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⇀Astronomy 1021↼

Chapter 18: Dark Matter

➣ʌCDM Model:
• Lambda (ʌ) stands for “dark energy”
• CDM stands for “cold dark matter”

➣Components of the Universe:

• “Normal” matter: ~ 4.6%


• Dark matter: ~ 24%

• Dark energy: ~ 71.4%

• DM and DE are placeholders


• Data from Planck Space Telescope +

➣Dark Matter and Dark Energy:


• Dark matter
– Interacts through gravity, but not light
• Dark energy
– Counteracts gravity on the largest scales

➣Sounds Weird?

• DM and DE are now supported by careful scientific studies

• Theories have slowly gained acceptance through testable predictions


• If DM and DE are not real, observations still need explaining

➣Evidence for Dark Matter:


1. Milky Way
2. Other galaxies
3. Galaxy clusters
• Fritz Zwicky (1898-1974)
• Vera Rubin (1928-2016)

➣DM Evidence 1: The Milky Way


• Motion of stars allows determination of mass within
• Results are shown in rotation curves

➣Rotation Curve for Solar System:


• LC Question: What is the rotation curve of a spiral galaxy? A plot of rotation speed vs
distance from the centre
• P2 = a3: more distant planets take longer to orbit
• Bigger orbits mean slower planets

➣Rotation Curve for Galaxy:


• Unlike in planets in Solar System, stars in Galaxy orbit at roughly constant speed no matter
how far from the centre of the Galaxy
➣Implications of Galactic Rotation Curve:
• Solar System has mass concentrated at the centre
• Galaxy cannot have mass concentrated at the centre
• Dark matter is distributed throughout the galaxy

➣Two Halos:
• One luminous; the other dark
• Visible portion is at heart of a large halo of dark matter

➣DM Evidence 2: Other Galaxies:

• Compare the amount of mass and light


•• Use the Sun as a reference point
Called a “mass-to-light” ratio or M/L ratio

➣M/L Ratio for a Red Giant:


• Mass = 1M
• Light = 100L
• Mass-to-light ratio = 0.01M/L
• More light per unit mass than the Sun

➣M/L Ratio for the Milky Way


• Mass-to-light ration of MW = 6.7M/L
• Less light per unit mass than the Sun

➣How
to
Luminosity Mass
• Measure the apparent brightness • Spirals: Measure orbital speeds of H
• Determine the distance (see Ch 16) gas (radio 21 cm line)
• Use the inverse square law • Ellipticals (no gas): look at stellar
motion
Determine M/L for Other Galaxies:

➣Two Doppler Shift components:


1. Recessional velocity
2. Rotational velocity
• Subtract (1) off (2) togged the rotational part to calculate the mass using Kepler’s Hird law
• Spirals: M/L about 10
• Ellipticals: M/L greater than or equal to 10
➣DM Evidence 3: Galaxy Clusters:

a. Galaxy orbits within a cluster

b. X-ray emission of hot intergalactic gas (also called intracluster medium)


c. Gravitational lensing

➣3a. Galaxy Orbits Within a Cluster:


(Fritz Zwicky’s work)

• Galaxies orbit one another in galaxy clusters like stars orbit within a galaxy

• Measure galaxy orbits using redshifts

• Subtract cluster recessional speed

• Work out cluster mass


• Result: clusters have more mass than we can see (i.e., clusters have DM)

➣3b. X-ray Emission of Hot Gas:

• Tens of millions of degrees

• X-rays emitted

• Gas mass is 7x the star mass

• Gas is in gravitational equilibrium


• DM is 40x the mass of stars+gas

➣3c. Gravitational Lensing:


• Gravitational lensing does not use Newton’s law of Gravity
• It uses Einstein’s theory of general relativity
• Galaxies act like giant magnifying glasses

Is Dark Matter real?

➣How Much Dark Matter?

• Density is a measure of how much your mass is “spread out”

• Critical density is needed to keep the universe flat


• Critical density = 10-29 grams per cubic cm

➣What is Dark Matter? 1. Ordinary Matter:


Unlikely
• Also called “baryonic matter”
• Baryonic matter examples: protons, neutrons
• Called MACHOs: Massive Compact Halo Objects

➣Hydrogen, Deuterium, Helium:


• Deuterium is produced as an intermediate step in fusing H to He

➣How Much Baryonic Matter in the Universe?

•• Some deuterium still exists from Big Bang nucleosynthesis


Observed amounts of deuterium: only 5% of critical density is in ordinary matter

➣What is Dark Matter? 2. Exotic Matter


Most Likely

➣Best Guesses for DM: WIMPs:


• Weakly-Interacting, Massive Particles
• Don’t collapse in disks because they cannot emit photons and therefore get rid of heat energy
• Any detections? No

➣Summary on What DM is:

➣Dark Matter in Structure Formation:


• Quantum fluctuations expanded in inflation
• Dark matter starts collapsing first
• Ordinary matter (stars and gas) follow DM
• Matter clumps together to form
galaxies, clusters, superclusters and
large-scale structure

➣Big Crunch:
• Expansion after the Big Bang occurs
for a period
• Eventually, gravity wins
• We’d experience a fiery death

➣Critical and Coasting:


• Critical or balanced: the universe keeps on expanding but at ever slower rates
• Coasting: galaxies move apart at the same speed forever

➣Accelerating:
• The universe’s expansion is not slowing down, it’s actually speeding up
• How can we possibly know this?

➣Nature of Dark Energy:


• Acts like a force that pushes galaxies apart
• It is not one of the four fundamental forces
• Universe was always expanding, but wasn’t always accelerating

➣Einstein’s “Greatest Blunder”:

• Before Hubble’s law (1929): universe was considered static

• 1915: Einstein’s theory of general relativity predicted it was not static


• “Fudge factor” was called “cosmological constant” acting to counteract gravity

➣Flatness and Dark Energy:

• CMB flat universe


• Flat universe  critical density
• Ordinary matter + dark matter leaves us with 71.4% required for DE
• Observations of white dwarf supernovae tell us DE density is 71.4%