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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Welcome
OTSC Boiler &
its control

S.Dharmalingam
OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Presentation overview
 Critical About Supercritical
 OTSC Boiler vs Drum Boiler Control
 Start-up, Warm-Keeping & Water Sep. Systems
 Steam Temperature Control
 Feedwater Control
 Boiler protections
 Summary

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Legend:
CV Control valve
DESH Desuperheater
Eco. Economiser
Eva. Evaporator
FR Fuel rate or Firing rate
FW Feed water
RH Reheater or reheated
Sep. Separator
SH Superheater or superheated
SP Set point

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Interchangeables:
Wet mode   Recirculation mode
Dry mode   Once thro mode
WW   Evaporator

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

What is Critical About Supercritical?

There’s nothing “critical” about supercritical.


“Supercritical” - a thermodynamic expression
describing the state of a substance where there is no
clear distinction between the liquid & the gaseous
phase (i.e. they are in a homogenous fluid).
 Water reaches this state at a pressure above 22.1
Mega Pascals (MPa).

OTSC boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

OTSC Boiler vs Drum Boiler Control

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

OTSC Boiler vs Drum Boiler Control

Control system for a OTSC boiler - different from a drum boiler.


Why?

The drum & its associated water walls decouple steam circuits from
water circuits and boiler FW pump, whose function is to maintain
water level in drum.

In OTSC boiler, boiler FW pump responds to unit demand.

Drum unit has a relatively large amount of energy storage - can be


used to provide immediate transient response to load changes.

In OTSC design - small fluid mass has relatively small amount of


energy storage.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Increasing operating pressure produces the desired cycle


efficiency gains - however stored energy reduces as
pressure increases.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

OTSC Boiler vs Drum Boiler Control

Unlike a drum-type boiler, OTSC boiler does not have


a large steam drum to store energy.

Due to this, control system must match, exactly &


continuously, FW flow & boiler firing rate (both fuel
& air) to turbine steam needs, to deliver desired load.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

OTSC Boiler

No thick-walled drum at the end of the Eva.


Instead only several thin-walled separators with high
allowable temp. transients.
A further advantageous characteristic - small thermal
storage masses - have a positive effect on flexibility.
Short startup times & large temp. transients over wide
output ranges are possible.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Instead of a thick-walled Allowable temp. transients for


drum, OTSC boiler has Sep. of a 250-bar OTSC boiler -
several thin-walled roughly three times as large as
Separators configured for for the drum in a 175-bar drum
parallel flow. boiler.
OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Areas Unique to OTSC boilers

• Start-up, Warm-Keeping & Water Sep.


Systems

• Steam temperature control(modified)

• Feed water controls(modified)

• BMS logics(modified)

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI
OTSC BOILER SCHEMATICS

Platen Finish HP Turbine


Superheater Superheater

Separator LT Reheater IP/LP Turbine

Finish
Evaporator Reheater

Wate
Economizer FW pump r
Furnace

FD Fans
HSA
APH Air

HPA PA Fans
Coal & Air CPA
Pulverizers Coal

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

OTSC boiler - Schematic

FWP

Eco. Evaporator Separators Platen SH DESH Finish SH


To
turbine

Storage
Tank

Boiler
circulation
pump

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Start-up, Warm-Keeping &


Water Sep. Systems

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Once through boilers

Low Load Circulation System Separator

 The excess flow over the once 1. Separates steam & water
thru flow is separated in during circulating mode
separator; and operation.
 Recirculated back to boiler 2. Runs dry during once thru
directly by the dedicated flow mode.
pump. 3. Smaller in size compared to
drum in a drum type boiler.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Salient Features: Steam Separator

 Multiple nos. of separators( 4 nos).

 Storage tanks(2nos.) for collection from separators.

 Level monitoring in Storage tank. It prevents boiling water


from flowing into the superheaters.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

START UP SYSTEM
SH

Sep.
EVA.

ECO.
Sep. Storage Tank

LT Water return
valves
Flash tank
MEFCV

Check
valve
HWL-1
To
BWCP condenser
HWL-2
Make up
Mixing Tee water
Spray
water HPH Deaerator

FWCV BFP

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI
Start-up, Warm-Keeping &Water Sep. System - Schematic

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Separators &
Storage tanks

Separator
4 nos.
Storage Tank
2 nos.

Sep. OD 558.8 X 63.5 mm

Tank OD 660.4 X 73.0 mm

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Boiler water
circulating
pump

Parameter:
Pr. 129 kg/sq. cm(g)
Temp. 244 deg. C BWCP
Flow : 847 t/hr. 1 no.

DP : 4.2 kg/sq. cm
Rating 420 KW
OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Flash tank

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Start-up, Warm-Keeping &


Water Sep. System controls

 Separator Storage Tank Level Control

 Minimum Eco. Flow Control (MEFC)

 Warm-Keeping Level Control

 Flash Tank Drain Tank Drain Water Temp. Control

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Separator Storage Tank Level Control


Control objective :
• Maintain Storage tank Level during transients

Separator level demand :


• Derived from level error & Total fuel flow

Control action :
• Controller positions 2 nos. water return valves - HWL1 & HWL2
to maintain separator level.
• HWL1 & HWL2 valves - controlled in a split range manner. HWL1
responds first & then HWL2 when the HWL1 exceeds its linear
operating range.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI
STORAGE TANK LEVEL SET POINTS

Two (2) Tanks Required


NOTES:

Storage
.
tank level 1. Not to scale
2. Dimensions, M (in.)

set points AXIAL VENT

UPPER WATER LEVEL TAPS


(3) (120 DEG. APART)
13.93 1.0 (39.4)
(548.4) Trip Level
12.94 1.0 (39.4)
(509.4) Alarm Level
11.94
NWL : 7.47 m (470.0)
HWL-2 10.84
100% open HWL-1 100% open

CENTERLINE WATER LEVEL TAPS


(427.0)
HWL 1 CV: 9.75
(384.0)

14.9352 (588.0)
Open HWL-2
- Start open : 8.66 m 8.66
(341.0)
Open HWL-1

- 100 % open : 10.84 m 7.47 Storage Tank Level Control Set Point
(294.0) NWL – ½ way between level taps

HWL 2 CV:
One of the conditions to open
4.0 warm-keeping inlet stop valve
- Start open : 9.75 m Unit in wet mode
(157.5) (control valve remains closed)

- 100 % open : 11.94 m 3.0


(118.1)

Level control to manual,


Close HWL-1 close HWL-2
1.0 (39.4)
0.5 (19.7)
LOWER WATER LEVEL TAPS
(3) (120 DEG. APART)

AXIAL WATER OUTLET

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

START UP SYSTEM
SH

Sep.
EVA.

ECO.
Sep. Storage Tank

LT Water return
valves
Flash tank
MEFCV

Check
valve
HWL-1
To
BWCP condenser
HWL-2
Make up
Mixing Tee water
Spray
water HPH Deaerator

FWCV BFP

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Separator Storage Tank Level Control

• Water level influenced by fluctuations from

– Steam Pressure
– Feed water flow rate
– Steam and water expansion
– Outlet flow rate of recirc. pump &
– Firing rate.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

SH
Minimum Eco. Flow Control
Sep. (MEFC)
EVA.
Control objective:
Sep. • To Maintain min. Eco.
ECO.
Storage inlet flow to ensure
Tank
LT
adequate Eva. flow during
start-up operation.
Check
MEFCV

valve
• To Maintain min. boiler
water circulating pump
BWCP (BWCP) DP.
Mixing Tee
• Initiate automatic control
action to support unit
Feed Water
automation.
OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Minimum Eco. Flow Control (MEFC)


Control action
• BWCP is started following the start of a FW pump.

• BWCP circulates water from Eva. outlet back to Eco. inlet.


• MEFCV located at outlet of BWCP, controls Eco. inlet flow during
start-up phase.

• Demand for this CV - established


based on measured Eco. inlet flow
compared to a min. boiler flow SP.

• Limit action provided to this CV


to ensure that min. BWCP DP is
maintained.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Warm-Keeping system Level Control


Control objective:

• To Maintain Storage tank


downcomer (wet leg) level.

• Initiate automatic control


action to support unit
automation.

wet leg
OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI
Warm-Keeping system Level Control

Control action:

When wet-to-dry transfer is complete - the circulation shut-off


valve closed & recirculation flow stopped. Piping between the
storage tanks & this valve, and storage tanks & HWL1/HWL2
valves, is maintained in warm condition by FW flow from Eco.
outlet through a warm-keeping system.

With warm-keeping system operating, liquid level (DP) in tank wet


leg (recirculation downcomer) is controlled by the warm-keeping
level CV.

Valve is controlled in response to measured storage tank


downcomer(wet leg) level compared to a SP.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI
START UP & WARM UP SYSTEM
SH

Sep.
EVA.

ECO. To SH Sp.
L Water Sys.
T
L Warm Keeping
T level CV
Flash tank
MEFCV

Check HWL-
valve 1

M To condenser
BWCP HWL-2
Make up water
M
Mixing Tee

HPH Warm up supply Deaerator


From ECO. outlet
FWCV BFP

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Flash Tank Drain Tank Drain Water


Temp. Control

Control objective:

• To Maintain desired condensate temp.


• Initiate automatic control action to support unit automation.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI
FLASH TANK DRAIN TANK SYSTEM

Condensate from
Flash tank TE

Min. rec.
LT level CV
Flash tank drain tank
Min. rec.
level CV

Drain water Min. rec. Flow CV


Temp. CV
Condensate pumps To Condenser

Cooling TE
water

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Flash Tank Drain Tank Drain Water


Temp. Control
Control action:

An overflow & manual drain from drain tank provided to


discharge condensate into the plant drains’ clean water sump.

To control temp. of condensate leaving drain tank, a “cooling


water” CV is provided.

Valve positioned by a PI controller that responds to the error


between measured drain water temp. as compared to a SP.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Start up system – Transition load


Wet to dry transitions can occur by fluctuations in firing rate &
feedwater flow at the moment of transfer, but also at higher loads.
Superheated steam conditions coincide with a particular temp. &
pressure. An increase in pressure without a corresponding
increase in temp. can result in loss of superheated conditions (wet
operation).

To ensure the transition occurs in one direction only, steam temp.


controlled via the manipulation of FR / FW ratio (FR/FW). In once-
through operation, the ratio of firing rate to feedwater flow that
controls the Sep. outlet temp.

Higher FR/FW ratio causes furnace wall exit quality to increase


above 100%. Simultaneously, DESH spray-water flow will increase
to maintain main steam temp. which will contribute to increasing
the furnace wall quality.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

SH System

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


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SH SYSTEM

Sp. water

Header

Header
Outlet

Outlet
HEADER
From Sep.

HEADER
INLET

INLET
Platen DESH FSH HPT
Header

Header
Outlet

Outlet
Sp. water

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Importance of Consistently
Accurate Steam Temp.
• Of various control loops for a fossil boiler, SH steam temp. plays a
most critical role in unit performance.

• Steam temp. - directly related to overall unit efficiency - deviations


from SP even by few degrees represent a considerable decrease in
efficiency.

Cycling of steam temp. caused by poor control functionality - highly


undesirable increase in thermal stress on SH. Over time, stresses
cause ruptures in SH tubing - results in boiler trips & forced
outages for repair. Repairs take several days & loss due to
generation can be millions of rupees.

Thus, achieving consistent, responsive Steam temp.


maximizes efficiency & assure uninterrupted operation.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Dependence of Steam temperature


• Raise in steam temperature …. obtained by

Firing rate (OR)


Feed water flow (OR)

BOTH
Called as steam temp. control by ratio adjustment

OTSC boiler designs require a min. FW flow to protect


furnace tubes from overheating. Hence FR is to be
adjusted to control steam temp. until load exceeds the
min. FW flow.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Dependence of Steam temperature

Since all feedwater entering the Eva. becomes steam


(once-through mode), throttle pressure is directly
related to FW flow.
At constant FWP discharge pr.
• Increase in FW flow - Steam pressure decreases.
• Reduction in FW flow - Steam pressure increases.

Since all FW entering the boiler must be heated into SH


steam, the FR rate controls (fuel & air) are modulated to
provide the required heating.

The ratio of FW to FR determines the final value for main


steam temp.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

SH Steam Temp. Control

In OTSC boilers, steam temp. has no natural, uncontrolled


characteristic curve - always established by the control system
(automatic or manual).

In steady state condition, ratio of FR to feedwater flow determines


the final steam temp. But unfortunately, steam temp. response to
changes in FR/feedwater flow ratio is somewhat sluggish during
load changes.

A control system which depends solely on adjustments of FR to


feedwater flow cannot fully prevent relatively wide deviations in
temp. during load changes or other disturbances.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

SH Steam Temp. Control (General)

Overall SH steam temp. accomplished with adjustment of spray


water control & manipulation of FW flow.

Two spray water CVs act to maintain final SH outlet steam temp. &
FW flow adjusted in response to SH DESH average differential
temp.

In short term, final SH Temp. fluctuations minimized by the fast


acting spray water CVs.

In long term, control action automatically re-adjust steam temp. at


each control points(Eva., platen SH) in response to changes in
corresponding heat transfer rates.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

SH Steam Temp. Control (General)

This approach provides a high level of disturbance rejection.

Ensures SH spray water CVs remain in control range by ultimately


adjusting Eva. outlet steam conditions/heat transfer.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

SH Steam Temp. Control

Control objective:

• To maintain final SH steam temp.

• Initiate automatic control action to support unit automation.

• Provide saturation protection.

• Calculate average SH spray station differential temp. (for use in


FW demand development).

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

SH Steam Temp. Control

Control action:

Control structure - a cascade arrangement - master controller acts on


the error between SH outlet (average) temp. & a load dependant SH
outlet temp. SP.

Output of this controller represents reqd. temp. entering final SH


section to achieve the desired temp. at final SH outlet.

An “over/under firing” feed forward is added to master controller’s


output for improved response. This signal developed by comparing
the rate of change in steam flow to rate of change in fuel flow.

Over firing (rate of change in fuel flow in excess of rate of change in


steam flow) decreases the master’s output.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

SH Steam Temp. – Control Scheme


SH Outlet
Temp. SH DESH
Outlet Temp.

SHO SP 
P I

Rate of
MS Flow + 
Rate of - P ID
Fuel Flow
SH Spray
CV
Demand

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

SH Steam Temp. Control


This signal is an anticipatory action to offset the tendency for
increased steam temp. resulting from a temporary imbalance
between cooling (steam flow) and available heat (firing rate) when
over firing.

The signal has opposite effect when under firing (increases master
controller output) since in this case the temporary cooling/heat
imbalance tends to decrease steam temp.
Resulting modified master output provides the SP to a slave
controller. This controller acts on this SP as compared to steam temp.
measured at DESH outlet.

The slave controller output, subject to an overriding “saturation”


protection, provides the position demand to each of the spray water
CVs.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

SH Steam Temp. Control


Saturation protection

Saturation protection - active at reduced unit load when the SH


pressure is subcritical & prevents over spraying by limiting the
spray valve demand.

Saturated steam temp. is established from measured Sep. outlet


pressure, adding 11 deg. C establishes the min. permissible
degree of superheat.

Increased spray is prevented by limiting the final spray valve


demand in the event measured DESH outlet temp. drops below
the established min. level of superheat.

Average SH spray station differential temp. is calculated for use in


feedwater demand development.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

RH System

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


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RH SYSTEM

Sp. water

Header

Header
Outlet

Outlet
HEADER

HEADER
INLET

INLET
HPT LT RH FINISH IPT
RH
Header

Header
Outlet

Outlet
Sp. water

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Reheat Steam Temp. Control (General)

RH outlet steam temp. - controlled by a combination


of two spray water CVs & fuel nozzle tilt positioning.

RH spray water CVs - positioned by a cascade control.

Demand for fuel nozzle tilts - developed by a PID


controller.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Reheat Steam Temp. Control

Control objective:

• To maintain reheat steam temp.


• Initiate automatic control action to support
unit automation.
• Provide saturation protection.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Reheat Steam Temp. Control


Control action:

Control concept - similar to SH spray water control.

Master controller for each CV acts on the corresponding


RH outlet steam temp. as compared to a load dependent
SP.

Slave controller positions the reheat spray CV in


response to master output (with over/under firing
feedforward) as compared to the associated RH DESH
outlet temp.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

RH Steam Temp. Control – Control Scheme


RH Outlet RH Outlet
Temp. RH DESH Temp.
Outlet Temp.

RHO SP  RHO SP 
P I P ID

RH Tilt
Rate of Demand
MS Flow + 
Rate of - P ID
Fuel Flow
RH Spray
CV
Demand

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Reheat Steam Temp. Control

Nozzle tilt:

• Prevent an increase in nozzle tilt upward position in


the event any spray CV is full open.

• Close RH spray CV through nozzle tilt positioning.

• Initiate automatic control action to support unit


automation.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


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Nozzle Tilt in a Tangential
Corner Fired boiler

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


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Reheat Steam Temp. Control

Nozzle tilt:

Totally three sets(twelve nozzle) of tilt drives - one set for each
main WB, and one for separated overfire air (SOFA) WB. Each
drive positioned individually.

A controller develops demand to all tilt drives; The controller acts


on the RH outlet (average) steam temp. as compared to SP.

The SP from reheat spray control provides the base SP for tilt
control. This base SP is reduced by a max. of 5°C for the purpose
of forcing the RH spray water CVs valves closed in the long term.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Reheat Steam Temp. Control


Nozzle tilt:

In the event of a positive temp.error (temp. above SP)


control action simultaneously decreases nozzle tilt
position & increases spray water.

Due to relatively fast response of spray water control,


temp. error will be quickly eliminated by spraying, with
zero error, the tilt will stop moving.

The overall response provides fast temp. control while


avoiding continued unit operation with RH spray water &
associated reduction in unit heat rate.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Feedwater Control

• Drum & OTSC boilers - the most obvious


difference - the absence of a water level in
an OTSC boiler.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Feedwater Control

Control objective:

• Develop total unit FW demand to support unit load.

• Adjust FW demand to maintain desired Sep. outlet Temp.

• Adjust Sep. outlet Temp. SP as required to maintain


acceptable SH spray control range.

• Maintain min. required Eco. inlet flow.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Feedwater Control – Control Scheme


Sep. outlet
SH DESH
Temp.
T
Boiler
Master Min. Eco.
Demand
 inlet Flow
SP (40%)
P I


P I
< Sep. Level
demand
Feed Flow


> P I

Feed water Demand

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


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Feedwater Control

Control action:

SP for FW established predominately by Boiler Master demand.

This minimizes temp. fluctuations that may result from varying


dynamic response between the firing & feedwater control
systems (as they relate to boiler fluid heat transfer) thereby
lessening the dependence on feedback correction.

SP for FW established by a cascade controller arrangement.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Feedwater Control
Master controller acts on Boiler Master demand and average SH
DESH differential temp. Its output represents the required
adjustment to Eva. heat transfer.

Slave controller acts on Sep. outlet Temp.

This controller acts to adjust FW in response to firing system


disturbances and the relatively fast effect they have on separator
outlet steam temperatures.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Feedwater Control
The corrected FW SP is not allowed to decrease below the min.
Eco. inlet flow SP (wet mode) when BWCP is not in service & unit
in operation.

This ensures min. Eco. inlet cooling flow maintained by FW supply


system in the event start-up system is not available.

The FW SP is subject to a second “wet mode” FW demand


developed to support Sep. storage tank level control. The
resulting demand provides the SP to a FW main controller. The
feedback to this controller is the lower of total FW flow or Eco.
inlet flow.

With the start-up system in service (wet mode), Eco. inlet flow is
greater than FW due to recirculation & therefore feedwater flow is
the selected feedback.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


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Boiler protections

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


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Burner Management System

Addl. logics introduced compared to drum boilers (for MFT


conditions)
Eva. tube metal temp. very high
Eco. inlet flow less than minimum.
Separator level very high
SH pressure very high
Loss of DCS control capability

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


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Evaporator MTM Measurement
Separators

Furnace Furnace Furnace


Furnace
Upper Front Upper Rear Upper side
Upper side
header header header
header

MTM
TC

Furnace Furnace Furnace


Furnace
intermediate intermediate intermediate
intermediate
header header header
header

MTM
TC

Furnace Bottom Ring header

ECO.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Eva. Tube Metal Temp. Measurement


• Heated water goes to 4 nos. intermediate headers & then to
corresponding 4 nos. Upper headers.

•Each upper header has four riser


pipe outlets carrying mixture of
steam & water and forms one inlet
to Separators a,b,c&d.

•Totally 16 inlets going from this


system for 4 nos. Separators.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI
Heat transfer crisis

Boiling process can be considered also in


heat transfer terms. Heat flux in furnace by
the combustion process is extremely high.

Critical value that heat flux can reach which


results in a sudden decrease of heat
transfer capacity of tube - called as
departure from nucleate boiling (DNB),
dryout, burn out, critical heat flux.

Phenomenon responsible for this problem -


transition from annular boiling state to
misty/drop state. In this state, tube wall is no Dryout occurring in
longer covered with water. an Eva. Tube.

This dryout causes drastic fall in waterside


heat transfer coefficient.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI
Boiling within Eva. Tubes

Boiling process in a Eva. tube


begins with single-phase water flow
in the lowest part of the Eva.

Heat transfer from furnace


produces initially some steam
bubbles.

Continuous heat transfer increases


steam content in the mixture.

In annular boiling state of the Different types of water/steam


steam/water mixture, tube wall is flow during the boiling process
still covered by a water film, but as
steam content increases water can
be found in the tube as mist only.
This state called as misty/drop
state.
OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Eva. Tube metal temp.


In drum boilers, large dia. tubes used to minimize flow
resistance - sufficient amount of steam & water can
flow through evaporator tubing by natural circulation.

By designing for a
sufficiently high
circulation rate, water
passing through the
tubing never
completely evaporates
to steam & a liquid film
maintained on the tube
wall so that DNB and/or
dry out do not occur.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Evaporator Tube metal temp.


In OTSC boiler - no distinction between liquid & vapor
phases & there is continual increase in fluid temp. With
unbalances in heat absorption & variations in flow rate due to
hydraulic resistance differences from tube-to-tube, variations
in tube temp. occur.

If unbalance in temp. not


limited, high thermal
stresses will result – leading
to tube failure.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Evaporator Tube Metal Temp. Measurement


• Eva. outlet tube metal temp. monitored for indication of
excessive overheating.

• Overheating - indication of over-firing, low waterwall flow,


or a combination of both.

• If tube metal temp. exceed the SP, an automatic trip of fuel


initiated thro’ BMS.

• This protects the tubes from overheating & potential failure.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Eva. Tube Metal Temp. Measurement

76 nos. TCs for measuring Metal Temp. at the inlet of


intermediate headers.

• 76 nos. TCs for measuring Metal Temp. at the inlet of upper


outlet headers.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Burner Management System

Evaporator tube metal temp. very high (X/152)

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Eco. inlet flow less than minimum


• Eco. inlet water flow low condition introduced - as
low flow through economizer & subsequently thro’
Eva., SH/RH will damage the tubes.
•Eco. flow signal taken to BMS for tripping the boiler
if flow is < the desired min.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Separator water level very high

 Excessive water level in Sep. can cause water to


reach SHs & subsequently to turbine.
 As there is no mechanism to monitor water level
after Separator in supercritical conditions - boiler
tripped on very high water level in Sep.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

SH pressure very high

For safeguarding against excessive SH steam


pressure:
 Used in Yung-Hung project where safety valves
are used for 30% relieving capacity.
 Not used for Barh (safety valves for 100%
relieving capacity used).

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Loss of DCS control capability

Some of the rapidly varying signals used for MFT


- such as Eco. inlet flow very low, separator
water level very high etc., derived from DCS.
Also these are controlled from DCS.
Hence, loss of control capability of DCS can
affect boiler safety.
Hence, boiler tripped in the event of loss of DCS.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Summary
Drum Boiler OTSC Boiler
Steam generation takes place only in Fluid flows directly through all
furnace Water Walls sections of boiler (Eco., Eva.& SH)

Fixed point of evaporation Boiler feedpump is driving force


Steam/water separation takes place in drum Steam temp. controlled by
adjustment to FR to FW ratio
Drum operates at sat. point, which changes Requires elaborate startup
with Load system

Large diameter tubes for steam/water Sensitive to impurities in water


mixture promotes circulation
Steam temp. controlled by spray-water Fast response to sustained and
injection & heat distribution transient load changes
Quick response to transient load changes Lower start up time.
Slower response to sustained load changes

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

CONCLUSION

OTSC boiler with a properly designed control system should


be considered as a flexible partner in the power system,
suitable not only

• for base load operation,


• but also capable of rapid load cycling duty.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI
References:
1. The Development of an Advanced Control System for
Supercritical Pressure units – IEEE paper
2. The Flexibility of the Supercritical Boiler as a partner in
Power System Design and Operation – IEEE paper.
3. DEB Co-ordinated control Steam Temperature for Once-
through Super-Critical Boilers – Metso automation.
4. DEB Co-ordinated control for Once-through Super-Critical
Boilers – Metso automation.
5. Fossil Fuel Power Plant - Steam Temperature Controls - ISA-
ds77.44.01-2006.
6. Alstom design documents.

OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09


Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Have a nice day!

It is a privilege to be
Associated with YOU.
Have a nice learning
OTSC Boiler Controls - Presentation on 27th MAY 09