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Water supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion Project

Proposal in Alefa, Takusa and Lay-Gayint districts,

Implementing agency Organization for Rehabilitation and Development in


Amhara (ORDA)

Funding Agency A Glimmer of Hope / Charity Water

Contact Ato Wuletaw Hailemariam


Executive director
Phone: 251-058-2200985
Fax: 251-058-2200987
E-mail:orda-1@ethionet.et
www.ordainternational.com
Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

November 2009
Bahir Dar
TABLE OF CONTENTS

I Acronym....................................................................................................................................................ii
II Quick Facts.....................................................................................................................................iii
1 Executive summary........................................................................................................................1
2 Organizational background...........................................................................................................2
3 Funding and awards......................................................................................................................2
4 Area Overview...............................................................................................................................3
5 Project Rationale...........................................................................................................................5
5.1 Lack of access to safe and adequate water................................................................................................5
5.2 Lack of access to sanitation facilities........................................................................................................6
5.3 Lack of adequate sanitation and hygiene education..................................................................................7
5.4 Overburden of constructed water schemes...............................................................................................7
6 Project Design and Implementation...............................................................................................7
6.1 Participation..............................................................................................................................................7
6.2 Capacity Building of CBOs......................................................................................................................8
6.3 Mass hygiene and sanitation education.....................................................................................................8
6.4 Integrated Approach.................................................................................................................................9
6.5 Mainstreaming of Cross-Cutting Issues....................................................................................................9
6.6 Community Mobilization..........................................................................................................................9
7 Partners.........................................................................................................................................9
8 Social and Environmental Impact..................................................................................................9
9 Sustainability...............................................................................................................................10
9.1 Economical Sustainability......................................................................................................................10
9.2 Social sustainability................................................................................................................................10
9.3 Environmental sustainability..................................................................................................................10
9.4 Technological suitability.........................................................................................................................10
10 Project Risks................................................................................................................................11
11 Implementation Timeline.............................................................................................................11
12 Learning, Monitoring and Evaluation.........................................................................................11
13 Exit Strategy..................................................................................................................................12

Water supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion Project Proposal in Alefa Takussa and Lay Gayint districts i
I Acronym

A GOH A Glimmer of Hope

ANRS Amhara National Regional State

AWD Acute watery Diarrhea

CBO Community Based Organization

DAs Development Agents

ERO Ethiopia Relief Organization

FGD Focus Group Discussion

HDW Hand Dug Well

HEWs Health Extension Workers

NGO Non-Governmental Organization

ORDA Organization for Rehabilitation and Development in Amhara

SHW Shallow Well

SPD Spring Development

SSHE School, Sanitation and Hygiene Education

TPL Traditional Pit Latrine

UNICEF United Nation International Children Fund

VIPL Ventilated Improved Pit Latrine

WASH Water supply, sanitation and Hygiene

WASHCO Water supply, Sanitation and Hygiene committee

WHO World Health Organization

Water supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion Project Proposal in Alefa Takussa and Lay Gayint districts ii
II Quick Facts
Amount Requested form Charity Water 998,075.70 US dollar

For proposed project, budget total 1,199,147.70US dollar

Predicted number of consumers/beneficiaries 69,258people

Number of water projects requested

 162 Hand Dug Wells


 52 Spring Development works

Number of Latrines and hand-washing stations

 9 double block latrines (18 block with eight seats )


 8 two seats ventilated improved pit latrines

 3940 household pit latrines

Number of projects at schools (if any)

 9 double block latrines


 6 HDWs

 Establish and strengthening 12 schools health clubs

Number of projects at health institution (if any)

 8 two seats VIPLs


 4 HDW

Water supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion Project Proposal in Alefa Takussa and Lay Gayint districts iii
1 Executive summary
Alefa, Takusa and Lay Gaint districts water supply, sanitation and hygiene promotion project aims to improve the
health situation of 69,258people of the poor rural people in the Alefa, Takusa and Lay Gayint districts of Amhara
region. The communities in these districts are currently suffering from chronic health problems due to lack of
access to clean and adequate water, sanitation and hygiene education that in turn resulted in poor economic status.
The project will address these key needs which form the basis of all development through participatory, inclusive
and effective means to bring about the following life changing project purposes:

 The safe water supply coverage of the districts increased by 21.6%, 15.6% and 1.44% in Alefa, Takusa and
Lay Gayint districts respectively,
 Elapsed time to fetch water for rural women and girls reduced from 3- 4 hours to 30 minutes after project
implementation,

 The project district population with access to and use of sanitation facilities increased by 6.4 %, 5.3% and
0.83% in Alefa, Takusa and Lay Gayint districts respectively,

Moreover, the implementation of this project will also contribute in achieving the millennium development goals
(specifically to Ensure Environmental Sustainability, Reduce Child mortality, Achieve Universal / Primary
education and Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger) of the nation.

The project will have primary beneficiaries of 69,258 people with access to safe and adequate water, sanitation
and hygiene education. Of this figure 7142 are students that will benefit from the constructed water and sanitation
facilities in educational schools. This will be achieved through the construction of 214 water supply schemes,
construction of 9 double block (each with eight seats) and 8 two seats VIPL with hand washing facilities in
health posts, 4280 households pit latrines, capacitating of different stakeholders through training and mass health
education. The project assures equality principles by placing the beneficiary communities at the heart of all
project activities, promoting the active participation and inclusion of all members and taking into account
accessibility, and gender to achieve sustainable and lasting impacts.

Organization for Rehabilitation and Development in Amhara (ORDA) will implement with the active
participation of the local government and the target beneficiaries. During project implementation target
population, CBOs, grass root government structure, district water offices, health offices and woreda
administrations are significant partners. The project will be implemented by integrating water supply, sanitation
facilities and mass hygiene education as a package, community participation, and Capacity development of grass
root CBOs.

The total budget required for the execution of project activities for the period December 2009 to November, 2010
is 1,199,147.7 US dollar. The contribution of A Glimmer of Hope is 83.3% (998,075.70 US dollar.), the
community contribution is 5.5% (66472 US dollar.) and ORDA is 11.2%(134, 600 US dollar) of the total budget.
The community will contribute in terms of free labor and local material provision. ORDA also will contribute in
allocating personnel costs, vehicle purchase and others logistical supports in-kind.

Water supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion Project Proposal in Alefa Takussa and Lay Gayint districts 1
2 Organizational background
Organization for Rehabilitation and Development in Amhara (ORDA) was founded in February 1984 as Ethiopian
Relief Organization (ERO). ORDA delivers 25 years of services to the people of Amhara region, Ethiopia. Since
its establishment, ORDA plays defining roles in arresting disaster and extending basic services to the poor people
in their effort for sustainable development through food and livelihood security and poverty alleviation strategies.
ORDA as a learning organization has also consistently renovated itself to respond to the changing needs of the
communities' and demands of the internal and external environment by working in close collaboration with the
government, donors, communities, CBOs and the grass-roots public institutions.

In 1991, ORDA registered as a local, humanitarian, non-governmental organization (NGO) and until 1996
continued its work mainly focusing on extending its previous relief and rehabilitation services integrated with soil
and water conservation activities. Due to growing and immense community demands for its services, and
presence of enabling government policies and donors support, the need to avail strategic documents and making a
strategic shift in organizations' approach has become indispensable. For these reasons, the first strategic plan
(1997- 2003) had been endorsed.

In the second strategic plan period, (2004 -2008), participation of all stakeholders (grass root organizations,
cooperatives, associations, user groups, CBOs and government bodies) at all programs and projects cycles has
enabled ORDA to mobilize community resources and to achieve its strategic goals. Working in partnership and
collaboration with local and international NGOs, networks and research institutes has enabled ORDA to adapt
innovative and appropriate technologies and refine its best practices and improve its excellence. Mainstreaming of
gender, HIV/AIDS, HTP and capacity building across all development activities significantly contributed in
changing the knowledge, practice and attitude of people.

The third strategic plan (2009- 2013) has also been prepared and started implementation of the planned
programs to contribute for the overall efforts of ensuring food, livelihood and environmental security that realizes
sustainable development and social transformation in Amhara region. ORDA envisions poverty free people of
Amhara region, Ethiopia. Its missions are: Empowering poor communities and their organizations in Amhara to
achieve livelihoods and environmental security and strives to realize its mission through food security and
agricultural development, water resources development and hygiene- sanitation promotion, forest resource
development and environmental protection programs and mainstreaming of cross cutting issues such as capacity
development, gender, HIV/AIDS and Harm full traditional practices.

ORDA has rich experience in managing water resources development program activities for more than a decade.
In the last thirteen years (1996 – 2009) ORDA constructed 3,086 water schemes (2,122 hand dug wells, 923
springs, 21 roof catchment, 11 deep wells, 6 semi urban networked water supply systems and 3 ponds and
promote hygiene and sanitation facilities and benefited 1,345,520 people till June 2009. For its best success in the
lives of poor people, ORDA won the “2008 National WASH Movement Award “.

3 Funding and awards


Currently various donors are being involved in supporting ORDA’s projects in the areas of potable water supply,
promotion of hygiene and sanitation, development of small scale irrigation, forest development, environmental
protection, biodiversity; in general livelihood development and food security projects. Currently, the main donors
are; CHF, NOVIB, FHI, CIDA, EU/GAA, USAID, A GOH foundation (Charity water, MSDF and WINE for
Water) Water Aid, Water Partners International, UNICEF, Japan Embassy, Oxfam GB, Brook Ethiopia, Plan
Ethiopia, NORAD, WFP, World Bank, FAO, CRDA, SLUF, IIRR, Action Aid Ethiopia, SIDA/Amhara, regional
food security office and HAPCO etc.
Water supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion Project Proposal in Alefa Takussa and Lay Gayint districts 2
ORDA received funding from Charity water during 2009 for the implementation of water supply, sanitation and
hygiene promotion activities through A Glimmer of Hope foundation. The project is implemented in Lay Gayint
district and benefited a total of 43,640 people. The project implementation increased the district water supply and
hygiene& sanitation coverage from 39% to 56.18% and 5.48% to 22.4% respectively. It reduced the prevalence
of water borne diseases in the area through creating access to clean and adequate water supply and promoting
hygiene and sanitation facilities.

The organizational budget utilization of ORDA in 2008 year is 109,601,118.63 Eth. birr. Out of the total budget
utilized, 36,724,063.77 Eth. birr is used for the execution of safe water supply, sanitation and hygiene
programme.

4 Area Overview
Ethiopia is one of the least developed countries in the World which is found in the horn of Africa. It is the second
populous country in Africa; 73.9 million people of which 84.6% live in rural (2007 National census). The country
is characterized by diversified agro ecology and known in the continent as a tower of water and roof of Africa.
The nation has known in traditional farming system (crop production, livestock rearing, fishery, forest and
horticulture production system etc). However the nation is characterized by lack alternative income sources, high
population pressure, low social and economic service and improper utilization of natural resources like land and
water.

The Amhara National Regional State (ANRS) is one of the Regions of the Federal Democratic Republic of
Ethiopia. Geographically it is located between 9 0 29’ - 140 0’ North latitude and 36 0 20’– 400 20’ East longitude
coordinates. The total area of the Region is estimated to be 170,152 km 2 which constitutes 15% of the country.
According to the 2007 national population census, the region has 17.21 million people.

Amhara Region is the source of Blue Nile and the region also shares the Tekeze and Awash basins. The project
areas fall in the Abay basin. The biggest Lake of the country, Lake Tana is also found in this region. Amhara
region is gifted with huge amount of surface and ground water resources. However, the water resources potential
of the region is still underutilized and the people are not getting the necessary social and economical benefits out
of it. For example the potable water coverage of the region is not more than 52% (rural 47% and urban 85%). The
sanitation coverage of the region is very low as compared to potable water supply coverage. The primary health
care service of the region is 94.1%. The gross enrollment ratio of Amhara region is 99.8%. The literacy level of
the region is 37.91 percent (Development indicators of Amhara region, 2008).

North and South Gondar administrative zones are two zones of the 11 Administrative zones in Amhara National
Regional State found in North West of Ethiopia. North Gondar zone has 23 districts and 3 administrative towns
while South Gondar has 12 districts. The current potable water coverage, primary education and health service
coverage of North Gondar zone is 51.89%, 77.4%and 94.6% respectively. The project areas (Takussa and Alefa
districts) are found in North Gondar administrative Zone, 858 and 909 km away from Addis Ababa respectively. It
is located in North West of Ethiopia and 100 and 162 km away from Gondar, zonal capital respectively. While
Lay Gayint is found in South Gondar administrative zone 210 km from North East of Bahir Dar. Both project
districts are connected with all weather gravel road. The district capital of Takusa is Delgi, located along the shore
of Lake Tana, the district capital of Alefa is Shahura, while Lay Gayint is at Nifas Mewucha.

A Glimmer of Hope/MSDF and WINE for Water and ORDA jointly launched water supply, sanitation and
hygiene promotion projects in Takusa district during 2009 fiscal year. During this period, 39 water supply
schemes are constructed and serving properly for 18,676 people. And also in Lay Gayint district in 2009 year, 108
water supply projects and sanitation facilities constructed. Currently, Takusa and Alefa districts have

Water supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion Project Proposal in Alefa Takussa and Lay Gayint districts 3
31.8%/14.3%, 50%/20.8%, 81%/ 87% and 91%/68.9% potable water coverage, sanitation coverage, primary
education and health service coverage respectively. And due to the implemented 2009 year charity water projects,
lay Gayint district has reached potable water coverage 56.18% and sanitation coverage 22.4%.The potable water
coverage of the districts is very lower as compared to their respective zones. In fact, the great majority of the rural
population fetches drinking water from unprotected sources (rivers; springs, Lake Tana, ponds, rain water,
developed pit near to river sand deposited and traditional hand dug wells). These water sources are not well
protected from wild and domestic animals’ and human beings’ urine and faeces. People’s practice of open
defecation accelerates the contamination of water sources.

Most population of the districts suffered from water borne and water washed diseases. The extent of acute watery
diarrhea epidemic diseases is more serious in Takusa than Alefa and Lay Gayint districts. In the year 2007 and
2008, AWD epidemic disease prevailed in Takusa. After a while the implemented water, sanitation and hygiene
promotion projects of MSDF and WINE for water helped to reduce the incidence of the disease in the project area
till August 2009.

Table 1 Project background information (2009)

S/N Description Takusa Alefa district Lay Gayint


district
1 No of kebeles in the district 25 25 33
2 District population 157,833 178,251 238,495
3 No of target kebele in the proposed project 7 5 2
4 Target kebele population 74,139 50,212 19,784
5 Topography
5.1 Rugged (%) 20 30 70
5.2 Mountainous (%) 35 30 15
5.3 Plain % 40 40 10
5.4 Valley (%) 5 5
6 Agro climate
6.1 Dega 40
6.2 Woina Dega (%) 42 45 45
6.3 Kolla (%) 58 55 7
6.4 Wurich 8
6.5 Average annual rainfall in mm 950-1500mm 950-1500mm 600-1000mm
7 Development indicators
7.1 Primary education coverage (%) 81 87
7.2 Health service coverage (%) 91 68.9
7.3 Sanitation coverage (%) 50 20.8 22.4
7.4 Potable water coverage (%) 31.8 14.3 56.18
8 District total area in hectare 190,283 189,285 132,031

Alefa district is covered by volcanic rock and reddish clay soil while Takusa is alluvial deposit. In these areas, the
presence of highly weathered, fractured, jointed and shear zone, dike and covered by big natural tree and bushes
which help easy infiltration of rain water into the ground. These structures serve as ground water conduits and
increase ground water storage and transmission capacity of the area. In the selected project villages, particularly
in Alfa district, presence of high discharge spring water and swampy areas are natural phenomenon. In addition to
ground water, Lake Tana, perennial and intermittent rivers help the target people in using sand pit water during
dry season for domestic purposes. Lay Gayint district has also rich in surface springs.

Water supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion Project Proposal in Alefa Takussa and Lay Gayint districts 4
5 Project Rationale
Water is a basic necessity for life. Unfortunately not all water is safe for human consumption. Water from
contaminated sources causes numerous diseases and untimely death. The fact that human beings need water and
cannot live without it forces them to use it even for drinking purpose from any contaminated source as the result
many people suffer or die from water borne disease (Gobena T., 2006). The situation is worse in Amhara region
and project districts. Also access to water supply and sanitation is a fundamental need and a human right. Access
for the poor is a key factor in improving health and economic productivity and therefore an essential component
of any effort to alleviate poverty (WHO/ UNICEF Global water supply and sanitation assessment report, 2001).
Access to water and sanitation services and quality in Amhara region and in the project districts in particular is
very low. This is mainly due to financial constraint and delay of infrastructure development in the project areas.

5.1 Lack of access to safe and adequate water

Alefa, Takusa and Lay Gayint districts have extremely low water coverage rates. Currently, 85.7%, 68.2% and
43.8 % of Alefa , Takusa and Lay Gayint districts and 88.1%, 62.5% and 52.7% of the target Kebeles population
fetch water from unprotected rivers, springs, ponds, Lake Tana and traditional hand dug wells respectively.
Surface water resources in the project areas are not safe and sufficient for human and livestock consumption,
especially during the dry season from January to May and their use exposes the communities to various water
associated diseases. Because of the 2009 charity water project in Lay Gayint district, the percentage of people that
fetch on unprotected water sources are relatively low. And also for the reason that MSDF and WINE for water
intervention in Takusa district, the unprotected water users are lower than Alefa district targets.

 Five of the top ten common diseases in both districts are those associated with the lack of safe water supply
and hygiene/sanitation. Information collected during field surveys in Alafa and Takusa from the district
government health offices and from the community needs assessment clearly highlights water born diseases
(AWD, Amoeba, Giardiasis, Typhoid, bacillary dysentery etc), water washed diseases (like scabies, trachoma
etc) and water related diseases (malaria). The conducted surveillance report indicated that, the prevalence of
AWD cases in Takusa district is 877(2007), 311(2008). For instance in 2008 year, Mekonta(97),
Chemera(61),Chankie(53), Delgi(26), Sebiserako(22),Chachialewa(20), Arema(11), kurabas (6),Goy(4) and
in other kebeles (11) cases recorded in Takusa district ( Takusa health office surveillance report, 2009).
 The existing gender roles showed that water fetching is the responsibility of women and girls. In the focus
group discussion, it is revealed that women spent time in long travel and queuing period. They spent on
average a total of 3-4 hours for round trip travel including queuing time. This time is spent in fetching water
from unprotected water sources. Women and girls fetch water two to three times a day. Since they loss their
energy and time for water fetching, women are not doing their house management in time and have
insufficient time to perform productive activities and get rest. Similarly, girls are not following their education
properly and they drop out and fail. In critical water scarce period, women were forced to stay half of the
midnight at the existing water sources.

 Conflicts also exacerbated at different water sources between men, women, boys and girls. The number of
Water supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion Project Proposal in Alefa Takussa and Lay Gayint districts 5
conflicts arises during dry period.

Case story: Priest Melese Semagne is a religious leader living in Cheba mogeda kebele. He stated that at the
water scheme of their village conflicts are frequently observed during fetching and queuing time. One day
there were a lot of people at the spring source. Among the people, two young boys quarreled to each other to
fetch water with out considering their order. Due to this conflict, one of the boys was highly injured on his
head and taken to the health center for treatment. After long days he cured. The other boy that made injure on
his colleague, punished by the court of the district to stay in a prison for a year. His father was also punished
600 birr to cover the medical cost of the victim.

 The current level of water consumption per capita on average is 10 and 12 liters per person per day in
Takusa and Alefa districts respectively. This amount of water is by considering only the quantity not the
quality. This implies that the beneficiaries do not get enough and safe water as compared to the national
standard of the country (20 litters /head/day). The main reasons for this lower rate are: lack of access to
safe water, long fetching distance, low awareness of communities on personal hygiene and high queuing
time requirement.

5.2 Lack of access to sanitation facilities

The prevalence of water related diseases is exacerbated due to lack of knowledge and proper hygiene and
sanitation services. Open defecation is a common practice in most of the community. The districts health
offices indicated that the sanitation (latrine) coverage is just 20.8% in Alefa, 50% in Takusa and 22.4% in
Lay Gayint district. In the targeted kebele, the average sanitation coverage is 15.3%, 44.4% and 67% in
Alefa, Takusa and Lay Gayint districts respectively. This implies that 84.7%, 55.6% and 33% of Alefa,
Takusa and Lay Gayint target kebeles population defecate in open fields. Currently solid waste, liquid waste
and hand washing facilities coverage of Alefa and Takusa districts are 20.8 % and 50.2% respectively but
those facilities are seasonal and proper use of them is not made.

Most people in the area, especially women, have to wait until it gets dark to go to the toilet often walking long
distances to find isolated spots due to long existed culture of the people. As FGD participants stated, in order
to abolish this bad culture, joint efforts required but too low.

Lack of hygiene and sanitation facilities are seen widely in Takusa district, Delgi town. In this town large
number of poor people lived in slum areas without access of land for construction of individual traditional pit
latrines. Because of the aforementioned reasons and lack of awareness, the community members practiced
open defecation along the beach of Lake Tana. And also those people that did not cover the cost of municipal
water fee rate (20 cents/20 litre) use Lake Tana and the nearest river for drinking and other domestic purposes.
These resulted in Deligi town 236 and 26 AWD disease cases were seen in 2007 and 2008 years respectively.

Lack of facilities and poor hygiene affect both girls and boys although poor sanitation conditions at schools
have a stronger negative impact on girls. All girls should have access to safe, clean, separate and private
sanitation facilities in their schools. If there are no latrines and hand washing facilities at schools, many
children would rather not attend than use the alternatives. In particular girls who are old enough to menstruate
need to have adequate facilities at schools and normally separate from those of boys. If they don’t, they may
miss classes that week and find it hard to catch up which makes them more likely to drop out of school
(SSHE, Lizette B., UNICEF, 2000). Similarly in the project districts, health and education institutes lack safe
water supply and sanitation facilities. Students are compelled to leave their education in searching drinking

Water supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion Project Proposal in Alefa Takussa and Lay Gayint districts 6
water for long distances from unprotected sources and girls miss school during menstrual period.

5.3 Lack of adequate sanitation and hygiene education

During FGD, the participants of the group assured that they have limited practices of washing the water
collection container before fetching and also the storage container too. Some women have prepared the plug
for the storage container. They use narrow mouth water collection container which helps to reduce
contamination of water. In their experience, women did not use detergent for keeping the collection container
clean. As seen in the field assessment, the bottom of collection container is very dirty and green.

After the start of implementation of the national health strategies that focuses on prevention, efforts are made
to adopt the different sanitation facilities in Alefa, Takusa and Lay Gayint districts through mass hygiene and
sanitation education and house to house visit. They introduced using of traditional pit latrine at household
level. Only few households used to wash their hands after visiting their toilets. Recently, a small number of
women started using toilets during day time which was not practiced due to the culture of the community.
Very few households also prepared cover materials for the latrine holes. In the FGD particularly in Alefa
district, the demand for sanitation services is generally lower than for water, as many people do not associate
improved sanitation with improved health. Majority of the households in the project areas live together with
their animals and collect water for all domestic purposes including drinking and cooking from sources in
which their livestock also drink and defecate.

Besides the use of unsafe water, the extremely poor sanitation conditions and very low level of hygiene
education further exposed the communities to a variety of diseases including malaria, intestinal parasites,
AWD, skin infections, eye diseases, and upper respiratory throat infections etc. Those diseases led them to
high medical costs, an increased rate of mortality as well as a negative impact on the ability to work due to
poor health.

5.4 Overburden of constructed water schemes

In some of the constructed water projects of Charity water (Lay Gayint district) overload observed beyond the
standard that set by the regional Bureau of Water Resources Development. This might have a quick negative
impact to its delivery of services for the design life span. It will leads to breakage of water schemes,
diminishing of ground water, long queuing period etc. And the existence of some more projects in the target
villages of the district will ensure the wise utilization and sustainability of the implemented 108 water
schemes in 2009 year. Since time is required to bring life changing behavioral transformation in the rural
communities of the project districts.

Project Familiarization
At the start of the project for all stakeholders (at different level) will organized workshops in Alefa and Takusa
districts to review all proposed work plan, create enabling environment of the operational plan and clarify
roles and responsibilities of partners and beneficiaries. During the workshop, joint monitoring and evaluation
plan is also expected to develop.

Safe and adequate Water supply

Water supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion Project Proposal in Alefa Takussa and Lay Gayint districts 7
Study and design of water schemes: Studies will include identification of potential water sites. Design will
be made for water schemes. The project will implement HDW and SPD technologies based on the existing
water potential of the locality and population. In the districts, for Hand dug well projects Afredive hand
pumps will be used.
Spring Developments: Based on existing water potential of the locality, spring developments have been
identified as one of the preferred technologies for this project. The components of one spring structure may
vary based on the critical period of the spring discharge. It includes the capping structure, reservoir/collection
chamber, cloth washing, and cattle trough. All of the components of a spring connected from the main caped
water source through pipelines.
Hand dug wells: The other identified technology option is the hand dug well. This is a traditional method of
obtaining groundwater in rural areas of the developing world, dug by hand up to an average depth of 12 -15m.
The wells are lined to prevent pollution and make them more stable. To prevent water pollution and stable the
well, it will line with concrete cylinders. The super structure covered with cover slab to prevent waste water
seeping back in to the well. The design of the structure considers to easily carrying the water collection
container on back of women and girls. Drainage channel is also constructed to prevent the formation of
puddles of wastewater. All HDW schemes may have cloth washing basins.
Water quality testing: Pre-construction, water quality test at all spring sources will be undertaken. In addition
after HDW water scheme is built, before delivery of its function to the target communities, a water quality test
is carried out. The test is to ensure the suitability of the water for drinking and identify any potential
microbiological contamination and for further treatment.

Promote Sanitation Facilities


Traditional pit latrines: One of the latrine types that will be demonstrated is the most common type, the dry
pit latrine . The main criteria are that the pit should be at least three meters deep and completely above the
water table. The sitting floor of the pit latrine should be strong and easy to clean, with a drop hole and foot
pads. A shelter will built from existing local materials to provide privacy.

VIPL construction: In each target schools, eight seat pit latrine will be constructed and also two seat VIPL
will be constructed in all health posts. The VIPL will construct in hallow concrete in all health posts. In each
school hand washing facilities integrated with the latrines. Two VIPLs will construct in different places for
boys and girls in a school.

Water supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion Project Proposal in Alefa Takussa and Lay Gayint districts 8
6 Project Design and Implementation
6.1 Participation
A community based approach will be adopted as the most effective means of empowering communities to
manage their own water supply schemes and sanitation facilities. Active participation of district stakeholders and
the beneficiary communities will be ensured from the very beginning and at every stage of the project cycle. The
beneficiaries are the main actors of the project in implementation, monitoring and evaluation and managing of
schemes and their sanitation facilities. During FGD, beneficiary participants ensured to contribute locally
available resources for construction of projects. Collaborations and linkage among partners will be strengthened.
Similarly, ORDA will work in close collaboration with local government offices that are responsible for the
project area and those are vital to give the project work real legitimacy and sustainability and ensure the activities
fit in with the community and government priorities.

6.2 Capacity Building of CBOs


Currently, the established CBOs are trying to manage the water supply schemes properly and arrange a scheduled
time for fetching water. Prior to construction of the water supply schemes, the water and sanitation committee
mobilizes the start up capital for future operation and maintenance. The committee also decides the water fee by
discussing with water beneficiaries. Currently in the project areas the monthly collected water fee per a household
ranges from 1.5 to 2 birr. In few water supply schemes, they collect water fee during fetching time (10 cents for
20 litres) in rural villages. The collected water fee is used for guard payment, operation and maintenances. In Sebi
Serako kebele, 80 birr/ month is being saved for operation and maintenance. These trend needs to be expanded to
others kebeles.

To capacitate CBOs like water and sanitation committees, scheme care takers and village hygiene communicators,
training will be given to discharge their responsibility in managing their water supply and promoting hygiene and
sanitation practices in their village. VHCs are the main agents of the action to bring attitudinal change among
community members. They conduct house to house visits to teach the community on latrine use, appropriate solid
and liquid waste management, hand washing after defecation, food hygiene promotion and the safe drinking water
from “source-to-mouth”

Refreshment trainings will organize for the water and sanitation committees, care takers and village hygiene
communicators by identifying the critical gaps in operations, management, and hygiene and sanitation promotion.
And joint monitoring of water schemes at the spot level including the beneficiaries, watsanco, and other
stakeholder will be conducted. Through these women, men, boys and girls will empowered for long lasting
utilization of water points through ensuring environmental sustainability.

6.3 Mass hygiene and sanitation education


Development agents (DAs) and health extension workers (HEWs) capacitated through training to equip them on
knowledge and skill of mass hygiene and sanitation education. Mass hygiene and sanitation education will be
given at religious institutions, community social occasions and house to house visit. In addition school health
clubs will be established, capacitated and will exercise the hygienic behaviour and utilization of sanitation
facilities effectively. And Schools will be considered as centre of hygiene and sanitation promotion. Training will
be given for schools health club leaders jointly with district health offices on school health. Mainly it focuses on
to teach the practice of hygiene and health to students both at school and at home and to build and utilize
sanitation facilities like solid waste disposal and to keep the cleanliness of school compounds. The clubs will
teach the community hygiene and sanitation practices through presentation of poems and dramas.

Water supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion Project Proposal in Alefa Takussa and Lay Gayint districts 9
The mass education is expected to have each household of the target village with their TPLs with hand washing
facilities. In addition public institution (health post and schools) will have access to water supply and sanitation
facilities. In health post two seats and school with eight seats VIPL will be constructed. School VIPLs is
constructed for boys and girls separately. In both project districts, sanitation facilities (dry waste disposal pit,
liquid waste seepage, fuel wood saving stove, and others) promoted at individual household level. These will be
built by the community members next to their homes to safely manage waste and keep a safe clean environment
around their households. It is a simple hand dug pit where waste and litter can be placed. In general the mass
hygiene and sanitation education will aware the districts target community to associate the improved sanitation
with improved health.

6.4 Integrated Approach


To maximise the impact of this project an integrated approach combining safe and adequate water provision,
promotion of sanitation facilities, capacity development of beneficiary population on keeping personal hygiene
and environmental sanitation, source to mouth handling and utilization of water, and practical knowledge and
skill also adequately provided for watsanco, care takers and village hygiene communicators.

6.5 Mainstreaming of Cross-Cutting Issues


To reduce existing gender disparity, reduce harm full traditional practice and protect the environment from
degradation, due attention will be given in awareness raising. Women’s’ participation in planning, implementation
and evaluation will be ensured significantly in water, hygiene and sanitation projects. Women will be encouraged
to actively get involved in WatSanCo and village hygiene communicators.

6.6 Community Mobilization


Community conferences will be held at Kebele level to create demand and raise awareness and promote the water
supply, sanitation and hygiene projects. The community will participate for communal projects in a group and
individually for their household sanitation facilities. For the execution of communal works, the beneficiaries
organized, strengthened in sub development team and hence active community participation enhanced. The kebele
administration, manager, DAs and HEWs will take part in mobilizing the community. The district respective
offices will coordinate the community mobilization.
The beneficiaries could participate in terms of provision of labor, local available material (stone, sand, poles) and
pumping knowledge during implementation of the projects. When monetized, the contribution of project
beneficiaries estimated 5.12% (66472 US dollar) of the total budget of the project.
In Alefa and Takusa districts, the project intervention kebeles are selected with due consideration of incidence of
AWD diseases, high population, low water and sanitation coverage and accessibility during dry periods. While in
Lay Gayint district the project target kebeles are selected by considering those water schemes that faced
overburden with beneficiary population. And the selected targets in Alefa and Takusa districts are tried to be
clustered for better management of project implementation. The process is coordinated by ORDA, woreda
administration and respective offices. The proposed specific water sites are identified in the FGD with target
beneficiary representatives, development agents, kebele administrators, health extension workers, religious
leaders and existing CBOs like edirs.

7 Partners

At district level water, education and health offices play fundamental role in promoting water, sanitation and
hygiene practices. The beneficiary community, youth association and “edirs” are the main partners at grass roots
level. The regional Bureaus of their respective offices are also partners.

Water supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion Project Proposal in Alefa Takussa and Lay Gayint districts 10
8 Social and Environmental Impact

During project implementation, all user communities will be involved to build sense of ownership. The executed
project will benefit all members of the society (men, women, children, boys and girls). Hygiene and sanitation
education also be given for all. To maintain the potential ground water, the agriculture and rural development
offices will construct soil and water conservation measures (Bunds and check dam) in upper catchments of the
water supply scheme and planting of trees promoted as live fencing of water schemes.

9 Sustainability

The planned projects will be constructed as per the standard. Emphasis is given for both hard ware and software
aspect of the projects. Currently the local government is involved in provision of safe water supply, sanitation and
hygiene promotion. In this regards, the health offices are promoting sanitation facilities and hygiene education by
the assigned two females HEWs per kebele to implement the health packages. On the other hand the water office
is also involved in provision of water supply in limited government and World Bank budget. In Lay Gayint
district, the project will promote social works in order to ensure the sustainability of the constructed 108 water
schemes through enhancing their capacity on management of water schemes, strengthening of water fee system,
personal hygiene and environmental sanitation, financial management, and repair of water scheme.

9.1 Economical Sustainability

The project will improve the health status, reduce women work load and provide time to get engaged in
agricultural and other income generating activities. It also reduces the medication costs. In general it will increase
the overall production and productivity of the targets. In the focus group discussion, the beneficiaries agreed to
ensure the economical sustainability of each water supply scheme by contributing 20 - 30.00 Eth. Birr/beneficiary
household as a startup capital for future operation and maintenance before the construction commences. The
collected cash will be deposited under the name of the water scheme committee members in a near by Credit and
Saving Institution. Moreover, they decided to establish regular water fee system so that using the revenue from
this system; they will cover the expenses of the schemes that would be for operation, maintenance and guard
salary. In one of the project kebele of Takusa district, the Watsan committees used the collected water fee for loan
of water scheme beneficiaries to increase their capital of operation and maintenance cost of the scheme from the
loan interest. Attention will be given for scaling up such practice in order to ensure the economic sustainability of
the project.

9.2 Social sustainability

It is to mean that in the implementation of development projects required to maintain the desired social values,
traditions, institutions and other social characteristics. The WatSanCo, care takers and VHCs will be elected by
the society democratically using acceptable social norms. And the training of members will help the beneficiaries
to improve their knowledge and develop social by laws like: setting water fetching time, and amount and time of
water fee for the proper management of water schemes based on the culture and values of the community. All
WASH committees will have lawful acceptance by water users and local government.

9.3 Environmental sustainability

Proper care will be taken to avoid any soil erosion, flood problem, accumulation of stagnant water around the
schemes that may suitable for the breeding of mosquito and other water related disease due to the construction of
water schemes. Furthermore, the traditional improved pit latrines will be constructed from locally available
materials in a way that maintains and keeps the cleanliness of the locality and avoid spread of communicable

Water supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion Project Proposal in Alefa Takussa and Lay Gayint districts 11
diseases. The project beneficiaries will also construct check dams and bunds to prevent gully development and
enhance ground water recharge.

9.4 Technological suitability

In both project districts, technologies that are suitable to the natural condition, relatively low level of technologies
(most hand dug wells, springs and pit latrine are used) and also these technologies require low management and less
input. This will enable the beneficiaries to manage the water supply schemes and sanitation facilities adequately. The
water supply technologies are selected based on the water potential of the locality. After the establishment of the
services, no more materials are imported rather they can buy in the districts and zonal capital town. After construction,
to maintain the technical sustainability of the project, scheme care takers (2 person/ scheme) will take training about
scheme operation and maintenance. Besides, the scheme care takers will get maintenance tool kits that will enable them
to undertake simple maintenance by their own. In addition, the district water resources development offices have
experience in conducting operation if any defect occurs at the water supply projects.

10 Project Risks

High inflation and/or escalation of construction material prices may impact the project planned activities. And also the
extended rainy season may affect the project implementation in delaying due to plain land feature of the target areas.
Hence, to minimize the risks efficient project management and in time implementation of the project will be the
solution, and timely singing of the Project Grant Agreement.

11 Implementation Timeline

The project activities will be implemented in a year time from December 2009 through November 2010. In the
fist quarter of the implementation period, most preparatory works of the project (familiarization workshop,
mobilization of local materials, procurements and transporting of industrial material etc) are to be accomplished
to create enabling environment for the implementation of projects. While the construction and capacity
development of the projects will be executed starting from first quarter on wards (Look the detail in the attached
implementation timeline annex).

12 Learning, Monitoring and Evaluation

To ensure timely and effective implementation, regular joint monitoring and evaluation visits will take place with
the active participation of all key stakeholders including the beneficiary communities, local government offices,
ORDA and possibly A GOH/ charity water.

Milestones of project implementation:

 214 water schemes constructed (162 HDW, 52 SPD,) in three project districts,
 9 double (6m x 6m) block VIPL in schools and 8 two seats VIPL in health post with hand washing
facilities constructed,
 Bacteriological water quality test conducted for 214 water schemes, the water quality test will be
conducted at zonal water resource development water laboratory in collaboration with North and South
Gonder Office of water resource development.
 4280 household pit latrines with hand washing facilities constructed,
 12 new school health clubs established in Alefa and Takusa districts and 5 existing health clubs
strengthened in Lay Gayint to promote hygiene and sanitation for target population,

Water supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion Project Proposal in Alefa Takussa and Lay Gayint districts 12
 For all constructed water projects; 1070 WatSanCo, 428 care takers and 428VHCs organized and
capacitated to operate and manage their schemes and involved in promoting hygiene and sanitation,

The monitoring mechanisms will include:


 Monthly stakeholder meetings including direct beneficiaries at kebele level,
 Review of work plans and achievements on quarterly basis with all stakeholders and beneficiaries,
 Quarterly/annual progress reports on program activity and finance utilization,
 Before the project implementation commenced, all planned infrastructures (water supply schemes,
VIPLs), Photos prepared and delivered to A GOH. After project implementation is over photos will be
taken while people are using them,
 House to house visits by village hygiene communicators and health extension workers.
 After a year of project completion, collection of case study and impact assessment will be carried out to
evaluate the actual benefits delivered by the project. It will be collected by ORDA and A GOH.
Recommendations arising from this process will be shared, documented and disseminated for future use.

13 Exit Strategy
Before implementation of projects, efforts will be made to create real demand on proposed projects from the
community side. Community contribution and sense of ownership will be enhanced for the sustainability of
projects during execution of projects at various stages. The capacitated CBOs /watsanco, village hygiene
communicators and care takers groups will have full authority in order to operate, manage and promote water
supply, hygiene and sanitation facilities. After completion of all planned projects; such as construction of standard
water points (162 HDW, 52 SPD) and sanitation facilities (8 two seats VIPLs in health post and 9 double block
VIPLs in schools ), all executed projects will formally handed over to the beneficiary community through district
water, health, and education offices. Moreover, at district level, water resource development, health and education
offices are the main responsible government institution to ensuring the long term sustainability of water supply
and hygiene-sanitation projects.

References

1. Gobena T.2006, Water supply 1, Upgrade series for environmental health, Faculty of health
science,
Haromaya University, Ethiopia.

Water supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion Project Proposal in Alefa Takussa and Lay Gayint districts 13
2. Lizette B. 2000, School Sanitation and Hygiene Education, UNICEF, New york.

3. WHO/UNICEF 2001, Global water supply and sanitation assessment report, Geneva.

4. Bureau of Finance & Economic Development (BoFED) 2008, Development Indicators of the
Amhara
National Regional State, Bahir- Dar, Ethiopia.

Water supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion Project Proposal in Alefa Takussa and Lay Gayint districts 14