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Lecture 1: Overview of the Cardiovascular System and Thorax

Thoracic Wall, mediastinum, and the heart

 Between neck and abdomen
 Consists of
o Thoracic wall
 Thoracic segment of vertebral column (12 thoracic vertebrae)
 12 pairs of ribs + associated costal cartilages
 sternum
 intercostal muscles
o Thoracic cavity and its content

Ribs 1-7 directly articulate to sternum  referred to as true ribs

Ribs 8-10  form costal margin  “false ribs”
Ribs 11-12  floating ribs

Sternum consists of:

- mandrium
- body of sternum
- xiphoid process

sternal angle in anterior thoracic wall  important in identifying structures

xiphoid process articulates with body of sternum  forms xiphisternal joint

Thoracic wall – a typical thoracic vertebra

 vertebral foramen  where spinal nerve goes through

 pedicle and lamina join to form pedicle-laminar junction
 two laminae join to form spinous process

Basic Features of a Typical Rib

 main parts are:
o head
o neck
o tubercle – where rib bends
o shaft
 anterior end of shaft is the costochondral junction where it joins with costal
 Head had two articulate surfaces and the crest
 Between two vertebral heads there is an intervertebral disc
o Crest articulates with intervertebral disc
 Ribs do not articulate horizontally with sternum from vertebra
o Angulation required to allow sufficient movement during inspiration

Intercostal Muscles and Scalene Muscles

 Intercostal muscles  run from one rib to the other  occupy intercostal space between
two ribs
 In external intercostal muscles, the muscles rub obliquely and anteriorly from the higher rib
to the lower one
o PLUS, membranous part is anterior  from muscle to sternum
 In internal intercostal muscle, run obliquely and posteriorly
o Membranous part is posterior  from vertebral column
 Scalenus
o Extends from cervical vertebrae to first rib (anterior and medius)
o Extends from cervical vertebrae to second rib (posterior)

Thoracic Cavity

 Superior thoracic Aperture

o Formed by first thoracic vertebra, first rib, costal cartilage of 1st rib, and manubrium
o NOT on a horizontal plane (see right image)
 Inferior thoracic aperture
o 11 and 12th rib, costal margin, and xiphisternal joint
Thoracic Cavity - Mediastinum

 Main strucutres in the Mediastinum are

o Pericardium
o Heart
o Oesophagus
o Trachea
o Blood vessels

Heart – external structure: Borders and parts forming the borders

Heart – external structure: posterior and inferior surfaces
Heart Structure: Chambers – Right and Left Atria
Aorta  left coronary artery  anterior descending/ interventricular artery
 Left circumflex artery