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# ⇀Astronomy 1021↼

## Chapter 18: Dark Matter

➣ʌCDM Model:
• Lambda (ʌ) stands for “dark energy”
• CDM stands for “cold dark matter”

## • “Normal” matter: ~ 4.6%

• Dark matter: ~ 24%

## • DM and DE are placeholders

• Data from Planck Space Telescope +

## ➣Dark Matter and Dark Energy:

• Dark matter
– Interacts through gravity, but not light
• Dark energy
– Counteracts gravity on the largest scales

➣Sounds Weird?

## • Theories have slowly gained acceptance through testable predictions

• If DM and DE are not real, observations still need explaining

## ➣Evidence for Dark Matter:

1. Milky Way
2. Other galaxies
3. Galaxy clusters
• Fritz Zwicky (1898-1974)
• Vera Rubin (1928-2016)

## ➣DM Evidence 1: The Milky Way

• Motion of stars allows determination of mass within
• Results are shown in rotation curves

## ➣Rotation Curve for Solar System:

• LC Question: What is the rotation curve of a spiral galaxy? A plot of rotation speed vs
distance from the centre
• P2 = a3: more distant planets take longer to orbit
• Bigger orbits mean slower planets

## ➣Rotation Curve for Galaxy:

• Unlike in planets in Solar System, stars in Galaxy orbit at roughly constant speed no matter
how far from the centre of the Galaxy
➣Implications of Galactic Rotation Curve:
• Solar System has mass concentrated at the centre
• Galaxy cannot have mass concentrated at the centre
• Dark matter is distributed throughout the galaxy

➣Two Halos:
• One luminous; the other dark
• Visible portion is at heart of a large halo of dark matter

## • Compare the amount of mass and light

•• Use the Sun as a reference point
Called a “mass-to-light” ratio or M/L ratio

## ➣M/L Ratio for a Red Giant:

• Mass = 1M
• Light = 100L
• Mass-to-light ratio = 0.01M/L
• More light per unit mass than the Sun

## ➣M/L Ratio for the Milky Way

• Mass-to-light ration of MW = 6.7M/L
• Less light per unit mass than the Sun

➣How
to
Luminosity Mass
• Measure the apparent brightness • Spirals: Measure orbital speeds of H
• Determine the distance (see Ch 16) gas (radio 21 cm line)
• Use the inverse square law • Ellipticals (no gas): look at stellar
motion
Determine M/L for Other Galaxies:

## ➣Two Doppler Shift components:

1. Recessional velocity
2. Rotational velocity
• Subtract (1) off (2) togged the rotational part to calculate the mass using Kepler’s Hird law
• Ellipticals: M/L greater than or equal to 10
➣DM Evidence 3: Galaxy Clusters:

## b. X-ray emission of hot intergalactic gas (also called intracluster medium)

c. Gravitational lensing

## ➣3a. Galaxy Orbits Within a Cluster:

(Fritz Zwicky’s work)

• Galaxies orbit one another in galaxy clusters like stars orbit within a galaxy

## • Work out cluster mass

• Result: clusters have more mass than we can see (i.e., clusters have DM)

• X-rays emitted

## • Gas is in gravitational equilibrium

• DM is 40x the mass of stars+gas

## ➣3c. Gravitational Lensing:

• Gravitational lensing does not use Newton’s law of Gravity
• It uses Einstein’s theory of general relativity
• Galaxies act like giant magnifying glasses

## • Critical density is needed to keep the universe flat

• Critical density = 10-29 grams per cubic cm

## ➣What is Dark Matter? 1. Ordinary Matter:

Unlikely
• Also called “baryonic matter”
• Baryonic matter examples: protons, neutrons
• Called MACHOs: Massive Compact Halo Objects

## ➣Hydrogen, Deuterium, Helium:

• Deuterium is produced as an intermediate step in fusing H to He

## •• Some deuterium still exists from Big Bang nucleosynthesis

Observed amounts of deuterium: only 5% of critical density is in ordinary matter

Most Likely

## ➣Best Guesses for DM: WIMPs:

• Weakly-Interacting, Massive Particles
• Don’t collapse in disks because they cannot emit photons and therefore get rid of heat energy
• Any detections? No

## ➣Dark Matter in Structure Formation:

• Quantum fluctuations expanded in inflation
• Dark matter starts collapsing first
• Ordinary matter (stars and gas) follow DM
• Matter clumps together to form
galaxies, clusters, superclusters and
large-scale structure

➣Big Crunch:
• Expansion after the Big Bang occurs
for a period
• Eventually, gravity wins
• We’d experience a fiery death

## ➣Critical and Coasting:

• Critical or balanced: the universe keeps on expanding but at ever slower rates
• Coasting: galaxies move apart at the same speed forever

➣Accelerating:
• The universe’s expansion is not slowing down, it’s actually speeding up
• How can we possibly know this?

## ➣Nature of Dark Energy:

• Acts like a force that pushes galaxies apart
• It is not one of the four fundamental forces
• Universe was always expanding, but wasn’t always accelerating

## • 1915: Einstein’s theory of general relativity predicted it was not static

• “Fudge factor” was called “cosmological constant” acting to counteract gravity

## • CMB flat universe

• Flat universe  critical density
• Ordinary matter + dark matter leaves us with 71.4% required for DE
• Observations of white dwarf supernovae tell us DE density is 71.4%