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# POWER SYSTEM LABORATORY

Aim

To get familiarized with some of the basic equipment used in the power system
laboratory.

Apparatus

 Rheostats
 Resistor box
 Inductor
 Inductor box
 Capacitor
 Capacitor box
 Variac
 Energy meter
 Insulating string
 Wattmeter

Procedure

## Results & Discussion

We were given the opportunity to study some electrical equipments, which are
used in laboratories as well as in day today life. Discussed below are some of them.

Rheostat

## Rheostat is a variable resistor used in laboratories. It is resistant can be adjusted

by the user. Rheostat is mainly used for controlling voltages.
When we using a rheostat, the information given in the nameplate is very
important. In nameplate it is mentioned as,

## 730 Ω is the maximum resistant

730Ω 5A is the maximum current through rheostat
5A
730V
730V is the maximum voltage
As a resistor, rheostat is made out of a thin wire. There fore it has a higher
resistant, according to the equation given below.

R=L R = Resistant
A  = Resistance at that temperature
L = Length of the resistor
R  I A = Area of the cross section of the
resistor

We should have to find the maximum current through the rheostat, before we use it in
practical works or in experiments. Because if we made a circuit with a high current
(higher than maximum current through the rheostat) and then if we use rheostat, it will
damaged. There fore information in the nameplate of the equipment is very impotant.

Variac

## Variac is some kind of variable transformer, which can be use as a voltage

controller in AC circuits. Below useful rating were displayed on Variac.

In-250V Out-(0-275) V 6A
(47-65)Hz 1phase

##  In-250V = Input voltage.

 Out (0-275) V = Output voltage.
 6A = Maximum current.
 (47-65) Hz = Frequency of AC.
 1phase = The phase of AC.
Energy meter

Energy meter is used to measure energy even though we know that the SI
standard unit for energy is joule, in energy meter, kWh (kilo watt hours) is used to
measure energy. Energy meter is household equipment as electricity being measured
using this equipment. Given below is the nameplate detail.

## (5-10) A - The current through the energy meter

230 V -The maximum voltage
50 Hz -Frequency of AC waveforms
900 r/kWh -Revolutions of the rotating disk per one kilo watt. (This value depend on the
energy meter)

Wattmeter

Wattmeter is equipment which is used for measuring power being used. There are
six terminals in a wattmeter. Three of them are black & others are red. Black terminals
are called current terminals and the others are called voltage terminals. Current terminals
are connected in series to circuit whereas voltage terminals are connected in parallel to
the circuit.
It is recommended to connect to highest Voltage & Current terminals when using
watt meters to measure powers of unknown in order to secure safety of the meter.

Insulators

Insulating strings are made out of ceramics. Provided with a voltage across its
ends, if no current is passed through a material, it is called an insulator. Because of above
mentioned property insulators are widely used as a safeguard against current. Insulating
strings are used in high voltage power transmission in order to prevent flashover from
cables to towers.
Some other insulators used in day-to-day life are glass, mica, plastic, ceramics
and wood.

Capacitors

## Capacitors, or electrical condensers, are device for storing an electrical charge.

Capacitors are produced in a wide variety of forms. Air, mica, ceramics, paper, oil, and
vacuums are used as dielectrics, depending on the purpose for which the device is
intended.
Inductors

Inductors consist of a conducting wire wound into the form of a coil. When a current
passes through the coil, a magnetic field is set up around it that tends to oppose rapid
changes in current intensity. When an inductor is used in conjunction with a capacitor, the
voltage in the inductor reaches a maximum value for a specific frequency. This principle
is used in a radio receiver, where a specific frequency is selected by a variable capacitor.

##  Inductor box - can change values

 Capacitor boxes -save energy & variable capacity
 Resistor box -to provide resistance but not continuously