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Based on several studies investigating the area have been carried out on the Coulson &
Richardson Book (Volume 6), the hemisphere shape has been chosen as the dome closure of
the reactor. The reactor used is cylinders shape along with hemisphere heads and closures. The
others type of closure is ellipsoidal, torispherical and flat heads but the main reason that
hemisphere shape is chosen is because of it has the strongest shape; capable of resisting about
twice the pressure of a torispherical head of the same thickness. Besides that, although flat plate
are the cheapest type among them, but the use is limited to low pressure and small diameter
vessels. This case shows that the prize is not the highest priorities when choose the closure
Here is a comparison between smaller diameter and higher diameter of reactor which
is will surely affect the area of reactor For smaller diameter reactors, the pressure drop is higher,
which increases the volumetric flow rate and reduces the residence time and thus lowers the
conversion. Also, heat transfer is more efficient for smaller diameter reactors because the
surface area per volume is larger, so the temperature increases less in the reactor, and this also
lowers conversion. So, the calculation of the area of the reactor for this design project is shown
in details below:

Area of dome closure Surface area of cylinder (curved

2 𝑟 = 1.0325𝑚

𝑟= ℎ = 8.26𝑚

𝐴 = 2𝜋𝑟ℎ
𝑟 = 1.0325𝑚

𝐴 = 2𝜋(1.0325𝑚)(8.26𝑚)
𝐴 = 2𝜋𝑟 2 × 2(ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 & 𝑐𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒)

𝐴 = 53.58𝑚2
𝐴 = 2𝜋(1.0325)2 × 2

𝐴 = 13.4𝑚2
*So, the overall area of the reactor is:

Area of dome closure + Surface area of cylinder = Total area of reactor

13.4𝑚2+53.58𝑚2 =66.98𝑚2

For the calculation of the thickness (𝑒) of the reactor, some value of parameter has been
Pi Di
used which is, pressure, diameter and temperature. The formula,e = has been use to find
2J f−Pi

the thickness. For the value of design stress (𝑓), the figure has been used based on the
temperature and the material of the reactor. Considering that the carbon steel has been chosen
as the type of material the value of stress (𝑓) is 85 N/mm2. For hemispherical heads, the stress
in the head would then be greater than that in the cylindrical section and the optimum thickness
ratio is normally taken as 0.6. Means the thickness of the hemispherical heads and closure is
higher than cylinder at 51.03mm. Basically, the higher the thickness of the reactor, the lower
the heat transfer between substance and heating component. Overall calculation has been
shown below:

Figure ….Table 13.2 from Coulson & Richardson Book to find the design stress (𝑓)

𝑃𝑖 =Internal Pressure of Reactor

𝐷𝑖 =Internal Diameter of Reactor

𝐽 = Joint Factor

𝑓= Design Stress

Thickness of cylinder tank (e),

𝟐. 𝟒𝟖𝟑𝟗𝑵/𝒎𝒎𝟐 𝒙 𝟐𝟎𝟔𝟓𝒎𝒎
𝟐(𝟖𝟓𝑵/𝒎𝒎𝟐 ) − 𝟐. 𝟒𝟖𝟑𝟗𝑵/𝒎𝒎𝟐

= 𝟑𝟎. 𝟔𝟐𝒎𝒎

Thickness of head and closure (e),

𝟑𝟎. 𝟔𝟐𝒎𝒎
𝟎. 𝟔

= 𝟓𝟏. 𝟎𝟑𝒎𝒎

Corrosion is a process through which metals in manufactured states return to their

natural oxidation states. This process is a reduction oxidation reaction in which the metal is
being oxidized by its surroundings, often the oxygen in air. This reaction is
both spontaneous and electrochemically favoured. There are three main components can cause
corrosion process which is metal usually iron, oxygen, and electrolyte usually water (Escobar,

The corrosion allowed used for this reactor is 2mm. This is takes from the suggestion
given based on the Coulson & Richardson Book. So, the thickness will be get by addition of
thickness (30.62mm) with corrosion allowed (2mm). Then, the total thickness get was
32.62mm. With the diameter of reactor is 2.065m, the minimum practical wall thickness is

Vessel diameter (m) Minimum thickness (mm)

1 5

1 to 2 7

2 to 2.5 9

2.5 to 3.0 10

3.0 to 3.5 12

Table … The minimum practical wall thickness (Coulson & Richardson, Vol 6)

Escobar, K. & Cantu, L.A. (2014, 6 April) Corrosion basics. Retrieved at