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Marijuana (Cannabis Sativa L) – it is the oldest cultivated drug
that can be found in Middle East particularly Mesopotamia
now Iraq.

Mesopotamia – Iraq
Persia – Iran

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) – the addictive ingredient of


Marijuana Tops – contains 100% THC

Opium (Papaver Somniferum) – this drug is can be found in

Middle East. It is a dried latex of an Opium Poppy Plant.

Derivatives of Opium
 Heroin – 3x to 5x more powerful than morphine and it is
the most addictive opiate.
 Morphine – The most commonly used pain killer mostly
for military used it has 6x more potent than opium.
 Codeine – commonly used for cough preparation.


 Middle East – Biggest producer of Marijuana.

 Lebanon – The transit country of cocaine from south
America to European illicit drug market.
 Spain – Major transhipment point for international drug
traffickers in Europe and became the paradise of drug
traffickers in Europe.
 South America - Columbia, Peru , Uruguay and Panama
are the principal series of cocaine in the world.
 Mexico – it is the #1 source of Marijuana in the world.
 Philippines (a.ka Haven for Sex) second to Mexico as to
production of marijuana.
- Major transhipment point for the worldwide
distribution of illegal drugs particularly shabu and
marijuana from Taiwan and South America.

- known today as “Drug Paradise of Drug Abusers in


 India – center of the world drugs map leading to rapid

addiction among its people.
 Indonesia – northern Sumatra has traditionally been the
main cannabis growing area in Indonesia.

 Green Triangle (Calinga, Apayao and Mountain Province) –

The biggest production of marijuana in the Philippines.

The most commonly abused drugs in the Philippines is
shabu and the second is marijuana.

 China – is the main source of drugs in Philippines.

- Chinese Triad – a international syndicate it is the
biggest criminal organization in the world that hold
and control the The Golden Triangle (Laos, Myanmar
and Thailand)

 Golden Crescent (India, Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan) – it

is the counterpart of the Golden Traingle that produces

 Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand – the most favourable

sites distribution from the Golden Triangle and other parts
of asia.

Singapore- it is the leading country in Asia that has less
crime rate.
Thailand – The most notorious sex prostitution because
prostitution is legal in this country.

 China – transit route for heroine from the “Golden

Triangle to Hongkong. It is where the “Epedra Plant” is
cultivated – source of the drug Ephedrine – The important
chemical for producing the drug “Shabu”.
 Hongkong – is the world transhipment point if all forms of
 Japan – Major consumer of cocaine and shabu from U.S
and Europe.


Middle East – Discovery, plantation, cultivation and

Turkey – Preparation for Distribution;
Europe – Manufacture. Synthesis and Refine; and
USA – Marketing.


- Drugs originate from the Golden Triangle – contributes
60% opium in the world.

Burma (Myanmar), Laos and Thailand.

 Alcohol – it is known as the king of all drugs.



- Accordingly very little known drugs in the Philippines during

the pre-spanish era. The intoxicants and stimulants used by
the early Filipinos. Were fermented alcoholic beverages and
the masticatory preparations known as “Nga Nga” in
- During the Spanish era, drug control laws prohibited the use
of opium by the native Filipinos and other people except the
Chinese. Chinese residents in the Philippines, particularly
manila and of the more distant Chinese Pariahs (Ghettos)
started smoking opium in 1780.

- In 1906, Partial legislation allowed Chinese addicts to obtain a

liscense to use opium in their homes for a fee of P5.00. The
Opium sale was under the government control and the quantity
was limited.

- In 1908, the total ban of opium was effected the campaigns

continued until the Japanese occupation in 1946 at which point
all supplies of opium were cut of from the country and during
that period the number of opium addicts was probably the
lowest in Asia.

- In 1953, R.A 953 was enacted which provided for the

registration of collection, and the imposition of fixed and
special taxes upon all persons who produce import,
manufacture, compound deal in dispense sell distribute, or give
away opium, marijuana, opium poppies, or coca leaves or any
synthetic drugs which may declared as habit farming.

- President Ferdinand Marcos signed into law R.A 6425 known

as the “dangerous drug act of 1972” on march 30, 1972. This
law was amended by P.D 44 dates November 9, 1972 placed
under custody only narcotics by also psychotropic substances.
-Then in 2002, R.A 9165 known as the Comprehensive
Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002, was enacted reforming the
previous laws. It is provided in the law that instruction on drug
abuse prevention and control shall be integrates up to tertiary
level of all public and private schools.


- There are 6.7 million drug abuser in the Philippines in 2004

- From 1972 there was only believe to have been around 20,000
users in the Philippines.

Shabu – Most abuse drug in Philippines (81.36%)

Marijuana- Second abuse drug in philippines (32.68%)


 Methamphetamine Hydrocholride (Shabu)

 Alcohol
 Marijuana
 Ecstacy
 Inhalants/Solvent
 Nicotine
 Caffeine
Drug – a chemical substance use as medicine or to the making
of medicine which affects the body and mind and have
potential for abuse.



Chasing the dragon – the act of chasing the smoke of shabu.


- any chemically active substance rendering a specific effect on

the central nervous system of man.

-a chemical substance that affects the functions of living cells

and alter body or mind process when taken into the body or
applied through the skin.

- Is a chemical substance that brings about physical, emotional

or behavioural change in a person taking it.
- Any chemical substance other than food which is intended for
used in the diagnosis, treatment, cure, mitigation or prevention
of disease or symptoms.

- The term drug derives from the 14th century French word
“Drouge” which means a dry substance.


Any drug may be harmful when taken in

-dangerous combination
-by hypersensitive (allergic) person.


- Is the overuse or consumption of drugs other than for medical


-using drug without prescription.

-any none medical use of drugs that caused physical,

psychological, legal, economic or social damage to the user or
to the people affected by the user’s behaviour.

-Abuse of drugs and other substances can lead it physical and

psychological dependence.



- drug that excite the central nervous system increasing
alertness, decreasing fatigue delaying sleep, also impale
appetite and cause weight loss.

a. Shabu – streetnames: Poor man’s cocaine, ice, shabs, ubas,

bato, siopao.

Methamphetamine Hydrochloride (Shabu) – a tyoe of

amphetamine also known as poor man’s cocaine.\

- shabu is a white, odourless crystal or crystalline powder with

a bitter numbing taste.

b. Cocaine – an agents that produces a temporary increase of

the functional activity or efficient of an organism or any of its

Streetname – coke, snow, flake, bow

Cocaine – is a drug from the leaves of the coca plants, a shrub

that originated south America. This drug affects the central
nervous system as stimulant.
-The name comes from “coca” and the alkaloid forming


-group of drugs that are used medically to relieve pain, but

have a high potential for abuse.

In medicine, the term opiates describes any of the narcotic

optoid alkaloids found as natural products in the opium poppy
plant , papaver somniferum.

Narcotics – substance that lessens the pain and/or induces


a. Opium – is a dried latex obtained from the opium poppy

(papaver somniferum). Opium contains up to 12% morphine.
An alkaloid which is frequently processed chemically to produce
heroin. The lates also includes codeine.

Opium poppy, papaver somniferum, is the species of plant of

which opium and poppy seeds are derived. Opium is the source
of many narcotics, including morphine (and its derivative
heroin). Thebaine, codeine, papaverine and noscapine. The
latin botanical name means the “sleep bringing poppy referring
to the sedative properties of some of these opiates.

b. Morphine
- it took its name from the greek gods of dreams Morpheus.
- The most abundant alkaloid found in opium the dried sap
(latex) derived from shallowly slicing the unripe seedpods of
the opium, or common and / or edible poppy

- Morphine can usually be found in tablet form a syrup injection

or as suppository form.

- Morphine is usually taken orally via a syrup, tablet or capsule

however it can come in an injectable form.

c. Heroine – Is processed from morphine, a naturally occurring

substance extracted from the seed pod of certain varieties of
poppy plants

It is typically sold as white or brownish powder or as the black

sticky substance known on the streets as “Black Tar Heroin”


- drugs that derived from plants chemical substance woch

affects the perception, sensation, behaviour and produces
hallucination on the user.

Marijuana – is the term uses to describe all the plants material

like leaves, tops, stems, flowers and roots from a cannabis plant
(cannabis sativa) dried and prepares for smoking or takes orally
as “brownies’
- the mind altering component is the tetrahydrocannabinol
(THC) for short. Which is concentrates in the resin.

Drugs that have mind-calming or sleep producing
effect upon the central nervous system
Drugs whose volatile vapors are taken in via the
nose and trachea

- Includes solvents, bases and aerosol, rugby, gasoline, hair

spray, lighter fluid and air freshener.


Methylenedioxymethamphetamine MDMA or commonly

known as “Ecstacy” “X-TC” “Adam” “Eden Tablet, or by its any
other name – refers to the drug having such chemical
composition including any of its isomers or derivatives in any

Sedatives – sedative/hypnotics such as tranquilizers, sleeping

pills, and drugs, which depress or slow down body functions.
These drugs can be dangerous when not taken according to
physician instruction.

Ketamine- is an anaesthetic that is abused for its hallucinogenic

properties. Its predominant legitimate use is as a veterinary
Can cause dream like states and hallucinations. Users report
sensation ranging from a pleasant feeling of floating to being
separated from the bodies. Some ketamine esperties involve a
terrifying feeling of almost complete sensory detachment that
is likened to near death experience.

Amphetamines – is a psychistimulant drug of the

phenetylamine class that produce increased wakefulness and
focus in association with depressed fatigue and appetite.

-Drug that is stimulant to the central bervous system. It is

colorless and may be inhaled, injected or swallowed. It may be
used medically to treat depression and obesity.


 Oral Ingestion – taken by the mouth and must pass

through the stomach before being absorbed in the
 Inhalation – drug in gaseous form enters the lungs and is
quickly absorbed by capillary system.
 Injection – administered into the body bt the use of a
syringe or hypodermic needle.
 Snorting – inhalation through the nose of drugs in gaseous
 Buccal – drug is administered by placing it in the buccal
cavity just under the lips.
Definition of Terms.

 Overdose – when too much drug are taken into the

psychological system of the body. There may be an over
xtension of its effects.
 Allergy – some drugs causes the release of histamine
giving rise to allergic symtoms such as dermatitieds,
sweating, suffocation and death.
 Idiosyncracy – refers to the individual reaction of drug for
unexplained reason.
 Poisonous Property – drugs are chemical and some of
them have he property of being poisons.
 Side Effects – An effects that accompanies the expected
effect of a drug.

Medical Uses of Drugs

 Analgesics – drugs that relieves pain

 Antibiotics – drugs that combat or control infections.
 Antihistamine – those that control or combat allergies.
 Contraceptives – drugs that prevents the meeting of the
egg cell and sperm cell to prevent preganancy.
 Decongestant – relieves congestions if the nasal passage.
 Expectorants – those that causes the expulsion of phlegm
and mucus from the lungs or throat areas.
 Laxatives – those that stimulates deffacation and
encourage bowel movement.
 Sedatives – those that calm and quiet the nerves and
relieves anxiety.
 Vitamins – substance necessary for normal growth and
development of the body.
 Antipioretic – control or combat fever.

Example of Stimulants

 Amphetamine – used medically for weight reducing in

obesity, relief of mild depression and treatment.
 Cocaine – the drug taken from coca bush plant
(erythroxylon coca) grows in south America. It is usually in
the form of powder that can be taken orally, injected or
sniffted as to achieved euphoria or an intense feeling of
 Caffeine – it is present in coffee, tea, chocolate, cola drinks
and some wake up pills.
 Shabu ( Poor man’s cocaine) – chemically known as
methamphetamine hydrocholoride. It is a central nervous
system stimulant and sometimes called “uppers” or
speeds. It is a white bitter numbing taste. It can be taken
orally inhaled, sniffed, or injected.
 Nicotine – an active component in tobacco which acts as a
powerful stimulat of the central nervous system. A drop o
a pure nicotine can easily kill a person.

- are drugs that affects the cetral nervous system causing
relaxation of the body and the mind.

-these drugs, when taken in,generally decrease the mental and

the physical activities of the body. They cause depression
,relieves pain ad induce sedation or sleep and suppress cough.

Example of Depressants

 Narcotics – are drugs which relieve pain and produce

profound sleep or stupor when introduced to the body.
Medically , they are potent painkiller, cough depressants
and as an active component of anti diarrhea preparations.
Opium and It derivatives like morphine, codeine and
heroin as well as the synthetic opiates, meperidine and
methadone are classifies as narcotics.
 Opium (Papaver Somniferum) – or “gum”, “gamut”,
kalamay” or “Panocha”. A plant that can grow from 3-6ft
in height originally in mesopotamia. Its active ingredient is
the meconic acid – the analgesic property of opium
 Morphine – most commonly used and best used opiates,
effective as a painkiller/ 6x more potent that opium with a
high dependence producing potential. Morphine exerts
action characterized by drowsiness, mood changes, and
mental clouding.
 Heroin – it is 3 – 5x potent that morphine. The most
addictive opiate with continued use addiction occurs
within 14 days. It may be sniffed or swallowed but usually
injected in the veins.
 Codeine – an opiate of morphine, commonly available in
cough preparations. These cough medicine have been
widely abused by the youth offender whenever hard
narcotics are difficult to obtain, withdrawal symtoms are
less severe than other drugs.
 Paregoric – a tincture of opium in combination with
camphor. Commonly use as household remedy for
diarrhea and abdominal pain.
 Demerol – is widely used as a painkiller in childbirth.
 Methadone – is the drug of choice in the withdrawal
treatment of heroin.
 Barbiturates – are drugs used fro inducing sleep in person
plagued with anxiety, mental stress and insomnia. They
are also of value in the treatment of epilepsy and
hypertensions. They are available in pills or tablets and
taken orally or injected.
 Seconal – commonly used among hospitality girls sudden
withdrawal from these drug is even more dangerous that
opiate withdrawal.
 Tranquilizers – are drugs that calm , relax and diminish
anxiety. They are used in the treatment of heroin states
and some mental disorders without producing sleep.
 Volatile Solvents – the king of all drugs with potential for

Hallucinogen (Psychedelics)

- any natural or synthetic psychoactive drug that produces

marked distortion of the senses and changes in the perception.

Marijuana – the most abused hallucinogen in the Philippines.

LSD (D – lysergic acid diethylamide) – the most powerful
psychoactive drug that came from ergos plant. Pink in colour.
Peyote – it came from cactus
Psilocybin – induces nausea, came from mushrooms that can
be found in Mexico, used by Indians.
Morning Glory Seeds – produces hallucinations a.k.a pearly
gates, heavenly black

 Hallucination – false perception of absent stimuli

 Illusion – false perception of stimuli
 Delusion – perception of oneself




Drug abuse – refers to the use of drug w/such frequency that

causes physical or mental harm to the user or impairs social
Drug misuse – refers to the improper use of drug.

The Concept of Drug Dependence

- The users continue to take a drug over an extended period of


- The users find it difficult to stop using the drug users take
extraordinary and often harmful measures to continue using
the drugs.

-The users stop taking their drug only if their suplly of the drug
is cut off, or if they are forced to quit for any reason – they will
undergo painful physical or mental distress.


1. Compulsion / uncontrollable craving - the addict feels a

compulsive craving to take drug repeatedly and tries to
produce the same by any means
2. Tolerance – it is the tendency to increase the dose of the
drug to produce the same effect as to that or the original
3. Addiction – the addict is powerless to quit drug use;
characterized by continuous use.
4. Physical Dependence – the addicts physiological
functioning is altered
5. Psychological dependence – emotion and mental
discomfort exist to the individual
6. Withdrawal syndrome – the addict becomes nervous and
restless when he does nor get the drug.


 Family problems
 Lack of parental guidance
 Peer pressure / curiosity
 Boredom, frustration
 Weak personality, desire to escape from reality
 Rebel against family. Friend etc
 Due to illness, depression, anxiety etc
 Poverty


 Injection marks of an addict
 Unusual effort to cover arms in order to hide needle marks
 Stealing items which can be readily solf for cash (to
support a drug habit)
 Changes in mood – depending on the drug taken
 Association with known drug abusers
 Change in attendance a work or school
 Changes from normal capabilities
 Wearing sunglasses constantly at inappropriate times.
 Poor physical appearance, including inattention to dress
and personal hygiene.