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Postharvest Management

and Processing Technology

(Cereals, Pulses, Oilseeds, Fruits and Vegetables)

U. D. Chavan
Senior Cereal Food Technologist
Department of Food Science and Technology
Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri – 413 722
Dist: Ahmednagar, Maharashtra

V.D. Pawar
Rajiv Gandhi, College of Food Technology
Marathwada Agricultural University Parbhani
Dist: Parbhani, Maharashtra

New Delhi - 110 002

ISBN 978-81-7035-787-2

All rights reserved, including the right to translate or to reproduce this book or parts thereof
except for brief quotations in critical reviews.

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Authors are thankful to the Hon. Dr. T.A. More, Vice-Chancellor, Mahatma Phule
Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri for his critical and fruitful suggestions while the
preparation of “Postharvest Management and Processing Technology: Cereals, Pulses,
Oilseeds, Fruit and Vegetables” book. We are thankful to those scientists who worked
on development of various processing technology, value-added products from cereals,
pulses, oilseeds, fruits and vegetables and their contribution is acknowledged in this
book as well their sources are cited in the reference section. Authors are also thankful
to all scientists and friends those helped directly or indirectly while preparation of
this manuscript. We would like to express over profound thanks to our family members
for their constant support, patience and devotion, which inspired us to complete this
U.D. Chavan
V.D. Pawar

Latest advances are fast transforming postharvest management from a means of

subsistence to an organized industry. This has stimulated a great deal of interest
among widely diversified group of scientists. In this era of high yielding crop varieties
and multiple cropping techniques, global competition in the quality of food products
has put every country on the alert to improve upon postharvest techniques and value
addition sector. In India, the processing of only 2 per cent of the total produce of fruits
and vegetables is at present undertaken as compared to 70-80 per cent in the developed
countries. However the Government of India has fixed a target of 10 per cent of such
produce to be processed at the earliest. Also, the actual producer is not getting his due
share from the prevailing market prices.
The Indian Council of Agricultural Research and the State Agricultural
Universities have made concentrated efforts in increasing productivity of fruits and
vegetables. In recent years, the Government of Maharashtra has launched an ambitious
Horticulture Development Programme to increase area under fruit crops by providing
grant-in-aid to the growers. It is envisaged that the area covered under fruit crops in
Maharashtra would be 10 lakh hectares in the next few years. However, very little
attention has been paid to reduce the postharvest losses that occur due to poor
handling, storage and transportation. According to reports of Swaminathan
Committee, postharvest losses of fruits and vegetables in India vary from 20-30 per
cent of production with estimated value of Rs. 1500-2000 crores annually. If these
losses are controlled by using improved postharvest technology, the supplies of fresh
fruits and vegetables will be increased to the extent of their existing losses. This will
help to increase the per capita availability of fruits and vegetables.
Recent developments in nutrition have created greater demands for fresh fruits
and vegetables. The processing technology that increases the functionality without
changing their fresh like properties has significant role in modern fruit and vegetable
industry. This book addresses factors that are involved in maintaining the quality of

fresh fruits and vegetables after harvest. It is vital that consumers in health-conscious
society would be provided with food products which retain their quality characteristics
leading to more healthy individuals.
Fruits and vegetables, being perishable, are processed into several products such
as jams, jellies, marmalade, syrups, squashes and canned, dehydrated and fermented
products by employing different methods of processing. This book incorporates
information on principles involved in preparation of various products as well as
methodology employed in home scale as well as industrial processing of fruits and
vegetables. I hope, this information will be useful for students in the field of horticulture,
food science and nutrition and professionals in food industries.
The ever-increasing scientific research on the subject has resulted in a large
body of knowledge which can be found scattered in various scientific journals and
technical reports and is not easily accessible. The available material needs to be
assembled and briefed in order that the students/technologists/agriculturists/
horticulturists/engineers and others actively engaged in quantitative studies can
have it as a ready reference. This book provides a comprehensive but concise treatise
on the subject matter.
J. K. Chavan
Ex. Head,
Food Science and Technology,
MPKV, Rahuri

Processing of agricultural produce and their postharvest management is an

emerging area in the present scenario encompassing a widely diversified group of
scientists. India has now attained the stage where apart from enhanced production
of crops, emphasis is being laid on processing and value addition of cereals, vegetables
and food crops. However, the utilization of fruits and vegetables for processing in the
organized and un-organized sectors is around 2 per cent of the total production.
Given the huge potential for preparation of processed food products and limitation
of the domestic market in consuming these, it is imperative that concerted efforts are
made to export processed food for which the private, public and co-operative sectors,
all have to play their rightful role. Value addition is not only a science, it is an art too.
Fruits and vegetables are important constituents of our diet which provide dietary
fibers, vitamins, and minerals in addition to proteins, carbohydrates and a small
amount of lipids. These contribute more than 50 per cent requirement of vitamin A.
The dietary fibers aid in digestion, bowel movement and utilization of more
concentrated foods in human diet. Fruits and vegetables are highly perishable
commodities. Losses to the extent of 20-30 per cent occur during postharvest handling
of fruits and vegetables. If these losses are controlled by using improved postharvest
technology, the supplies of fresh fruits and vegetables can be increased to the extent
of their existing losses. This will certainly help to increase per capita availability of
fruits and vegetables.
The postharvest technology of fruits and vegetables includes harvesting, sorting,
grading, packaging, transportation, storage and processing. The consumption of
fruits and vegetables in fresh, unprocessed form is economically cheaper and
nutritionally more desirable. The minimal processing involves treatment to these
commodities without changing wholesomeness and nutritional properties of fresh
produce. It includes sorting, grading and packaging of fresh produce so that consumer
can get processed product having physical, nutritional and aesthetic properties similar

to that of fresh produce. In recent years, there are significant developments in canning,
freezing and dehydration of fruits and vegetables. Novel product in tetra pack like
Frooti has captured the Indian market as ready-to-serve beverage. Similarly, canned
corn and canned mixed beans have become popular in Indian market. Ketchup and
sauces are also produced and marketed under various trade names. The processed
products like jams and jellies have become integral part of breakfast served in middle
class families of our society. Considering the importance of fresh as well as processed
products, an attempt has been made to present developments in processing technology
of fruits and vegetables in this book. I hope, this will be useful book to under-graduate
as well as post-graduate students in agriculture, food technology, horticulture and
home science.
U.D. Chavan
V.D. Pawar

Acknowledgement v

Foreword vii

Preface ix

1. Postharvest Prospects and Opportunities 1

Introduction–Share of Indian Agriculture–Present Status of Postharvest
Processing–Scope–National Food Processing Policy–Food Processing Industry–
Agro-processing–Primary Processing of Cereals, Pulses and Oilseeds–Cereals–
Pulses –Importance of Legumes in Human Nutrition–Oilseeds–Processing and
Preservation of Fruits and Vegetables–Value-addition in Agriculture Produces–
Causes for Low Level Processing in Agriculture Produce–Factors Attracting
Farmers for Agro-processing Enterprise–Agro-processing Centre (APC)
2. Processing Technology and Value Addition in Cereals 16
Physico-Chemical Properties of Grains–Structure–Chemical Composition–
Effects of Temperature on the Quality of Grain–Proteins–Starch–Fats–Physical
Properties–Porosity–Coefficient of Friction and Angle of Repose–Coefficient of
Friction–Angle of Repose–Thermal Properties–Specific Heat–General Grain
Milling Operations–Classification of Separation Methods–Separation According
to Aerodynamic Properties–Separation According to Specific Gravity–Separation
According to Magnetic Properties–Separation According to Electric Properties–
Separation According to Colour–Frictional Separations–Husking/Scouring/
Hulling of Grain–Methods of Husking–Concave Type Husker–Husking by the
Action of Rubber Rolls–Grinding–Effectiveness of Grinding–Machinery Used
in Cereal Grinding–Grinding of Grain in Roller Mills–Factors Affecting the
Effectiveness of Roller Mills–Grinding Grain in Hammer Mills–Corn Milling–

Introduction–Composition and Structure–Corn Dry Milling–Tempering-

Degerming (T.D.) Method of Dry Milling–Cleaning of Corn–Hydrothermal
Treatment/Conditioning–Degerming–Drying and Cooling of Degermer Stock–
Rolling and Grading–Corn Wet Milling–Cleaning–Steeping–Germ Recovery–
Milling and Fiber Recovery–Starch-Gluten Separation–Wheat Milling–
Introduction–Flour Milling–Cleaning–Conditioning/Hydrothermal Treatment–
Grinding (Milling)–Storage of Finished Products–Components of a Wheat Mill–
Break Roll–Break Sifting System–Reduction Rolls–Reduction Sifting System–
Scratch System–Rice Processing–Parboiling of Paddy–A Tapa–Balam–Josh–
Sela–Siddha–Parboiling–Parboiling Method of CFTRI, Mysore–Rice Milling–
Traditional Rice Milling Machinery–Hand Pounding–Single Huller–Huller
Mill–Modem Rice Milling Machinery–Cleaning–Husking–Impact Type Paddy
Husker–Rubber Roll Husker–Separation–Whitening–Vertical Whitening or
Pearling Cone–Grading
3. Processing and Value-Addition of Coarse Cereals and Millets 41
Sorghum/Jowar Processing–Introduction–Benefits of Sorghum Consumption–
Anti Nutritional Factors and Mycotoxins in Sorghum–Nutritional Enrichment
of Sorghum with Other Cereal/Pulse Grain–Comparison with Other Cereals–
Grain Structure and Quality–Seed Coat–Embryo or Germ–Endosperm–Milling–
Milling of Sorghum–Wet Milling of Sorghum–Improved Milling Methods–
Roller Milling–Attrition Milling–Abrasive Milling–Sorghum Semolina
Preparation–Small Millets Processing–Introduction–Production–Uses–Status
of Millets–Place in Human Dietary–Importance and Nutritional Quality of
Millets–Traditional Processing Techniques–Small Millets as Animal-Poultry
Feed–Storage of Millets–Scope of Processing–Alternative Uses of Sorghum and
4. Processing Technology and Value Addition in Pulses 75
Introduction–Milling of Pulses–Traditional and Conventional Methods–
Improved Technologies for Hulling of Grain Legumes–Different Pre-milling
Treatments–Wet Method–Dry Method–Sodium Bicarbonate Treatment–Enzyme
Treatment–Advance dal Milling Technologies–Processing–Cleaning and Size-
grading–Cleaning–Aspiration System–Sieving–Size Grading–Destoners–
Pneumatic Separators–Cockles Cylinders or Carter Discs–Magnetic Separators–
Conditioning–Pitting–Oil/Water Mixing–Heating and Tempering–De-
husking–Husk Aspiration System–Prospects–Modernization of Dal Milling
Industry–Milling of Pulses–Introduction–Milling of Pulses–Traditional Dry
Milling Method (Dhal Milling)–Cleaning and Grading–Pitting–Pretreatment
with Oil–Conditioning–Dehusking and splitting–Polishing–Commercial
Milling of Pulses by Traditional Methods–Sieves are also Employed for Grading
of Dhals–Dry Milling of Tur–Wet Milling of Tur–Dry Milling of Black Gram–
Dry Milling of Bengal Gram, Lentil and Peas–Dry Milling of Green Gram
5. Processing Technology and Value Addition in Oilseeds 96
Introduction–Soybean Processing–Cooking–Soybean Processing into Protein
Products–Rapeseed Processing–Drying and Handling–Seed Cleaning and

Preparation–Extraction and Processing of Oil–Extraction–Degumming–

Refining–Bleaching–Hydrogenation–Deodorization–Protein Concentrates–
Protein Isolates–Sunflower Processing–Drying–Dehulling–Effects on Chemical
Composition–Byproducts–Oil Extraction and Purification–Method of
Extraction–Mechanical Extraction–Prepress Solvent Extraction–Direct Solvent
Winterization–Hydrogenation–Other Methods of Refining–Sunflower Meal–
Sunflower Butter–Heat Processing–Roasting–Dry Heating and Autoclaving–
Salting and Frying–Germination–Protein Products–High Protein Meals–Protein
Concentrates–Protein Isolates–Peanut/Groundnut Processing–Extraction, and
Refining of Oil–Expeller Pressing–Hydraulic Pressing–Solvent Extraction–
Palm Oil Processing–Palm Oil–Traditional Methods–Mechanical Methods–
Palm Kernel Oil–Refining of Palm Oil–Neutralization–Bleaching–
Processing–Ginning–Production and Refining of Cottonseed Oil–Mechanical
Expression of Cottonseed Oil–Flour and Meal–Protein Concentrates–Protein
Isolates–Textured Protein Products–Coconut Processing–Extraction of Oil–
Traditional Milling–Wet Milling–Dry Milling–Safflower Processing–
Extraction of Oil–Traditional Methods–Improved Methods–Sesame Processing–
Dehulling–Oil Extraction and Purification–Extraction–Purification–Cake and
Meal–Corn/Maize Processing for Oil–Dry Degerming–Process–Products–Wet
Degerming–Process–Products–Corn Germ Production and Processing–
Production and Storage–Oil Extraction and Refining–Rice Bran Processing–
Milling Systems–Bran Oil–Oil Extraction–Refining of Bran Oil–General Oil
Processing–Refining–Hydrogenation–Future Prospects–
6. Fruits and Vegetables in Human Nutrition 148
Introduction–Nutritional Significance–Therapeutic Properties–Processed
7. Principles of Preservation of Fruits and Vegetables 156
Introduction–Nature of Spoilage –Microbial Spoilage–Physical, Chemical and
Biochemical Changes–Nutritive Losses–Principles of Preservation–Moisture
Removal–Heat Treatment–Low-temperature Treatment–Acidity Control–Use of
8. Raw Material for Processing 160
Introduction–Colour–Size and Shape–Texture–Flavour–Defects–Nutritive
Value–Toxicity–Yield of Finished Product–Postharvest Physiology of Fresh
Fruits and Vegetables–Gas Exchange–Ethylene, Respiration and Fruit Ripening–
Ethylene Addition–Ethylene Removal
9. Minimal Processing and Storage 166
Introduction–Washing–Sorting and Grading–Prepackaging Treatments–
Curing–Degreening–Precooling–Air Cooling–Hydrocooling–Vacuum cooling–
Treatments to Control Browning–Treatments to Retard Textural Loss–Waxing–

Packaging–Storage–Refrigerated Storage–Temperature–Relative Humidity–

Atmospheric Composition–Controlled Atmosphere (CA) Storage–Modified
Atmosphere (MA) Storage–Hypobaric Storage–Cooling and Storage–
Background for Cooling and Storage Condition–Types of Cooling and
Refrigeration–Calculating Refrigeration Requirements–Oxygen Control
Systems–Carbon Dioxide Control System–Ethylene Control Systems–Modified
Atmosphere Storage–Packaging Materials–Requirements and Functions of Food
Packaging Materials
10. Canning 184
Introduction–Containers–Metal Containers–Acid Resistant Cans–Sulphur
Resistant Cans–Glass Containers–Equipments–Process–Steps in Canning–
Spoilage of Canned Foods–Symptoms of Spoilage–Discolouration of Products–
Microbes/Spoilage–Aseptic Canning Process–Storage of Canned Foods
11. Juices and their Products 192
Introduction–Equipment for Juice Extraction–Cone-type Juicer–Screw-type
Juicer–Plunger-type Press–Apple Grater–Crusher–Basket Press–Rack and Cloth
Press–Extraction of Juice–Preparation of Fruits and Processing–Straining and
Deaeration–Clarification–Fruit and Vegetable Juices–Apple Juice–Grape Juice–
Lime Juice–Mandarin Juice–Orange Juice–Tomato Juice–Preservation of Juices–
Pasteurization–Preservation by Chemicals–Sodium Benzoate–Sulphurdioxide–
Sugar–Freezing–Drying and Dehydration–Carbonation–Other Methods–
Products–Beverage (RTS)–Squash–Nectar–Cordial–Concentrate–Wine–
Vinegar–Types–Method of Preparation–Preparation of Vinegar Slow Process
12. Jam, Jelly and Marmalade 207
Jam–Commercial Process–Home-scale Processing–Storage of Jam–Jelly–
Commercial Process–Home-scale Process–Test for Pectin–Deformities in Jelly–
Failure of Jelly to Set–Synersis–Marmalade
13. Pickle, Chutney and Ketchup 214
Pickle–Mango Pickle–Lime Pickle–Spoilage of Pickles–Chutney–Mango
Chutney–Apple Chutney–Sauce–Ketchup–Commercial Process–Home-scale
Process–Enzymes in the Food Industry–Important Properties of Enzymes in
Fruit and Vegetable Technology–Enzymes Used in the Food Industry–
Immobilized Enzymes–Browning Reactions–Enzymatic Browning–Non-
Enzymatic Browning–Maillard Reaction (French Man Maillard)–Control of
the Maillard Browning Reaction–Caramelization–Fermentation–Acetic Acid
Fermentation (Acetic Acid Bacteria)–Lactic Acid Fermentation (Lactic Acid
Bacteria)–Alcoholic Fermentation (Yeasts)–Acetic Acid Fermentation–Lactic Acid
Fermentation–Alcoholic Fermentation

14. Preserves, Candies, Toffees and Cheese 229

Preserve–Candy–Fruit Toffee–Fruit Butter–Fruit Cheese
15. Drying and Dehydration 234
Introduction–Methods of Drying–Sun Drying–Mechanical Drying–Hot-Air
Drying–Puff-Drying–Foam-Mat Drying–Drum Drying–Spray Drying–Belt-
Trough Drying–Vacuum Drying–Microwave Drying–Freeze Drying–Osmotic
Drying–Drying of Fruits and Vegetables–Raisins–Predrying Treatments–
Sulfuring–Drying–Dried Figs–Potato Chips–Dried Peas–Dehydrated Onion
16. Freezing 243
Introduction–Developments in Freezing Techniques–Process–Freezing Systems–
Blast-Freezing–Plate-Freezing–Belt-Tunnel Freezing–Fluidized-Bed Freezing–
Cryogenic-Freezing–Dehydrofreezing–Technique–Storage of Frozen Products
17. Processing of Minor Fruits 247
18. Waste Management and Value Added Products 252
Introduction–Fruit Processing Waste–Apple–Citrus–Pineapple–Mango–
Banana–Vegetable Processing Waste–Tomato–Peas
19. Food Quality Control and Regulations 255
What is Food Adulteration?–Raw Material Control–Process Control–Inspection
of Finished Product–Sensory Evaluation–Sensory Properties–Packaging–
Prevention of Food Adulteration Act–Quality Control–Prevention of Food
Adulteration Act 1954 and Rules 1955 (PFA Act)–Fruit Products Order 1955
(FPO)–Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marketing) Act 1937 (AGMARK)–
Sugar (Control) Order 1956–Vegetable Oil Products (Control) Order 1947; The
Solvent Extraction Oil, Deoiled Meal and Edible Flour (Control) Order 1967;
Vanaspati Control Order 1975–Meat Food Products (Control) Order 1975–
Rice Milling Industry (Regulation) Act 1958 and Regulation and Licencing
Rules 1976–Export (Quality Control and Inspection) Act 1963 and Rules 1964–
Insecticide Act 198–Standards of Weights and Measures Act 1976–State Licensing
Order Governing Grain Dealers–The Consumer Protection Act 1986–Food
Standardization and Regulatory Agencies in India–Central Committee for Food
Standards–Central and State Food Departments–State Food Laboratories/Food
and Drug Administration–Bureau of Indian Standards–Food Corporation of
India–Army Supply Corps–Central Insecticide Board–F.P.O. Specifications for
Fruit and Vegetable Products–Storage Life of Vegetables–Storage Life of Fruits–
Permissible Limits of Preservatives in Food Products–Additives to be Used with
Caution–Food Adulteration, Food Standards and Labelling–List of Adulterants
Generally Used in Different Food Products–Prevention of Food Adulteration
Tips to Consumer–Food Laws–Food Standards–Prevailing Food Laws, Acts and
Implementing Agencies for Food Standards–Quality Centers–Prevention of Food
Adulteration Act–AGMARK–FAQ (Fair Average Quality) Specifications for

Food Grains–Bureau of Indian Standards–Consumer Protection Act–Export

Inspection Council–Other Quality Control Legislations–Rule: A-18.06 Food
Grains–Rule: A-07.03 Honey–Food Labelling–Agro-Chemical Residues in Indian
Items–Safe Levels–Tolerance Limit of Common Pesticides–Safety Periods–Effects
of Processing–Removal of Insecticides by Common Processing Produce in
Vegetables–Biological Effects–Points for Action–Fruit Products Order (FPO)
1955–The First Schedule–FORM ‘A’–FORM ‘B’–FORM ‘C’–Preservatives–
Class-I Preservative–Class-II Preservative–Food Colours
Bibliography 285
Appendices 299
Discoveries and Definitions of Food Science and Technology
Appendix II
Abbreviations Used in Food Science and Technology
Conversion Factors (Weights and Measures)
Equipments and Machinery Used in Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industry
Addresses for Suppliers of Equipments/Machinery/Books
Project Reports (Standard Format) of Processing Industries
Index 403
Postharvest Prospects and Opportunities

Postharvest Prospects and

The dynamic, non-liner system, easily affected by the factors beyond anybody’s
control, our agriculture has received many accolades but is also increasingly criticized
for its sluggish growth and declining contribution to the national Gross Domestic
Production (GDP), at present 27 per cent but going down. However, no sector of
economy has been able to dislodge it from its exalted status of being its backbone-the
declining clout notwithstanding. Having said this, it is also to be recognized that
agriculture is fast losing its shine and urgent re-look at our priorities is over-due.
Indian agriculture, which has hitherto been a way of life has to transform itself into a
new avatar of commercial agriculture and do what it takes to become such. Many
models have been suggested from brilliant to hare-brained for achieving this
breakthrough. However, any model, which talks about complete break from the past,
may not succeed in our milieu because in a country of our size it takes more than a
single factor, how so ever important, to change the scenario. There will have to be
many paradigm shifts. To start with, we must come out from the blame-game and go
ahead with whichever model of change we are comfortable with.
It has been observed that our agriculture and allied sector continue to be geared
up for raw material supply and not much beyond. Selling raw material is a sign of
primitive economy and agriculture is the biggest follower of this practice. The return
on investment from sale of raw material can never reach the level of return from sale
of value-added produce for which any number of examples can be cited. One example
would nevertheless, be highly illustrative. In the glut season, potato sells for less than
Rs. 2-3/kg, but the branded potato chips sell for Rs. 250-300 per kg, both the farmers