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Concrete Corbel

1 Introduction ................................................................................................ 5
1.1 Generally .............................................................................................. 5
1.2 Restrictions .......................................................................................... 5
2 Programme structure ................................................................................. 7
2.1 Menu bar .............................................................................................. 7
2.1.1 File ................................................................................................ 8
2.1.1.1 Printout layout ...................................................................... 8
2.1.2 Edit .............................................................................................. 11
2.1.3 View ............................................................................................ 12
2.1.4 Input ............................................................................................ 12
2.1.5 Calculate ...................................................................................... 13
2.1.6 Result .......................................................................................... 13
2.1.7 Windows ..................................................................................... 13
2.1.8 Help ............................................................................................. 14
2.2 The Toolbar ........................................................................................ 14
2.3 Input ................................................................................................... 15
2.3.1 Title ............................................................................................. 15
2.3.2 Material ....................................................................................... 16
2.3.3 Geometry ..................................................................................... 17
2.3.4 Reinforcement details ................................................................. 18
2.3.5 Loads ........................................................................................... 19
2.3.6 Save input data as default ............................................................ 19
2.4 Calculate ............................................................................................ 19
2.5 Result ................................................................................................. 20
3 Methods of calculation ............................................................................. 21
3.1 General ............................................................................................... 21
3.1.1 Calculation model ....................................................................... 21
3.1.2 Eccentric load .............................................................................. 23
3.1.3 Main reinforcement ..................................................................... 23
3.1.4 Main reinforcement arrangement ................................................ 23
3.1.5 Anchorage length ........................................................................ 24
3.1.6 Additional links ........................................................................... 25

Concrete Corbel 1
2 Concrete Beam
Info

Concrete Corbel 6
EuroCode

Copyright: Structural Design Software

Datum: 2009-09-30

Latest information about programs from WIN-Statik and FEM-Design see

www.strusoft.com

Concrete Corbel - Info 3


4 Concrete Corbel - Info
1 Introduction

1.1 Generally
With the Concrete Corbel program required reinforcement can be calculated
according to EuroCode.

1.2 Restrictions
Only Corbels with ac ≤ 0.5 hc see EN 1992-1-1 J3 figure J5, can be designed.

Concrete Corbel - Introduction 5


6 Concrete Corbel - Introduction
2 Programme structure
When starting the program the user will get a menu bar that contains a number
of menu-options in the upper part of the window, and directly beneath these op-
tions there is a toolbar with a number of buttons for various shortcuts.

On the title bar the user will see program name (Concrete Corbel), project
name (this is decided in Title), current file (* if not Save as has been used) and
active window.

2.1 Menu bar

The user chooses windows from the menu bar by clicking on a suitable menu-
text that will make a corresponding window to open or to show a submenu if
there is any. There can be submenus in several levels. By clicking on a submenu
option again the user will eventually open a corresponding window.

Some menu-options can be marked in grey. This means that the input data that
has been given so far makes it unsuitable to open the window in question, which
is why it has been marked in grey.

File Contains commands for different functions such as open al-


ready saved information, save information and make printo-
uts. Several of the File options are identical to other Windows
programs.
Edit Contains edit functions.
Input This is the menu option where the user defines the problem.
Calculate Performs the calculation.
Result Shows the calculation result numerically.
Windows Shows the current windows.
Help Contains the complete manual for the program.

Concrete Corbel - Programme structure 7


2.1.1 File
New Initiates a new file for calculation data input.
The user can calculate several problems paral-
lel.
Open Retrieves input data from a previous calcula-
tion. A list on saved input data files is shown
(UCS).
Close Closes currently active file.
Save Saves input data for current calculation in the
file with the current file name. Save is not to be
used until after having used Save as.
Save as Saves input data for current calculation in a file with a file
name different from the current.
Layout Not used.
Printer settings This function is used for specifying the printout in terms of
type of printer, paper width and so on.
Print option Not used.
Preview Shows a picture of the result presented graphically for the
corbel.
Print This function is used for printing input data and results and
makes it also posible to study the exact outcome of the
chosen printout on the screen. This function includes de-
termining the printout layout, i.e. tables with or without
frames, header, margins and fonts.
Exit Ends Concrete Corbel.

2.1.1.1 Printout layout


It is possible for the user to give a personal touch to the printouts. The print ma-
nager is called when the option Print and then More Templates is activated.
The task for the print manager is to enable the user to create a personal template

8 Concrete Corbel - Programme structure


for what the printout is to look like, the size of the pictures etc. or, alternatively
choose the standard template that already exists within the program.

Choose a printout template from the list. The program comes with a printout
template called Standard printout template. Click on the More templates…
button in order to edit current printout template or to create a new printout temp-
late.

A list on printout templates that can be used will now be displayed. The chosen
template can be changed to the user's requirements by clicking on the Change
button.

A printout template decides the layout of the printout, i.e. what fonts, colours
and so on that is to be used. The printout template has been named Standard
printout template in the below seen example.

The printout template consists of the following parts:

Tables
A table can have the following appearances:
• Table with frames
Frames around the table where each table column is separated from nearby
table column/columns with one or more perpendicular lines.
• Table without frames
Table divided into columns without separation lines.
• Grey-white layout
Table without frames where every other table-post has been marked with a
soft grey background colour to make it more distinct.
• Personal layout
This function is the same as that for Grey-white layout but the users can
now choose the background colour by them selves. A suitable colour can be
chosen from the colour palette by clicking on the … button.
The user can set the appearance of the table contents. By clicking on the but-
ton to the right of the Table title text the font of the table title can be chosen

Concrete Corbel - Programme structure 9


from a font-dialogue box. This is also valid for the column title and the table-
posts.
Note that too big fonts can cause tables or other objects to fail to fit in the pa-
ge. If this should happen the table columns, or the width of the objects, will
automatically be adjusted in width without any regards to text editing.
If the objects fail to fit in the page the print manager will try and create a new
page hoping to find more space. This attempt can fail, depending on what
personal adjustments the user has made, and the print manager will then can-
cel the printout generation.

Pictures
The user can set the size of the pictures by choosing one of the following op-
tions:
• 1/1 Page
Choose the 1/1 page option if you want the pictures to be presented in a
whole page size.
• 1/1 Page Landscape
Choose the 1/1 page landscape if you want the pictures to be presented ly-
ing in a whole page size. Depending on earlier printer settings, i.e. if portrait
or landscape has been chosen, the print manager will switch from landscape
for pictures to portrait for tables and other text material.
• 1/2 Page
Choose the 1/2 page option if you want the pictures to be presented in the
size of a half page.
• 1/3 Page
Choose the 1/3 page option if you want the pictures to be presented in the
size of a 1/3 of the page.
• 1/4 Page
Choose the 1/4 page option if you want the pictures to be presented in the
size of 1/4 of the page. This option is the most economic one when thinking
of the total number of generated pages. This is also the most preferable op-
tion if you want to obtain smaller printouts.

10 Concrete Corbel - Programme structure


• Picture title
Press the … button to the right of the picture title text if you want to change
font size of the picture title.
• Frames around pictures
Mark Frames around pictures if all picture objects, that are to be printed,
are going to be framed.

Other
• Company name
Press the button to the right of the company name text to choose an appropri-
ate font.
• Section title
Press the button to the right of the section title text in order to change the
characteristics of the headings.
• Table of contents
A table of contents can be obtained by marking this option. All generated ob-
jects, as well as the number of the page, on which the object has been prin-
ted, can be added to the table of contents.
The user can for example set if he wants to obtain a table of contents for all
printouts with more than 20 pages. The table of contents is then added at the
end of the generated document.

2.1.2 Edit
Not used.

Concrete Corbel - Programme structure 11


2.1.3 View
Toolbar Makes it possible to hide and restore the
toolbar (see 2.2).
Status bar Makes it possible to hide and restore the sta-
tus bar.
Geometry
and loads Makes it possible to see current geometry
and current loads.
Reinforcement Makes it possible to see the calculated rein-
forcement.
Grid Shows/hides a grid.
Axes Shows/hides the auxiliary axes.
Zoom extens The picture is fit to the drawing area at its maximum.
Zoom in A specified area can be enlarged with this command/but-
ton.
Zoom out This command/button is used for reducing the window
gradually.
Pan Makes it possible to move the picture in an optional direc-
tion.
Zoom Previous Used for going back to the latest previous zooming mode.
Zoom Next Not used.

2.1.4 Input
Title This function is used for specifying general
information on the current calculation ex-
ample.
Material The material conditions of the concrete are
defined.
Geometry Current geometric data is being defined.

12 Concrete Corbel - Programme structure


Reinforcement
details Reinforcement and cover are defined.
Loads Current load is being defined.
Save input data
as default Makes it possible to save current input data values which
become personal default values until these are changed.

A more thorough description of input data that can be defined is found in chap-
ter 2.3.

2.1.5 Calculate
The calculation will start with Calculate.

2.1.6 Result
Reinforcement Shows a table with the calculated reinforce-
ment.

2.1.7 Windows
Cascade This function is used for arranging the
document windows that are currently
shown, in a way that makes them cascade
each other.
Tile horizontally Used for arranging the currently shown
document windows so that they all can be shown in full.
Tile vertically Used for arranging the currently shown document win-
dows so that they all can be shown in full.
Arrange windows This function is used for arranging the different calcula-
tion-example icons that might be on the screen.

Concrete Corbel - Programme structure 13


2.1.8 Help
Contents The entire manual can by this
option be attained in the pro-
gram.
About Concrete CorbelShows all information about
the program, such as e.g. version number.
Hardware lock Shows information on current hardware lock.

2.2 The Toolbar

1. New Starts a new calculation. This means that everything that has
been defined earlier will be deleted.
2. Open Retrieves input data from a previous calculation. A list on
saved input data files (that ends with UCS) will be shown.
3. Save Saves input data for the current calculation in a file with the
current file name. Save is only to be used after having used
Save as.
4. Copy The currently active window is copied to the clipboard, as a
bitmap, where other Windows programs can retrieve it.
5. Print Used for printing input data and results.
6. Geometri &
loads Shows a picture of current geometry and current loads.
7. Reinforcement
Layout Shows an picture of the design results. This option is availa-
ble if a design has been performed.
8. Zoom extent The picture is fit to the drawing area at its maximum.

14 Concrete Corbel - Programme structure


9. Pan Makes it possible to move the picture in an optional di-
rection.
10. Zoom in A specified area can be enlarged.
11. Zoom out The picture is diminished stepwise.
12. Zoom Previous Used for toggle back to an earlier zooming mode.
13. Zoom Next Used for toggle back to an earlier zooming mode.
14. Preview view Makes it possible to preview and then also print the
graphic picture that is currently active.
15. Grid Shows/hides a grid.
16. Axes Shows/hides the auxiliary axes.
17. About Shows program information, version number etc.

2.3 Input
The Input menu option makes it possible to state all neces-
sary input data to describe the current calculation problem.
The user finds the options Title, Material, Geometry, Lo-
ads and Save input data as default under Input. These are
described in the following chapters.

2.3.1 Title
The Title option shows a dialog box
where information on the calcula-
tion can be defined.

Concrete Corbel - Programme structure 15


2.3.2 Material
In the material dialog box all material strength input is assembled.

General
Under the header General, conditions that affect the calculation are stated. Ex-
posure class and life time class are defined and affect code checks where rele-
vant. The options Quality control and reduced deviation and Reduced or
measured geometrical data can be checked. The two latter options together
with the option Low strength variation, see below, changes the partial factors
for materials according to EN 1992-1-1 Annex A A2.1 and A2.2.

Concrete
Concrete strength class can be defined by selecting from the list. Current design
values are shown. If the option Low strength variation is checked together
with one or both of the two options described above the partial factor for concre-
te will be changed according to EN 1992-1-1 Annex A A2.1 and A2.2.

Reinforcement
In the Reinforcement dialog boxes type of reinforcement for bottom- and top
bars and stirrups as well as for longitudinal bars can be defined by selecting
from lists. Longitudinal bars are only used in the program Concrete Section to
resist torsion and biaxial shear. Current design values as well as current diame-
ters are shown.

16 Concrete Corbel - Programme structure


UK Annex
For the British Annex also the W/c ratio is defined depending on current expo-
sure class. This option affects the required cover according to Table NA.2 and
NA.3 in the British Annex.

Danish Annex
In the Danish Annex environmental classes are defined instead of exposure clas-
ses. The relations between these are the following:

For the Danish Annex also the Inspection Level should be defined which af-
fects the partial factor for materials.

If the option Prefabricated elements is checked the partial factors for material
is changed.
The options Reduced or measured geometrical data, Reduced or measured
geometrical data and Low strength variation are not used in the Danish An-
nex.

Finish Annex
For the Finish Annex also the Construction class are defined which affects the
required cover.

2.3.3 Geometry
In the Geometry dialog box the Corbels geometry is defined.

Concrete Corbel - Programme structure 17


2.3.4 Reinforcement details
In the Reinforcement details dialog box bar diameters, cover of reinforcement
and bending radius are defined.

18 Concrete Corbel - Programme structure


2.3.5 Loads

In the Load dialog box the vertical- and horizontal loads are defined. Here are
also the location and possible eccentricity defined.

2.3.6 Save input data as default


Makes it possible to save personal input values that become personal default va-
lues until these are changed.

2.4 Calculate
The Calculate menu option starts the calculation. The methods of calculation
are described more thoroughly in the Methods of calculation chapter 3.

Concrete Corbel - Programme structure 19


2.5 Result
The Result menu option makes it possible to have the reinforcement calculation
results shown numerically.

20 Concrete Corbel - Programme structure


3 Methods of calculation
The description of the calculation methods doesn't claim to in detail reflect the
program flow, but serves to give sufficient information on how the result of the
calculation has been retrieved.

3.1 General
The calculation is made according to EN 1992-1-1 appendix J3. A strut and tie
model is used according to EN 1992-1-1 6.5.

3.1.1 Calculation model


Calculation model according to the below figure:

The following limitations apply:

Concrete Corbel - Methods of calculation 21


f / h ≤ 1.5
ac / h ≤ 0.5
α ≥ 45
tan α ≤ 2.5

Out of the calculation model the following can be derived:


Fid = FEd (ac + y) + HEd (hc + h1 - y cot α) / (d - y cot α)
where: Fid is required reinforcement force,
y = FEd / (2 b fcd),
b is the width of the corbel,
d is the effective height.

When calculating d one layer of reinforcement is assumed in the beginning:


d = hc - cnom - φ/2
where: cnom is the cover and φ is the diameter of the main reinforce-
ment.

If the reinforcement has to be placed in two or more layers a new effective


height is calculated with regard to this. The smallest allowed distance between
two layers is:
max (k1 φ, dg + 5 mm, 20 mm)
k1 = 1.0,
dg is the largest aggregate size.

The assumed value of cot α is checked as below:


cot α = (Fs - HEd) / FEd; 1/3 ≤ cot α ≤ 1

If cot α is found to be out of the allowed limits a message is displayed and the
input can be changed. (If the value of cot α is to large the corbel height has to be
increased, the distance ac decreased or the reinforcement arrangements changed
to increase the effective height d).

22 Concrete Corbel - Methods of calculation


3.1.2 Eccentric load
For eccentric load the Corbel is designed with enlarged loads λ FEd och λ HEd.

The enlargement factor λ is calculated as:


λ = (1 - 2ec / b)-1
where: ec = e - Tc / FEd ≥ 0
Tc = 0.4 fctd b2 / 2 (hc - b / 3)
Tc is the torsional moment capacity.

The eccentricity e could either be geometrically (e.g a thin


beam deferred against one side of the corbel) or caused by
an angle change for supported members. Even for centric
loading a small unintentional eccentricity could be assu-
med. Recommended value e = b / 10.

3.1.3 Main reinforcement


Required reinforcement area is:
Aerf = Fid / fyd

The main reinforcement is designed from the force Fid. Additional link reinfor-
cement is implemented as below.

3.1.4 Main reinforcement arrangement


The main reinforcement consists of 1, 2 or 3 layers.

An example is shown below:

The top layer is bent down in the back side


of the column while the other layers are clo-
sed links.

Concrete Corbel - Methods of calculation 23


If the corbel height is inadequate and there is not room for all layers in the upper
third and inside h2 a message will be displayed and the input could be changed.
Alternatively the corbel width could be increased in order to make room for
more bars/layer according to the below rules:

If the amount of required main reinforcement is larger


then what is possible to place in the corbel a message
is displayed and the input can be changed.

The reinforcement is arranged in the following way:


First the top layer is filled with as many bars as pos-
sible. Then the second layer is filled and then the
third one if required.

The area corresponding to 1/3 of the corbel height is


shown in the result picture.

3.1.5 Anchorage length


EN 1992-1-1 8.4.2, 8.4.3

The anchorage length lb,req is calculated as:


lb,req = φ /4 (σsd / fbd)

The design stress σsd is calculated as:


σsd = fyd Aerf /As,main
where: As,main is the final main reinforcement.

The ultimate bond strength fbd is calculated as:


fbd = 2.25 η1 η2 fctd
där: η1 = 1.0 ”good conditions”
η2 = 1.0 φ ≤ 32 mm, otherwise η2 = (132 - φ) / 100
fctd = concrete tension capacity.

24 Concrete Corbel - Methods of calculation


All main reinforcement in the corbel is placed
inside the columns main reinforcement.

3.1.6 Additional links


Closed horizontal or inclined links with the below area should be provided in
addition to the main tension reinforcement, see figure.

The link arrangement is shown below:

As,link > k1 As,main

The link reinforcement encloses the columns main reinforcement. In addition a


vertical link is placed as shown above.

Concrete Corbel - Methods of calculation 25


26 Concrete Corbel - Methods of calculation