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Design of RC Slab Bridge (11m of Clear Span) 26.

752 GPa (Modulus Elasticity of concrete)


1.Depth Determination 11500
According to AASHTO (Table 2.5.2.6.3-1), minimum recommended depth for slabs with main reinforcement parallel
to the traffic is:
D=1.2(S+3000)/30 where: S= Span= Cs+Wrs = 11.50 m (c/c spacing of the bridge)
D=1.2*(11500+3000)/30=580mm
580 580.0 mm 11500 kN/m2
Thus, Use D =580mm 0.58 m 13.66 11500 0
580
2. Equivalent Strip widths, AASHTO Article 4.6.2.3
a) Interior Strip shear and
i) One lane loaded: multiple presence factor included 8920
E=min (18,000 , 250+0.42(S*W)1/2) = 4503.835 mm (W=Rw+2Cw) 8920
where: W is the edge-to-edge width of the bridge

ii) Multiple lanes loaded 8920


Number of lanes loaded, NL= int (7.32/3.6)=2 3315.381 4460
E=2100+0.12Sqrt(S*W) =3315.381 mm <W/NL(8920/2=4460mm) mm <W/NL(8920/2=4460mm)
3315.381
Use E = 3315.381 mm
Shear and moment per meter width of strip is critical for multiple lanes loaded because (4503.835 mm >3315.381 mm)

Equivalent Concentrated and distributed loads


Truck P1'= 35kN/3315.381mm = 10.557kN/m kN/m 35 10.557
Truck P2'= 145kN/3315.381mm = 43.736kN/m kN/m 145 43.736
Tandem P3'= 110kN/3315.381mm = 33.179kN/m kN/m 110 33.179 6.6125 169.46
Lane W'= 9.3kN/m/3315.381mm = 2.805kN/m2 kN/m2 9.3 2.805
b) Edge Strip 800 2757.691 1800.000 1.80
Longitudinal edge strip width for a line of wheels
E=distance from edge to face of barrier +300+1/2 strip width < 1800mm
E =800+300 +(1/2*3315.381) = 2757.691 mm
E=min (2757.691,1800)= 1800 mm
3. Influence Lines for shear force and bending moment
* Slab bridges shall be designed for all vehicular live loads specified in AASHTO Art. 3.6.1.2 including the lane load.
Live Load Force Effects 0 1.15 2.3 3.45 4.6 5.75
0 1.15 2.3 3.45 4.6 5.75
a) Interior Strip
i) Influence Line for Moment (Truck Load) Rank 1 170.95
(Max. effect of truck load)
At position where0 xL1= 6.6125 1.4375
m, Mtr =169.462
0 L2 kN-m/m
m1 (Max. effect of truck0load) Mtr =169.462
0 kN-m/m
24
23
22
21 0.1
0.125
0.15 1.15
1.725
11.50
10.35
10.06
9.78 1.0350 m2-2.5046875
1.2578125
1.46625 -2.835 m3
-2.18875 0.6050 m2
0.7203125
0.82125
0
0
0
0
m3 0.6050 Mtr
0.7203125
0.82125 51.65375
62.61603
72.79785
20
19 0.175 2.0125 9.49 1.6603125 -1.8871875 0.9078125 0 0.9078125 82.1992
18
17
16
15 is0.2
NB: x0.225
0.25
0.275
0.3
2.3
the position of2.5875
2.875
the
3.1625
9.20
8.91
8.63
middle wheel
3.45 measured
8.34
8.05
1.84 the-1.3271875
2.0053125
2.15625
from
2.2928125
2.415 left -1.6 1.0378125
-1.06875
support.
-0.8246875
-0.595
0.98
1.08125
1.1103125
1.125
0
0
0
0
0
0.98 98.66053
1.0378125
1.08125 90.8201
1.125 105.7205
1.1103125 112
117.4991
14
13
12 0.325
0.35
0.375 3.7375
4.025
4.3125 7.76
7.48
7.19 2.5228125
2.61625
2.6953125 -0.3796875
-0.17875
0.0078125 1.1253125
1.11125 0
0 1.1253125
1.11125 122.2177
126.1558
11
10
9 0.4
0.425
0.45 4.6
4.8875
5.175 6.90
6.61
6.33 2.76
2.8103125
2.84625 0.33781250.18 1.0828125
0.48125 1.04 0.007813
0.9828125
0.91125 0.18 1.0828125
9.3/E
0.337813
0.48125 0.9828125
0.91125
129.6551
1.04 139.5631
148.0619
155.1516
8
6
4 0.475
0.5
0.525 5.4625
5.75
6.0375 6.04
5.75
5.46 2.8678125
2.875
2.8678125 0.6103125
0.725 0.8253125
0.8253125 0.725 0.610313
0.6103125 0.725 0.8253125
0.825313 160.8321
0.725 165.1034
0.6103125 167.9656
2
1
3 0.55
0.575
0.6 6.325
6.6125
6.9 5.18
4.89
4.60 2.84625
2.8103125
2.76 0.91125
0.98281251.04 0.48125
0.3378125
0.18 0.91125
0.982813
1.04 0.48125
0.3378125
0.18 169.4186
169.4624
168.0971
5
7 0.625
145/E
0.65 7.1875
7.475 4.31 2.6953125
4.03145/E 2.61625 1.0828125
1.11125 0.0078125
-0.17875 1.082813
1.11125 0.0078125 0 165.3226
163.0259
35/E
6.61 2.81 0.98 0.34
0 0.00 6.61 0 10.91 0 6.04 2.312.87 2.300
2.31
6.61
10.91 0.98
2.81
0.34 6.61 2.81 10.91 0.34 2.31 0.98
11.50 11.500 0.00 0.00 0 2.81 6.6125
2.810313
0.982813
6.61 6.61 4.6 3.61 10.91
10.91 2.312.31 4.36 3.61 0.337813
0.98
0.34
6.61

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

x 171.39

Mlane, max= 2.805*11.5^2/8 = 46.37kN-m/m 46.37

by Abrham G. (Dr.) Deck Design 1/11/2017, Page 1


ii) Influence Line for Moment (Tandem Load) Rank 1 (Max. effect of tandem load)
At position where x = 6.0375 m, Mtm =171.39 kN-m/m (Max. effect of tandem load) Mtm =171.39 kN-m/m
0
6.04 11.50 0.00
2.87
0.00 6.04
110/E 6.04
110/E
0 2.87 4.84 4.84 0 2.30
6.04 6.040 0.000
5.3 4.07 4.844.84 6.0375
2.8678125
2.2978125
1
2 0.10 L1 1.150 L2 11.50
10.35 m1 0.91 m2 NB: x0ism3
-0.1 the position m2
0.626087
0.5634783 of the frontm3
0.252174
0.226957 wheel
0.89565217 Vtr
73.78074
3
4
5 0.125
0.15
0.175 1.4375
1.725
2.0125 10.06
9.78
9.49 0.875
0.85
0.825 -0.125
-0.15
-0.175 0.5478261
0.5321739
0.5165217 0.220652 0.80608696
0.214348
0.208043 0.78369565 66.40267
0.76130435
0.73891304 64.55815
62.71363
60.86911
6
7
8 0.2
0.225
0.25 2.3
2.5875
2.8752.30 9.20
8.91
8.63 0.8
0.775
0.75 measured
-0.2
-0.225
-0.25 from the
0.5008696
0.4852174
0.4695652 left support.
0.201739
0.195435
0.18913 0.71652174
0.69413043
0.67173913 59.02459
57.18007
55.33555
9
10
11 0.275
0.3
0.325 3.1625
3.45
3.7375 8.34
8.05
7.76 0.725
0.7
0.675 -0.275 0.453913
-0.3 0.4069565
-0.325 0.182826
0.4382609 0.163913
0.4226087 0.64934783
0.62695652 53.49104
0.176522 0.58217391
0.170217 0.60456522 51.64652
49.802
12
13
14 0.35
0.375
0.4 4.025
4.3125
4.6 7.48
2.87
7.19
6.90 0.65
0.625
0.6 -0.35
-0.375
-0.4 0.3913043
0.3756522 0.157609
0.151304 0.55978261
0.5373913 47.95748
46.11296
15
16
17 0.425
0.45
0.475 4.8875
5.175
5.4625 6.61
6.33
6.04 0.575
0.55
0.525 -0.425
-0.45
-0.475 0.36 0.132391
0.3443478
0.3286957 0.138696 0.515 44.26844
0.145 0.47021739
0.4926087 42.42393
40.57941
38.73489
18
19
20 0.5
0.525
0.55 5.75
6.0375
6.325 5.75
5.46
5.18 0.5
0.475
0.45 -0.5
-0.525
-0.55 0.3130435
0.2973913 0.126087
0.119783 0.44782609
0.42543478 36.89037
35.04585
21
22
23
24
0.575
0.6
0.625
0.65
6.6125
6.9
7.1875
7.475
4.89
4.60
4.31
6.044.03
0.425
0.4
0.375
0.35 -0.6 0.2817391
-0.575
-0.625
-0.65 0.2504348
0.2347826
0.113478
0.266087 0.107174
0.10087
0.094565
0.40304348
0.38065217
0.33586957
33.20133
0.35826087 31.35681
29.5123
27.66778
0
0 0
0 1 0 0.2191304
0.626087 0.088261 0.00
0.252174 0.31347826
0.89565217 25.82326
####
0 11.50
2 0.00 4 1
0 0
6-1 4.3
4.3 8 0.626 0 10 8.6
8.6 0.252 0
12 1 14 1
0
1.62 1.62 0.626 1.6 0.252
0 4.3 8.6 1.75
x
0
iii) Influence Line for Shear Force (Truck Load) 11.50
Max. shear force due to truck73.781
load occurs at
Max. shear force due to truck load occurs at position where x= 0m, Vtr =73.781 kN/m Vtr =73.781 kN/m
0
0 0
0
0
0 11.50 0
1 0 1.2
11.5
11.5 0 0
0 -1
-1 1.2
1.2 0.8960
0.896 9.3/E
0
0
145/E
1.62 1.2
1.2
145/E
1.62
35/E

1
0.626
0.252

0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

iv) Influence Line for Shear Force (Tandem Load)


Max. shear force due to tandem load occurs at
Max. shear force due to tandem load occurs at position where x =0m, Vtm =62.896 kN/m Vtm =62.896 kN/m

110/E 110/E

1
0.896

0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

b) Edge strip
Half of the lane width is taken for design (multiple presence factor of 1.2 will be critical) since edge strip width is
limitted to 1800mm for one-lane loaded.
VLL+IM =1.2[IM*max(Vtr,Vtm)+Vln]/2
MLL+IM =1.2[IM*max(Mtr,Mtm)+Mln]/2

Live load placement for shear and moment (edge strip)


1 1

by Abrham G. (Dr.) Deck Design 1/11/2017, Page 2


4. Dead Load Force Effects
a) Interior Strip
Take 1m strip, unit wt. of concrete = 2400 kg/m3
d=529 mm (=580-32/2-35)
Wdc = 2400*9.81kN/m3/1000*0.58m = 13.656kN/m2 (dead load of the deck slab)
Wdw = 2250*9.81kN/m3/1000*0.1m = 2.207kN/m2 (dead load of the wearing surface)
b) Edge Strip
Dead Load Computations
Assume curb, railings & post loadings spread over edge strip width (1800mm)

(0.25*0.75+0.5*0.25*0.05) *(2400*9.81) /1000 (wearing surface is


Curb = + 13.656 = 16.19 kN/m2 not included)
1.8
0.15*0.3 *(2400*9.81) /1000
Railings = = 0.589 kN/m2
1.8
Number of posts = Int. (clear span of bridge / post spacing)+1 = 10

(0.3*0.3*0.85) *10* (2400*9.81)/1000


Posts = = 0.87 kN/m2
1.8*11.5
Thus, the total edge load becomes, 16.19+0.589+0.87 = 17.649 kN/m2

by Abrham G. (Dr.) Deck Design 1/11/2017, Page 3


5. Select Resistance Factors
Strength Limit States (RC) 1 1 0.95
Flexure & Torsion Flexure & Torsion 1 i) Strength Limit State
1.00 1.05
Resistance Factor = 1 Shear
Axial & Torsion
Compression 1 ii)
iii)Service
FatigueLimit
LimitState
0.90
State
0.75 1
Bearing on Concrete 1.00
6. Select Load Modifiers Concrete in strut & Tie model
1 1.00
i) Strength Limit State 1.25 dc 1.251
i) Ductility 0.95 1.50 [Art. 1.3.3] dw 1.5
ii) Redundancy 1.05 1.75 [Art. 1.3.4] LL 1.75
iii) Importancy 1.05 1.00 [Art. 1.3.5] FR 0.75
Load Modifier = 1.05

7. Select Applicable Load Combinations (AASHTO, Table 3.4.1-1)


i) Strength Limit State U=1.05(1.25DC+1.50DW+1.75(LL+IM)+1.00(FR+TG)

7.1. Investigate Strength Limit State


Design Shear and Moment Computaions
For simple slab bridges, temperature gradient effect reduces gravity load effects. Because temperature gradient may
not be there, assume TG=0
Thus, U=1.05(1.25DC+1.50DW+1.75(LL+IM))

a) Interior Strip
i) Shear Force
x Vtr Vtm Vln Vdl=Vdc+Vdw VD VDU
0 0
73.781 73.781 62.896
16.129 16.129 91.212 329.664 205.469
329.664 205.469
VDmax=1.05(1.75[1.33Max(V tr,Vtm)+Vln]+1.25Vdl) = 329.664 kN/m
ii) Moment
x Mtr Mtm Mln Mdl=Mdc+Mdw MD MDU ρ As S
5.75 165.103
169.419 170.872
170.955 46.370 262.235 844.861
844.861 535.865
535.865
0.00908 0.00908
4802.614 4802.61 160
160
MDmax=1.05(1.75[1.33Max(Mtr,Mtm)+Mln]+1.25Mdl) = 844.861 kN-m/m 160 5024

 2M u   f 'c 0.03 f c '


  1  1  ϕ=0.85  m in 
 0 . 9 b d 2  f 'c fy
  fy

b) Edge Strip As provided 4802.61


i) Shear Force 365.213 227.750 3315.381
VLL+IM =1.2[IM*max(Vtr,Vtm)+Vln]/2
x Vtr Vtm Vln Vdc VD VDU 1800.000

0 0 81.537 81.537 69.508


17.824 17.824 101.482
1337.565 365.213 227.750 1.84187833 537.934
VDmax=1.05(1.75[1.33Max(V tr,Vtm)+Vln]+1.25Vdl) = 365.213 kN/m
ii) Moment 529
MLL+IM =1.2[IM*max(Mtr,Mtm)+Mln]/2
de= 529mm (To compute reinforcements around the curb)

x Mtr Mtm Mln Mdc MD MDU ρ As S


5.75 182.460 188.835 51.245 291.760
938.587
938.587 594.156
594.156 0.01409
5590.135 5590.14
140 140
140
938.587 0.01409 0.01019 5389.80 140
MDmax=1.05(1.75[1.33Max(Mtr,Mtm)+Mln]+1.25Mdl) = 938.587 kN-m/m 5741.71

by Abrham G. (Dr.) Deck Design 1/11/2017, Page 4


Checking the adequacy of the section 5590.14
The section is checked for the maximum design moment whether the initial depth under consideration is sufficed or not.
dic < d used, The
1.53section is sufficed!
M max
d ic = =319.6mm 319.6
0.254bf c'

dic < d used, The section is sufficed! 0.741


Check for shear The section is sufficed! 0.741

(=1.53MPa) 260.4 277.286

=0.14√(28)+17.2*0.00908*(205.469/535.865)/1000 = 0.741 Vcc = 0.741MPa


div=VDU/Vcc= 205.469/0.741 =277.286mm The section is sufficed!
i) Flexural Reinforcement
Interior Strip (Using 32 mm diameter reinforcing bars)
As= 4802.61 mm2, Use Φ 32 c/c 160 mm (As provided= 5024 mm2 ) Φ
Edge Strip for the width for the width
As= 5590.14 mm2, Use Φ 32 c/c 140 mm (As provided= 5741.71mm2) 5741.71
ii) Shear Reinforcement, AASHTO Article 5.14.4.1
Slab bridges designed for moment in conformance with Article 4.6.2.3 may be considered satisfactory for shear.

iii) Distribution Reinforcement, AASHTO Article 5.14.4.1


The amount of bottom transverse reinforcement may be taken as a percentage of the main reinforcement required
for positive moment and a minimum spacing of 250mm.
Pe= min[50,1750/√(L1)] 50
Pe = Percentage of distribution reinforcement
Thus Pe= min [50, 1750/sqrt (11500 )] = 0.163 16% 16.32 16.32

a) Interior strip 783.73


Ati= PeAsti = 783.73mm2 (Using 16 mm diameter reinforcing bars) 0.163188
Sdi =min(asi*1000/Ati,250] = Min (250,250 ) 256.41 25 250 250
As= 783.73 mm2, S= 250 mm Use Φ 16 c/c 250 mm

by Abrham G. (Dr.) Deck Design 1/11/2017, Page 5


b) Edge strip
Ate= PeAste = 912.24mm2 912.24
Sde =min(asi*1000/Ate,250] = Min(220,250 ) 220.29 22 220 220
As= 912.24 mm2, S= 220 mm Use Φ 16 c/c 220 mm

iv) Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement, AASHTO section 5.10.8


Reinforcement for shrinkage and temperature reinforcement shall be provided near surfaces of concrete exposed to daily
temperature changes. The steel should be distributed equally on both sides.
Ast≥ 0.75Ag/fy
Where: Ag is the gross concrete area 1087.5
Ast = 0.75*1000*580/400=1087.5 mm2/m (in each direction, both faces)
543.75
Top layer Ast = 1/2*1087.5= 543.75 mm2/m 207.89 20 200 200
Spacing =min(asi*1000/Ast,250) = Min (200,250 )
Use Φ12 mm rebars c/c 200mm, transverse (in each direction, both faces)

7.2. Investigation of Service Limit State


Actions to be considered at the service limit state shall be cracking, deformations, and concrete stresses, as specified in Articles
5.7.3.4, 5.7.3.6, and 5.9.4 respectively.

i) Durability
For durability, adequate cover shall be used (for bottom of cast in place slab the cover is 35mm).
A 35mm concrete cover is provided here, thus there is no problem of durability.

ii) Adequacy of Reinforcement Bars


a) Moment Interior Strip
The load factors used above in all dead and live loads are taken as unity.
MDU= 535.865kN-m/m 535.865 kN-m/m
Mp
As = Assume; j =0.875 and fs=0.6fy 4823.7
f s jd p 4823.7

AS = 535.865E+06 kN-m/m
= 4823.7mm2/m (provide diam. 32 c/c 160mm)
(0.6*400)*0.875*529

b) Moment Edge Strip (provide diam. 32 c/c 1


MDU= 594.156kN-m/m 594.156 kN-m/m
Mp
As = Assume; j =0.875 and fs=0.6fy 5348.42 0.00446976
f s jd p OK!
594.156E+06 kN-m/m
AS = = 5348.42mm2/m OK!
(0.6*400)*0.875*529
( c/c 150mm)
iii) Control of Cracking
The cracking stress shall be taken as the modulus of rupture specified in AASHTO, Article 5.4.2.6.
Cracking may occur in the tension zone for RC members due to the low tensile strength of concrete. The cracks may
be controlled by distributing steel reinforcements over the maximum tension zone in order limit the maximum allowable
crack widths at the surface of the concrete for given types of environment.
The tensile stress in the mild steel reinforcement (f s ) at the service limit state doesn’t exceed f sa .

Z 30,000 mod erateexposureconditions


f sa   0.6 f y 
 dc* A
1
3 Z  23,000 severe exposure conditions
17,500 buried structures

Z=crack width parameter=23,000N/mm

by Abrham G. (Dr.) Deck Design 1/11/2017, Page 6


where:
dc= concrete cover + (diam. of bars/2), measured from the extreme tension fiber
clear cover to compute dc≤50mm
Ac= 2dcS
f r=0.63√ (f c’)
6M us
f cten = ; D is in mm.
bD 2

Ac= area of concrete having the same centroid as the principal tensile reinforcement are bounded by the surfaces of the
cross section and a line parallel the neutral axis divided by the number of bars (mm2), clear cover here also ≤50mm.
S = spacing of bars.
f r = modulus of rupture
f cten= tensile strength of the concrete
If f cten> 0.8f r, the section has cracked (AASHTO, Article 5.7.3.4 and 5.4.2.6) 9.56 3.33 2.66
MDu=535.865kN-m/m 222 Section has cracked
f r=0.63√ (f c’) = 3.33 Mpa 0.8f r = 2.66 MPa
6*535.865E+6 N-mm
f cten = =9.56 MPa
1000*580^2
Section has cracked

Steel stress for elastic cracked section for which moment of inertia of the composite transformed section, Icr, should be used.

If fs > fsa, then the area of reinforcing bars has to be increased by reducing the spacing of bars or the section depth
has to be increased.
a) Interior Strip
2
=nApi  d 1 -x 2 
bx2
Moment about the NA:
2
3
+nApi  d 1 -x 2 
bx2 2
I cr =
3
M  d -x  n
f s = Du 1 2
I cr
where: Z
f sa 
 2( D  d )2 Si 
1
x2 is the neutral axis depth from top fiber 1
3

MDu= unfactored max moment, interior strip.


Icr = moment of inertia of the composite transformed section
2
The equivalent concrete area, nApi = 35168.000 mm
Api =5024mm2/m, Si=160mm d1=529mm, n=Es/Ec, MDu=535.865kNm/m
Substitution yields: 1E+09
x2=160.905 mm ,Icr= 6.154 E+09 mm4, fs= 224.38 MPa, fsa= 240 MPa
The above results show that :
fs (= 224.38 MPa) <fsa ( =240 Mpa)
No problem of cracking
Provide 32 mm rebars spaced at 160 mm

by Abrham G. (Dr.) Deck Design 1/11/2017, Page 7


b) Edge Strip
2
Moment about the NA:
Cw x3
2

=nApe d e -x 3 

1000  Cw -0.05  x3 3
+n Ape  d e -x3 
2
I cre =
3
M Dse  d e -x3  n
f se =
I cre
Z
f sae 
 2( D  d )2 Se 
1
3
e

2
The equivalent concrete area is nApe= 40191.970 mm
Ape =5741.71mm2/m, Se=140mm de=529mm, n=Es/Ec, MDue=594.156kN-m/m -40192 183051.148 142.859
Substitution yields:
x3= 142.859 mm, Icre=6.722E+09mm4, = 238.93 MPa, fsa =240 MPa
fs (= 238.93 MPa, ) < fsa ( =240 MPa) fsa ( =240 MPa
No problem of cracking
Provide 32 mm rebars spaced at 140 mm < No problem of cracking
< No problem of cracking
iii) Deformations 11 Thus, provide Φ32 c/c 135 mm.
Deflection and Camber, AASHTO Article 5.7.3.6.2
Deflection and camber calculations shall consider dead load, live load, erection loads, concrete creep and shrinkage.
Immediate (Instantaneous) deflections may be computed taking the moment of inertia as either the effective moment of
inertia Ie, or the gross moment of inertia Ig.
Unless a more exact deformation calculation is made, the long-term deflection due to creep and shrinkage may be taken as
the immediate deflection multiplied by the following factor (AASHTO, Article 5.7.3.6.2).
4, if the instantaneous deflection is based on Ig.
 A' 
3 .0 – 1 .2  s   1 .6 if the instantaneous deflection is based on Ie.
 As 
Dead load camber
Total dead load of the bridge and the whole bridge cross section is considered.

Cw = 0.8 m
D= 0.58 m
Rw = 7.32 m
Cd = 0.25 m
8.62 m

Dead Loads of the whole bridge 8.62 0.58


Components Weight Width (m) Total wt.
Wt. of slab 13.66 (Rw+2Cw-0.3) 8.62 117.715
Wearings wt. 2.21 Rw 7.32 16.155
Curb wt. 2.534 2Cw 1.6 4.054
Railing wt. 0.589 2Ee 3.6 2.120
Posts wt. 0.870 20 posts 20 17.4 5.32
Wdd = 157.445
Wdd = 157.445 kN/m

by Abrham G. (Dr.) Deck Design 1/11/2017, Page 8


The total, maximum and critical moments due to dead and live load of the whole slab bridge, respectively are given by the
equations:
Mlld=Mmd+max(Mtrl,Mtml)*Em1*NL ; Em1 (interior strip width) is in m and NL is the number of design lanes.
2
Mmd= Wdd*L1 /8 = 157.445*11.5^2/8 =2602.763kN-m 2602.763
Mlld= 2602.763+1.33*170.95*3.3154*2=4110.36kN-m 4110.36

(Rw+2Cw-0.3)D2/2+2Cw*Cd(Cd/2+D)
yr =
(Rw+2Cw-0.3)*D+(Cw*2Cd)

yr = 8.62*0.58^2/2 +0.8*0.25*2*(0.25/2+0.58) 1.731884


= 0.321m (yr= 321mm)
8.62*0.58+(0.8*0.25*2) 5.3996
Thus, the gross moment of inertia of the whole slab bridge becomes 0.321
Ig = 8.62*0.58^3/12 +(8.62*0.58*(0.58/2-0.321)^2)+2*0.8*0.25^3/12+(2*0.8*0.25*(0.705-0.321)^2) 321
Ig= 2.06E+11 mm4 0.206 0.321
The critical moment of inertia is 0.705
Icr =(Icr)interior *(W-2Ee)+2(Icr)edge = (6.154E+9)*5.32 + 2*6.722E+9 0.206
4
Icr = 4.62E+10 mm 1000
1E+12

Where: W is the total width of the bridge


Ee is the width of the edge strip
The effective moment of inertia is calculated using the following equation: 2.06E+11
 M cr 
3   M cr  
3

Ie    Ig  1     I cr  I g
 Ma    M a  
Where:
Mlld= total moment due to dead and live load of the whole slab bridge
Mmd= total dead load moment of the whole slab bridge <
Mcr= critical moment of the whole slab bridge The Secton cracks under DL,
2.14E+09
Use Ie.
Ig
M cr  f r = 3.33*0.206E+12/321 = 2137.01kN-m
yr Ic 6.8641E+10 2137.01
Ie= 6.86E+10 mm4
Mcr < Mmd The Secton cracks under DL, Use Ie.

EC  0.043  c 1.5 fc ' , Ec = 26.752 GPa (Modulus Elasticity of concrete) 7


c : unit density of concrete (kg/m ); refer to Table 3.5.1-1 or Article C5.4.2.4
3

f c ': Specified compressive strength of concrete (MPa)

Thus, the dead load deflection of the slab bridge is given by:
5WdlL14 1.9526E-08 19.526
ddl= = 19.526 mm
384Ec* Ic 78.104
Camber =ddl+long term deflection, Long term deflection = 3ddl 14.375
Camber =ddl(1+3)= 78.104 mm Thus, provide a camber of 78.104 mm
b) Live Load Deflection (AASHTO, Article 2.5.2.6.2)
For vehicular load in general, dmax=L1/800 = 11500/800 =14.375mm

Where: L1: span length of the bridge in mm


dmax : the permissible limit ( max. deflection)
In the computation of live load deflection, design truck load alone or design lane load plus 25% of truck load is considered
(AASHTO, Article 3.6.1.3.2)

by Abrham G. (Dr.) Deck Design 1/11/2017, Page 9


i) Deflection due to truck load
PLL1=PLL2=1.33*145NL = 385.7kN 385.7
PLL3=1.33*35NL = 93.1kN 93.1
where:
PLL1 and PLL2 are truck loads.

P LL1 P LL2 P LL3


The second load is to the

0.863 right
At x1=6.6125 m, Mtr =169.462 kN-m/m (Location of maximum truck load effect) 2.313 9.19
The maximum deflection of the bridge due to truck load occurs at a wheel load position where moment is a maximum.Thus,
the deflection at the point of maximum moment, x, due to each truck load at 'a' distance a from the left support is given by:

of the
The second load is to the right ,0.863mm, of the center 4.89 center
 L2  b 2  x 2 
d ki  PLLi bx  1  for x  a
 6 Ec I c L1 

where:
dtri= deflection due to each truck load. 0.59
a= location of the load to be considered, b=L1-a and x=L1-X1 10.91
(EI)conc=26752*0.07E+12= 1.84E+15 (Nmm2) #REF! 1.84E+06 1.84E+00
a) First Load, PLL1 17320.2658 103.0075
a=2.313m, b=9.187m, x=6.613m
dtr1= 0.00354m= 3.54mm
1.84E+15 26752
b) Second Load, PLL2
1.84E+06 7.00E-02
a=6.613m, b=4.887m, x=6.613m
dtr2= 0.00636m= 6.36mm
6.36E+00
c) Third Load, PLL3
a=10.913m, b=0.587m, x=6.613m
dtr3= 0.00025m= 0.25mm 2.50E-01
Using the method of superposition, the total live load deflection due truck load is the sum of each deflections, dki’s.
Thus, compare the value obtained with the permissible limit.
dtr=dtr1+dtr2+dtr3 = 3.54+ 6.36+0.25 = 10.15mm 20.69 mm 2.07E+01

ii) Deflection due to tandem load


The maximum deflection due to tandem load occurrs when a single concentrated tandem load is acting at the mid span.
dtl=Pstl*L13/48EcIc (where Pstl is a concentrated load at the mid span) = 1.33*110*2NL
where:
dtl = deflection due to tandem load.
Pstl = Single concentrated factored tandem load = 1.33*110*2NL = 585.2kN 585.2
dtl= 585.2*11.5^3/(48*1836282.61) = 0.0101m = 10.1 mm 1.01E+01 1.01E-02

by Abrham G. (Dr.) Deck Design 1/11/2017, Page 10


iii) Deflection due to lane load
WL1=9.3*NL 18.6
dLa = 5WL1*L14/(384EIe) = 5*(9.3*2)*11.5^4/(384*1836282.61) 2.31E-03
= 0.00231m =2.31 mm 2.31E+00

dll=max(dtr, (dla+0.25dtr)) =10.15 mm


dmax= max(dll,dtl) =10.15 mm 10.15 1.25E+01
Where:
dla = deflection due to lane load.
WL1= lane load
dll = total live load deflection
dmax= 10.15mm (< 14.375mm) The deflection is within the limit.

7.3 Investigation of Fatigue Limit State (AASHTO, Section 5.5.3)


Magnitude and Configuration of Fatigue Load
The fatigue load shall be one design truck or axles thereof specified in Article 3.6.1.2.2, but with a constant spacing of 9000mm
between the 145 000-N axles. The dynamic load allowance specified in Article 3.6.2 shall be applied to the fatigue load.
U=0.75(LL+IM) ; F.S for LL is 0.75
where:
U= Fatigue load shall be one design truck with 9m spacing.
Maximum moment results when the two front axles are on the span and the rear axle is out of the span.
Mmf= 0.75*1.15(Mmax)

0
170
202
229
253 24
23
22
21
20 0.125
0.15
0.1750 L1=x
0.1 1.4375
1.725
2.01250 L2
1.15 11.50
10.35
10.06
9.78
9.49
m1 -2.835
-2.5046875
-2.18875
-1.8871875 0 m21.2578125
1.46625
1.6603125 0 m3
1.035 0.1328125
0.11625
0.0853125 0 m1 pos 0
0.135 0 m30.1328125
pos
0.11625
0.0853125 0 Mtr
0.135 201.6406
229.4625
253.11560
169.65
273
291
313
332
350 19
18
17
16
15 0.2
0.225
0.25
0.275
0.3 2.3
2.5875
2.875
3.1625
3.45 9.20
8.91
8.63
8.34
8.05 -1.6
-1.3271875
-1.06875
-0.8246875
-0.595 1.84 -0.0196875
2.0053125
2.15625
2.2928125
2.415 0.04
-0.09375
-0.1821875
-0.285 0
0
0 0.04
0
0 272.6
290.7703
312.6563
332.4578
350.175
366
379
391
407
419 14
13
12
11
9 0.325
0.35
0.375
0.4
0.425 3.7375
4.025
4.3125
4.6
4.8875 7.76
7.48
7.19
6.90
6.61 -0.3796875
-0.17875
0.0078125
0.18
0.3378125 2.5228125
2.61625
2.6953125
2.76
2.8103125 -0.4021875
-0.53375
-0.6796875
-0.84
-1.0146875 0.0078130
0.18
0.337813 0
0 365.8078
379.3563
391.0938
406.5
419.3188
430
437
442
445 7
5
3
1
2 0.45
0.475
0.5
0.525
0.55 5.175
5.4625
5.75
6.0375
6.325 6.33
6.04
5.75
5.46
5.18 0.48125
0.6103125
0.725
0.8253125
0.91125 2.84625
2.8678125
2.875
2.8678125
2.84625 -1.20375
-1.4071875
-1.625
-1.8571875
-2.10375 0.48125
0.610313
0.725
0.825313
0.91125 0 429.55
0 437.1938
442.25
444.7188
444.6
442
437
429
418 4
6
8
10 0.575
0.6
0.625
0.65 6.6125
6.9
7.1875
7.475 4.89
4.60
4.31
4.03 0.9828125
1.04
1.0828125
1.11125 2.8103125
2.76 -2.3646875
2.6953125
2.61625 -2.64 0.982813
-2.9296875
-3.23375 1.04
1.082813
1.11125 0
0 441.8938
6.04 436.6
428.7188
418.25
444.72
383.57

85.16
Mmax occurs at x= 6.0375m and equals to 444.719 kNm 40.599 4.504
Mmf= 0.75*1.15(Mmax) = 383.57kNm/lane 40.5985987 6.15E+09
Mmf= the maximum moment for fatigue.
240 <
a) Tensile live load stresses
One lane loaded, Strip width is Em1 (for interior strip)
Mllf= Mmf/Em1 (Em1 is in meter)
= 383.57 /4.504 =85.16kNm/m

=7*85.16E+6*(580-160.905)/(6.15E+9) mm4 =40.599 MPa 6.15

f smax = 40.599MPa (< 240MPa) OK!


where:
Mllf is the maximum moment per meter width for fatigue.

b) Reinforcing Bars
The stresses range in straight reinforcement bars resulting from fatigue load combination shall not exceed (AASHTO, Section 5.5.3.2).
If fsmax < ff , then there is no problem of fatigue. Otherwise increase the area of reinforcing bars.
where:
f f is the stress range.
f min is the minimum live load stress resulting from fatigue load, combined with the more severe stress from permanent loads. For
simplly supported slab bridge f min is zero.
f f =166-0.33f min =166MPa > 40.599MPa OK! No problem of fatigue. 166
>
OK!
THE DESIGN IS COMPLETED!

by Abrham G. (Dr.) Deck Design 1/11/2017, Page 11