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Contents

Welcome to Focus on Grammar v

Scope and Sequence xii

PART I Present and Past



UNIT 1 Present Progressive and Simple Present 2

UNIT 2 Simple Past 16

UNIT 3 Past Progressive and Simple Past 31

UNIT 4 Used to and Would 45

UNIT 5 Wh- questions 58

From Grammar to Writing 69

PART II The Future



UNIT 6 Future 74

UNIT 7 Future Time Clauses 91

From Grammar to Writing 103

PART III Present Perfect



UNIT 8 Present Perfect: Since and For 108

UNIT 9 Present Perfect: Already, Yet, and Still 121

UNIT 10 Present Perfect: Indefinite Past 133

UNIT 11 Present Perfect and Simple Past 146

UNIT 12 Present Perfect Progressive and Present Perfect 159

From Grammar to Writing 173

PART IV Modals and Similar Expressions



UNIT 13 Ability: Can, Could, Be able to 176

UNIT 14 Permission: Can, Could, May, Do you mind if 190

UNIT 15 Requests: Can, Could, Will, Would, Would you mind 202

UNIT 16 Advice: Should, Ought to, Had better 214

From Grammar to Writing 227

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PART V Nouns, Quantifiers, and Articles

UNIT 17 Nouns and Quantifiers 232

UNIT 18 Articles: Indefinite and Definite 246

From Grammar to Writing 262

PART VI Adjectives and Adverbs



UNIT 19 Adjectives and Adverbs 266

UNIT 20 Adjectives: Comparisons with As . . . as and Than 282

UNIT 21 Adjectives: Superlatives 296

UNIT 22 Adverbs: As . . . as, Comparatives, Superlatives 307

From Grammar to Writing 319

PART VII Gerunds and Infinitives



UNIT 23 Gerunds: Subject and Object 322

UNIT 24 Infinitives after Certain Verbs 334

UNIT 25 More Uses of Infinitives 344

UNIT 26 Gerunds and Infinitives 357

From Grammar to Writing 372

PART VIII Pronouns and Phrasal Verbs



UNIT 27 Reflexive and Reciprocal Pronouns 376

UNIT 28 Phrasal Verbs 391

From Grammar to Writing 403

PART IX More Modals and Similar Expressions

UNIT 29 Necessity: Have (got) to, Must, Don’t have to, Must not, Can’t 408

UNIT 30 Expectations: Be supposed to 422

UNIT 31 Future Possibility: May, Might, Could 434

UNIT 32 Conclusions: Must, Have (got) to, May, Might, Could, Can’t 446

From Grammar to Writing 461

Appendices A-1

Glossary of Grammar Terms G-1

Unit Review Answer Key UR-1

Index i-1

iv Contents