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Prof. Marcelo Portuga


Professor Marcelo Portuga


INGLÊS: Compreensão de texto escrito em Língua Inglesa. Gramática para a compreensão de

conteúdos semânticos.

BANCA: Cespe
CARGO: Analista




Scale Limit
(very) bad awful
(very) good terrific
(very) small (absolutely) tiny
Big Huge / enormous
Tired Exhausted
Surprised Astonished
(very) pleased (absolutely) delighted
Cold Freezing
Nice Delicious (food only)
Frightened (=afraid of) Terrified
Hungry starving

Adjetivos terminados em -ing descrevem uma pessoa, coisa ou situação.

Adjetivos terminados em -ed descrevem os efeitos em alguém.
Ex: It was such a boring party. Most people left early because they were bored.

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Surprising\ed exhausting\ed
interesting\ed terrifying\ed
confusing\ed disappointing\ed
Astonishing\ed tiring\ed
fascinating\ed frightening\ed
exciting\ed embarassing\ed


Frequency (=how often)

hardly Often Always
Never Occasionally Sometimes Quite often
ever Frequently

Degree (=how much)

Quite (good) Very (interesting)

A bit (bored) fairly extremely
slightly rather incredibly
pretty really

almost\nearly hardly

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Bacen (Analista) – Inglês – Prof. Marcelo Portuga


Prefix Meaning Examples

Ex (+noun) Was but not now Ex-wife; ex-president
Ex (+verb) Out of Extract; exhale
Half (+noun or adjective) 50% of something Half-price; half-hour
In, im (+adjective) Not Informal; impossible
Non (+adjective or noun) Not Non-smoking
Pre Before Pre-school
Re (+verb) Again Redo; rewrite
Un (+adjective or noun) Not Unhappy; unable
over Too much Overdress; oberslept
Mis Badly or incorrectly Misunderstood; misread
Anti Against Antisocial; anti-war
Auto Of or by oneself Autograph; auto-pilot
Bi Two, twice Bicycle; bilingual
Micro Small Microwave; microchip
Mono One, single Monologue; monogamous
Multi Many Multi-national; multi-racial
Post After Postwar; postgraduate
Pro In favour of Pro-government; pro-life
Pseudo False Pseudo-intellectual
Semi Half Semicircular; semi-final
Sub Under Subway; submarine
Under Not enough Underworked, undercooked

1. Choose the best prefix.
1. The shopping is non-smoking.
2. I can't read this. Please _______________ your letter.
3. In __________ English we often say 'Hello'.
4. I liked university but my brother was very ____________ there.
5. I bought three shirts because they were ____________ in the sale.
6. Don't walk on that wall – the notice says it is _______________.

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2. Write your own sentences using prefixes.

3. What is the meaning of these words.

1. an ex-husband – a husband who is now divorced from his wife.
2. Pre-exam nerves –
3. an incorrect answer –
4. an unread book –
5. to retell a story
6. a half-brother –
7. an unfinished letter –
8. a non-alcoholic drink –
9. to reread a book –

4. What is the opposite of this words

Happy Patient Polite Lock

Correct Regular Visible Pack
Legible Friendly Employed Agree
Posible Formal Honest Like
Efficient Discreet Sensitive Responsible
Loyal Relevant Tolerant obedient

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Bacen (Analista) – Inglês – Prof. Marcelo Portuga


Suffix Meaning Examples

Er, or (noun) Person Worker; swimmer
Er, or (noun) Machine, thing Cooker, word processor
Ful (ajective) Full of Useful, beautiful
Ology (noun) Subject of study Sociology, psychology
Ics (noun, singular) Subject of study Economics, politics
Less (adjective) Without Useless, endless
Ly Adverb Sadly, happily
Ness abstract noun Happiness, sadness
Y Adjective Sunny, sandy
Ous Adjective Dangerous, famous
al adjective Musical, industrial
Hood Abstact noun Childhood, neighbourhood
Ship Abstact noun Membership, friendship
Ify Verb Purify, terrify


Verb Suffix Noun

Improve Ment Improvement
Govern government
Manage Management
Elect Ion Election
Discuss Discussion
Inform Ation Information
Jog Ing Jogging
Spell Spelling
Attract Ive Attractive
Create creative

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Adjective Suffix Noun
Weak Ness Weakness
Happy Happiness
Ill Illness
Stupid Ity Stupidity
Active Activity
Similar Similarity

This common suffix creates adjectives from nouns and verbs:
An enjoyable evening
a comfortable chair
Jeans are still fashionable.
suitable (= right/correct for a situation), e.g. A grey suit is very suitable for a wedding.
Sometimes -able means 'can be done':
washable {= can be washed), e.g. Is this jacket washable?
reliable {= can be trusted), e.g. I've never had a problem with the car – it's very reliable.
Words ending -able quite often express the opposite meaning with the prefix un-r
unsuitable (= not right/correct for a situation), e.g. Jeans are unsuitable for weddings.
unbreakable {= cannot be broken), e.g. The glass in the shop window is unbreakable.
Words ending -ible sometimes add the prefix in- to form an opposite:
incomprehensible (= cannot be understood), e.g. This street map is incomprehensible.
invisible (= cannot be seen), e.g. Trees surround the house, so it's invisible from the road.

-ful and -less

-ful often means 'full of or 'having the quality of the noun':
careful (= doing sth with care and attention), e.g. careful driver
helpful (= able to help), e.g. Her advice was very helpful.
painful (= giving pain), e.g. It was painful when I hit my hand.
useful (= has a lot of use), e.g. I found it a useful book.
thoughtful (= kind and thinks of others)

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Bacen (Analista) – Inglês – Prof. Marcelo Portuga

-less often means 'without':

careless (= without care, and causing mistakes), e.g. His work is full of careless mistakes.
useless (= without use and often terrible), e.g. This knife is useless – it won't cut an>Thing.
homeless (= with nowhere to live), e.g. Many families are homeless because of the war.


1. What is the meaning of?

Traveler Slowly Hopeful Rainy

Painless Badly A tin opener Sadness

2. Combine words with the correct suffix and complete the text.

Improve televise weak govern
-ment -ity -ness -ion -ation
elect educate manage stupid

In his first broadcast on _____________ since he won the _____________ last month, the
Prime Minister promised to make health and _________________ his top two priorities.
And in a strong attack on the previous ________________, he said the present
_________________ of the British economy was caused by their __________________ and
bad ________________. He said things were going to change, and he hoped the British people
would be able to see a big ___________________ in the economy by the end of the year.

What suffixes can you apply:

danger care sun

attract thought music
create politics comfort
cloud enjoy fame
suit pain rely
use dirt emotion

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How many of these words can form opposites with the suffix -/ess?

1 wonderful  2 useful  3 awful  4 careful  5 beautiful

What are the opposites of the other words (the ones without -less)?


1. These sentences contain “false friends”. Find them and replace them with the correct word
from the column on the right:

1. Actually, most kids prefer watching TV to reading. a. Misfortune

b. Folder
2. She was advised that if she did it again she would
lose her job. c. Disappointment
d. Success
3. The argument of “Twilight” is quite predictable.
e. Nowadays
4. He didn´t assist to Math classes. f. Peculiar

5. The teacher recommended us to keep our notes in g. Attend

a carpet. h. Warned

6. He found it difficult to hide his deception when she i. Plot

didn´t arrive. j. fun

7. We had a lot of diversion at Sarah´s party.

8. The secret of her exit is her beauty.

9. We had the disgrace to run into a violent storm.

10. There was something extravagant in the way he


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Bacen (Analista) – Inglês – Prof. Marcelo Portuga

2. Find the extra-one.

1. John failed his English test because he made many faults in the a. funny
b. reading
2. I think the jokes that our teacher explains are really gracious. c. character
d. poverty
3. She had the illusion of becoming a famous actress.
e. foreigners
4. I bought a book of philosophy but I found its lecture quite f. sensitive
g. summarize
5. Many people in Spain have lost their jobs and are living in h. dream
complete misery.
i. mistakes
6. The motorist stopped , took his helmet off, and rested for a j. motorcyclist

7. The main personage in the novel dies of a heart attack.

8. The teacher asked us to resume the text in about 5 lines.

9. He is a very sensible person: anything you say can make him

feel bad.

Fill in the gaps with the translation of these “False Friends “ into your language:

Actually Fault
Advice Gracious
Argument Illusion
Assist Lecture
Deception Misery
Disgrace Personage
Diversion Resume
Exit Stranger
extravagant Sensible

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Match the definitions with the words from the right:

1. Bad luck A. Actually

2. sadness because something has not happened or been as B. Carpet
good as you expected
C. Deception
3. A cardboard or plastic cover for holding loose papers
D. Disappointment
4. the fact of becoming rich or famous or of getting a high
social position E. Disgrace

5. At the present time F. Exit

6. the loss of other people´s respect and approval because of G. Foloder

the bad way somebody has behaved H. Misfortune
7. A thick woollen or artificial fabric for covering floors or stairs I. Nowadays
8. The act of deliberately making somebody believe something J. Prosperity
that is not true
9. a way out
10. really, in fact

1. Strange or unusual A. Advise

2. to go regularly to a place B. Argument
3. To tell somebody about something, especially something C. Assist
dangerous or unpleasant that is likely to happen.
D. Attend
4. the series of events which form the story of a novel, play,
film… E. diversion

5. enjoyment, pleasure F. Extravagant

6. Spending a lot more money than you can afforf or than is G. Fun
necessary H. Peculiar
7. to help I. Plot
8. to tell somebody what you think they should do in a J. Warn
particular situation
9. A conversation or discussion in which two or more people
10. the act of changing the direction that someone is following

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Bacen (Analista) – Inglês – Prof. Marcelo Portuga

Fill the gaps by choosing the most appropriate answer in brackets.

1. Did you know that Chrissie got .............................. (embarrassed/pregnant) on holiday in Ibiza?

2. The .............................. (signature/subject) I hate most is maths.

3. Begonia is a very .............................. (kind /sympathetic) person.

4. Keep .............................. (removing/stirring) the soup the whole time.

5. I couldn't agree more. That's a very .............................. (sensible/sensitive) idea.

6. The film The Quiet American was a box­office .............................. (exit/success).

7. How many .............................. (idioms/languages) can you speak?

8. .............................. (Actually/Nowadays) I'm living with my parents again.

9. The poor live in the .............................. (slums/suburbs).

10. The police came to my .............................. (assistance/attendance).

11. I've got ............................. (a cold/constipation). Pass me a tissue, please.

12. I was only living with my parents .............................. (eventually/temporarily).

13. The government have .............................. (inverted/invested) a lot of money in the new scheme.

14. Do not .............................. (invert/invest) this package.

15. The Englishman wearing navy blue socks with sandals is a bit of a ..............................
(stereotype/topic) in Spain.

16. He never stops moving some part of his body. He finds it impossible to .............................. (keep
quiet/keep still).

17. We didn't enjoy the wedding .............................. (absolutely/at all).

18. English is very .............................. (important/interesting) for my job.

19. All my immediate family live in England but I have a lot of .............................. (parents/relatives)
in Canada.

20. My .............................. (journey/working day) is from 8 am to 5 pm but it only takes me twenty

minutes to get to the office.

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21. The Red Cross are .............................. (controlling/monitoring) the situation in the north very

22. The rebels are .............................. (controlling/monitoring) the entire north of the country.

23. .............................. (Eventually/Temporarily), we decided to go on holiday rather than buy a

plasma TV.


Conjunction Definition Example Sentence

It doesn't matter or make a Athough/Even though I have the money,
although/even though
difference I won't buy the shoes.
I enjoy tea and cookies when I eat a
And In addition; extra; plus
Because The reason is... I got wet because I forgot my umbrella.
I'd like to buy those shoes, but I don't
But To introduce an opposing idea
have the money.
It doesn't matter or make a Despite having the money, I didn't buy
difference (precedes gerund) the shoes.
To introduce an opposing idea I want those shoes. However, I don't
(begins a new sentence) have the money.
I don't have the money, so I won't buy
So As a result or consequence
Unless you have the money, you
Unless If the situation is not (that)...
shouldn't buy them.

I. Complete each sentence with a conjunction. Use the words in the box.

1. I was late this morning _________________ I didn’t get up when my alarm went off.

2. I set my alarm early. _________________, I didn’t get up when it rang.

3. ________________ setting my alarm, I was late.

4. You’ll be late _______________ you set your alarm to wake early.

5. ________________ I set my alarm, I overslept.

6. I didn’t get up early enough _____________ I was late to school.

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Bacen (Analista) – Inglês – Prof. Marcelo Portuga

7. I set an alarm next to my bed _______________ another on the dresser across the room.
Hopefully I won’t oversleep again.

8. I can put the alarm clock on my dresser across the room _____________ next to my bed,
_______________ not both.

9. _______________ you get up now, you’ll be late.

10. I set both alarms, ______________ it still didn’t help me get up in time.

11. _________________ I’m forced to, I don’t get up early.

12. _________________ dieting, my mother can’t lose weight.

13. My mother isn’t happy with how she looks in the mirror, ______________ she’s going to talk to
her doctor about what to do to lose weight.

14. She probably won’t lose weight _________________ she begins an exercise program.

15. She eats right, ______________ the pounds still don’t come off.

16. She cooks all kinds of healthy foods. It doesn’t seem to make a difference in her weight,

17. _________________ no one else in the family has changed their diets, my mom has made
major changes in what she eats. She’s determined to do something good for her health.

18. _______________ so many people in my family have gotten Type II diabetes in their later years,
my mother is worried she’ll get it too.

19. My mother joined a new women’s health club called “Curves.” __________________, it’s
difficult for her to find the time to go.

20. She’s now lost 10 lbs. _______________ only having gone to Curves for a month.

21. I think she’s making progress ________________ she’s finally taking her health seriously.

22. She’s exercising a few times a week, _______________ she’s eating smaller portions. Both of
these changes have helped her reach her goal.

23. She won’t eat fried foods ______________ snack foods anymore, ________________ all of us
still do.

24. Her hard work has inspired me, _______________ I think I’ll begin exercising, too.

25. Our family needs a new car, _______________ we’re not sure what to get.

26. __________________ shopping around a lot, we still haven’t made up our minds.

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27. Our minivan is more than 12 years old, ______________ it often needs repairs.

28. _________________ we pick a new one soon, we’ll be in trouble. Our old minivan is either at
the mechanic’s ________________ broken down somewhere most of the time.

29. I think I’ve found a car for us! __________________, it costs a little more than we wanted to

30. ________________ it’s a little more than we wanted to spend, I think it’s a possibility.

31. My father says he wants another minivan _____________ an SUV.

32. I think an SUV would be a bad idea _________________ of today’s high gas prices.

33. We shouldn’t get an SUV ___________________ we want to spend $100 every time we fill up
at the gas station.

34. Miranda was sick, _____________ she missed exams.

35. She went to the doctor ________________ got a note to give her professors about her

36. _______________ being sick, she studied hard.

37. She couldn't take her tests with the others. ____________, she was given an extension to make
up the work.

38. _______________ Miranda was so conscientious, she earned top marks.

39. She earned top marks __________________ she was absent during exam week.

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Bacen (Analista) – Inglês – Prof. Marcelo Portuga

Reason Due to Due to the bad weather, they will arrive late.
Because of The train was late because of the bad weather.
Since you’ve got some minutes to wait for the train,
let’s have some coffee
I don’t have spare time, that’s why I’m not going away
That’s why
in the holiday
Contrast Although Although it rained a lot, we enjoyed our holiday.
In spite of In spite of the rain, they enjoyed themselves.
Despite I couldn’t sleep despite being tired.
However She was ill; however she went to work
Condition Unless Unless you work harder, you won’t pass the exam.
You can travel with your friends as long as you pass
As long as
your final exams.
Consequence So I ‘ve been working hard so I’m not going out tonight.
John couldn’t get to the library. Consequently, he wasn’t
able to finish his research
The plot of this book is not so original. Therefore, the
ending is easy to predict.
Purpose In order to I’m going to study in order to get good grades.
She worked hard so that everything would be ready by
So that
6 o’clock.

Banks and business

Companies often borrow money from banks to finance (= pay for) investments (= things
they need to buy to help the company in future, e.g. machines). This money is called a
loan, and companies have to pay interest on it, e.g. if you borrow £1,000 for a year, and
the interest rate is 10%, then you have to pay back £l,000 + £100 in interest.

Profit and loss

The main aim/objective of a company (= most important thing for a company to do) is to
make a profit (= receive more money than it spends; opp make a loss). If a company does
not make a profit or a loss, it breaks even. For example:
Most new companies are happy if they break even in their first year of business.
Companies receive money from selling their products (this money is called the turnover),

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and they spend money (called the expenditure) on these things: raw matenals ( = materials
in their natural state, e.g. coal and oil are important raw materials used to make plastics),
and overheads ( = things a company must always spend money on, e.g. rent, electricit}',
etc.). For many companies, labour costs (= money paid to workers) are very expensive.

Rise and fall

These verbs describe trends (= movements) in sales, prices, profit and loss, etc.
rise/go up/increase (slowly, gradually, steadily, sharply)
fall/go down/drop

Businesses and the economy

Most companies want:
to grow/expand (= get bigger) and be successful (= do well and make a lot of profit);
low inflation, so prices do not go up; low interest rates ro borrow money; economic and
political stability (= no quick changes in the economic/political situation); a healthy/strong
economy (= an economy in good condition; opp an economy in recession); tax cuts (= tax
reductions/lower taxes), so they can keep more of their profit.

Organizing a formal text

First / Firstly / First of all, we must consider ...
Next, it is important to remember that ...
Secondly and thirdly are also used with first/firstly for lists.
Finally, /Lastly, we should recall that ... [not 'at last']
Turning to the question of foreign policy, ... [changing to a new topic]
Leaving aside the question of pollution, there are also other reasons ... [the writer will not deal
with that question here]
In parenthesis, let us not forget that ... [making a point that is a side issue, not part of the main
In summary, to sum up, we may state that ... [listing / summing up the main points]
In sum, the economic issues are at the centre of this debate, [listing / summing up the main
points: much more formal]
In conclusion / to conclude, I should like to point out that ... [finishing the text]

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Bacen (Analista) – Inglês – Prof. Marcelo Portuga

Markers for explaining, exemplifying, rephrasing, etc.

To learn new words properly a lot of recycling is needed; in other words / that is to say, you
have to study the same words over and over again. [That is to say is much more formal]
Some English words are hard to pronounce, for example / for instance, 'eighth'.
It might be possible, say, to include the parents in the discussion, [similar to for example; note
the commas before and after; say is also common in spoken language]
The Parliament has different committees. Briefly, these consist of two main types, [the
explanation will be short and not comprehensive]
She is, so to speak / as it were, living in a world of her own. [makes what you are saying sound
less definite/precise; As it were is more formal.]

Signposts around the text

These are words and phrases that point the reader to different parts of a text.
The following points will be covered in this essay: ... [used to introduce a list]
It was stated above/earlier that the history of the USA is ... [earlier in the text]
Many writers have claimed this (see below), [examples will be given later in the text]
For further details/discussion, see Chapter 4. [more discussion/details]

Match the markers on the left with the appropriate function on the right.
1 Leaving aside ... change the topic
2 In parenthesis, ... read something earlier in the text
3 Turning to ... this will not be discussed
4 In conclusion ... this document is about another one
5 With reference to ... to finish off
6 See above ... as an aside / secondary issue

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Money – buying, selling and paying
In a bank you usually have a current account, which is one where you pay in your salary
and then withdraw money to pay your everyday bills. The bank sends you a regular bank
statement telling you how much money has gone in and out of your account. You may
also have a savings account where you deposit any extra money that you have and only
take money out when you want to spend it on something special. If you spend more than
you have in your account you can have an overdraft. The bank allows you to spend more
and charges you interest. If your account is overdrawn [you have taken more out of your
account than you had in it] you are in the red (as opposed to in the black or in credit).
Sometimes the bank may lend you money – this is called a bank loan. If the bank
[or building society] lends you money to buy a house, that money is called a mortgage.
When you buy [or purchase more formally] something in a shop, you usually pay for it
outright but sometimes you buy on credit. Sometimes you may be offered a discount or a
reduction on something you buy. For example, you might get £10 off perhaps because you
are a student. You are often offered a discount if you buy in bulk. It is not usual to haggis
about prices in a British shop, as it is in, say, a Turkish market. If you want to return
something which you have bought to a shop, you may be given a refund, i.e. your money
will be returned, provided you have a receipt.
The money that you pay for services, e.g. to a school or a lawyer, is usually called a fee; the
money paid for a journey is a fare. If you buy something that you feel was very good value, it's
a bargain. If you feel that it is definitely not worth what you paid for it, then you can call it a rip-
off [very colloquial].

Public finance
The government collects money from citizens through taxes. Income tax is the tax
collected on wages and salaries. Inheritance tax is collected on what people inherit from
others. Customs or excise duties have to be paid on goods imported from other countries
VAT or value added tax is a tax paid on most goods and services when they are bought;
purchased. Companies pay corporation tax on their profits. If you pay too much tax, yen
should be given some money back, a tax rebate.

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Bacen (Analista) – Inglês – Prof. Marcelo Portuga

The government also sometimes pays out money to people in need, e.g. unemployment
benefit [also known as the dole, informal] disability allowances and student loans [money
lent to help pay for studying]. Recipients draw a pension / unemployment benefit or are n
the dole or on social security.
Every country has its own special currency. Every day the rates of exchange are published
and you can discover, for example, how many dollars there are currently to the pound
A company may sell shares to members of the public who are then said to have invested in
that company. They should be paid a regular dividend on their investment, depending or
the profit or loss made by the company.

Match the words on the left with their definitions on the right.

1 interest money paid towards the cost of raising a family

2 mortgage money paid on what is inherited after
someone dies
3 an overdrawn account
an account that is used mainly for keeping
4 savings account money
5 current account money paid to people after a certain age
6 pension an account for day-to-day use
7 disability allowance money chargeable on a loan
8 child benefit money paid to people with a handicap
9 inheritance tax a bank account a loan to purchase property
with a negative sum of money in it

Phrasal verbs

A phrasal verb is a verb + adverb or preposition, and occasionally a verb + adverb and
The price of petrol is going up (= increasing) again.
He fell over (= fell to the ground) and hurt his knee.

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She's trying to find out (= learn/discover) the name of that new hotel.
Who's going to look after (= take care of) the children when their mother is in hospital?
If you don't understand the meaning, look it up. (= find the meaning in a dictionary)
He doesn't get on with (= have a good relationship with) his parents, (verb + adv + prep)


Sometimes the adverb or preposition doesn't change the meaning, but makes it sound more
I didn't wake up until 7 o'clock. I'm saving up for a new computer.
Hurry up or we'll be late. She stood up and went over to the door.
Sit down and be quiet. He told me to lie down on the bed.
Sometimes an adverb adds a particular meaning. For example, back can mean 'return'.
I'm going to take that jacket back to the shop; it's too small.
You can look at the books but remember to put them back on the shelf.
More often, the adverb or preposition changes the meaning of the verb: 'take off doesn't mean
the same as 'take', and 'get on' doesn't mean the same as *get'. Here are some
It took her a long time to get over (= get better/recover from) her illness.
We'll take a short break and then carry on (= continue) with the meeting.
My wife has decided to give up (= stop) smoking.
I can't make any sandwiches – we've run out of bread. (= no bread is left; it is finished)
I've told them we can't put the meeting off. (= change the time of the meeting to a later date)

Multiple meanings

Be careful: many phrasal verbs have more than one meaning.

It was so hot I had to take off (= remove) my jacket.
I'm always nervous when the plane takes off. (= leaves the ground)
I've got a lot of work to get through (= finish) before Friday.
I tried phoning him, but I couldn't get through. (= make contact and talk to him)

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Bacen (Analista) – Inglês – Prof. Marcelo Portuga

My alarm clock didn't go off (= ring) this morning.

The bomb could go off (= explode) at any minute. |See picture.]
The fish will go off (= go bad) if you don't put it in the fridge.
I picked up most of the rubbish. (= took it from a place, using my hands)
I have to pick Jane up (= collect her in my car) from the station.
Phrasal verbs have two parts; a verb + a preposition.

get up/on/lover
I got up at 6.30 this morning. I'm tired now.
I hated my sister when I was young but now we get on very well.
He soon got over his cold. (= he got better quickly)

turn on/off/up/down
He always turns on the TV at 9 o'clock to watch the news.
It's a sunny day. Turn the light off.
Turn the TV up. I can't hear it.
Turn the TV down. It's too loud.


At / On / In

at a point/place I met her at the bus stop. She lives at 43 Danver Road.
He's at work (i.e. not at They're at a party tonight.
on a surface The book's on the desk. We put the picture on the wall.
They sat on the floor. Don't put it on the sofa.
in an area or space A country in Africa. She lives in Poland.
He's in the kitchen. The key's in the top drawer.

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Up \ down
into \ out of
over \ above
under \ below
in front of \ behind

Over/above and under/below are very similar in meaning, but over and under sometimes
suggest movement. For example:
When we flew over Paris we couldn't see much because we were above the clouds.
Below us was the river which ran under the bridge.

Other common prepositions of place

We drove along one side of the lake, then round the top shore, past the old castle, and finally
through the village.
We came over the bridge and parked next to the house, which was opposite the hotel.
Our house is between two shops and it's near a bus stop. You just go across the road and walk
along the other side towards the church.

Text-referring words

Text-referring words take their meaning from the surrounding text. For example, this sentence
in isolation does not mean much:
We decided to look at the problem again and try to find a solution.
What problem? The words problem and solution help organize the argument of the text, but
they do not tell us the topic of the text. They refer to something somewhere else.
Here are some examples. The word in bold refers to the underlined words.
Pollution is increasing. The problem is getting worse each day.
Should taxes be raised or lowered? This was the biggest issue in the election, [topic causing
great argument and controversy]
Whether the war could have been avoided is a question that interests historians.
Let's discuss crime. That's always an interesting topic, [subject to argue about or discuss, e.g. in
a debate or in an essay]

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Bacen (Analista) – Inglês – Prof. Marcelo Portuga

Punishment is only one aspect of crime, [part of the topic]

verb person noun adjective abstract noun Roots

inspect inspector inspecting inspection
advertise advertiser advertising advertisement
deport deportee deported deportation
introduce introducer introductory introduction
oppress oppressor oppressive oppression
compose composer composite composition

Verb + -ing form

Some verbs are followed by an -ing form if the next word is a verb. Here are some of them.
enjoy finish imagine admit avoid
feel like (don't) mind can't stand give up deny

I've lived in New Zealand all my life; I can't imagine living anywhere else.
Some people can't stand (= hate) working at the weekend but 1 don't mind. (= for me it's OK)
His doctor told him to give up smoking. (= stop smoking)
I always try to avoid going through the city center. (= stay away from it)
At the police station, he admitted stealing her money, but denied taking the computer. (= he
said 'yes' he took the money, but 'no' he didn't take the computer)
Do you feel like going out (= want to go out) this evening?

Verb + infinitive

Some verbs are followed by an infinitive if the next word is a verb.

Decide want seem appear
hope forget expect mean
manage refuse promise offer

It's a long walk so I offered to take them in the car.

I expect (= think or believe something will happen) to get the results before next week.

www.acasadoconcurseiro.com.br 29
I meant (= planned/intended) to get the information, but I forgot (= didn't remember) to phone.
It was hard work but we managed to finish it. (= we were able to finish it but it was difficult)
I asked her to carry the suitcases but she refused to help. (= she said 'no’)
They promised to phone me as soon as they arrived. (= they said they would)

Verb + -ing form or infinitive

Some verbs can be followed by an -ing form or infinitive and the meaning is very similar.
e.g. love, like and prefer. But with some verbs there is a difference in meaning:
I remembered to buy my grandmother a birthday card. (= I didn't forget to buy one)
I remember making cards for her when 1 was small. (= it's one of my memories from the past)

Verb + infinitive without 'to’

Two common verbs are followed by an object + infinitive without 'to'; make someone do
something, and let someone do something.
My parents make me do my homework ever)' night, (= They force me to do my homework.)
My parents let me go out at the weekend. (= They allow/permit me to go out.)

Common irregular verbs

Infinitive Past simple Past participle

be was/were been
beat beat beaten
become became become
begin began begun
bite bit bitten
blow blew blown
break broke broken
bring brought brought
build built built

30 www.acasadoconcurseiro.com.br
Bacen (Analista) – Inglês – Prof. Marcelo Portuga

buy bought bought

catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
come came come
cost cost cost
cut cut cut
do did done
draw drew drawn
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
fly flew flown
forget forgot forgotten
get got got
give gave given
go went gone
grow grew grown
hang hung hung
have had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
know knew known
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let

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Lie lay lain
light lit lit
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
pay paid paid
put put put
read read read
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
say said said
see saw seen
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
shake shook shaken
shine shone shone
shoot shot shot
show showed shown
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sink sank sunk
sit sat sat
sleep slept slept
speak spoke spoken
spend spent spent
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
swim swam swum
take took taken
teach taught taught

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Bacen (Analista) – Inglês – Prof. Marcelo Portuga

tear tore torn

tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
understand understood understood
wake woke woken
wear wore worn
win won won
write wrote written

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Bacen – Analista – 2006

Atenção: Considere o texto abaixo para responder às questões de números 51 a 60.

The Internet at Risk

 Some 12,000 people convened last week in Tunisia for
a United Nations conference about the Internet. Many delegates
want an end to the U.S. Commerce Department's control over
the assignment of Web site addresses (for example,
http://www.washington-%20post.com/ ) and e-mail accounts (for
example, johndoe@aol.com). The delegates' argument is that
unilateral U.S. control over these domain names reflects no
more than the historical accident of the Internet's origins.
Why should the United States continue to control the registration
of French and Chinese Internet addresses? It doesn't control the
registration of French and Chinese cars, whatever Henry Ford's
historic role in democratizing travel was.
 The reformers' argument is attractive in theory and
dangerous in practice. In an ideal world, unilateralism should be
avoided. But in an imperfect world, unilateral solutions that run
efficiently can be better than multilateral ones that 51
 The job of assigning domain names offers huge
opportunities for abuse. 52 controls this function can decide to
keep certain types of individuals or organizations offline
(dissidents or opposition political groups, for example). Or it can
allow them on in exchange for large fees. The striking feature of
U.S. oversight of the Internet is that such abuses have not
 It's possible that a multilateral overseer of the Internet
might be just as efficient. But the ponderous International
Telecommunication Union, the U.N. body that would be a
leading candidate to take over the domain registry, has a record
of resisting innovation including the advent of the Internet.

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Bacen (Analista) – Inglês – Prof. Marcelo Portuga

 Moreover, a multilateral domain-registering body would

be caught between the different visions of its members: on the
one side, autocratic regimes such as Saudi Arabia and China
that want to restrict access to the Internet; on the other side,
open societies that want low barriers to entry. These clashes of
vision would probably make multilateral regulation inefficiently
 You may say that this is a fair price to pay to uphold the
principle of sovereignty. If a country wants to keep certain users
from registering domain names (Nazi groups, child
pornographers, criminals), then perhaps it has a right to do so.
But the clinching argument is that countries can exercise that
sovereignty to a reasonable degree without controlling domain
names. They can order Internet users in their territory to take
offensive material down. They can order their banks or credit
card companies to refuse to process payments to unsavory Web
sites based abroad. Indeed, governments' ample ability to
regulate the Internet has already been demonstrated by some of
the countries pushing for reform, such as authoritarian China.
The sovereign nations of the world have no need to wrest
control of the Internet from the United States, because they
already have it.

(Adapted from Washington Post, November 21, 2005; A14)

51. No texto, o verbo que preenche corretamente a lacuna é

a) don´t.
b) do.
c) can.
d) can´t.
e) doesn´t.

52. No texto, a palavra que preenche corretamente a lacuna é

a) Whatever.
b) Whenever.
c) Whichever.
d) Wherever.
e) Whoever.

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53. No primeiro parágrafo, reflects no more than the historical accident of the Internet's origins
a) não mais reflete o acidente histórico das origens da Internet.
b) reflete apenas o acidente histórico da origem da Internet.
c) reflete muito mais do que a história do acidente da origem da Internet.
d) não passa de mero reflexo da história original da Internet.
e) não reflete muito da criação acidental da Internet.

54. Ainda no primeiro parágrafo, os dois períodos Why should the United States continue to control
the registration of French and Chinese Internet addresses? e It doesn't control the registration
of French and Chinese cars, whatever Henry Ford's historic role in democratizing travel was.
podem ser ligadas, sem alteração de sentido, pela conjunção
a) because.
b) however.
c) despite.
d) if.
e) unless.

55. Segundo o texto, Henry Ford

a) fez história viajando para muitos países, inclusive a França e a China.
b) ficou famoso porque tornou o automóvel acessível a um público maior.
c) teve um papel importante como membro do partido democrata.
d) na realidade não teve um papel histórico relevante.
e) teve um papel influente na democratização dos carros franceses.

56. No segundo parágrafo, should indica

a) permissão.
b) possibilidade.
c) recomendação.
d) obrigação.
e) probabilidade.

57. In the third paragraph, such abuses have not occurred means that
a) any organization that wants to register a domain name can do so.
b) the cost of registering a web address has increased dramatically.
c) dissident groups are not allowed to register Web sites.
d) pornography Web sites are only granted registration in exchange for large fees.
e) government opposition parties are refused domain names.

36 www.acasadoconcurseiro.com.br
Bacen (Analista) – Inglês – Prof. Marcelo Portuga

58. Segundo o texto, a escolha de um órgão supervisor multilateral da Internet poderia tornar o
registro de domínio
a) mais democrático.
b) mais eficiente do que nas mãos dos Estados Unidos.
c) uma questão política.
d) tão precário a ponto do colocar em risco a própria existência da Internet.
e) um instrumento de discriminação racial.

59. O pronome it, no final do texto, refere-se a

a) prohibition of offensive material.
b) control of domain names.
c) a number of unsavory Web sites.
d) control of the Internet.
e) an effective banking system for payment.

60. No geral, o texto

a) defende a idéia de um supervisor multilateral para a Internet, como por exemplo, a
International Telecommunication Union.
b) defende a possibilidade de cada país ter o direito de recusar o registro de domínios a
usuários que considere indesejáveis.
c) argumenta contra a necessidade de qualquer controle sobre o registro de nomes de
domínio na Internet.
d) argumenta contra a proibição de bancos processarem pagamentos para Web sites com
conteúdo pernicioso.
e) argumenta a favor de os Estados Unidos continuarem a controlar a atribuição de nomes de
domínio na Internet.

Gabarito: 51. A 52. E 53. B 54. D 55. B 56. C 57. A 58. C 59. D 60. E

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Bacen – Analista – 2010

Freedom of IMFormation
By Reza Moghadam
Posted on September 17, 2009 by iMFdirect

 With the global financial crisis, the world is

increasingly looking to the International Monetary Fund—
not just for financing but as the global institution charged
with overseeing members’ economies and policies (what
5 we call surveillance). It’s easy to forget that only 10 years
ago the Fund was a secretive institution. That’s no longer
the case. Communicating and engaging with the world
at large is now a normal and essential part of the Fund’s
10  The IMF today is a very open institution. The vast
majority of our reports are published. The public can
search the IMF’s archives. And we are making lots of
effort to reach out to external stakeholders.
 The benefits of this increased transparency, both
15 for the Fund’s surveillance and lending activities, are
indisputable. Transparency allows us to engage with the
public and to build a broader understanding and support
of what we do. It benefits the quality of our advice by
subjecting our analysis to outside scrutiny. And more
20 generally, it makes us more accountable for our advice
and financial decisions. In all, it makes us a more
effective and legitimate institution.
 Frankly, the Fund cannot be a genuine leader on
economic policy issues unless it is seen as transparent.
25 We certainly would not have been able to achieve the
major reforms of our lending frameworks and the
increase in our financial resources had we not been seen
as an open and transparent institution. Rightly, the public
expects to know what we are up to.
30  At the same time, certain aspects of transparency
remain controversial. Some believe that publication
undermines candor in the reports, the frankness of
discussions between staff and country authorities, and
the Fund’s role as trusted advisor.
35  Communicating and engaging with the world at

38 www.acasadoconcurseiro.com.br
Bacen (Analista) – Inglês – Prof. Marcelo Portuga

large is now a normal and essential part of the Fund’s

business. We are gearing up to review the Fund’s
transparency policy, as part of our efforts to increase
our effectiveness.
40  The IMF has come a long way over the last 10
years, and publication rates of reports are high. Raising
them further is not the main issue, nor one that can easily
be resolved without changes much of our membership
would consider revolutionary (such as making publication
45 mandatory). Rather, further efforts should focus on
making progress on a broad front, on issues that may
catch fewer headlines, but are nevertheless crucial:
• Reducing long publication lags. How can we simplify
the cumbersome procedure for obtaining consent?
50 • Maintaining the integrity of reports. The IMF’s
analysis and advice must be, and be seen to be,
convincing, candid, and independent. To this end, there
is a long-standing and fundamental principle that Fund
reports are not “negotiated” documents.
55 • Making the Fund’s archives more accessible. The
current setup for searching the archives—in particular
the need to travel to Washington to gain full access to
them—is outdated. We should also consider whether
we can make some archived material available more
60 quickly to the public.

56. The wordplay in the title refers to the fact that the
a) IMF has not dared to open its reserved archives in Washington to the public in general.
b) IMF has been adopting a transparency policy so as to enhance its credibility and legitimacy.
c) IMF must be freed from the impositions of the world leaders on its financial decisions.
d) once secret information kept by the IMF is not freely discussed nor is it easily negotiable.
e) world economies are trying to get rid of the excessive control of the IMF over their financial
57. The only argument that CANNOT be considered supportive of publishing the IMF documents is
that the
a) public must be made aware of what the IMF has been doing and the support it is giving to
economic policy issues.
b) IMF will be regarded as a more trustworthy institution if it releases its documents and
financial decisions to the public at large.
c) language used in documents that circulate publicly is usually more controlled and therefore
less frank and direct in exposing opinions and facts.

www.acasadoconcurseiro.com.br 39
d) lack of access of external stakeholders to the issues the IMF supports and the actions it
takes makes the institution more vulnerable and less effective.
e) relevant changes made to the financing structure of the institution were only effected in
recognition of the IMF as a reputable and candid organization.

58. In terms of meaning, it is correct to affirm that

a) “...charged with...” (lines 3-4) and endowed with are synonyms.
b) “...reach out to...” (line 13) and get in touch with are antonyms.
c) “...scrutiny.” (line 19) and inquiry have opposite meanings.
d) “...gearing up to.” (line 37) and getting ready for express contradictory ideas.
e) “...come a long way...” (line 40) and made considerable progress express similar ideas.

59. The expression in boldtype and the item in parenthesis are semantically equivalent in
a) “In all, it makes us a more effective and legitimate institution.” – lines 21-22. (all things
b) “the Fund cannot be a genuine leader on economic policy issues unless it is seen as
transparent.” – lines 23-24. (given that).
c) “Rather, further efforts should focus on making progress on a broad front, on issues that
may catch fewer headlines,” – lines 45-47. (moreover).
d) “To this end, there is a long-standing and fundamental principle that Fund reports are not
‘negotiated’ documents.” – lines 52-54. (last but not least).
e) “We should also consider whether we can make some archived material available more
quickly to the public.” – lines 58-60. (while).

60. “I agree wholeheartedly with these transparency initiatives. I would also urge the IMF to keep
going further forward particularly in regards to archives, as well as releasing country reports
as part of a regular pattern of their activities, and to move to a system of releasing mandatory
reports. In order for us not to repeat the same mistakes over and over again, we must be able to
discern patterns from real world data. Secrecy is to be shunned since it promotes an imbalance
in power and always leads to abuses.”
Rahim, on December 14th, 2009 at 12:41 am http://blog-imfdirect.imf.org/2009/09/17/freedom-of-

The comment above is in tune with Moghadam’s ideas, because Rahim states that
a) secret reports are not welcome in the IMF any more because they actually distort real
world data.
b) some concealment measures should be preserved so as to protect IMF archives and country
c) no country reports should be mandatory to avoid the imbalance of power among the
world’s leading nations.
d) the transparency initiatives promoted by the IMF may eventually lead to mistakes and to
an abuse of power.
e) the IMF should regularly publish reports in order to keep the world informed on financial
and economic issues the institution has adopted.

Gabarito: 56. B 57. C 58. E 59. A 60. E

40 www.acasadoconcurseiro.com.br
Bacen (Analista) – Inglês – Prof. Marcelo Portuga

Bacen – Analista – 2013

Recent corporate collapses, such as EBS International and Société Générale, have brought
about renewed scrutiny into corporate governance mechanisms. Given the pervasiveness of
Information Technology (IT) in many organizations, the examination of corporate governance
mechanisms also includes IT governance mechanisms. IT governance is defined as “a structure
of relationships and processes to direct and control the enterprise in order to achieve the
enterprise’s goals by adding value while balancing risk versus return over IT and its processes”.
In light of increased public awareness, professional bodies such as the Information Systems
Audit and Control Association (ISACA) have undertaken a number of steps to provide guidance
in the implementation of effective IT governance. The approach taken by ISACA appears to be
largely based upon two concepts. The first concept relates to increasing the awareness of issues
and concepts relating to IT governance in the public domain. The second concept involves
the provision of guidelines and the identification of best-practice IT governance mechanisms.
Interestingly, the effectiveness of these best-practice mechanisms in improving IT governance
is largely based upon conceptual arguments. As such, it becomes important to ascertain if these
best-practice mechanisms do impact upon the level of IT governance.
As IT escalates in terms of importance and pervasiveness in the operations of firms, it is inexorably
tied to specific mechanisms that are prescribed for good corporate governance, most notably, a
sound system of internal controls. Accordingly, effective IT governance is a critical underpinning
for a system of good corporate governance that minimizes agency losses for a firm.
Internet: <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com> (adapted).

Based on the text above, judge the following items.

16. The Information Systems Audit and Control Association have advised against a number of steps
concerning the implementation of effective IT governance.
( ) Certo   ( ) Errado

17. IT governance mechanisms contribute toward an increased level of overall effective IT

( ) Certo   ( ) Errado

18. Internal control is a central issue on corporate governance.

( ) Certo   ( ) Errado

19. In spite of the pervasiveness of IT in many organizations, it is essential for enterprises to balance
risks and detect fraud.
( ) Certo   ( ) Errado

20. Although considerable research has been devoted to IT governance, rather less attention has
been paid to corporate governance mechanisms.
( ) Certo   ( ) Errado

Gabarito: 16. E 17. C 18. C 19. E 20. E

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