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12/03/2018

Attendance keyword: nuszf

ASE 342 – Aerodynamics II

Lecturer: Uğur Karban

karban@metu.edu.tr Room R-215

Example
 Consider a Mach 3 flow. It is desired to slow the flow
down to a subsonic speed. Two ways to achieve this:
passing the flow through (1) a normal shock, (2) an
oblique and a normal shock subsequently. Find the total
pressure ratio for both cases. (𝛽 = 40° for Case 2)

Case 1 Case 2

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Solution
 Case 1
𝑝0,2 𝑝0,2 𝑝2 𝑝1
𝑀2 = 0.475 = = 0.3283
𝑝0,1 𝑝2 𝑝1 𝑝0,1
 Case 2
𝑝0,2,𝑜𝑏
𝑀𝑛,1 = 𝑀1 sin 𝛽 = 1.93 𝑀𝑛,2 = 0.59 = 0.7542
𝑝0,1
 From the 𝜃 – 𝛽 – 𝑀 plot, for 𝑀1 = 3 and 𝛽 = 40°, we find
𝜃 = 22°
𝑀𝑛,2 𝑝0,2
𝑀2 = = 1.91 = 0.7628
sin 𝛽 − 𝜃 𝑝0,2,𝑜𝑏
𝑝0,2 𝑝0,2 𝑝0,2,𝑜𝑏 𝑝0,2 𝑝0,2
= = 0.5753 ൘ = 1.75
𝑝0,1 𝑝0,2,𝑜𝑏 𝑝0,1 𝑝0,1 𝑝0,1
𝑐𝑎𝑠𝑒2 𝑐𝑎𝑠𝑒1
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Total pressure ratio


 Total pressure indicates how much
useful work can be done by the
flow
 The higher the total pressure ratio
is, the higher the efficiency is!
 Multiple shock system is more
efficient
 This is why oblique shock inlet is
used for engines of supersonic
A/Cs

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Supersonic flow over wedges and cones


 Wedge  Cone
 Flow is 2-D  Shock is weaker
 The relations obtained are  Flow is 3-D
exact!  Streamlines are curved

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E.g.: Pressure coefficient of a wedge


 Supersonic flow at Mach 5
over a wedge with the tip
half angle, 𝜃 = 15°. What
is the pressure coefficient,
𝑐𝑑 ? (Assume that the base
pressure, 𝑝1 , is equal to
freestream static
pressure)

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E.g.: Pressure coefficient of a wedge


 Pressure coefficient is defined as follows
𝐷′ 𝐷′
𝑐𝑑 = =
𝑞1 𝑆 𝑞1 𝑐
𝐷 ′ = 2 𝑝2 𝑙 sin 𝜃 − 2𝑙 sin 𝜃 𝑝1 = 2𝑙 sin 𝜃 𝑝2 − 𝑝1
𝑝2 − 𝑝1
𝑙 = 𝑐/ cos 𝜃 𝐷 ′ = 2𝑐 tan 𝜃 𝑝2 − 𝑝1 𝑐𝑑 = 2𝑐 tan 𝜃
𝑞1
1 1 𝛾𝑝1 2 1 𝛾𝑝1 2 𝛾
𝑞1 = 𝜌𝑉12 = 𝜌 𝑉 = 𝑉 = 𝑝1 𝑀12
2 2 𝛾𝑝1 1 2 𝑎12 1 2
Note that flow is still
𝑝2 − 𝑝1 4 tan 𝜃 𝑝2 inviscid, but we calculate a
𝑐𝑑 = 4𝑐 tan 𝜃 = −1 nonzero drag coefficient
𝛾𝑝1 𝑀12 𝑐 𝛾𝑀12 𝑝1
for supersonic flows
𝑝2
𝑀1 = 5, 𝜃 = 15° → 𝛽 = 24.2° → = 4.736 𝑐𝑑 = 0.114
𝑝1
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Shock interactions and reflections


 What happens if there are more than one solid surfaces?

• Reflected shock is weaker than the


incident shock since 𝑀2 < 𝑀1
• Φ is not equal to 𝛽
• Same 𝜃 but at different Mach #
• Simply solve zones 1-2 and 2-3
sequentially
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Mach reflection
 Occurs when 𝑀2 is lower than the minimum Mach # for
the given 𝜃
 In such a case, O.S. does not reach the upper wall through
a straight line
 It bends as shown in the figure, so that the flow
passes through a normal shock wave at the
upper surface
 This way the streamlines at the upper
surface remain parallel to the wall
 Can be treated numerically

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Interaction of left- and right-running shock


waves
 In case of deflection from both sides of a channel, the left-
and right-running shock waves intersect each other

 𝐴 is refracted as 𝐷
 𝐵 is refracted as 𝐶

 Across the slip line


 𝑝4 = 𝑝4′ and 𝑉4 ∥ 𝑉4′
 All the rest is different
 Most noticeably 𝑠4 ≠ 𝑠4′

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Interaction of two left-running shock waves


 In case of sequential deflection on one side of a channel,
we have two left-/right-running O.S.Ws intersecting each
other.
 The shock waves 𝐴𝐶 and 𝐵𝐶 intersect to form
a stronger O.S.W 𝐶𝐷
 The reflected wave 𝐶𝐸 is necessary for
flow alignment, so that
 𝑉4 ∥ 𝑉5
 𝑝4 = 𝑝5

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Detached bow shock


 When 𝜃 > 𝜃𝑚𝑎𝑥 for a given
Mach #, we see no longer an
oblique shock wave, but a
detached bow shock!
 Point 𝑎  normal shock
 Shock wave becomes gradually
weaker  turns into a Mach
wave at point 𝑒
 Point 𝑏  O.S.W with strong
shock solution
 Point 𝑐  𝜃𝑚𝑎𝑥
 Point 𝑐′  flow becomes sonic
 Point 𝑑  supersonic flow
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Detached bow shock


 From points 𝑎 to 𝑒, we see all possible oblique shock
solutions
 Can only be solved
numerically

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Prandtl-Meyer expansion waves


 An oblique shock wave occurs when flow is turned into
itself
 Adiabatic but irreversible (downstream entropy is greater than
the upstream entropy)
 Expansion waves are opposite to the O.S.Ws
 Occur when flow is turned
away from itself
 Adiabatic
 Isentropic (𝑠2 = 𝑠1)

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Prandtl-Meyer expansion waves


 Infinitely many Mach waves between the two Mach lines
1 1
𝜇1 = asin 𝜇2 = asin Flow is accelerated
𝑀1 𝑀2
gradually between
 First studied by Prandtl and his student these two lines
Meyer in 1907-1908
 We will repeat
the same analysis!

𝑀2 > 𝑀1

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Solution for an infinitesimal expansion


 Assume an infinitesimal expansion by an angle 𝑑𝜃
 Remember that the tangential velocity remains unchanged
across a wave!
𝑉 cos 𝜇 = 𝑉 + 𝑑𝑉 cos(𝜇 + 𝑑𝜃)
𝑉 + 𝑑𝑉 cos 𝜇
=
𝑉 cos 𝜇 + 𝑑𝜃

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Solution for an infinitesimal expansion


 From the trigonometric relations
small angle assumption
cos(𝜇 + 𝑑𝜃) = cos 𝜇 cos 𝑑𝜃 − sin 𝜇 sin 𝑑𝜃 cos 𝑑𝜃 ≈ 1, sin 𝑑𝜃 ≈ 𝜃

𝑑𝑉 cos 𝜇 1 1
1+ = = = 1 + 𝑥 + 𝑥2 + ⋯
𝑉 cos 𝜇 − sin 𝜇 𝑑𝜃 1 − 𝑑𝜃 tan 𝜇 1 − 𝑥
for small 𝑥, H.O.T can be
𝑑𝑉 1 neglected
1+ = 1 + 𝑑𝜃 tan 𝜇 tan 𝜇 =
𝑉 𝑀2 − 1 𝑀
𝑑𝑉 1
𝑑𝜃 = 𝑀2 − 1 𝜇
𝑉
𝜃 𝑀2 𝑀2 − 1
𝑑𝑉
න 𝑑𝜃 = න 𝑀2 − 1 we need to write this
0 𝑀1 𝑉
in terms of 𝑀

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Solution for an infinitesimal expansion


 Remember the definition of Mach number
𝑀 = 𝑉Τ𝑎 → 𝑉 = 𝑀𝑎 → ln 𝑉 = ln 𝑀 + ln 𝑎 taking the derivative
𝑑𝑉 𝑑𝑀 𝑑𝑎 𝑎0 2 𝑇0 𝛾−1 2
= + = =1+ 𝑀
𝑉 𝑀 𝑎 𝑎 𝑇 2
−1Τ2
𝛾−1 2
𝑎 = 𝑎0 1+ 𝑀
2
−1
𝑑𝑎 𝛾−1 𝛾−1 2
=− 𝑀 1+ 𝑀 𝑑𝑀
𝑎 2 2
𝑑𝑉 1 𝑑𝑀
= 2
𝑉 1 + 𝛾 − 1 Τ2 𝑀 𝑀

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Solution for the expansion fan


 Replacing the final expression into the integral equation
𝑀2
𝑀2 − 1 𝑑𝑀
𝜃=න 2
𝑀1 1 + 𝛾 − 1 Τ2 𝑀 𝑀

 The indefinite integral is called Prandtl-Meyer function


𝑀2 − 1 𝑑𝑀
𝜈 𝑀 =න 2
1 + 𝛾 − 1 Τ2 𝑀 𝑀

𝛾+1 𝛾+1 2
𝜈 𝑀 = atan (𝑀 − 1) − atan 𝑀2 − 1
𝛾−1 𝛾−1

 Given 𝑀1 and 𝜃, we can find 𝑀2 using 𝜃 = 𝜈 𝑀2 − 𝜈 𝑀1

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Solution for the expansion fan


 Isentropy condition  𝑇0 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡, 𝑝0 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡

𝑇2 𝑇2 /𝑇0 1 + 𝛾 − 1 Τ2 𝑀12
= =
𝑇1 𝑇1 /𝑇0 1 + 𝛾 − 1 Τ2 𝑀22
𝛾
𝑝2 𝑝2 /𝑝0 1 + 𝛾 − 1 Τ2 𝑀12 𝛾−1
= =
𝑝1 𝑝1 /𝑝0 1 + 𝛾 − 1 Τ2 𝑀22
 Since the process is isentropic, the same relations can be
used for isentropic compression!

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