fig. 39.3) with trauslational velocity, v0, can be
found by geometry. Assume that the wheel is pinned at
iJ = w = v0 / r . The direction of the point's velocity will
General rigid body plane motion, such as rolling wheels, point. C and rotates with its actual angular velocity,
gear sets, and linkages, can be representect in two dimen­
sions (i.e., the plane of mot.ion). Plane mot.ion can be be perpendicular to the line of length, /, between the
considered as the sum of a translational component and instantaneous center and the point.
a rotation about a fixed axis, as illustrated in Fig. 39. 1 .
Figure 39. 1 Components o f Plane Motion
/vo
v ·= lw = ­r
p
Figure 39.3 Instantaneous Center of a Rolling Wheel

plane motion

ll c

Equation 39. 70: Kennedy's Rule

11 ( 11 - 1)
translation rotation

2
C = --'
- -- 39. 70

3. ROTATION ABOUT A FIXED AXIS

Description
Instantaneous Center of Rotation
The location of the instantaneous center cau be found
Analysis of the rotational component of a rigid body's by inspection for many mechanisms, such as simple
plane motion can sometimes be simplified if tbe location pinned pnlleys am! rolling/rotat.ing objects. [(en11edy 's
of the body's instantaneous center is known. Using the rule (law, theorem, etc.) can be used to help find the
instantaneous center reduces many relative motion instantaneous centers when they are not obvious, such
problems to simple geometry. The instantaneous center as with slider-crank and bar linkage mechanisms.
(also known as the instant center and IC) is a point, at. Kennedy's r ule states that any three links (bodies),
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
l< I N E T I C S O F R O T A T I O N A L M O T I O N 39-7

right-hand rule (cross product .). ( See Eq. a9.71.)

designated as 1 , 2, au<l 3, of a mechanism ( that 111ay and enn be detenniued fro111 t.he vectors by use of the
have more than three links) , and undergoing motion
relative lo one another, will have exactly three asso­
ciated instantaneous centers, ICu. IC 1 3, and IC23, and For a rigid body rotating about ::in axis passiug through
(;hose three instant. renters will lie ou a straight line. its ce11t.er of gravity located at poi11l 0, t.he scalar value
Equal ion 39. 70 calculates t.hc uumber of instantaneous of angular momentum is given by Eq. 39.72.4
centers for any number of links. c is the number of The law of co11se1·ualio11 of a11g11lar 111ome11l11m states
instantaneous centers, and 11 is the number of links. that if no external torque acts upon an object, the
angular moment.um cannot change. The etngular
moment.nm before and afler an internal torque is
Example appUcd is the same. Equat.ion 39. 73 expresses the angu­
How many insla11l aneous renters dues t.he linkage lar momentum conservation law for a system consisting
shown have?
B
of multiple rnasscs.r;

Equation 39.74 and Eq. 39.75: Change in

Angular Momentum

Hu = d( /ow)/ di = M 39.74

+L J M11i1li
f,

l: ( Ho,)11 = l:{l·I 11 ; ) 11 39.75

11

Variations
(A) 3

( C) 5
(B) 1l
M = dHo
dt
(D) 6
=
dw =
li1 I- la
Solution dt
This is a four-bar linkage. The fotuth bar consists of the
Description
fixed link between points 0 and C. Use Eq. 39.70. The
number of instantaneous centers is Alt.hough Newtou's laws do not specifically deal wit.Li
rotation, there is an analogous relationship between
l)
6.
n(n - 1) (4)(4 -
applied moment ( torque) and change in angular
-
c -
-
-
2
-
-
momeutmn. For a rotating body, the moment ( torque) ,
2 Ivl, required to change the angular momentum is given
by Eq. 39.74.
The answer Is (0).
Tl1e rotation of a rigid body will be about the center of
gravity unless the body is constrained otherwise. The
scalar form of Eq. 39. 74 for a constant moment of inertia
Equation 39. 71 Through Eq. 39. 73: Angular is shown in the second variation.
Momentum
For a collection of particles, Eq. 39. 74 may be expanded
as shown in Eq. 39.75. Equation 39.75 determines the
Ho = r x mv 39.71 angular moment.um H t. time � from the angular momen­

L,J I2Mo;dt.
H0 = f11tv tum at time li , "" (H u; )1 , and the angular impulse of the
L,_,
39.72 I
moment. between t1 and /?., ""
l:(sysl. H)1 = l:(syst. H)2 39.73 11

�The NCEES Handbook is intonsistC'nt in its representation of the

Description
The angular moment.um takeu about a point 0 is the ccntroidaJ mass moment of inertia. 10 nncl le are both used in the

momentum has units of distance x force x time ( e.g.,

Oyna111irs section for the same concept.
moment of the linear momentum vector. Angular 5ln Eq. 39.73, the nonstandard notation "syst" should be int erpreted as

tc111). This would normal!)· be writ.ten ns L; or something similar.

the limits of summation (i.e., sun1111atio11 over all mosses in the sys­
N·rn·s). I t. has the same direction as the rotation vector
S)[O:tflll

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
39-8 F E M E C H A N I C A L R E V I E W M A N U A L

Equation 39. 76 Through Eq. 39.86: Rotation Solution

About an Arbitrary Fixed Axis

1 N·m
Use Eq. 39.83 to find lhe augulm accelcratiou of the
wheel when subjected to a 1 N · I l l moment.
L,M'/ = 1 qO 39.76

2 I<g·m2
a = M.,/ I q =
a =-
dw
(generalJ 39.77
di
c/O = 0.5 rad/s2
w = - [g.enm1IJ

)
39.78

(
clI
From Eq. 39.84, the angular velocity artcr 5 s is

1
W = W11 + ll, f rad (
w dw = o dO [gt'ucrnl] ,'J9.79
39.80 = 0 ----;
;- +
0= +2
O.fJ 5 s)
( 3 racl/s)
,,; = ,,;0 + a· t
s2
fin + Wuf Cl, l1 39.81
w2 = w121 + •2or(O - Oo) 39.82
Tfle answer is (8).
= J\1,1 / ]'/
(\ 39.83

0 = Ou + Wo l + o12/2
w = L<:o + o f 39.84
4. CENTRIPETAL AND CENTRIFUGAL

J 1\J"dO
39.85 FORCES

,1w�1 2 = 2 • r
/ qw11/2
II
NewLon 's second law states that there is a force for every
I 39.86 accelerat.ion LhaL a body experiences. For a body moving
u,, around a curved path, t.he total acceleration can be
separated into tangential and normal compo1 1e11ts. By

j a dl (A:) t.
Variations Newton's second law, there are corresponding forces i n

+
the tnngential and normal cfaections. The force nsso­
w= = wo ciatcd with the normal acceleraL!on is known as the
cenl.ripetal force. The centripetal force is a real force
Oil the body toward the center or rotation. The so-called

centrifugal force is an apparent. force o n the body

directed away from the center or rotation. The centri­
petal and centriliigal forces are equal in magnitude but
opposite in sign.
Description
The centrifugal force on a body of mass m with distance
The rotation about an arbitrary fornd axis q is found r from the center of rotation to the center of mass is
from Eq. 39.76. Equation 39.77 through Eq. 39.79 apply

Fc = ma,. = -- = mrw2
when the angular acceleraLio11 of the rotating body is
variable. Equation 39.80 through Eq. 39.82 apply when mv�
the angular acceleration of the rotating body is con­ ,.
staut. 6 Equation 39.83 through Eq. 39.85 apply when
the moment applied to the fn•ed axis is constant. The 5. BANKING OF CURVES
change in kinetic energy (i.e., the work done to acceler­
ate from w0 to w) is calculated using Eq. 39.86. If avehicle travels in a circular path on a flat plane with
instantaneous radius r and tangential velocity v1, it will

A 50 N wheel has a mass moment of i nert.ia of 2 kg·m2 •

1
Example experience an apparent centrifugal force. The centrifu­
gal force is resisted by a combination of roadway bank­
ing (superelevation) and sideways friction. The vehicle
The wheel is subjected to a constant. N·m torque. weight, W, corresponds to the normal force. For small
What is most nearly the angular velocity of the wheel banking angles, the maximum frictional force is
5 s after the torque is applied?

(C ) 5 rad/s
For large banking angles, the centrifugal force contrib­
utes to the normal force. If the roadway is banked so
(D) 1 0 rad/s that friction is noL required to resist the centrifugal
force, the superelevation augle, e, can be calculated from
&The use of subscript c in the NCEES Hnndbook Dynamics section to
drsignate a constant angular acceleration is nut a normal and custom­ \12
ury engineering usage. Since subscript c is routinely used in dynamics
to designate ccntroidal (mass center), the subscript is easily
tan e = _..!_
gr
misinterpreted.

P P I • w w w . p 1> i 2 p a s s . c o m
r

l. 111L.roduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40-1 i11cluding mechanical, thermal, elect.rical, and 111agnetir:

2. T<inetic EnerKY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40-2 energies. Energy is a positive, scalar quant.ity, H lthongh
a. Potc11L.ial Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40-11 t.he chauge in energy can be either positive or 11egal.ive.
ti . Energy Conservat.io11 Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . 40-5 Work, 1 1', is the act of changing the energy of a mass.
5. Linear Impulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40-G Work is a sigued, sca lnr quantity. \.\1ork is posit.ive when
6. Impacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40-7 a force acts in the direetio11 of motion and moves a mass
from one locatio11 to another. \\Tork is negative when a
Nomenclature force acts to oppose rnotio11. ( Friction, for example,
always opposes the direction of motion and can only do
negative work .} The net work done on n nrnss by n1orc
mt>fficirnt of rrst.itulio11

F
e

E energy J
fo rce N t.han one force ca.ii be found by superposition.
!I gravitational accelerat ion, 9.81 1 1 1/s2
" height Ill

.I F-dr
k spring constant N/rn Equation 40.1 Through Eq. 40.6: Work 1
m mass kg

/ Fcos
M moment N·111

p
p linear rno1ne11l11111 kg·m/s II' = 40. 1

[variable force}
power w
,. {/ F =
= (F. cos O)b.8 fc-om;laul force}
distance 111 ()ds 40.2
s position Ill

I
I time s
(/ F 40.3

Uw = - 11'6y

-·l•·(s.12
T k inelic energy J fw<'ight) 40. 4
u potential energy J _ 2
\' velocit.y lll/S U, - - s1 ) fspring] 40.5

II' work J U.11 = M/':J.(I [couple 1n01nen lj 40. 6

:J: <l isplacement 111
!I horizontal <lisplacement 111 Description
Symbols The work performed by a force is calculated as a dot
e efficiency product of the force vector acting through a displacement
B angle deg vector, as shown in Eq. '10. 1 . Si.nee the dot product of two
w angular velocity ra<l/s vectors is a scalar, work is a scalar quantity. The integral
in Eq. 40.1 is essentially a summatiou over all forces
Subscripts acting at all distances. 2 OuJy the component of force in
the direction of motion does work. In Eq. 40.2 and
1-+2 movi11g from state 1 to state 2
Eq. 110.3, the component of force in the direct.ion of
c centroidal or co11st1111t
mot.ion is FcosO, where 0 represents the acute angle
<' elast.ic
between the force and the direction vectors. For a single
f fi nal or frict.ional
F force 1 ln Eq. 40.2 tloro11gh Eq. 40.6, the w1riahle for work is given ns U for
g gravit.y consistency with t he NCEES FB Rcfcrwcl? Handbook (NCEES Hand­
re instantaneous center book). Non11rilly, it is given as II'.
M lllOJllent 2(1) The NCEES l/andbook attempts to clistinguish betwren work and
11 normal stored l'IH.'rgy. F'or example, the work-energy principle (cnllcd the
principle of work and energy in the NCEES Handbook) is essentially
s spring presented as U - U1 = 11� However, there is no ener�· storage rn<so­
2
IV weight ciatcd witl1 a force, say, moving a box nrross a frictionlc:<s surface,
which is one of the pos.�ible applications nf Eq. 40.3. (2) When dC'nol­
ing work associated with a translating bocly, the NCBES Ham/book
uses both II' and U. (3) The NCEES llarrdbook is inconsis tent in its use
1 . INTRODUCTION
of the variable U, wl1ich has three meanings: work, stored energy, and
The energy of a mass represents the capacity of the mas.s change in stored energy. (4) The NCEES Harrdbook is inconsistent in
to do work. Such energy can be stored and released. the vnrinble used to indicate position or distance. Both 1· 11ncl s arc used
There are ma11y forms that the stored energy can take, in this section.

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
40-2 F E M E C H A N I C A l. R E V I E \'/ M A N U A L

comitanL force ( or, a force resultant), t he integral can he Example

earth's
cJroppPd, nnd the cJifferPntial ds replaced with /1s, as i11 A 35()() kg cicir lraveliug at 65km/h skids. The cnr hits a
Eq. 40.3.3
Equal.ion 40.4
represents the work done i11 a wall 3 s later. Tllf• coefficient of frict. ion bet ween t.lw
moving weight, II', a vertical cJistam:P, /1y, nga inst tires and t.he road is 0.GO, a 11<l the spPed of the car when
gravitat.ional field. 1 Eqnation 40.5 represents Lhc work it. !tits t.he wall is 0.20 m/s. \Vhat. is most nParly Lhc
nssociaLccJ wit,h a cl1a11gc extension or cowpression i11 a energy t. hat the bumper must absorb i11 order to prnvent
work performed by a couple ( i.P., a 111011ient ), M, rota ting
spring wit.h a spring constant. k." Eqna t.i o n

t hrough an a11gle B .li

is the 40.6 dmnage l o Lhc rest of the car?

(A) 70 .]
2. r<INETIC ENERGY (Il) 140 J

Kinetic e1u:.1·!J!I is a form of rnedrnuirnl energy m;sociatPd ( C) 220 .]

with a moving or rotating body. ( D) :{60 kJ
Equation 40. 7: Linear Kinetic Energy 7 Solulion

(3500 kg) (0.20 lslr

111v-i /2 40.7
Using Eq. •10.7, the kinetic energy of the c:ar is
T=
Description T = mv 2 / 2
= ________ =
70 .J
The linear kinetic energy of a body moving with i11stan­
2
taneous liuear velocity v is calc11lated from Eq. 40.7. T/1e answer is (A).
"
The NGEES H11111/book s i inconsisl1·11t i11 ils use of l ht• subscript c. In
F.q. 40.3, F,. l lll'a 11s a constan t forct•. F, is nut a force tlircdt'd through
llw <:l'ntroicl.
�(!) The subsc1ipt II' is not a.'SOcialc�I with work, but ral her, is
nssodat!'cl with l i te object (i.e., weight) thal is 11 10\'ecl. (2) Thl' 111C'an­ Equation 40.8: Rotational Kinetic Energy
ing of the ncgath·c sign is ambiguous. If Ay is ;1i,:;u111ed to 111('nu !Ji-!Ji .
t he n the negatil'e sign would suppo1 t a thcnnodyuarnic fir.:.l law
intC'fprctat ion ( i.e , work is negatil'e whl·11 the surrot111di11gs do work
. 40.8
.
011 the system). llowc\'f•r, Eq ·10.l, Eq. 40.2, Eq. 40.3, and Eq. 40.6 do
nol have negative s ign s, w these equat io1L� do 11ot seem t o he wdlten
to he rnnsistent with a thcnnodynamic sign convention. Ay could Description
mean y1 - tt1, and the negative sign 111ny rcprl>.>ent mere n lg\•bniic
convr·11ie11cc. The rotational kinetic energy of a body moving wit.h
&(l) Equat ion •10.5 s
i i ncorr('d ly presented in the NGt:ES J/a1111/.wok. instantaneous angulnr velocity w is described by
The 1/2 111ultiplier is inro1 rcctly shown i11sitl1' the parent hN;l'S.
(2) Then' is no mathematit11I rl'ason why the spr ing constnnl. k,
Eq. 40.8.
cannot. he brought outside of the parenthes�. (J) Whereas tlm suh­
scripts F, 11', 1111d Al in Eq. •10.J, Eq. 40.<1, and Eq. •10.6 are upp(')'C'!<SC'o Example
the subscript \$ in Eq. 40.5 is lowercase. (.J) Wherc>nti the subscripts F,
II', and M in Eq. 40.3, Eq. •10.4, and Eq. •10.G nr1• derived from the 5
A 10 kg homogeneous disk of c m radius rotates on an
source of th\• energy change (i.e., from t he itC'111 thttt moves), th(• axle AB of length m and rotates about a fixed point
0.5
subscript s in Eq. ·10.5 is clc1 ivrd from the intlcpl'ndrnt variable that A . The disk is constrai11ed to roll on a horizontal floor.
dianges. If a �i1nilar conven tion had been followed with Eq. 40.:1,
Eq. 1 · 0..1, a nt i Eq. 40.6, the 1•ariabks in those cqnnlions would hnvl'
been U,, U,, and Vo. (5) For a compression s pd ng adccl upon by nn y
increasing force, si < Si. so the negative sign is incorrect for this 0.5 m
Handbook as U2 - U1 = k(?i - fi)/2, which i.� 11ot only a diffC'rcnt
appkation
l fr\ 1111 a thermodynn1nic system standpoint. (6) This equn­

format, lmt uses I instead of s, 1 rnd changes t llt' meaning of II fro11 1

tion is shown in a subsequent column of this section of the NGEES

x
change in ('11ergy to stored C'nrrgy.
';Tbe NGEES Hn11dbook a.<;SOdatl'S Eq . .JO.G wi t h a ''couple momrnt,"
z
an uncommo11 term. A prope1 ty of a rnuple is the 111oincnt it impnrls,
so it is nppropriate to speak of tho moment of n couple. Similarly, n
properly of n hurricane s i its wind speed, but rcfc1 1 ing to the hm ricnnr CivPn an a11gular velocity of 30 rad/s about the :rr::t..xis
itself as n hurricane speed would be improper. If Eq. 40.G is meant to
describe a pure moment causing rotat ion wit honl trnnslatio11, the
a11<l -3rad/s about the y-axis, t.hc kinetic energy of the
term.� co111ife, pure mo111enl, or torque wonlcl nil lie <tppropriate. disk is most nearly
7(1) The NGRBS ffondbook nsrs different vmiabit"':S lo represent kinot ir
energy. 111 its section on Units, l<E is used. In its Dynamics section, T
(A) 0.62 J
i use<I. (2) 111 its description of Eq. •10.7, the NGBl.!.:S liawlbook n&'S
s
bold l', indirnting a l'ector quu ntity, but s11hscq11e11tly, does not indi­
(B) 1 7 .J
ca te n vector quru1tity in the equation. I<inctic cner�· is not n vector
qunntit.y, and a vector 1·elucit,1· is not required to calcnlate k i netic
(C) 18 J
en<'rgy. (D) 34 .1

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
E N E R G V f\ N D W 0 l'l I< 40-3

Solution When its horizo11lal velocity is 50 k m/h, the total

kinetic energy of the disk is most nearly
Assuming the axle is parl of t he disk, the disk has a fewd
poi11t. al 1\. Since t he :1�, y-, and z-tL\:C's arc principal axes
{A) 1000

- -
of inertia for t.he disk, the kiuet.ic energy is most ne<1rly .J

(B) 1 200 .J
2 f,<vr 2 J
y(v ,1 l ,tv, 2 1 (C) 1<100 .1
T = l1rcv / 2 =

�m1:2w·rz + (nil} + 4lmr2 ) w�J

- + 2 + -
2 2 { D ) !GOO J

( )
=2 +o Solution
2 2

----- --
The linear velocity is
(!) 3 0 rad ,_
)

(
0 kg)
5 cm
2 (I I 00 cm
2
( s
kJll )
2)
=- ---"'"'--
Ill (50 �)
h
( 1000 �
�) (oo min
---
2
( 10 kg)(0. 5 m)
2
I
'u
=
)

)
(GO mm h

+ (11) ( 1 0 kg) 5 c.:m

100
cm( Ul
( -3 r:d) "l
The angular vclocil.y is
= 13.89 /
lll s

+
2
+o
13.8!)
Ill

= ( 1 7 J) W = Vo S
16 . D .1
r
=
0.5 m
2
Tile answer is (8).

Using Eq. 40.9, the total kinet.ic energy is

Equation 40.9 and Eq. 40. 1 0: Kinetic Energy

-I- l \
of Rigid Bodies

T = 1 11 v2 /2 + J,w2 /2 nn•6 (� m R2 ) (v2

T = 111vij/2 + T, w2/ 2

�) 2
40.9
= -- +
T ( ,2" + ,,2,. , )/2 + I, w2, /2 40. 10 2 2
(10 kg) l3.89(

(m( l o kg) (�f) (5s.5a �/

Description
2
Equation 40.9 gives the kinet.ic energ)' of a rigid body.
For general plane motion in which there are transla­
t ional and rotational components, tile kinetic energy is
t.he sum of the translatio11al and rotational forms. Eq11a­
+
2
tio11 '10.10 gives t.hc ki11ct.ic energy for motion i11 the �IT!J = 1447 (1400 J)
plane.
.1

Example The answer is (C).

A uniform disk with a mass of 10 kg and a diameter of
0.5 m rolls without. slipping on a flat horizontal Sttrfacc,
as shown.
Equation 40.1 1 : Change in Kinetic Energy

40. t 1

Description
The change i n kinetic energy is calculated from the dif­
ference of squares of velocity, uot from t.he square of lhe
velocity difference (i.e., m (v� - vT}/2 =J m(v 2 - v 1 ) 2 /2).

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
40-4 F E M E C H A N I C A L R E V I E W M A N U A L

3. POTENTIAL ENERGY Equation 40.1 4: Elastic Potential Energy

Equation 40.1 2: Potential Energy in Gravity
u = kJ' /2
Field 2 40. 14

U = myh 40. 12

Description

the spring's is calculated from

Description
Potential encryy (also known as _qmvitat.ional potential Eq. •I0.14.
elastic potential energy
) U, is a form of mechanical energy possessed by
1.m Cl'.lJY ,
a mass due to its relat.ivc position in a gravitational
field. Pot.ent.ial energy is lost when the elevat.ion of a
Example
mass decreases. The lost potential energy us11ally is The •10 kg mass, 111, shown is acted upon by a spring aud
converted to ki11etic energy or heat. g11icled by a friclionlcss rail. When t.he compressed
spring is released, the nrnss barely reaches point. B .
The spring constant, J.:, is 3000 N/m, a11d the spring is
Equation 40.1 3: Force in a Spring (Hooke's compressed 0.5 111.
Law)
B
F,, = Ju 40. 1 3 1 m
A

Description
A spring is an energy storage device beca11se a compressed
spri11g has t.he ability to perform work. In a perfect spring, h=6m
the amount of energy stored is equal to the work required
to compre&<; the spring in.it.ially. The stored spring energy
does not. clcpeud on the mass of the spring.
compressed
Equation 40.13 gives Lhe force in a spring, which is the
m = 40 kg
position
product of the spring constant (stiffness), k, and the k = 3000 Nim
displacement of the spring from its origi11al position, x.

What is most nearly the energy stored in the spring?

Example
A spriug has a canst.ant of 50 N/m. The spring is hung
vertically, and a mass is atlachccl to its end. The spriug (A) 380 J
end displaces 30 cm from it.s equilibrium position. The (8) 750
same mass is removed from the first spring and attached
.J

lo the end of a second (different) spring, and the dis­

(C) 1500 J
placement is 25 cm. What is most. nearly the spring (D) 2100 J
constant of the second spring?
(A) 46 N/m Solution

(3000 N) (0.5 m)2

(C) 60 N /m

k.-c2/2 =
(D) 63 N/m
2
u= __ __.:.
11
=1____

= 375 .1
Solution (380 J)
The gravitational force on the mass is t.he sa111e for both
springs. From Hooke's law,

(50 N ) (30 cm)

The answer is (A).
Fs = k 1 X 1 = kzx2
k .
k2 = � = _

25 cm
----'
=
11
1 .
_ __
Equation 40.1 5: Change in Potential Energy
X2
= 60 N/m
40. 15

The answer is (C).

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
E N E R G Y A N D w o n •< 40-5

Description 4. ENERGY
. ... CONSERVATION .. ..
PRINCIPLE
.. . . .. .. ...... . . . ..

The change in potential energy storc<l iu Lite spring Aceording to the e11eryy co11sernalio11 7ll'i11cip/e, energy
when the defon11atio11 iu the spring changes rrom posi­ cannot be created or dest.royed. However, energy ca11 be
tion :i:1 to position :i:.i is found from Eq. '10 . 15. 8 transfornlf'd into different forllls. Therefore, t.he sum of
Equivalent Spring Constant all euergy forws of a system is r.onstnnt.
The ent.ire applied load is felt by each spring in a series
of springs linked end-lo-end. The e1J11 ivo/enf (composite)

[ spri11g,s
L E = constant.

J
spri11y collslcml for springs in series is
Because energy can neither be created 11or dcst.royed,
J 1 l 1 series external work performed on a conservative system must
-=- +-+-+ · · ·
k,..I k1 k2 /.:3 go into changing t.he system's total energy. Tbis is
known as [.he work-energy pri11cip/e.
Springs in parallel (e.g., concentric springs) share the

[ pnr
applied load. Tht> equivalent spring constant. for springs
in parallel is
� llcl ] Ce1wrally, the priuciple of conservation of energy is
sprmgs applfo<l to mechanical energy problems (i.e., conversion
of work into kinetic or p0Le11t.ial energy).
Equation 40. 1 6 Through Eq. 40.18: Combined Conversion of one form of energ)' i11Lo anot.her does not
Potential Energy violate the conservation of energy law. �fost problems
involving conversion of energy are really special cnses.
I' = \f,1 + \I, 40. 16 Por example, consider a falling body t.hat is acted 11po11
by a grnvital.ional force. The co11versio11 of pot.ent.ial
\l� = ± ll'y 40. 1 7
energy into kinetic energ)' can be interpretecl as equat­
\I, = + 1 /2/.:.</ 40. 18 ing the work clone by the constant gravitational force lo
l.he change in kinetic energy.
Description
In mechanical systems, there are two conunon co111po­
ncnls or what is normally referred to as potential energy: Equation 40.19: Law of Conservation of
gravitational potential energy and st.rain encrgy.9 For a Energy (Conservative Systems)
system containing a linear, elastic spring t.hat. is locatecl
at some elevation in a gravitational field, Eq. 110.16 gives
the total of these two components. 1 0 Equation 40. 1 7 40. 19
gives the potential energy of a weight i n a gravitational
fiekl. 1 1 Equation 40. 18 gives t.l1e strain energy in a lin­ Description
ear, elastic spri11g. 1 2 fi'or conser11ative systems where there is no energy dis­
8 sipation or gain, the total energy of t.hc ll)USS is equal to
The NCEES fl1111tlbook nsrs the notation T to denote positio n, HS in
Eq. 40.14, and lo drnotc change n length (i.e., a cha nge in position
t.he sum of the kinetic and potential (gravitational an<l
1h), a.s in Eq. 40.15.
i
In E<J. •I0.5 and Eq. 40.18, the NCEES fln111/buok elastic) energies.
uses s inslcad of ,. ns in Eq. •l0.15, but the meaning is the �a 1 n1 '.

Equation 40. 1 6 is nol lirnited to mechanical systems. Potential rnrrgy
storn�e cxisls in cil'tlricnl, magnetic, fluid, pneumatic, and thl' 1 1 11al
Example
systems idso. A projectile with a rnass of L O kg is fired directly upward
1 ( 1 ) Although P8 is used in the Units St:ction of from ground level with an iuitial velocity of 1000 111/s.
1 1
lhl' NCEES llantf­
book lo identify pot e ntial energy, and U is dl'finl'd as energy in the
Dy1w111irs spct ion, the NCl!-'ES Ha11tf/Jook introduces ll 1 u �w Vllfinble, I',
Neglect.ing the effects of air resistance, what will be lhe
for potenlial energy. Outside of the con�rvation of c·nt•rgy cquntion, speed of the projectile when it impacts t.he ground?
this new v:irialile does not seem to be used clsewhC'rc in the NCEES
f/111111/muk. (:.1) \19 11nd I', h<we previously (i11 the NCEES flrrndbook)
(A) 710 m/s
bc<-n rl'presentl'<l hy Uw 11nd U,, among other:;. (3) The suhsciipls y (B) 980 m/s
and c arc 1 111ddi11rd, hul grnvitational accelC'ration is i1nplil'<l for y.
(C) 1000 m/s
)
The llll'Hlling of P is unclear but almost certainly rt'fl'rs lo an elast ic

(D) 1400 m/s

strain energy.
11
( 1 Equation I0.17

)
- uses y whill• olh<'r C'quations in the Dynamics
section of the NCEES ffo11dbook 6y :md h. !I is implit'itly thl'
1 1( 1
use
distance from some arbitrary C'lcvalio11 for which y= 0 is assigned. Equ11t ion cl0.18 has prm·iously l>1.'t'n prrs<'nlecl with different
(2) This use o f ± is iuco1 1sistr11l wil h a thenn<Xlynamic interpretation \'aririhll':> in th is section as Eq. 40. 1 4. (2) Equa t ion 40.18 uses s wlLi lc
of rnrrgy, ns wns apparently used in Eq. •IO..t. The sign of the ener�· othcr eqm1tiuns in the Dynamics section of the NCF:RS llmrdbuok use

would 1101 rnnlly be derived fro111 t11c position, which can be posith·e or The + sy111hol is ambiguous, but prob11bly should be interpreted

(3)
11C�lll i\'C. B.v using ±, the implication is that y is nlw11ys a positi\'e
s.
a� 111ea11i11g ki11rtit enrrgy s
i always positin.>. Tiu• + is rl'dnndant,
q11a11lity, rc·gnrdle;;
s of whether the uiass is <ilJO\'C nr hrlow I he refer­ becausc lhc s1 tcrn1 is ulw11ys gitive. - ·l) Equation 4 0 . 1 8 should not
_
cncc datu1n. be mterprcted as one u\'l'r two t 11nes k.c

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o rn
40-6 F IE M E C 11 A N I C /I L A E V I E W M A N U /I L

Use Lhe law of co11servation of energy. F

-- + mgh-i = -- + 111.11'11
I mp
mv� 111vi
2 2 1, 12
111v� - mv�
( 111qh 1 - mgh1) + =0
2
Equation 40.21 and Eq. 40.22: Impulse·
111(vi - v�)
o+ =o Momentum Principle for a Particle
2
\,22 - ,,2I
111 dv/tll
dv Fdl
= F 40.21
111 = 40.22
= 1000 lll/s
Va1 latlon
If air resistance is 11cglccted, the impact. velocity will be
the same as the initial velocity. F ( /2 - 1 1 ) = Ll(mv)

The answer is (C). Descriptio11

The impulsc-rnouumtum principle for a co11st ant force
Equation 40.20: Law of Conservation of a11d mass demonstrates l hat the impulse-moment.um
Energy (Nonconservative Systems) principle follows directly from Newton's seco11cl law.

40.20 Example

seconci, st<1t.ionary railcar. I f t.he velocity of the two cars

A 60 000 kg railcar moving <1t. l km/h is coupled to a
Description after coupling is 0.2 m/s (in t.he origiual direct.ion of
Nonconservative forces (e.g., frict.io11) are accounted for motion) anci the coupling is completed in 0.5 s, what is

ing between state 1 and state 2, W 1 �2 . If the noncon­

by the work clone by the nonconservative forces in mov­ most nearly the average impulsive force 011 the railcar?
(A) 520 N
servative forces increase the energy of the syst.e111, IV 1_2
is µositive. If the nonconservative forces decrease the (B) 990 N
energy of t.he syste1J1, W i-i is negative. (C) 3100 N
(D) 9300 N
5. LINEAR IMPULSE
lmp1dse is a vector quantity equal to the change i n Solution

as those for liJ1ear momentum: N·s. Figure 110.1 ilh1s­

( 1 �) ( 1 000 �)
vector momentum. Units o f linear impulse are the same The original velocity of the GO 000 kg railcar is

, Felt
t.rates that impulse is represented by the nrea under the

(60 �) (
.! 11,
force-time curve.
v= h k�ll
111111
)
Imp =
Go
llllll h
= 0.2777 m/s

I f t.he applied force is constant, impulse 1s easily Use the impnlse-morncntulll principle.

�)
calc11l<1tecl.
FtJ.t. = mtJ.v
11
1 - 0.2
111(VJ - V2 ) (60 000 kg)(0.27 77 -'---
The change i11 momentum is equal t o the impulse. This F-
- - - --------
S -
S
� -- -

is known as the impulse-momentum p1·i11ciple. For <1 l1 - 12 0 s - 0.5 s

linear system wit.h canst.ant force anci mass, = -9324 N (9300 N) [opposite origin'11 directio11]

Imp = Llp
The answer is (D).

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
E N E R G Y A N D W O R K 40-7

Equation 40.23: Impulse-Momentum Example

Principle for a System of Particles A GO 000 kg raikar moving at 1 km/h is instantaneously

J F, dl
coupled to a st atio11ary 40 000 kg railcar. What is most
1. nearly the speed of the coupl<�<l rars?
L
(8) O.GO km/h
2:111,(v,),. = 2:111,(v,)11 + 40.23 (A) 0.110 km/it
,,

and 2.: 111;(v;) 1 2 iue the linear 111on1cntum al

Description
L m;(v;)11 (D) 1.0 km/h
Lime 1. 1 and time 1.2 , respectively, for a system (i.e.,
collection) of particles. The impullie of the forces F from Solution
time 1. 1 to t.illle /.2 is
Use t.lie conservation of momentum principle.

(
/.,

:)
k1 1

+ ( 40 000 kg) (0) = (GO 000 kg + 40 000 kg)v1

1
6. IMPACTS
According to Newton's second law, momentum is con­
v' = O.GO km/h
served unless a body is acted upon by an external foree
sueh as b'n1vity or frictio11. In a11 i111pact or collision The answer is (B).
contact is very brief, and the effec:t. of external forces is
iusig11ific.:a11t. Therefore, momentum is conserved, even
t.hough energ1• may he lost through heat generation and
deforming the bodies. Equation 40.25: Coefficient of Restitution
Consider two particles, i11itially moving wit.h velocit.ies
v 1 and v2 on a collision path, as shown in Fig. 40.2. The
conservation of momentum equation can be used Lo find 40.25
t.he velocities aft.er impact., v� and v'2 .
Values
Figure 40.2 Direct Central Impact

inelastic e < 1.0

perfectly inelastic e=O
(plastic)
perfectly elastic e = 1.0
The impact. is said to be an inelastic impact if kinetic
energy i::; lost. The impact is said to be pc1fcctly inelastic
or pe1jectly plastic if the two particles stick together and Description
move on with the same final velocity. The impact is said
Lo be an elastic impact. only if kinetic energy is The coefficicnl of reslil11lio11, e, is the ratio of relative
conserved. velocity differences along a mutual straight line. When
both irnpacl. velocities are not directed along the same
straight line, the coefficient of restitution should be
calculate<l separately for each velocity component..
In Eq. 40.25, the subscript 11 indicates that the velocity
to be used in calculating the coefficient of restitution
should be the velocity component normal Lo the plane of
Equation 40.24: Conservation of Momentum

impact..

40.24 infinitely massive plane), the stationary object's initial

and fmal velocities arn zero. l.u that. case, the rebound
Description velocity can be calculated from only the object's velocities.
The consernation of momentum equation is used to find

1:�1
t.he velocit.y of two particles after collision. v 1 and v2 are
t.hc init.ial velocit.ies of I.he particles, and v� and v'2 are
the velocities alter impact..
P. =

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
40-8 F E M E C 11 A N I C A L R E V I E W M A N U A L

The value of Lhc cocfficie11t of rest.it.11tion ran he used Lo Equation 40.26 and Eq. 40.27: Velocity After
categorize thP rollision as elastic or iuclm;tic. For a Impact
perfectly i11clastic collision (i.e., a plast.ic collision), as

m2 (v2 ) ,,( I + r· ) + ( 111 1

when Lwo particles stick together, the coPfficienl of
restitution is zero. For a perfectly elastic collisio11, the ' _ r 1112)(v 1 ),,
( V( )
fll I + llll
- 40.26
coefficient of restitution is 1.0. For most. collisio11s, the II

coefficient of restitution will be bet.ween zero and 1 .0,

iudicati11g a (partially) inelastic collision.
40.27
Example
A 2 kg clay ball moving at. a rate of 40 m/s collides with Description
a 5 kg ball of clay 111oving i11 the same direct.ion at. a rate
of 10 m/s. \\'hat is most nearly the final velocity of both If t.he coefficient of restitution is known, Eq. 40.26 a11d
balls ir t.hey stick together after colliding? Eq. 40.27 may be used to calculate the velocities after
impact.
(A) 10 m/s
(8) L 2 m/s
(C) 15 m/s
(D) 1 9 rn/s

Solution

v� = v'1 = v'

From the conservation of momentum, Eq. 40.24,

m1 v 1 + 1112v2 = ( m 1 + m2 )v'
v v
v' = m1 1 + m2 2
m1 + m2
(2 kg) (4o �) + (5 kg) (10 �)
2 kg + 5 kg
= 18.6 m/s (19 m/s)

The answer is (D).

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
1. Types of Vibrations . . . .. . 41-1 1 . TYPES OF VIBRATIONS
2. 41-1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Ideal Components .
3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Static Dcflectiou 41-2 \libra/.ion is an oscillatory mot.ion alJout an equilibrium

4. 41-2
. . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

l"ree Vibration point. If the ruotion is the result of a disturbing force

5. Amplitude of OsciUat.io11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41-4
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

t.hat is applied 011cc and then removed, the motion is

6. Vertical versus Horizontal Oscillation . 41-4 known as nnlttral (or free) vibration. Jf a force of impulse
41-4
. . . .

7. Natural Frequency . . is applied repeatedly to a system, the motion is known

8. Torsional Free Vibration . . . . . . . . 41-4
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

as forced vibration.
9. 41-5
. . . . . . . . .

Undamped Forced Vibrations \\lithin both of the categories of natural and forced
10. Vibration lsolat.ion and Control . . . 41-6
. . . . . . . . . . . .

11. Isolation from Active Base . . 41-6

. . . . . . .
vibrations are the subcategories of darnped and
12. Vibrations iu Shafts . . . . . . . 41-6
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
undamped vibrations. If there is no dam71i11g (i.e., no
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
friction) , a system will experience free vibrations indefi­
nitely. This is known as free uibmt.ion and simple lint-
Nomenclature 111onic motion. (See Fig. 41.1.)
fl acceleration m /s2
A a mplitude Figure 41.1 Types of Vibrations

D
Ill

c coefficient of viscous clamping N·s/m

displacement Ill
vibrations
E modulus or elasticit.y Pa
I frequency Hz natural forced
F force N I I
g gravitat.ional accelerat.ion, 9.81 m/s2 undamped damped undamped damped
G shear modulus Pa (free)
I polar mass moment of inertia kg·rn2
4
J polar area moment. of inert.ia 111
k spring constant N/ m The performance (behavior) of some simple systems cau
L length Ill be defined by a single variable. Such systems am
m mass kg referred to as single degree of freedom (SDOF) systems.
1· radius 111 For example, the position of a mass hanging from a
time s spring is defined by the one variable ;i'(t) . 1 Systems
'1' period s requiring two or more variables to define the positions
u energy J of all parts arc known as nmltiple degree of freedom
v velocity m/s (MDOF) systems. (See Fig. 41.2.)
�; displacement. Ill

2. IDEAL COMPONENTS
Symbols
8 deflect.ion
\Vhen used to describe components in a vibrating sys­
0 angular position
Ill

tem, the adjectives ve1fect and ·ideal generally imply
linearity and the absence of friction and damping. The
period s
-r
behavior of a linear compone11l can be described by a

=
w
linear equation. For example, the linear equation F = kx
describes a linear spring; however, the quadratic equa­
Subscripts tion F Cv2 describes a nonlinear dashpot. Similarly,
0 initial F = ma and F = Cv are linear inertial and viscous
c complementary forces, respectively.
I forcing
11 natural
p particular 1
Although t.he convention is by no means universal, the variable .z; is
st. static commonly used as the position variable in oscillatory systems, even
I torsional when the motion is in the vertical (y) direction.

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
4 1-2 F E M E C H A N I C A L R E V I E W M A N U A L

Figure 41.2 Single and Mulliple Degree of Freedom Systems Figure 41.4 Simple Spring-Mass System

t + deflected
k x position of static

I position
equilibrium

t -x
.---'---. - equilibrium
m

. . . . . . . . .,... . . ...... ......

Figure 41.5 Free Vibration

x
3.. STATIC DEFLECTION
Au import.ant concept. used in calculating t.he behavior
of a vibrating system is the static deflect·ion, 6,,1• This is
the deflection of a mechanical system due to gravita­ t or w t
tional force alone. 2 (The disturbing force is not consid­
erecl.) In calculating the static deilcction, it is extremely
important to distinguish between mass and weight. Fig­
ure 4 1 .3 illustrates two cases of static deflect.ion. Description

gravitational force alone. m is the mass of the system,

The static deflection, 6,1i is the deflection due to the
Figure 41.3 Examples of Static Deflection
!J is the gravitational acceleration (9.81 rn/s2), and k is
L
the system's spring constant.
m

Example

_
k
Sst -
_
(weight)L3
A pump with a mass of 30 kg is supported by a spring
r- - - 1
48£/
I I with a spring constant of 1250 N/m. The motor is con­
I
(b)

J
J_ strained to allow only vertical movement.. What is most

_ _ _

we ght nearly the static <lcflection of the spring?

m Ssr =
{A) 0.11 m
(B) 0.19 111
(a)

4. FREE VIBRATION
The simple mass and ideal spring illustrated in Fig. 4 1 .4
{D) 0.31 Il
{ C ) 0.211 m

is an example of a system that can experience free

vibration. The system is initially at rest. The mass is Solution

the static deflection, Ds t · After the mass is displaced and

hanging on tile spring, and the equilibrium position is Calculate the static deflection.

-
k6st
released, it will oscillate up and clown. Since there is no
friction {i.e., the vibration is undamped), the oscillations mg=

Il )
{j

(
will continue forever. (See Fig. 4 1 .5.) mg
sl k

(30 kg) D.81

Equation 4 1 . 1 : System at Rest s2
N
1250
Ill
41.1 = 0.235 m (0.24 m)

2 The answer is (C).

The term c/eformatio11 is used synonymmL'l.Y with dejlecti011.

P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
V I B A A I I 0 N S 4 1�3

Equation 4 1 . 2 Through Eq. 4 1 .4: Free Example

Vibration Equations of Motion for Simple A mass of 0.025 kg is hanging from a spring with a
Spring-Mass System spring constant of 0.44 N/m. Tf the mass is pulled down
and relensed, what is most 11early the period of
oscillation?
(A) 0.50 s
111ii: + k.r = 0
;i- + (k/ m) �: = 0
41.3
(TI) 1.2 s
4 1. 4
(C) 1.5 s
(D) 2.1 s
Variation

Description From Eq. 41.8, the period is

When a simple spring-mass system is disturbed by a
downward force (i.e., the mass is pulled downward from
its static deflection and released) and Lhe initial disturb­

T = 2rr = 2rr = 1.5 s
0.44 N
ing force is removed, the mass will be acted upon by the ! 111
restoring force (-kx) and the inertial force (mg). Equa­ 0.025 kg
tion 41.2 through Eq. 41.4 are the linear differential
equations of motion. The answer is (C).

Equation 4 1 .5 Through Eq. 41 .8: General Equation 4 1 .9: Specific Solution to Simple
Solution to Simple Spring-Mass System Spring-Mass System

w,, = � 41.6

w,, = Ji71J:,
Description
41.7

= 2rrIw,, = 2rr = 2rr

The initial conditions (i.e., the initial position and veloc­

ff fl
ity) an be used to determine t.he constants of integra­
tion, C'i and C2, i n Eq. 41.5. Equation 41.9 is the
Tn
41.8 c

k g
\ ;{ \ 8.-1 solution to the initial value problem.

Example
Vari ations
A mass is hung from a spring, which causes the spring to
be displaced by 2 cm. The mass is then pulled down
G cm and released. What is most nearly the position of
the mass after 0.142 s?

IIl l
2rr
T = -f1 = - (A) -0.0G m
w
(B) -0.02
Description
C1 and C2 are constants of integration that depend on
the initial displacement and velocity of the mass. w is
known as the natural frequency of vibrnt.ion or a11gular
(C) 0.04
(D) 0.08 Il
frequency. It has units of radians per second. It is not
the same as t he linear frequency, f, which has units of
Solution

(9.81 m2 ) ( ioo cm)

From Eq. 41.7 find the natmal frequency of the system.
hertz. The period of oscilla tio11, T, is the reciprocal of the
linear frequency. The undamped natural frequency of
vibration and natural period of vibration arc given by
g /Dst = \I

tvn = Ven;
Eq. 41.7 and Eq. 41.8, respectively. s m
2 cm
Equation 41. 7 can be used with a variety of systems, = 22.1 rnd/s
including those involving beams, shafts, and plates.
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
4 1-4 r: E M E C H A N I C A L R E V I E W M A N U /\ L

lJ
The initirll velority of lhe mass is rad/s, and the initial
position of t.hc 111ass is G cm. From Eq. 4 1 .!J, t he position
7. NATURAL FREQUENCY
····· ·······-- · · ·-·· . . ...... . . . . ..... .. ....... . .

of t.he mass is Tlw consen1alio11 of e11cr9y pri.uciple requires the kiuctic

cnerg)' at. the 8tatic equilibrium position to equal the
:1:( 1.) = :rn cos(w,, I) + (vu/tun)sin(iu11/. ) stored elastic energy at the position of maximum dis­

(l�Oc�)
placement. For t.hc spriug-urns8 system shown i.11
r d Fig. 4 1 .6, the energy conservation equal.ion is
= cos ( (22 . 1 : ) (0. 1 4 2 s) )

U=k
ll1

k:c�unx 11/V rn.x

+
2 2
( 1° ) ,; n ( ( 22 1 ':d) ( O J 42 sl)
22 � The velocit.y ftmction is derived by t aking the derivative
of the position function .
= -0.05!)!) m (-0.06 m)
The negative sign indicates that the location is on the :i; ( l) = :1:11wx sin w/
opposite side of the neutral ( eqttilibrium) point from
d:v( l)
where I.he syslcrn was released.
Tile answer is (A). v(t.) =--
1 = iu:i;m�x cos wt
( /,
The previou8 equation shows that v"'"-"' = iu:i.;11ax· Sub­
5. AMPLITUDE OF OSCILLATION stituting this into the energy conservation equatiou
derives the naturnl circular frequency of uibmtion.
With natural, undamped vibrations, the initial condi­
Lions (i.e., initial posit.ion and velocity) do 11ot. affect the k
natural period of oscillation. The amplitude, A, of l.hc (<)2 = -
oscillations will be affected, as shown. Tllis mean:-;, no
111.

matter how far I.he spring is initially displaced before 8. TORSIONAL FREE VIBRATION
release, the frequency of oscillatiou and period will be
the same. However, the excursions of each oscillatio11 The torsional pendulum shown in Fig. 41. 7 can be ana­
will depend on the initial displacement. For a perfect lyzed in a manner analogous to the spring-mass
lossless system, the mass will return to the point of co111bination.
initial displacement in each oscillation.
Figure 41.7 Torsional Pendulum

J G L
6. VERTICAL VERSUS HORIZONTAL
OSCILLATION
As long as friction is absent, the two cases of oscillation
shown in Fig. 4 1 .6 are equivalent (i.e., will have the
same frequency and amplitude). Although it. may seem
that there is an extra gravitational force with vertical
motion, the weight of the body is completely canceled
by the opposite spring force when the system is in Equation 41 .1 0 and Eq. 41 . 1 1 : Differential
equilibrium. Therefore, vertical oscillations about an Equation of Motion for Simple Torsional
equilibrium point are equivalent to horizout.al oscilla­ Spring
tions about. t.he unstressed point.
Figure 41.6 Vertical and Horizontal Oscillations "ii + (k,/ 1)0 = 0 41. 10

O(t) = Oucos(w,,I) + {ff11/w,,)sin(w,,t) 4 1. 1 1

k Description
The differential equation of mot.ion, Eq. 41. 10, disre­
gards the mass and moment of inertia of the shaft.
m The solution to the differential equation, shown
i n Eq. 4 1 . 1 1 , is directly analogous to the solution for
t.he spring-mass system.

P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
V I D fl A T I 0 N S 4 1-5

Equation 4 1 . 1 2: Torsional Spring Constant Using Eq. 4 1 . 13, the 1111damped natural circ11lar fre­
quency is
k1 = C:J/L 41. 12 N·m
0.625
W11 = /f;fJ =
0 . 1 563 kg·m2
Variation

k1 = w1 I = 2.0 rad /s

Description Tile answer is (D).

The torsional spring consl.rwl, k1 , for a torsional pendu­
lum is found from the shear modulus of elasticity, G, t he
polar area moment of i nertia , J, and the haft length, L.
s

{ffk, = lf1
Equation 4 1 . 1 5: Undamped Natural Period

= ,2rr/.,;11 =
2n 2n 41. 15

\T IL
C:.J
Tn
Equation 4 1 . 1 3 and Eq. 4 1 . 1 4: Undamped
Circular Natural Frequency

w,, = /k,/1 41.13 Description

= /C:Jj LL 41.14
Similar to the undamped natural p riod of vi e brat.ion for
a linear system (sec Eq. 111.8), t he undamped natural
wn

Description
period for a torsional system can be
calcnlated from
Eq. 4 1 . 15.
t
Eq11at.ion 4 1 . 1 3 gives he undamped 11at11rol circular
frequency, w,,, for a solid, round supporting rod used as
9. UNDAMPED FORCED VIBRATIONS
a torsional spring. Using the relationship from
Eq. 4 1 . 12, t he undamped circular natural frequency When an external F( t), act on the
disturbing force, s
can be r ewr itten as Eq. 4 1 . 14. J is
the polar area sy::;tem, the system is said be
to forced. A I t ho ugh the
moment of inertia of the vertical support, with un i ts of forcing function is usually considered to per io i , it
be dc
m4 . I is the polar mass moment of i er ia of he oscillat­
n t t need not. b e ( as in the case of impulse, step, and random
ing inertial disk, with units of kg·m2 . They are not the functions) .3 However an initial disturbance (i.e., when a
,
same. mass is displaced and released oscillate freely) is not
to
nn example of a forcing function. (Sec Fi 41 .8.) g .

Example Consider a sinusoidal periodic force wi th a forcing fre­

A torsional pendul m consists of a 5 kg uniform disk
u quency of w1 and ma.,...:i mum value of F0.
with a radius t c
of 0.25 m a ta hed it s center to a ro
at d
1.5 m in length. The torsional spring
constant is
/
0.625 N · rn rad . Disregarding the mass of the rod, what
s nd e
i most nearly the u amp d natural circ11lar frequency
The d i fferent ial equation of mot.ion is
of t.hc to rsio al penclul11m?
n
(J\) 1 . 0 rad/s
(B) 1 .2 rad /s
(C) 1 .4 rad/s Figure 41.8 Forced Vibrations
(D) 2.0 rad /s

Solution
F(I)
The mass moment of inert ia of the disk ( a cylinder) is
I = MR2 2 /
(5 kg)(0.25 m ) 2
2
= 0 . 1 563 kg·m2 a
Thc sinusoidal case is important, since rourier transforms can be used
lo model an�' forcing fnncl ion in tcn11s of sinusoids.

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4 1-6 F E M E C ti A N I C A L R E V I E W M I\ N U A L

The solntiou lo t.he d i rferent.ial equat.ion of mot.ion co11- 1 ·1 . ISOLATION FROM ACTIVE BASE
sists of l he sum of two parts: a complementary solulion
and a particular solulio11. The co111ple111e11lary sol111io11 In sorne cases, a machine is to he i:;olaled from au active
is obtaiucd by sell ing Fu = 0 (i.e., solving t.he ho1110- base. The base ( floor, supports, etc.) vibrates, and tbe
geneous di ITerential equal ion). As was showu iu Eq. <I l .[i magn i t ude of t.he vibration seen by the 111achine is to be
and Eq. d U ) , the solution is li1uj[,ed or reduced. This case is 110t runclame11tally dif­
ferPnt. from the cnse of a vibrating machine being iso­

.r, ( I) = A coswt + Bsin c.;/

lated fro111 a statiouary base.

The w11cepl of tran:;111issibility is replaced hy t.hc mupli­

The porlirulor soluliul! is tude ratio (rnaguification factor or amplification factor).
This is t.hc ratio of the transmitted displacement (dellec­
t.ion, excursion, 1 1 101.ion, etc.) to t.!te applied displace-
1nent. That is, it is the ratio of t.he miocimum mass
motio11 lo the maxi11m111 base mot.io11.

•••••••• .. . . . .
1 2. '11BRATIONS
•••••• ••••••• u. . ... . ... . . . . ..... . . . .. ... . . , . .. .. . .
..... . ..SHAFTS
IN .. . .. .. ' . .. . .. . . . . . .

The sol11tio11 of t h e di fferential equatiou of mot.ion is A shaft's natural freq11ency of vibration is refcnecl to as
the critical speed. This is the rotational speed in revolu­
t ions per second t hat. j11st equals Lhe lateral natural
:1: ( 1. ) = A cos wl + Bsiuwl

( )
freq11e11cy of vibration. Therefore, vibration in shafts is
basically an extc11sion of lateral vibrat ions (e.g., whip­

111(w- - w )
+ 2
Fo cos w1 l ping "up a11d down") i 1 1 bea1ns. Rotation is disregarded,
_9

1 a11d t.he shaft i s considered only frorn the standpoint of

lat era! vibrations.

1 0. '11BRATION ISOLATION AND CONTROL The shaft will have multiple modes of vibrat.ion. C:eucral

fast
practice is to keep the operating speed well below the
·· ·· ·- ····-· •··· ········ · · ·· ·· ·· · ······ · · · ·· · ·· · · · · · ··· · · ·· ·· ····· · · ·· • • > 0· · · · · · ·· · · · · · . . · · · · ··· · - . .····-. .· · · · .......... .

It. is oftc11 desired to isolate a rotating machine fro111 i t s first critical speed (rorresponding to the node). For
surr01111dings, t o li111it. t.he vibrations that. are t.nms­ shafts with dist.ribuled or m11ltiple loadings, it 111ay be
mitted lo the supports, and to reduce the amplitude o f important to know the second crit.ical speed. However,
t h e machine's vibrations. higher critical :;pccds are nsually well out of tbe range of
operation.
The t.ransmissibility (i.e., linear lransmissibility) is t.he
ratio of the transmitted force (i.e., the force transmitted For shafts with constant cross-sectional areas and
to the supports) to the applied force ( i .e., the force from si1nple loading configurations, the static deflection due
t.he imbalance). lit some n1ses, the transmissibility may t o pulleys, gears, and self-weight can be found from
be rcµorled in units of decibels. beam formulas. Shafls with single anLifriction (i.e., ball
and roller) bearings at each end can be considered to be
The magnit.nde of oscillations in vibrating equipment
sirnply supported, while shafts with sleeve beari ngs or
cau be reduced and t.he equipment isolated from the
two side-by-side a n t i frictiou bearings at each shaft em!
surroundi ngs by mounting on resilient pads or springs.

than 1/ J2 =
can be considered to have fL".:ed built-in supports.'1
The isolated system mnst have a nat ural frequenc;y less
0.707 t.imes the disturbing (forcing) fre­ A sl1aft carrying no load other than its own weight. ran

Wf /w > J2.
quency. That is, the trnnsmissi bility will be reduced be considered as a nnifornily londed beam. The maxi­
below 1 .0 only i f Otherwise, the attempted murn deflection at midspan can be found from beam
isolation will actually increase the t.ransmitted force. tablPs.

The amonnt of isolation is characterized by the iso/at.ion The das:;ical analysis of a shaft. carrying single or multi­
efficiency, also known as the percent of iso/atio11 and ple inertial loads (flywheel, pulley, etc.) as
sumes that
degree of isolation. t.he shaft i tself is weightless.

Isolation lllaterials and isolator devices have :;pecific

deflection charactPrist.ics. If the isolal.ion efficiency is
known, it can be used to determine the type of isolator
or isolation device used based on the stalic <leflectio11.

A tuned system is one for which the natmal frequency of

the vibration absorber is equal to the frequency !.hat is tu
be eliminated (i.e., the forcing frequency). In theory, this
1Slrt•\'C hearingi; (journal LK'arings) arc ai,:;u111e<l to be fixrd supports,
is easy to arcomplish: t.he mass an<l spring constant of t.he
not hct·auSE> they have tlw 111echanirnl strength to pre\•ent bi1 1di11g, but
ab:;orber are varied unt.il the desired uatural frequency is becauSl' �l('('1•e bearings e111mot operate am! would not br opNating
achieved. This is known as "tun ing" the system. with an 11 11glcd slrnft.

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