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Scheme of Work – Science stage 9

Introduction
This document is a scheme of work created by Cambridge as a suggested plan of delivery for Cambridge Secondary 1 Science stage 9. Learning objectives for
the stage have been grouped into topic areas or ‘Units’. These have then been arranged in a recommended teaching order but you are free to teach objectives in
any order within a stage as your local requirements and resources dictate.

The scheme for Science has assumed a term length of 10 weeks, with three terms per stage and three units per term. An overview of the sequence, number and
title of each unit for stage 9 can be seen in the table below.

The scheme has been based on the minimum length of a school year to allow flexibility. You should be able to add in more teaching time as necessary, to suit the
pace of your learners and to fit the work comfortably into your own term times.

Scientific Enquiry learning objectives are recurring, appearing in every unit. Activities and resources are suggested against the objectives to illustrate possible
methods of delivery.

There is no obligation to follow the published Cambridge Scheme of Work in order to deliver Cambridge Secondary 1. It has been created solely to provide an
illustration of how delivery might be planned over the three stages.

A step-by-step guide to creating your own scheme of work and implementing Cambridge Secondary 1 in your school can be found in the Cambridge Secondary
1Teacher Guide available on the Cambridge Secondary 1 website. Blank templates are also available on the Cambridge Secondary 1 website for you to use if you
wish.

Overview
Term 1 Term 2 Term 3

2A Unit 9.4 Sexual Reproduction in Flowering


1A Unit 9.1 Photosynthesis and Plant Growth 3A Unit 9.7 Ecology
Plants

1B Unit 9.2 The Periodic Table and Preparing Salts 2B Unit 9.5 Reactivity and Rates of Reaction 3B Unit 9.8 Chemicals and Thermal Energy

3C Unit 9.9 The Energy Crisis and Human


1C Unit 9.3 Electrostatics and Electric Currents 2C Unit 9.6 Movements, Pressure and Density
Influences

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 1


Scheme of Work – Science stage 9

Unit 1A: 9.1 Photosynthesis and Plant Growth


In this unit, pupils build on their previous knowledge of photosynthesis and water and the transport of water and minerals in flowering plants to develop their
knowledge of
 The process of photosynthesis including the word equation.
 The importance of water and mineral salts to plant growth.

Scientific Enquiry work focuses on:


 Deciding whether to use evidence from first-hand experience or secondary sources.
 Using appropriate sampling techniques where required.
 Looking critically at sources of secondary data.
 Comparing results and methods used by others.

Recommended Vocabulary for this unit:


Photosynthesis chlorophyll chloroplasts control.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 2


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes

9Bp1 Define and describe Review the work on photosynthesis Link to Stage 8 Unit 60 min
photosynthesis and use the word and the transport of water and 1A and Unit 2A.
equation. mineral salts in plants in stage 8.
9Bp2
The importance of water and
mineral salts to plant growth.
9Bp1 Define and describe Discuss how to investigate the effect Cress seeds, petri dishes or 60 min
photosynthesis and use the word of light on growing plants. shallow containers, filter
equation. paper or cotton wool.
Set up some quickly germinating
9Ep4 Select ideas and produce plans seeds in advance, e.g. cress, and
for testing based on previous leave them in the dark to observe the
knowledge, understanding and effects. Some should be set up in the
research. light as a comparison. Link the
equation with transfer of energy
9Ec2 Interpret results using scientific along the food chain.
knowledge and understanding. Sun →producer → consumer.

9Bp1 Define and describe Construct the word equation for Sugars are converted 30min
photosynthesis and use the word photosynthesis and explain it is an to starch.
equation. endothermic reaction because of the
requirement for energy.

Light + Carbon dioxide +water →


sugar + oxygen.

9Bp1 Define and describe Know the green parts of cells are Microscopes, onion, pond 60min
photosynthesis and use the word called chloroplasts. weed, slides and coverslips.
equation. Compare pond weed and
onion skin cells under the
9Eo3 Make observations and microscope. Chloroplasts are
measurements identified.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 3


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes

9Bp1 Define and describe Know that carbon dioxide can enter Suitable leaves include 60min
photosynthesis and use the word and oxygen escape through stoma. Tradescantia, Impatiens and
equation. Leaf-peel techniques can be used to beans. Clear nail varnish,
see stoma, possibly showing microscope slides,
9Ec4 Draw conclusions. differences on upper and lower microscopes.
surfaces.
9Bp1 Define and describe Measure rates of photosynthesis by Elodea, gas collection Link to Stage 8 Unit 60min
photosynthesis and use the word using the work on testing the apparatus (trough of water, 1A.
equation. formation of oxygen from pond weed filter funnel, test-tube). Link to Stage 9 Unit
(Stage 8 Unit 1A) to develop further 2B.
9Ep5 Suggest and use preliminary investigations on the rate of
work to decide how to carry out production of oxygen e.g. by
and investigation. counting bubbles produced by pond
weed, or the gas can be collected.
9Ep7 Decide which measurements and
observations are necessary and
what equipment to use.

9Eo1 Make sufficient observations and


measurements to reduce error
and make results more reliable.

9Ec8 Explain results using scientific


knowledge and understanding.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 4


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes

9Bp2 Understand the importance of Use secondary sources to explain Secondary sources. 30min
water and mineral salts to plant why water is important to a plant.
growth.

9Ep6 Decide whether to use evidence


from first-hand experience or
secondary sources.
9Bp2 Understand the importance of Investigate the effect of different Duckweed is grown in Secondary data 80min
water and mineral salts to plant nutrients on plant growth. shallow dishes containing should also used and
growth. solutions with certain a comparison with
Students should appreciate the minerals omitted to observe the primary data
9Ep6 Decide whether to use evidence importance of the three essential the effects. A control should made.
from first-hand experience or elements, nitrogen, phosphorus and be included. Water should
secondary sources. potassium. be prevented from leaving
the containers by an oil film.
9Bp2 Understand the importance of Summarise the requirements for 40min
water and mineral salts to plant plant growth in the form of a diagram
growth. of a plant showing the intake and
output of items by arrows and
including the transport routes of
xylem and phloem.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 5


Scheme of Work – Science stage 9

Unit 1B: 9.2 The Periodic table and Preparing Salts


In this unit, pupils build on their previous knowledge of the Periodic Table, particle theory and chemical reactions to develop their knowledge of
 The structure of an atom.
 The methods and discoveries of Rutherford and other scientists.
 The structures of the first twenty elements of the Periodic Table.
 Trends in groups and periods.
 Preparing some common salts by the reactions of metals or metal carbonates with acid.
 Writing word equations to describe reactions of metals or metal carbonates with acids.

Scientific Enquiry work focuses on:


 The importance of questions, evidence and explanations, using historical examples.
 Using explanations to make predictions and then evaluate these against evidence.
 Discussing the way that scientists work today and how they worked in the past, including reference to experimentation, evidence and creative thought.
 Deciding which apparatus to use and assess any hazards in the laboratory.
 Using a range of materials and equipment and control risks.

Recommended Vocabulary for this unit:


Nucleus proton neutron electron electronic shell (orbit) atomic (proton) number group period evidence prediction evaluation reactants products
carbonates sulfates nitrates chlorides neutralization filtration crystallization evaporation.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 6


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes

9Cp2 Compare the structures of the first Revise the symbols for the first 30min
twenty elements of the Periodic twenty elements.
Table. Each group of students can make a
poster of the structure of a chosen
element.
9Cp2 Compare the structures of the first Arrange the first 20 elements with Blank Periodic Tables, 40min
twenty elements of the Periodic atomic (proton) numbers into a sets of cards of first 20
Table. simple Periodic Table. elements (including
A game of cards can be played. atomic numbers).
Each card has a symbol and as they
are drawn from a pile they are laid
out on a blank copy of the table.
The winner completes his table first.
9Cp1 Describe the structure of an atom Look at the information given for 50min
and learn about the methods and each element on the Periodic Table
discoveries of Rutherford. and relate this to atomic structure.

Diagrams show the arrangement of


electrons in their shells around the
nucleus. Pupils should learn to build
them up with increasing atomic
number.
9Ep1 Discuss and explain the importance Learn about the work of Rutherford 40min
of questions, evidence and and other scientists associated with
explanations, using historical and the development of atomic structure
contemporary examples. and the Periodic Table e.g.
Mendeleev and Bohr. Use
9Ep3 Discuss the way that scientists work secondary sources to find out about
today and how they worked in the the methods and discoveries of
past, including reference to Rutherford. Prepare a poster or a
experimentation, evidence and presentation about Rutherford.
creative thought.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 7


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes

9Cp3 Describe trends in groups and Look at the vertical pairs of Periodic Tables. 60min
periods. elements and seek similarities, e.g.
inert gases, alkali metals, halogens.
Students could make predictions
about the next member of the group
and compare the predictions with
the actual properties of the element Safety goggles must be
worn by students and
Compare reactivity between vertical teacher and screens
pairs of elements where used for sodium and
appropriate. i.e. the reaction of lithium.
lithium / sodium with water, Demonstration only.
magnesium and calcium with dilute
acid, physical properties of chlorine,
bromine and iodine. Make further
predictions about other elements
within the groups studied.

Recognise Groups and Periods by


colouring in according to the
properties of the elements
e.g..metals and non-metals or
solids, liquids and gases (at room
temperature).
9Cp3 Describe trends in groups and Relate atomic structure to Periods. 30min
periods. Use diagrams to show the electron
shells and relate these to position of
elements in the Periodic Table.
9Cc5 Explain how to prepare some Discuss the elements in carbonate Link Elements to 10min
common salts by the reactions of and Sulphate ions. compounds and
metals and metal carbonates and complex ions.
be able to write word equations for
these reactions.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 8


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes

9Cc5 Explain how to prepare some Describe the preparation of crystals calcium carbonate, Word equations must 60min
common salts by the reactions of of chloride or sulfate salts from magnesium carbonate, be used.
metals and metal carbonates and carbonates and acids. Excess copper carbonate, dil
be able to write word equations for carbonate is added to dilute acid HCl soln, dil H2SO4
these reactions. until no more dissolves. The excess
is filtered off. Evaporate until some
9Ep7 Decide which measurements and solid appears and then leave to
observations are necessary and cool. Filter.
what equipment to use.
Students to prepare an appropriate
9Eo1 Make sufficient observations and salt such as calcium chloride,
measurements to reduce error and magnesium nitrate, copper sulfate.
make results more reliable. Students assess the risks involved
in the preparation.
9Ec8 Explain results using scientific Students might discuss ways of
knowledge and understanding. producing different sized crystals.
Students to plan the preparation of
zinc nitrate
9Cc5 Explain how to prepare some Prepare sodium chloride from Sodium carbonate soln, Safety goggles must 60min
common salts by the reactions of sodium carbonate. dil HCl, UI soln, be worn.
metals and metal carbonates and Where there is no solid to indicate laboratory glassware and Word equations should
be able to write word equations for that a reaction is complete an heating apparatus. be used.
these reactions. indicator must be used. In the
reaction between sodium carbonate
9Ep7 Decide which measurements and solution and dilute hydrochloric acid,
observations are necessary and an indicator can be used. The
what equipment to use. indicator can be removed with
charcoal which is then filtered off.
9Eo1 Make sufficient observations and Evaporate until some solid appears
measurements to reduce error and and then leave to cool. Filter.
make results more reliable.

9Ec8 Explain results using scientific


knowledge and understanding.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 9


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes

9Cc5 Explain how to prepare some Prepare crystals of chloride or Zinc, magnesium ribbon, Safety goggles must
common salts by the reactions of sulfate crystals from metals and dil HCl, dil H2SO4. be worn.
metals and metal carbonates and acids. Lab glassware and Word equations should
be able to write word equations for heating apparatus. be used.
these reactions. Excess metal is added to dilute acid
until no more dissolves. The excess
9Ep7 Decide which measurements and is filtered off. Evaporate until some
observations are necessary and solid appears and then leave to
what equipment to use. cool. Filter.

9Eo1 Make sufficient observations and


measurements to reduce error and
make results more reliable.

9Ec8 Explain results using scientific


knowledge and understanding.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 10


Scheme of Work – Science stage 9

Unit 1C: 9.3 Electrostatics and Electric Currents


In this unit, pupils build on their previous knowledge of different types of energy and energy transfers to develop their knowledge of
 Electrostatics and the concept of charge, including digital sensors.
 Simple series and parallel circuits.
 How common types of component, including cells (batteries), affect current.
 How current divides in parallel circuits.
 Measuring current and voltage.

Scientific Enquiry work focuses on:


 Choosing apparatus and deciding which measurements and observations are necessary.
 Assessing any hazards and controlling risk.
 Obtaining reliable results.
 Making conclusions using scientific knowledge and understanding.

Recommended Vocabulary for this unit:


Electrostatic charge positive negative insulator attraction repulsion ammeters voltmeters parallel circuits series circuits circuit diagrams.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 11


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes

9Pm1 Describe electrostatics and the After charging by rubbing, plastic Plastic rulers, balloons, Time spent ensuring 30min
concept of charge, including rulers pick up small pieces of paper, plastic rods, pieces of cloth the concept of
digital sensors. strips of cling film spring apart, e.g. duster/ t-shirt. charge is
balloons stick to walls, plastic rods understood, will
9Eo3 Make observations and deflect a steady stream of water etc. greatly benefit the
measurements. Explain that only negative charges understanding of
move in these circumstances and electric circuits.
9Ec2 Interpret results using scientific that by moving away from a neutral
knowledge and understanding. site they leave a net positive charge.
They can also induce opposite
charges on neutral material. The
effect is only noticeable on insulators
because conductors allow negative
charge to pass to the hand and then
to earth.
9Pm1 Describe electrostatics and the Investigate the laws of attraction and 20min
concept of charge, including repulsion.
digital sensors. Establish that there seem to be only
two types of charge (only two effects
9Eo3 Make observations and are seen).
measurements. Suspending one charged item and
approaching with another shows that
9Ec2 Interpret results using scientific similar charges repel and unlike
knowledge and understanding. charges attract.
9Pm1 Describe electrostatics and the The electrostatic generator. This Electrostatic generator, 40min
concept of charge, including machine for generating electrostatic Insulating material (to stand
digital sensors. charge usually provides a on).
memorable lesson. Even a simple
9Eo3 Make observations and one can build up several thousand
measurements. volts and cause lightning flashes,
hair to rise, neon lights to light up,
9Ec2 Interpret results using scientific windmills to turn etc.
knowledge and understanding

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 12


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes

9Pm1 Describe electrostatics and the Pupils investigate some problems Secondary sources. Spray painting, risk 50min
concept of charge, including and some advantages about of explosions with
digital sensors. electrostatics using secondary fuels, and
sources. combustible powders
Presentation of findings to whole
class.
9Pm2 Interpret and draw simple parallel Make a simple series electric circuit Low voltage power supplies Link to Stage 7, Unit 60min
circuits. with switch, bulb and battery. (e.g. batteries), connecting 2C metals conduct
Draw the circuit diagram. wires, switches, bulbs (at electricity.
Discuss the advantages of circuit least 2 per circuit). A step by step
diagrams. approach is
Make a simple parallel circuit by NB Mains electricity recommended to
including a second bulb. Draw the should never be used ensure all pupils
circuit diagram. directly for any of these have a sound
types of investigation. understanding.
Give a variety of circuit diagrams or
circuits and decode if they are
parallel or series circuits.
9Pm3 Model and explain how common Investigate the flow of charge in a Low voltage power supplies 60min
types of components, including circuit. (e.g. batteries) (at least 2
cells (batteries), affect current. per circuit) connecting
Emphasise that batteries produce wires, switches, bulbs,
9Ep2 Test explanations by using them charge which flows from one end to variable resistor.
to make predictions and then the other round a circuit. Students
evaluate these against evidence. can suggest ways of increasing the NB Mains electricity
rate of flow of charge (more should never be used
batteries, easier path). directly for any of these
Let pupils test this explanation by types of investigation.
using a variable resistor to dim /
brighten a bulb.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 13


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes

9Pm5 Measure current using Investigate the current in series and Low voltage power supply Apparently identical 60min
ammeters and voltage using parallel circuits using a number of (e.g. batteries), connecting bulbs will have
voltmeters, including digital identical lamps. wires, switches, bulbs, different brightness
meters. ammeters. so it is worth
Use an ammeter to measure current exchanging them or
9Ep4 Select ideas and produce plans in different parts of the circuit. NB Mains electricity selecting matching
for testing based on previous should never be used ones.
knowledge, understanding and Pupils to make conclusion about the directly for any of these
research. current in series circuits and parallel types of investigation.
circuits.
9Ep8 Decide which apparatus to use
and assess any hazards in the
laboratory, field or workplace.

9Eo2 Use a range of materials and


equipment and control risks.

9Ec4 Draw conclusions.

9Ec5 Evaluate the methods used and


refine for further investigations.
9Pm5 Measure current using Investigate the effect of adding Low voltage power supply Students must be 60min
ammeters and voltage using various lengths of resistance wire, a (e.g. batteries), connecting warned that short
voltmeters, including digital variable resistor, lamps, and wires, switches, bulbs, lengths of wire will
meters. ammeters. ammeters, variable get hot.
resistors, resistance wires of Symbols for these
9Ep4 Select ideas and produce plans various lengths. components must be
for testing based on previous given.
knowledge, understanding and NB Mains electricity
research. should never be used
directly for any of these
9Ep8 Decide which apparatus to use types of investigation.
and assess any hazards in the
laboratory, field or workplace.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 14


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes

9Eo2 Use a range of materials and


equipment and control risks.

9Ec4 Draw conclusions.

9Ec5 Evaluate the methods used and


refine for further investigations.
9Pm3 Model and explain how common Understand the effects of further Low voltage power supply Pupils could be 40min
types of components, including components by finding out about (e.g. batteries), connecting challenged to protect
cells (batteries), affect current. ‘mystery’ components such as wires, switches, bulbs, a box from being
diodes, buzzers, motors and reed diodes, buzzers, motors, opened by designing
9Ep4 Select ideas and produce plans switches. Pupils can establish which reed switches, ammeters. a buzzer alarm.
for testing based on previous are ‘one-way’ devices but of course
knowledge, understanding and must be warned about any that may
research. be broken by passing a current in the
wrong direction.
9Ep8 Decide which apparatus to use
and assess any hazards in the
laboratory, field or workplace.

9Eo2 Use a range of materials and


equipment and control risks.

9Ec4 Draw conclusions.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 15


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes

9Pm5 Measure current using Use a voltmeter to measure the Fruit e.g. apple, orange, 60min
ammeters and voltage using voltage across a component. Pupils vegetable e.g. potato,
voltmeters, including digital should be shown that a voltmeter connecting clips, metal
meters. measures the voltage output of a electrodes, voltmeters, low
cell, two cells, etc. It can then be voltage power supply (e.g.
9Ep4 Select ideas and produce plans used to measure the voltage across batteries), connecting wires,
for testing based on previous any two points in a circuit. They bulbs.
knowledge, understanding and should also try the putting the meter
research. in series to show that the circuit then
does not ‘work’.
9Ep8 Decide which apparatus to use
and assess any hazards in the The voltage across a home-made
laboratory, field or workplace. cell can be detected using two
different metals and a solution or
9Eo2 Use a range of materials and simply a fruit. Students could
equipment and control risks. investigate into the effect of different
metals and different fruit /
9Ec4 Draw conclusions. vegetables.

9Ec5 Evaluate the methods used and


refine for further investigations.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 16


Scheme of Work – Science stage 9

Unit 2A: 9.4 Sexual Reproduction and Flowering Plants


In this unit, pupils build on their previous knowledge reproduction and plant growth to develop their knowledge of.
 Sexual reproduction in flowering plants including pollination, fertilisation, seed formation and dispersal.

Scientific Enquiry work focuses on:


 Selecting ideas and plans for testing based upon previous knowledge, understanding and research.
 Deciding which measurements and observations are necessary, what equipment to use and assessing any hazards.
 Using appropriate sampling techniques where required to obtain reliable measurements.
 Present results, describing correlations and drawing conclusions.

Recommended Vocabulary for this unit:


Pollination fertilization dispersal pollen ovule gamete.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 17


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes

9Bp3 Understand sexual reproduction in For a selection of locally occurring Selection of locally occurring Revise previous 30 min
flowering plants including flowering plants, identify the different flowering plants. Photos may knowledge of plant
pollination, fertilisation, seed parts of the plant, including leaf, stem, be substituted for live structures and
formation and dispersal. roots, flower. specimens. functions from Stage
9, Unit 1A, Stage 8
9Eo3 Make observations and Review the functions of each part and Unit 3A, Stage 7 Unit
measurements. explain that the flower is the part 1A.
where sexual reproduction takes
place.
Discuss the difference between
flowers from different plant.
9Bp3 Understand sexual reproduction in Identify the positions and functions of Secondary sources, selection Male – anther, 60min
flowering plants including the reproductive parts of a flowering of flowers from locally filament, pollen.
pollination, fertilisation, seed plant. Investigate using secondary occurring plants, Hand Female – stigma,
formation and dispersal. sources. Pupils can investigate the lenses. style, ovary, ovule.
structure of the flowers of locally
occurring plants.

Draw diagrams of a flower showing


the male and female reproductive
parts. Include ovules in the ovary.
9Bp3 Understand sexual reproduction in Identify pollen as the male sex cell Microscopes, prepared slides 50min
flowering plants including and the ovule as the female sex cell. of different pollen grains or
pollination, fertilisation, seed Introduce ‘gamete’ as meaning sex equipment to make their own
formation and dispersal. cell. slides.

9Eo3 Make observations and Observe pollen grains under the


measurements. microscope.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 18


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes

9Bp3 Understand sexual reproduction in Investigate examples of wind and Secondary sources. 80min
flowering plants including insect pollinated flowers (live,
pollination, fertilisation, seed diagrams or photographs) and if
formation and dispersal. possible a local flower showing the
pollen and sticky stigma clearly.
Explain what is meant by pollination.
Discuss different ways pollen may
travel from one flower to another.
Discuss the features of a wind
pollinated and an insect pollinated
flower.
Discuss the advantages and dis-
advantages of self-pollination and
cross-pollination.
9Bp3 Understand sexual reproduction in Explain what is meant by fertilisation. Microscopes, fresh pollen 60min
flowering plants including Observe pollen tubes using a grains, glucose soln,
pollination, fertilisation, seed microscope. microscope slides and cover
formation and dispersal. slips.
Draw diagrams to show how the
9Eo3 Make observations and pollen causes a tube to grow down
measurements. the style and into the ovary to allow
fertilisation.
9Ec2 Interpret results using scientific
knowledge and understanding.
9Bp3 Understand sexual reproduction in A seed such as a large bean can be Soaked broad bean seeds, Seed structure does 60min
flowering plants including bisected to identify the parts and a hand lenses, I/KI soln. not have to be
pollination, fertilisation, seed test done for starch. Some can be learned.
formation and dispersal. grown one way up, some another to
compare the outcome.
9Eo3 Make observations and Discuss the variety of seeds and
measurements. identify what part of different plants
contains the seed e.g. cherry stones,
9Ec2 Interpret results using scientific orange pips, tomato seeds, wheat
knowledge and understanding ears.
Fruits can be seen as the
development of the ovary.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 19


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes

9Bp3 Understand sexual reproduction in Examine a wide range of fruits and A range of fruits. Photos may 60min
flowering plants including discuss methods of dispersal. be substituted for live
pollination, fertilisation, seed Investigate wind dispersal by making specimens.
formation and dispersal. a paper model (two or more wings
and a weighted centre). By adjusting
9Eo3 Make observations and the wing size, total mass, shape etc
measurements. students aim to make it stay in the air
for the longest possible time, after
9Ec2 Interpret results using scientific dropping it from a certain height.
knowledge and understanding. Students should be shown examples
of seeds and predict the method of
9Ec4 Draw conclusions. dispersal.

9Ec5 Evaluate the methods used and


refine for further investigations.

9Ec6 Compare results and methods


used by others.

9Ec7 Present conclusions and


evaluation of working methods in
different ways.
9Bp3 Understand sexual reproduction in Research the life cycle of a flowering 40 min
flowering plants including plant and display on a hoop of paper.
pollination, fertilisation, seed Students discuss the importance of
formation and dispersal. seeds within the life cycle.
9Bp3 Understand sexual reproduction in Investigate reasons for the dispersal 40min
flowering plants including of plants.
pollination, fertilisation, seed Compare the growth of plants which
formation and dispersal are crowded with those with plenty of
space. The same amount of water,
light and nutrients should be supplied
to, for example, cress seeds.
Scheme of Work – Science stage 7

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 20


Scheme of Work – Science stage 9

Unit 2B: 9.5 Reactivity and Rates of Reaction


In this unit, pupils build on their previous knowledge of chemical reactions to develop their knowledge of
 The reactivity series of metals with oxygen, water and dilute acids.
 Displacement reactions.
 The effects of concentration, particle size, temperature and catalysts on the rate of a reaction.

Scientific Enquiry work focuses on:


 Using preliminary work to decide how to carry out an investigation based upon previous knowledge, understanding and research.
 Deciding which apparatus to use and assess any hazards.
 Choosing whether to use evidence from first-hand experience of secondary sources.
 Obtaining reliable results.
 Describing patterns (correlations).
 Drawing conclusions and evaluating methods.

Recommended Vocabulary for this unit:


Reactivity series displacement reaction concentration catalyst.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 21


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes

9Cc2 Describe the reactivity of metals Compare the rates of reaction of Copper, iron, Safety goggles must 50min
with oxygen, water and dilute some metals with oxygen. magnesium,zinc, oxygen. be used.
acids. Small samples of a range of metals Lab glassware and heating
can be cleaned and left in air. They apparatus.
9Eo2 Use a range of materials and are checked at intervals for signs of
equipment and control risks. oxidation. The same range of
metals can each be heated in air
9Ec1 Describe patterns seen in and placed in a gas jar of oxygen.
results. Write word equations for each
reaction.
9Cc2 Describe the reactivity of metals Compare the rates of reaction of Copper, iron, magnesium, Safety goggles must 50min
with oxygen, water and dilute some metals with water. zinc. be used.
acids. Small pieces of metal are cleaned Lab glassware and heating
and left in water to observe changes apparatus.
9Cc6 Give an explanation of the after the next few days. Some may Sodium
effects of concentration, particle only react when heated in steam,
size temperature and catalysts some will not react at all.
on the rate of a reaction. The reaction of a small piece of
sodium with water can be
9Eo2 Use a range of materials and demonstrated by the teacher with
equipment and control risks. the usual safety precautions.

9Ec1 Describe patterns seen in Write word equations for each


results. reaction.
9Cc2 Describe the reactivity of metals Compare the rates of reaction of Copper, iron, magnesium, Safety goggles must 40min
with oxygen, water and dilute some metals with dilute acid. zinc, dil HCl. be used.
acids. Small pieces of metals (NOT Lab glassware.
including sodium) are added to
9Eo2 Use a range of materials and dilute hydrochloric acid and the
equipment and control risks. reaction observed. The hydrogen
gas made can be tested.
9Ec1 Describe patterns seen in Write word equations for each
results. reaction.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 22


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes

9Cc2 Describe the reactivity of metals Construct a reactivity series for 30min
with oxygen, water and dilute metals. Pupils should collect their
acids. observations of reactions in a table
and suggest an order of reactivity.
9Ec3 Look critically at sources of This can be enhanced with research
secondary data. or supplied information about
metals which have not been
9Ep6 Decide whether to use evidence observed.
from first-hand experience or
secondary sources.
9Cc3 Explore and understand the Investigate whether the reactivity Copper, iron, magnesium, Safety goggles must 60min
reactivity series. series is the same with different zinc, dilute acids (sulphuric, be used.
acids and whether some acids and nitric, ethanoic).
9Ec3 Look critically at sources of more reactive than others. Pupils
secondary data. should plan their own investigations
including a basic risk assessment
9Ep6 Decide whether to use evidence and decide whether to use primary
from first-hand experience or data and/or secondary data.
secondary sources.

9Ep4 Select ideas and produce plans


for testing based upon previous
knowledge, understanding and
research.

9Ep7 Decide which measurements


and observations are necessary
and what equipment to use.

9Ep8 Decide which apparatus to use


and assess any hazards in the
laboratory.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 23


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes

9Eo1 Make sufficient observations See above. See above.


and measurements to reduce
error and make results more
reliable.

9Eo2 Use a range of materials and


equipment and control risks.

9Eo3 Make observations and


measurements.

9Eo4 Choose the best way to present


results.

9Ec1 Describe patterns (correlations)


seen in results.

9Ec2 Interpret results using scientific


knowledge and understanding.

9Ec4 Draw conclusions.

9Ec5 Evaluate the methods used and


refine for further investigations.

9Ec8 Explain results using scientific


knowledge and understanding.
Communicate this clearly to
others.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 24


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes

9Cc4 Give examples of displacement Make predictions about Copper sulfate soln, iron Very small quantities 60min
reactions. displacement reactions. sulfate soln, steel rod, can be used by
copper coin, magnesium, carrying out the tests
9Ep2 Test explanations by using them Put a steel rod or blade into copper zinc, magnesium sulfate on a spotting tile.
to make predictions and then sulfate solution and a ‘copper’ coin soln.
evaluate these against into iron sulfate solution. Safety goggles must
evidence. When the idea of displacement is be used.
clear, students can predict, and
confirm, the results of the reaction
between other metals and solutions.
9Cc3 Explore and understand the Explain why the historical order of 50min
reactivity series. the discovery of metals is related to
the reactivity series. Different
9Ep1 Discuss and explain the students can research the methods
importance of questions, used for extracting named metals
evidence and explanations, and the dates of their discovery.
using historical and Group results can be used to relate
contemporary examples. the difficulty of extraction and
history to position in the reactivity
series.
9Cc6 Give an explanation of the Show how rate of reaction depends Safety goggles must 40min
effects of concentration, on concentration of reactants. Carry be used.
particle size temperature and out an investigation into the time
catalysts on the rate of a taken for a 3cm length of
reaction. magnesium ribbon to completely
react in 25 cm3 of hydrochloric acid.
varying the concentration of the
acid.
9Cc6 Give an explanation of the Show how rate of reaction depends Safety goggles must 40min
effects of concentration, particle on particle size. The time taken the be used.
size temperature and catalysts same mass of magnesium powder
on the rate of a reaction. and magnesium ribbon to
completely react with hydrochloric
acid can be compared.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 25


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes

9Cc6 Give an explanation of the Show how rate of reaction depends Hydrogen peroxide soln, Safety goggles must 40min
effects of concentration, particle on the presence of a catalyst. Manganese(IV) oxide be used.
size temperature and catalysts Laboratory glassware.
on the rate of a reaction. Hydrogen peroxide can be
decomposed into water and oxygen.
9Eo3 Make observations and Students observe the rate of the
measurements. reaction before and after the
addition of a small quantity of
manganese(IV) oxide.

Investigate the use of a catalyst in


industry and find out how it relate to
energy, cost and pollution issues
using secondary sources.
9Cc6 Give an explanation of the Use the kinetic theory to explain A good context is 20min
effects of concentration, particle effects on rates of reaction. found in recipes
size temperature and catalysts where cooking times
on the rate of a reaction. Through diagrams, use ideas about vary for, e.g.,
particle theory to explain the effects potatoes depending
of the different variables on the on area exposed.
speed of reactions, i.e.
concentration increases the number
of particles, temperature increases
their speed and that increased lump
size decreases the area for particles
to approach one another.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 26


Scheme of Work – Science stage 9

Unit 2C: 9.6 Moments, Pressure and Density


In this unit, pupils build on their previous knowledge of forces and movement to develop their knowledge of.
 Objects turning on a pivot and understand the principle of moments.
 Pressure as caused by the action of force on an area.
 Pressures in gases and liquids (qualitative only).
 The densities of solids, liquids and gases.

Scientific Enquiry work focuses on:


 Deciding which measurements and observations are necessary, which equipment to use and assess any hazards and control risks.
 Making sufficient observations and measurements to reduce error and make results more reliable.
 Interpreting results using scientific knowledge and understanding.
 Drawing conclusions.
 Communicating clearly.

Recommended Vocabulary for this unit:


Lever moment pivot density pressure.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 27


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes

9Pf4 Know that forces can cause Describe a lever as a simple Forcemeter, tin with tight Pupils to realise that 40min
objects to turn on a pivot and machine which uses a pivot. fitting lid, lever. the turning effect of
understand the principle of the lever increases
moments. Discuss how to open a tin with a tight with the distance
fitting lid. from the force and
the pivot and the size
Explain that they are using a lever of the force
with a force and a pivot.

Demonstrate other common


examples of a lever in action e.g. a
wrench, wheel brace.

Investigate, as a whole class activity,


the effect of changing the distance
between the force used and the
pivot, and the size of the force on the
effectiveness of a lever.
9Pf4 Know that forces can cause Understand the principle of moments See-saw balances, weights 50min
objects to turn on a pivot and by looking at a see saw and / counters of equal masses
understand the principle of introduce the idea of balancing. (e.g. 10g).
moments. Investigate the rule of balancing
using appropriate apparatus.
9Ep4 Select ideas and produce plans
for testing based upon previous Derive the principle of moments from
knowledge, understanding and their experimental results.
research.

9Ep7 Decide which measurements and


observations are necessary and
what equipment to use.

9Eo3 Make observations and


measurements.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 28


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes

9Eo4 Choose the best way to present See above. See above.
results.

9Ec1 Describe patterns (correlations)


seen in results.

9Ec2 Interpret results using scientific


knowledge and understanding.

9Ec4 Draw conclusions.


9Pf2 Determine densities of solids, Determine the density of a regular Weighing balance, ruler Explain that materials 50min
liquids and gases. solid. Pupils must appreciate that /measuring tape, selection can only be
they need to know the mass and the of solids of different compared if they
volume of an object to calculate the materials but of similar size have equal volumes
3
density. and shape e.g. cubes of one so the mass of 1 cm
3
centimetre side. or 1 m must be
If pupils are not completely happy found in each case.
with the concept of volume it is
helpful if solids can be ‘matched’ by
blocks of 1 centimetre cubes.

The mass of the solids can then be


found. Students investigate the
density of different sized blocks of
material.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 29


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes

9Pf2 Determine densities of solids, Determine the density of an irregular Weighing balance, ruler 50min
liquids and gases. solid. Discuss ways of finding the /measuring tape, and
volume of an irregular solid and a selection of solids of
9Ep4 Select ideas and produce plans solid that floats in water. different materials. Other
for testing based upon previous requirements as requested
knowledge, understanding and Investigate the density of a number by pupils from their
research. of different materials. investigation plan.

9Ep7 Decide which measurements and


observations are necessary and
what equipment to use.

9Eo3 Make observations and


measurements.

9Eo4 Choose the best way to present


results.

9Ec1 Describe patterns (correlations)


seen in results.

9Ec2 Interpret results using scientific


knowledge and understanding.

9Ec4 Draw conclusions.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 30


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes

9Pf2 Determine densities of solids, Pupils discuss ways of finding the 50min
liquids and gases. density of a liquid and then find the
density of water, salt water and other
9Ep4 Select ideas and produce plans non-hazardous liquids.
for testing based upon previous
knowledge, understanding and
research.

9Ep7 Decide which measurements and


observations are necessary and
what equipment to use.

9Eo3 Make observations and


measurements.

9Ec4 Draw conclusions.


9Pf2 Determine densities of solids, Discuss the problems of measuring Heat a sample of a metal The mass of the gas 60min
liquids and gases. the density of a gas. carbonate and collect the will be the difference
gas produced in an in mass of the solid
9Ep4 Select ideas and produce plans Explain suitable ways of measuring upturned measuring before and after
for testing based upon previous the density of a gas. cylinder. heating.
knowledge, understanding and
research. Demonstration of finding the density
of carbon dioxide.
9Ep7 Decide which measurements and
observations are necessary and
what equipment to use.

9Eo3 Make observations and


measurements.

9Ec4 Draw conclusions.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 31


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes

9Pf1 Explain that pressure is caused Explain the pressure due to a solid. Different objects, plasticine / Units can be N/cm2 60min
by the action of a force on an modelling clay. or N/m 2 or kN/m2 .
area. Discuss appropriate examples of Note that although
experience of pressure such as this may be regarded
9Eo3 Make observations and walking on snow, mud, dry sand. as an appropriate
measurements. activity, pressure
Students explain why knives and calculations will not
drawing pins are effective but only if be tested at
used the right way round. checkpoint level.

Students can investigate pressure by


pressing objects into plasticine,
provided they are pressed with equal
forces, shows that the smaller the
area of contact the greater the
pressure.
9Pf3 Explain pressures in gases and Demonstrate pressure in a liquid. Plastic bottle prepared as Reference can be 60min
liquids (qualitative only). Use a plastic bottle which has holes suggested. made to dams and
in the sides at different heights. deep sea divers.
9Ec8 Explain results using scientific When filled, water is forced out
knowledge and understanding. sideways, the lower the hole the Link to Stage 8 Unit
Communicate this clearly to greater the pressure. 1B.
others.
Pupils explain the pressure of a
liquid in terms of a particle model.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 32


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes

9Pf3 Explain pressures in gases and Demonstrate pressure in a gas. Flexible container e.g. Air pressure is 60min
liquids (qualitative only). A container of at least three litres is plastic bottle, vacuum or relatively large so
connected to a vacuum or suction suction pump, balloons, tin good demonstrations
9Ec8 Explain results using scientific pump and compressed by the with lid as suggested. are possible.
knowledge and understanding. pressure of the atmosphere.
Communicate this clearly to For either method
others. Alternatively a heat-proof container safety screens and
containing a little water, can be safety goggles
heated and then have the top should be used.
screwed on tightly causing the same Link to Stage 8 Unit
effect as it cools. 1B.

Blowing up balloons or tyres or


heating tins with a lid on causes an
increase of pressure which pupils
should explain using a particle
model.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 33


Scheme of Work – Science stage 9

Unit 3A: 9.7 Ecology


In this unit, pupils build on their previous knowledge of organisms in their environment to develop their knowledge of
 Constructing keys to identify plants and animals.
 Food chains, food webs and energy flow including the role of decomposers.
 How living things are adapted to their habitats.
 How characteristics are inherited.
 Selective breeding.
 The work of Darwin on natural selection and other scientists studying the natural world.

Scientific Enquiry work focuses on:


 Discussing the way that scientists work today and how they worked in the past, including reference to experimentation, evidence and creative thought.
 The importance of questions, evidence and explanations.

Recommended Vocabulary for this unit:


Consumer producer trophic level primary secondary tertiary herbivore carnivore genetic material adaptation variation habitat.

Note: This unit is delivered in less time than units 3B and 3C. This is to ensure equal time is allocated to biology, chemistry and physics learning objectives in term
2.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 34


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes

9Bv1 Use and construct keys to Collecting leaves or seeds can Sample key. Bring out the point 50 min
identify plants and animals. provide samples for constructing a that some questions
key but pupils will need to have are less useful than
worked with a provided key first. others, e.g. length or
Pupils make keys to identify class mass, depth of colour
members and discuss whether it will etc.
work next week or next year.
9Bv1 Use and construct keys to Using provided keys, pupils identify Charts and keys for Link to Stage 7, Unit 40 min
identify plants and animals. plants and animals in the local identification. 3A.
environment (alternatively, use
9Be3 Explain and model food chains, provided keys to identify pictures,
food webs and energy flow. photos).

9Be2 Research the work of scientists Review work on food chains from
studying the natural world. stage 7 and discuss need to find out,
by observation or from secondary
sources, which organism is eaten by
which to be able to make a food
chain.

Explain the terms producer, primary


consumer, secondary consumer,
tertiary consumer, herbivore,
carnivore.

Make simple food chains from plants


and animal identified by their key.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 35


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes
9Be3 Explain and model food chains, Explain that that most food chains Various food webs. Consolidate 50min
food webs and energy flow. are interlinked as food-webs. understanding by
Pupils identify food chains within an examining various
example of a food web, preferably of examples of food
local species. webs.

Discuss the effect of the removal of


one type of organism on the other
organisms in the food web.

Explain that food chains and webs


show biomass and not individuals.
Introduce the idea of energy flowing
along the food chain and so flowing
through the food web.

Introduce the term ‘trophic level’.


Pupils redesign the layout of their
food webs to show energy transfer
through trophic levels.
9Be4 Explain the role of decomposers. Explain the role of decomposers. Prepared sample of mouldy 20min
bread (or fruit) in sealed
Demonstrate the breakdown of container as example.
bread (or fruit) as moulds are
allowed to grow on it in a sealed
container.

Discuss where decomposers fit in


the food web.

Discuss the importance of


decomposers in food webs, in terms
of recycling material such as
minerals.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 36


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes
9Be1 Explain the ways in which living Pupils choose(from a list) an animal Link to Stage 7, Unit 40min
things are adapted to their and a plant and research and report 3A.
habitats. Secondary sources can on how they are adapted to be able
be used. to survive, by finding food and A choice chamber
shelter and avoiding predators in used for wood lice /
their habitat. maggots etc will
show preference for
dark, damp
conditions.
9Bv2 Understand that organisms Discuss inherited characteristics by A simple knowledge 40min
inherit characteristics from their giving examples of similarities and of genetic materials
parents through genetic material differences between parents and being located in the
that is carried in the cell nuclei. offspring. nucleus of most cells
and being joined with
Explain that characteristics are other genes during
passed on in genes, the genetic fertilization is all that
material is stored in the nucleus of is required.
the cell and discuss how this genetic Link to Stage 8, Unit
material is passed on from one 3A
generation to another.
9Bv3 Describe how selective breeding Research selective breeding using Secondary sources. 40min
can lead to new varieties. secondary sources giving at least
one example to write an account
9Ep3 Discuss the way that scientists about how to selectively breed a
work today and how they worked certain characteristic in an organism
in the past, including reference to e.g. of a flower grower trying to
experimentation and evidence. achieve a flower of a certain colour,
or similarly for a vegetable with a
desirable property.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 37


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes
9Bv4 Discuss the work of Darwin in Discuss how selective breeding may Secondary sources. 40min
developing the scientific theory of also occur in nature (natural
natural selection. selection).

9Ep1 Discuss and explain the Investigate Darwin’s work and how
importance of questions, he used evidence to come up with
evidence and explanations, using his theory of natural selection.
historical and contemporary
examples.

9Ep3 Discuss the way that scientists


work today and how they worked
in the past, including reference to
experimentation and evidence.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 38


Scheme of Work – Science stage 9

Unit 3B: 9.8 Chemicals and Thermal Energy


In this unit, pupils build on their previous knowledge of chemical reaction and energy transfers to develop their knowledge of
 Endothermic processes and exothermic reactions.
 The thermal (heat) energy transfer processes of conduction, convection and radiation.
 Cooling by evaporation.

Scientific Enquiry work focuses on:


 Ideas and plans for testing based upon previous knowledge, understanding and research
 Deciding measurements and observations to make, equipment to use, assessing hazards and controlling risks
 Obtaining and presenting reliable results
 Describing correlations
 Explaining results and drawing conclusions using scientific knowledge and understanding
 Evaluating experimental methods.

Recommended Vocabulary for this unit:


Exothermic endothermic thermal (heat) energy transfer conduction convection radiation evaporation.

Note: This unit should be delivered in more time than units 3A and 3C. This is to ensure equal time is allocated to biology, chemistry and physics learning
objectives in term 2.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 39


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes

9Cc1 Explore and explain the idea of Investigate the reactions of Magnesium, sodium Spend time on 80min
endothermic processes and  magnesium hydroxide solution, discussing the
exothermic reactions.  sodium hydroxide solution potassium planning process to
 potassium hydrogencarbonate hydrogencarbonate, sodium develop skills of
9Eo1 Make sufficient observations and  sodium hydrogencarbonate hydrogencarbonate. independent working
measurements to reduce error with acid measuring the temperature Dil acid. as preparation for
and make results more reliable. of the liquid before and after adding Lab glassware, IGCSE.
the reactants. thermometers.
9Eo2 Use a range of materials and
equipment and control risks. Students to classify the reactions on
the basis of the temperature change.
9Eo3 Make observations and
measurements. Discuss exothermic and endothermic
reactions.
9Eo4 Choose the best way to present
results.

9Ec1 Describe patterns (correlations)


seen in results.

9Ec2 Interpret results using scientific


knowledge and understanding.

9Ec4 Draw conclusions.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 40


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes
9Cc1 Explore and explain the idea of Investigate the process of burning to 70min
endothermic processes and be able to draw conclusions about
exothermic reactions. the process.

9Eo1 Make sufficient observations and Using dry bread or wooden splints,
measurements to reduce error will give results for energy release.
and make results more reliable. Burning a candle allows collection of
the products and test for carbon
9Eo2 Use a range of materials and dioxide and water.
equipment and control risks.
Use secondary sources to find out
9Eo3 Make observations and that oxygen is a reactant.
measurements. Write word equations.

9Eo4 Choose the best way to present


results.

9Ec1 Describe patterns (correlations)


seen in results.

9Ec2 Interpret results using scientific


knowledge and understanding.

9Ec4 Draw conclusions.

9Ec8 Explain results using scientific


knowledge and understanding.
Communicate this clearly to
others.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 41


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes
9Cc1 Explore and explain the idea of By discussion identify the need for 60min
endothermic processes and heat, fuel and oxygen to start /
exothermic reactions. maintain a fire. Pupils should use
this information to suggest ways of
9Eo2 Use a range of materials and stopping different types of fire.
equipment and control risks. Pupils produce a poster on fire
prevention in the home and /or work
environment.
9Cc1 Explore and explain the idea of Compare the energy released by Various fuels dependent on Pupils should design 80min
endothermic processes and different fuels by heating equal pupils plans, lab heating as accurate an
exothermic reactions. volumes of water using a known equipment, thermometers, investigation as
mass of each fuel. Compare lab glassware (heatproof). possible.
9Ep4 Select ideas and produce plans changes in temperature.
for testing based upon previous Plans should be
knowledge, understanding and checked for safe
research. procedures before
pupils start the
9Ep7 Decide which measurements and practical work.
observations are necessary and
what equipment to use.

9Ep8 Decide which apparatus to use


and assess any hazards in the
laboratory.

9Eo1 Make sufficient observations and


measurements to reduce error
and make results more reliable.

9Eo2 Use a range of materials and


equipment and control risks.

9Eo3 Make observations and


measurements.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 42


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes
9Eo4 Choose the best way to present See above. See above.
results.

9Ec1 Describe patterns (correlations)


seen in results.

9Ec2 Interpret results using scientific


knowledge and understanding.

9Ec4 Draw conclusions.

9Ec5 Evaluate the methods used and


refine for further investigations.

9Ec8 Explain results using scientific


knowledge and understanding.
Communicate this clearly to
others.
9Cc1 Explore and explain the idea of Students can research and report on 40min
endothermic processes and which they consider to be the best
exothermic reactions. fuel for a certain purpose such as
cooking(camping) or transport. They
9Eo2 Use a range of materials and should take into account factors such
equipment and control risks. as convenience, cost, pollution,
availability etc.
9Ep6 Decide whether to use evidence
from first-hand experience or
secondary sources.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 43


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes
9Cc1 Explore and explain the idea of Investigate the endothermic process Ammonium chloride, water, Safety goggles must 80min
endothermic processes and of dissolving ammonium chloride. thermometers, lab be worn.
exothermic reactions. glassware.
Predict what will happen if more Investigation can
9Ep4 Select ideas and produce plans ammonium chloride is dissolved or if also be done with
for testing based upon previous less water is used. ammonium sulfate.
knowledge, understanding and 0.5 to 3.0 g of
research. Design and carry out investigation to ammonium chloride
3
test their prediction in 10 cm of water
9Ep7 Decide which measurements and provides a suitable
observations are necessary and temperature
what equipment to use. decrease.

9Ep8 Decide which apparatus to use


and assess any hazards in the
laboratory.

9Eo1 Make sufficient observations and


measurements to reduce error
and make results more reliable.

9Eo2 Use a range of materials and


equipment and control risks.

9Eo3 Make observations and


measurements.

9Eo4 Choose the best way to present


results.

9Ec1 Describe patterns (correlations)


seen in results.

9Ec2 Interpret results using scientific


knowledge and understanding.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 44


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes
9Ec4 Draw conclusions. See above. See above.

9Ec5 Evaluate the methods used and


refine for further investigations.

9Ec8 Explain results using scientific


knowledge and understanding.
Communicate this clearly to
others.
9Cc1 Explore and explain the idea of The process of respiration can be Link to Stage 9, Unit 40min
endothermic processes and reviewed to identify it as an 1A and Stage 8, Unit
exothermic reactions. exothermic reaction, suggest getting 2A.
hot when running.
Respiration can be
Photosynthesis can be reviewed as represented by the
an endothermic reaction that word equation
converts carbon dioxide and water glucose + oxygen
into glucose and oxygen. →carbon dioxide
+water.
Photosynthesis can
be represented by
the word equation
carbon dioxide +
water →glucose +
oxygen.
9Cc1 Explore and explain the idea of Discuss why melting ice and Small pieces of cloth (or Give a particle 60min
endothermic processes and evaporation are endothermic tissues). explanation of the
exothermic reactions. processes. Timers. process.

9Pe3 Explain cooling by evaporation. Investigate which conditions aid the


rate of evaporation using tissues or
small pieces of cloth, dampened.
Factors which can be tested are
temperature and moving air.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 45


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes
9Pe2 Identify and explain the Rods of different metals can be Metal rods Distinguish between 60min
thermal(heat) energy transfer heated to find out which is the best Lab heating equipment heat and
processes of conduction, thermal conductor. It is important to Wax temperature.
convection and radiation. heat the ends of the rods equally, Drawing pins.
perhaps by supporting on a non- Give a particle
9Ep8 Decide which apparatus to use combustible mat on a tripod and explanation of the
and assess any hazards in the heating them all at the same time. process.
laboratory. The heat energy can be detected by
a pin attached by wax to the far end Safety goggles must
9Eo3 Make observations and of the rod, it is released when the be worn for heating.
measurements. wax melts.

9Ec2 Interpret results using scientific Discuss everyday uses of conduction


knowledge and understanding. of heat energy. Include the use of
bad conductors (insulators).
9Pe2 Identify and explain the thermal Convection currents can be Give a particle 60min
(heat) energy transfer processes demonstrated in liquid (warming explanation of the
of conduction, convection and coloured crystals placed in a beaker process.
radiation. of still water) and air (using a candle
in a box with two chimneys and
placing a smoking taper above.

Discuss everyday uses of convection


of heat energy e.g. solar heating
panels.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 46


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes
9Pe2 Identify and explain the thermal Thermal radiation (infra-red) comes Radiation cube Explain that the heat 60min
(heat) energy transfer processes from all hot objects but pupils can Hot water, thermometer. is not carried by
of conduction, convection and investigate which surfaces emit / particles in this case
radiation. absorb heat the best. One way is to but by a type of ray
fill a metal container (radiation cube) similar to light which
with hot water. Different surfaces, can travel through
black, dull, white, shiny, give off space.
more or less radiation. This can be
detected by placing the hand 2-3 cm Pupils should not
away from the surface. The rate of touch the metal cube.
heat loss can also be estimated by
measuring the rate of temperature
loss.

Discuss everyday uses of heat


transfer by radiation and also ways
of preventing it.
9Pe2 Identify and explain the thermal A vacuum flask (a broken one to Vacuum flask (a broken one Students have great 30min
(heat) energy transfer processes reveal the inner layers) can be to reveal the inner layers). difficulty in
of conduction, convection and demonstrated as it has ways of distinguishing the
radiation. preventing conduction, convection, different processes
radiation and evaporation which so as much practice
students can identify. Ensure that as possible is
students understand that the flask necessary.
can be used for keeping things hot
or cold.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 47


Scheme of Work – Science stage 9

Unit 3C: 9.9 The Energy Crisis and Human Influences


In this unit, pupils build on their previous knowledge of energy and the environment to develop their knowledge of
 Factors affecting the size of populations.
 Some effects of human influences on the environment.
 The world’s energy needs.

Scientific Enquiry work focuses on:


 Looking critically at sources of secondary data.

 Deciding which apparatus to use and assess any hazards in the laboratory, field or workplace.

 Using appropriate sampling techniques where required.

 The importance of questions, evidence and explanations, using historical and contemporary examples.

Recommended Vocabulary for this unit:


Environment solar hydroelectric nuclear fuel fossil fuel renewable and non-renewable sources.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 48


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes

9Be5 Describe factors affecting the Students investigate changes in Secondary sources. Link to Stage 9, Unit 30min
size of populations. population of species using 3A
secondary data e.g. changes over a The graph shows a
9Ec3 Look critically at sources of year, changes over time. repeating curve for
secondary data. each of predator and
Plot a population / time graph. Start prey, the line for the
with chosen values of two species prey has higher
e.g. fox and rabbit or lion and peaks and reaches
antelope. Suggest on the graph what its highest point
happens when the population of before that for the
rabbits / antelopes increases. predator.
9Be5 Describe factors affecting the Investigate graphs of the global Human population /time 30min
size of populations. population over time and consider graphs.
reasons for, and disadvantages of,
9Ec3 Look critically at sources of the rate of increase.
secondary data.
9Be6 Describe and investigate some Investigate the problems of obtaining Secondary sources. 50min
effects of human influences on enough living space.
the environment. By researching the reasons for and
effects of deforestation using
9Ec3 Look critically at sources of secondary sources.
secondary data. Include information on how species
might have been affected by
destruction of habitat.
Present findings and possible
solutions.
9Be6 Describe and investigate some Investigate the availability of clean Secondary sources. As extension work 50min
effects of human influences on water resources and why water pupils could do
the environment. should be conserved using fieldwork at a stream
secondary sources. site. Indicator
9Ec3 Look critically at sources of Present findings and possible species found can
secondary data. solutions to a shortage of clean show the relative
water. cleanliness of the
water.

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 49


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes
9Pe1 Use knowledge of energy Explain why the world’s energy Secondary sources. 50min
sources including fossil fuels and needs is increasing. Discuss why the
renewable energy resources to world’s energy needs is increasing.
consider the world’s energy
needs, including research from Relate to the increase in population
secondary sources. and the increased use of modern
technology.
9Ec3 Look critically at sources of
secondary data.
9Be6 Describe and investigate some Research the origins and extraction It should be 70min
effects of human influences on and reserves of the main fossil fuels, emphasised that the
the environment. coal, oil and gas. original source is the
Sun.
9Pe1 Use knowledge of energy Explain why fossil fuels are non-
sources including fossil fuels and renewable fuels.
renewable energy resources to
consider the world’s energy Explain why there might be an
needs, including research from energy crisis. Other problems are
secondary sources. cost of extraction and
Investigate the problem of transportation and
9Ec3 Look critically at sources of atmospheric pollution caused by the damage to the
secondary data. combustion of fossil fuels e.g. the environment.
effects of acid (rain) on limestone or
chalk (buildings).

V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 50


Framework Learning Objective Activities Resources Comments Time
Codes
9Be6 Describe and investigate some Research different renewable fuels. A careful definition of 70min
effects of human influences on Discuss whether ‘nuclear fuels’ are renewable is
the environment. renewable or non-renewable. necessary i.e. a
source that can be
9Pe1 Use knowledge of energy Discuss the advantages and replaced in a shorter
sources including fossil fuels and disadvantages of using ‘nuclear time than it is used.
renewable energy resources to fuels’ to generate electricity.
consider the world’s energy Renewable energy
needs, including research from Use secondary sources to find out sources should
secondary sources. about different renewable energy include solar, waves,
resources. rivers, tides and
9Ec3 Look critically at sources of wind.
secondary data.
Assess the advantages and
disadvantages of each energy
resource and how the energy
resource is used to generate
electricity.
Present findings to the whole class
as a poster, PowerPoint presentation
or a hand-out.
9Be6 Describe and investigate some Discuss and list the problems 50min
effects of human influences on of using all kinds of energy sources.
the environment. These might include suitability of
site, climate, cost of converting to
9Pe1 Use knowledge of energy electrical energy, pollution of any
sources including fossil fuels and kind and destruction of habitats.
renewable energy resources to
consider the world’s energy Consider the energy sources most
needs, including research from used in your region and whether
secondary sources. there would be benefit in changing to
other energy resources.
9Ec3 Look critically at sources of
secondary data.

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V1 1Y07 Science Stage 9 52