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Hannah Barr Zoe Nix

Elias Chen Fran Riley


Caitlyn Forte Matt Weinsheimer
Young-Bin Lee Camille Wilson
Lucy Martin Melina Worthington
McCloud v. Hobson
THEORY IDEAS
- Section 12.9 requires that students act responsibly when using their right to free speech.
The students had every intent on doing precisely that, but the Elizabeth Area High School
administration prevented that from happening.
- http://www.splc.org/article/2005/12/pennsylvania-administrative-code-student-
rights-and-responsibilities

THEME IDEAS
- Responsibility
- Told the simple truth

EVIDENCE
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1ieZ4AvAhcodnHLCaq4J65pnaCbYPy_gPd0yzKATKszk/
edit?usp=sharing
➢ Focus on journalistic integrity
➢ “There are a number of states (14, as of now) that have passed laws that give students
extra protection from censorship. When I was in high school, these were commonly
called "anti-Hazelwood laws," but now they're normally referred to as "New Voices"
laws (after the SPLC's New Voices initiative). These state laws, essentially, work to shift
the state to the Tinker standard, which was set by the case Tinker v. Des Moines in 1969.
So states do have the power to give students additional rights beyond what is given in
Hazelwood. The Hazelwood decision is pretty broad, and the section most administrators
point to says "Educators do not offend the First Amendment by exercising editorial
control over the style and content of student speech in school-sponsored expressive
activities so long as their actions are reasonably related to legitimate pedagogical
concerns." From what I understand, the New Voices laws and the Pennsylvania
Administrative Code Sec. 12.9 clarify what would qualify as a legitimate concern.”
CASE OUTLINE
PERSON WHY THEY ARE IMPORTANT PLAYED DIRECTED
BY BY

Adrienne Nolt School reporter who conducted the interview Melina Young-Bin
with Menno Riggleman (Nolt). She is the
closest you can get to an epitome of a high
school student, as she is in the National
Honors Society, volunteers, and is in the gifted
program (“Gifted Education”)(Robrish).

Alex S. Jones Wrote Losing the News, a book about the Fran Young-Bin
future of journalism (“Alex Jones”). Includes
a chapter on the importance of the principle
objectivity. Heavily qualified, expert witness
(Hanna).

Elizabeth 3rd year 10th grade english and theater teacher Zoe Elias
Yearsley at Elizabethtown Area HS (Yearsely). Sponsor
for the HS Student Newspaper Club (Potter).

Michael C. Who was being interviewed second, would say Caitlyn Camille
Martin his purpose is to provide another expert
opinion on the school board.
Martin is currently serving as a co-member on
the Elizabethtown Area High School (qtd.
“Board”).
Was interviewed by E-town ExPRESSion on
December 14th, 2017 regarding my newly
elected position as a school board member
(Martin).

Nathaniel He is the editor-in-chief of the Elizabethtown Lucy Matt


McCloud Expression and is going to testify to the
purpose of interviewing Michael Martin
(Potter). He will also discuss the consequences
of censorship and his personal feelings
towards being threatened by an administrator
(Miller).

Martha Minow Minow is an expert in law. She has worked at Hannah Camille
Harvard Law School for almost 40 years, was
the dean of the law school for 8 years, is the
Vice-Chair of the Legal Services Corporation,
and clerked for Court of Appeals Judge David
Bazelon and Supreme Court Justice Thurgood
Marshall (“Martha Minow”). She will be used
in this case as a legal expert to interpret
material and show that the case we present is
legally factual.

DIRECT EXAMINATION OUTLINE


Directed by Questions

Young-Bin 1. Can you please state your name for the court?
(Nolt) a. Adrienne Nolt
2. Would you say that you are involved in your community?
1st a. Church, volunteering (National Honors Society, church work)
3. Do have any mentionable accomplishments throughout your education?
a. NHS member, gifted program, IQ of 130+, weighted GPA is
96%+
4. What clubs are you involved in?
a. I’m a staffer at the E-town Expression, I’m in band, and the
National Honors Society.
5. How long have you been on the staff of E-town ExPRESSion?
a. Since freshman year, so for 3 years
6. What part did you have in the interview conducted with Mr.
Riggleman?
a. I interviewed him. I asked him questions, and he answered them.
If I needed additional clarification, I asked him additional
questions.
Your honor, I am now handing the defense what has been marked as plaintiff
exhibit A.
To the defense: Can you please confirm this is an unmarked copy?
Your honor, do I have permission to approach the witness?
7. Do you recognize this document?
a. Yes I do.
8. What is it?
a. It is a copy of the interview I conducted with Mr. Riggleman.
Your honor I now ask that plaintiff exhibit A be admitted into evidence.
9. Can you please read the question you asked him regarding lifestyle?
a. Sure, “So, on the forum that you had previously mentioned, on
the October 26th date, you had mentioned some questions that
you described as “Gotcha” questions and you said in the forum,
that you didn’t feel the school should be teaching about “certain
lifestyles” and “two men living together”.
10. Why did you bring up this point during the interview?
a. The purpose of this interview was to educate the students of
Elizabethtown on the members of the school board. We believed,
since Mr. Riggleman mentioned the issue at a public forum, it
was relevant to him as a board member.
11. What other interviews, if any, did you conduct?
a. I interviewed Mr. Martin on the same day.
12. Were there any controversies brought up in this interview?
a. Yes, the topic of homosexuality came up.
13. What was your intent in bringing this topic up in this interview?
a. I wanted to give Mr. Martin a chance to express his own opinion
on the subject, and .I believed it to be my job as a journalist to
achieve objectivity in the articles that we publish.
14. What kind of a journalist do you consider yourself?
a. I’d like to consider myself a pretty responsible reporter. I try to
be unbiased and fair in my reporting.
No further questions your honor

Young-Bin 1. Can you please state your name and profession for the court?
(Jones) a. Alex S. Jones, retired journalist and academic.
2nd 2. What is your educational experience?
a. BA in history at Washington & Lee University, earned honorary
doctorate in humane letters from my alma mater in 2009.
3. How long have you been a journalist?
a. I worked at the New York Times for 8 years. I hosted NPR’s “On
the Media” from 1993-1997 and I was the Executive director for
PBS’s “Media Matters.” Most recently, I served for 15 years as
the director of he Shorenstein Center on Media, Politics, and
Public Policy Kennedy School at Harvard University.
Your honor I ask that Alex Jones be admitted as an expert witness in the field
of journalism.
4. What kind of interest have you taken in the future of journalism and
good journalistic practices?
a. In 2009, I published Losing the News, a book about the
responsibilities of journalists and how they are executed in the
modern age.
b. Responsibilities of journalists
5. What are those responsibilities?
a. Responsible reporters have an obligation to report the truth, to
be loyal to citizens, to remain independent from those they
cover, to provide a forum for public discussion, to keep the news
interesting and relevant, and to report the facts objectively.
b. Responsible, obligation
6. Are you familiar with the dispute at hand between the student
journalists and the administration of Elizabethtown Area High School?
a. Yes
7. Do you think that the students have fulfilled their responsibilities as
journalists?
a. Yes. The students intended to publish both the interview of Mr.
Riggleman and that of Mr. Martin as responsible journalists
should. By intending to publish each of these men’s unedited
comments, they made a forum for public discussion, provided
true, relevant information for their readers, and were completely
unbiased and objective.
b. Responsible, objective
Your honor I now call forth plaintiff exhibit A which has been accepted into
evidence.
8. Do you recognize this piece of evidence?
a. This is the interview conducted with Mr. Riggleman
9. Please read Mr. Riggleman’s comment about homosexuality.
a. “People have a hard time understanding what that is. On a
conservative end, on an ethical end, it’s still sin. Is it any
different than a couple living together that aren’t married? No,
its not any different.”
10. As an expert in journalism, what would be your next course of action
after printing the article containing this comment?
a. After printing the article containing this comment, I would see
what other views other board members held on this topic, to
achieve the principle of objectivity. I would then publish these
views.
b. Views, objectivity
11. How important do you think principle objectivity is to journalism?
a. Objectivity is the most important principle of journalism. As
journalists, it is our responsibility to report un-editorialized
news - that is, simply the straight facts. If a journalist fails to be
objective, they have both failed themselves, their publication,
and the public.
b. Objective, straight facts
12. Have these students accomplished principle objectivity?
a. The administration prevented these students from accomplishing
the principle of objectivity. To do such is irresponsible and
unethical. I’m here to say that it is the responsibility of the
journalist to ensure that each opinion is heard fairly. Students
on the ExPRESSion intended to publish both opinions, being
aware of each man’s feelings while giving each equal
opportunity to express their views. Had both Mr. Riggleman’s
and Mr. Martin’s comments been published, their reporting
would have been completely objective.
b. Objectivity, responsibility, fair, equal
13. Do you believe these students acted responsibly when using their right
to free speech?
a. Yes. In a journalist’s right to free speech is their responsibility
to respect the opinions they present. The students respected
these opinions by first respecting both Mr. Riggleman and Mr.
Martin, who voiced their opinions, and by intending to print
each man’s words in their entirety.
b. Responsibility, respect, right
14. In your expert opinion, would you have edited the two articles?
a. No, I certainly would not have.
No further questions, your honor.

Elias 1. Can you please state your name and occupation for the court?
(Yearsley) a. My name is Elizabeth Yearsley and I am an English and theater
Establish teacher at Elizabethtown Area High School.
purpose and 2. What are your qualifications as a teacher?
importance a. I have been teaching at EAHS for 3 years and I have a masters
in education from St Joseph’s University.
3rd 3. Why did you get involved in the school paper?
a. I think having a newspaper club is a really great way for kids to
learn about issues and educate others about what affects them.
4. What would you say is the purpose of the paper? What are the academic
virtues to be gained?
a. There are so many skills and learning experiences that can be
gained from being part of the production of a newspaper. There
are aspects of government, English and writing, they can learn
about the constitution including one of our most important
amendments - freedom of speech and press and and the students
also get to build incredibly important communication skills
through their writing and research for their articles.
5. What values can be passed onto students?
a. The students working on the newspaper gain important practice
in learning to be responsible and fair for their sources and
audiences. So they have the experience and responsibility that
comes with running a paper.
6. What is the process that your student staff goes through when creating
the paper?
a. Yes so to start, they reach out to find issues or topics relating to
the students and the school. They find sources and people to talk
to for quotes and do research to come up with questions, facts,
statistics and things like that to write about. Then they draft
their articles and they are revised and published.
7. What qualifies these students to be journalists?
a. They are qualified since they are writing about topics that affect
them and that they know well. They are able to add a new
perspective through their writing and communication that no
one else can do for them. Our newspaper’s motto is “by the
students, for the students, concerning the students.”
8. What kind of treatment should these journalists be given as students?
a. They should definitely be given equal treatment as adult
journalists. They do have some limits based on the
administration’s code however they are still writing about real
issues and they have freedom of the press. It’s not solely for
adults. Its for all.
9. What is the most important principle you’ve taught your students?
a. Responsibility and being fair has definitely been a big theme in
our club.
10. What role do you play in editing the paper?
a. I give the final review for the paper so I can give them advice on
some changes or edits if it is needed.
11. As an editor, why did you green light the unedited comments Mr.
Martin made?
a. Our main reason was for the purpose of objectivity. We had
already published Mr. Riggleman’s comments so we felt we
should give Mr. Martin a chance to give his opinion as well. We
weren’t trying to create controversy or cause trouble.

Camille Good morning your honor and ladies and gentlemen of the jury
(Martin) 1. Can you please state your name and occupation for the court?
4th a. My name is Michael C. Martin. I am on the Elizabethtown
school board and I am the President of my family business
which is called David’s Furniture and Interiors.
2. Why did you decide to run to become a member of the school board?
a. There was a sudden opening in the school board as someone
had resigned halfway through their term. I saw this as an
opportunity and decided to take immediate action and do my
best to secure a position and I was successful.
3. What did you do before you decided to become a member of the school
board?
a. I was and still am the President of David’s Furniture and
Interiors, we have retail stores across Pennsylvania including
Mechanicsburg, Harrisburg, Reading, and Camp Hill.
4. What is your experience as an educator?
a. I have no direct experience in the educational field however
both my daughters go to school in the Elizabethtown school
district.
5. Are you familiar with the Elizabethtown school district?
a. Yes I am familiar with the Elizabethtown school district. I grew
up here and graduated from Etown in 1994. I left the area
briefly during my time away at college but have since returned.
Both my daughters are now enrolled in Elizabethtown schools.
6. Do you feel that your experience in business has an impact on your
service as a board member?
a. Yes, my business experience gives me expertise in budget
control, working with others, organization and the like which
are all qualities that being a board member required.
7. Where were you on December 14th, 2017?
a. I met with E-town ExPRESSion students for an interview.
8. On what premises was the interview in question called?
a. The students wanted to interview me regarding my new position
as a school board member.
9. What was the subject matter of your questioning in your interview?
a. I was asked questions regarding my appointment as a school
board member, specifically questions about my background and
qualifications, as well as my fiscal philosophy.
10. Why was Riggleman called in for an interview on December 14th, 2017
before you?
a. Mr. Riggleman was called for an interview regarding his new
position as a school board member just as I was.
11. Are you aware of the comments made by Riggleman in the interview
conducted prior to yours by E-town ExPRESSion’s?
a. Yes I am aware of them.
12. Do you agree with the statements that he made?
a. I respectfully disagree with Mr. Riggleman’s position.
13. Which of your opinions do you see as represented in the transcript of
your interview?
a. My opinions and positions regarding fiscal policy and my
personal qualifications and the like were represented clearly
and fairly. However my opinions regarding the education of
students on homosexuality were censored and not released to the
public.
Submit Martin Interview into evidence ***Plaintiff Exhibit B
14. Is this an excerpt from your interview?
a. Yes this is.
15. And of what was published, is this the entirety of what was said in the
interview on December 14th, 2017??
a. No it is not.
16. What, if anything do you notice to be missing?
a. The only comments I notice to be missing are my comments
regarding Mr. Riggleman’s statements and my opinions.
17. Despite the fact that your opinion has been limited by censorship, how
do you plan to contribute to the school board to ensure all students
benefit academically?
a. I plan to do everything I can for the good of the county but I
would also like to point out that, as a member of the board, my
job is not to change or alter the school curriculum and neither is
Mr. Riggleman’s.

Matt 1. Good morning, please state your name for the court?
(McCloud) a. My name is Nathaniel McCloud
2. Where do you attend school?
5th a. I go to Elizabethtown Area High School in Elizabethtown,
Pennsylvania.
3. What activities do you participate in there?
a. I have been a part of the elizabethtown brain busters team as
well as competed in history competitions. I also am involved in
the school newspaper the Etown ExPRESSion.
4. How long have you written for the ExPRESSion?
a. I have been part of the paper for 2 years now.
5. What is your position on the paper?
a. I am the Editor in Chief of the Etown ExPRESSion
6. How long have you held that position?
a. I have been the editor in chief since sophomore year so two
years.
7. What got you interested in the club?
a. I have always been interested in journalism and I joined to
polish my writing skills as well as my communication skills. It is
also just a great group of people. A great community.
8. What input do you have in what stories are written for the paper?
a. I select what stories will be covered from a pool of ideas put
together by various individuals from the publication.
9. What’s an example of a series the paper has been writing?
a. We recently chose to do a series on newly elected school board
members. We conducted interviews and published the transcript.
10. Why did you choose to pursue this series?
a. School board elections are a crucial aspect of education and
politics in the country, but they receive little attention.
11. Why publish the full interviews?
a. The paper chose to publish the interviews verbatim to avoid the
perception of bias, our community is politically conservative and
there has been some bashing of the Advocate, our local
newspaper (which we publish the Expression in). By reserving
judgement, we were able to include more of the information.
b. We wanted to represent the school board officials in the most
accurate way possible and show the full extent of our interview
so really just to give as much information as possible.
12. Why did you want to publish what Mr. Martin said in response to Mr.
Riggleman’s comments?
a. We did it for the purpose of objectivity. We had given Riggleman
the opportunity to express his opinions
13. Why are you so against Mr. Martin’s comments being censored?
a. The newspaper has done nothing wrong. We simply did our job
and censoring Martin’s comments could give the perception of
bias because Riggleman’s comments were not censored. It
would harm our objectivity.
14. What was the claim in censoring your paper made by principal Hobson
and to what extent do you think this is valid?
a. In a meeting with Ms. Hobson, she told us that we must remove
the comment from the newspaper. She threatened to dissolve the
newspaper club if we protested the decision. I don’t know if
Hobson would have eliminated the club, but it’s doubtful now
that the story is public.
15. What was your reaction to Ms. Hobson’s threat?
a. I was surprised. I think it is pretty ridiculous. Arguing that these
comments constitute a substantial distraction is ridiculous. In no
way would these comments interrupt any classroom activities or
school events. We were simply doing our job as a newspaper. I
feel very strongly that this is not right and should not be allowed
to be done.
16. Why do you feel that it should not be allowed?
a. We, the students, need the forum offered by the student
newspaper in which to discuss issues of concern. If we are
denied that forum, we are being denied a voice we have a right
to, both by the First Amendment and the Pa. School Code
17. What does this censorship mean for your newspaper in the future?
a. To be honest I’m not completely sure. It could mean that we
won’t have the same level of freedom and will feel restricted in
what we publish which I think can be very harmful for a
newspaper.
18. What impact to you believe the comments by Mr. Martin would have on
the classroom environment?
a. As a student, I believe that the idea that these comments would
be a significant disruption to the classroom environment is
ridiculous. While I’d like to think the student body reads the
entirety of the publication, I highly doubt that a comment such
as this would cause any substantial distractions.

Camille 1. Please state your name and occupation for the court.
(Minow) a. My name is Martha Minow and I am a professor at Harvard
Law School.
6th 2. Where did you attend school?
a. I went to college at the University of Michigan, I got my
master’s in education from Harvard, and I got a law degree
from Yale.
3. As a teacher, what courses in specificity have you taught?
a. I have been teaching at Harvard Law School since 1981, so for
almost 40 years. Over that time, the courses I have taught
include civil procedure, constitutional law, law and education,
family law, international criminal justice, jurisprudence (which
is the philosophy behind law), non-profit organizations, and I’ve
led the public law workshop.
4. Do you have any other experience in law?
a. Well besides teaching at Harvard Law School for over 40 years,
I was also the Law School’s Dean from 2009 until last year. I
have also written many scholarly articles and a dozen books, not
only on law but also on history and philosophy. But I am also
the Vice-Chair of the Legal Services Corporation, which is a
large non-profit organization that provides civil legal aid to low
income Americans. For this position, I was nominated by
President Obama and approved by the Senate. Also, before I
worked at Harvard, I clerked for Judge David Bazelon of the
D.C. Circuit of the U.S. Court of Appeals, and after that I
clerked for Justice Thurgood Marshall of the Supreme Court.
Your honor I now ask that Professor Minow be admitted as an expert witness.
5. What do you know of the incident that has been caused by
Elizabethtown Area high school board member, Menno Riggleman?
a. I am aware that Mr. Riggleman made some controversial
comments that were published in the student newspaper, the
Etown Expression. I am also aware that when another board
member, Michael Martin, was interviewed by the students, his
response was censored and not published in the newspaper.
6. What right does the EAHS administration have to censor material
before it is published?
a. The first amendment to the Constitution prohibits government
laws or actions that would take away from a citizen’s right to
speech. This amendment is applied slightly differently within
public schools. In school, the student’s right to free speech isn’t
completely taken away, but it is limited. It is limited specifically
to that which will not take away from any learning or the
education process that occurs in school. In this case, Principal
Hobson limited the student’s free speech by censoring the article
in what is known as a prior restraint.
7. What is a prior restraint?
a. A prior restraint is a government action that prohibits speech or
expression before it occurs, or in this case, is published. It is
generally looked down upon as the worst violation of first
amendment rights, but it is necessary to understand the reason
for censorship. To determine if a prior restraint is constitutional,
it is necessary to understand if whatever was being prevented
justifies the suppression of a person’s free speech. Because this
occurrence took place with a school newspaper, the question is
whether censoring the newspaper prevented a disturbance to
any student’s education.
8. You’re saying that EAHS administration has the right to censor the
material in the student newspaper if it prevents a disturbance in a
student’s education, but where do students’ rights and responsibilities
come into play?
a. Examining the rights and responsibilities of the students in this
case determines whether or not Ms. Hobson was justified! Each
state has its own set of student’s rights, and Pennsylvania is one
state with a lot of protection for its students against censorship.
The Pennsylvania Administrative Code details all the rights and
responsibilities of students and administration in regards to free
speech.
Your honor I am now handing the defense what has been marked as defense
exhibit c, (to the defense) can you please confirm this is an unmarked copy?
[yes] Permission to approach the witness? [Go ahead]
Do you recognize this document (its the legal code)
b. Yes
What is it?
c. It's the Pennsylvania administrative code
Your honor I now ask that defense exhibit c be admitted into evidence.
9. What does the Pennsylvania Administrative code say about
administrative rights?
a. Section G, subsection 2 of the code states that “School officials
shall supervise student newspapers published with school
equipment, remove obscene or libelous material and edit other
material that would cause a substantial disruption or
interference with school activities.”
10. Can you please elaborate on this idea?
a. Well the interview with Mr. Martin that was removed did not
contain any “obscene or libelous material,” so the real question
is would it have caused a “substation disruption or interference
with school activities?” The answer to that would be no. The
students were acting responsibly, in a manner that would not
have affected their school.
11. You say the students were acting responsibly, in a manner that would
not have affected their school (looping here?). Where in the
Pennsylvania State Code does it clarify what acting responsibly entails?
a. In Section C, subsection 2, it states that “Students have the
responsibility to be aware of the feelings and opinions of others
and to give others a fair opportunity to express their views.”
Adrienne Nolt and Nathaniel McCloud were acting responsibly
as students and journalists by giving “others a fair opportunity
to express their views.” They published Mr. Riggleman’s
comments and were giving Mr. Martin an equal opportunity to
express his views. The article with Mr. Martin’s comments
would not have disrupted the classroom, and therefore it was
illegal for Ms. Hobson to censor the free speech of these
students who were responsibly exercising their right as students.
12. Is there anything else of importance that the Pennsylvania
Administrative Code covers?
a. Yes, it actually answers the essential question of this case.
Your honor I am now handing the defense what has been marked as defense
exhibit E, (to the defense) can you please confirm this is an unmarked copy?
[yes] Permission to approach the witness? [Go ahead]
Do you recognize this document (its the case)
b. Yes
What is it?
c. It's the McCloud v. Hobson case
Your honor I now ask that defense exhibit ? be admitted into evidence.
13. What is the essential question of this case?
a. It is the jury’s decision to decide “Whether prior restraint
allows school administrators to censor comments critical of the
school officials and on a contentious topic?”
14. What does the Pennsylvania Administrative Code say about this?
a. Written directly into the code in section G, subsection 3, it states
that “School officials may not censor or restrict material simply
because it is critical of the school or its administration.” But
that unfortunately is what Ms. Hobson did, and I do believe that
she, as a principal of a Pennsylvania school, should comply with
the Pennsylvania Administrative Code and be held liable for
suppressing her students’ rights.
No further questions your honor.

Opening Statement - Matt


- Theme and theory: Simple Responsibility to be good journalists
- Acting responsible; illegally censored
- Tell the story of what happened
- By introducing people through the story- hold exhibits
- Then describe expert role; legal theory
- Co-counsel will come back and ask
- Call to action- only one possible
- ‘Hold responsible for illegal censorship and that the exPRESSion has every right to
publish their unabridged article
Closing Statement - Elias
- As seen today, the plaintiff was publishing the simple truth in accordance with the
responsibilities of proper journalism.
- This truth was censored in absolute violation of the law.
- Recount most powerful witness statements and facts from the witnesses
- Proper Journalism
- True integrity (Alex Jones)

Works Cited (Attorneys)

About Us. David’s Furniture & Interiors, davidsfurniture.com/pages/about-us. Accessed 5 Apr.

2018.

“Alex Jones (journalist).” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation.

“Board of School Directors.” Elizabethtown Area School District, Blackboard,

www.etownschools.org/domain/6. Accessed 5 Apr. 2018.

“Gifted Education.” Elizabethtown Area School District, www.etownschools.org/Page/5047.

Accessed 3 Apr. 2018.

Hanna, Jeff. “Alex Jones Inducted into Prestigious Academy.” columns.wlu.edu, W&L
Magazine, 18 Oct 2011, https://columns.wlu.edu/alex-jones-inducted-into-prestigious -

academy/. Accessed 4 Apr 2018.

“Locations.” David’s Furniture & Interiors, Davids Furniture & Interiors,

davidsfurniture.com/pages/locations. Accessed 5 Apr. 2018.

“Martha Minow.” Harvard Law School, The President and Fellows of Harvard College,

hls.harvard.edu/faculty/directory/10589/Minow/. Accessed 3 Apr. 2018.

Martin, Michael C. “Martin Interview.” E-town ExPRESSion, 26 Jan. 2018,

www.eahsnews.org/features/martin-interview. Accessed 5 Apr. 2018. Interview.

McCloud, Nathaniel. E-mail interview. By Matthew Weinsheimer. 5 Apr. 2018.

Miller, Barbara. “Student Claims School Paper Was Wrongly Censored.” PennLive.com,

28 Feb. 2018, www.pennlive.com/news/2018/02/student_claims_school_paper_wa.html.

Nolt, Adrienne, et al. “Menno Riggleman Interview.” E-town Expression, 14 Dec. 2017,

www.eahsnews.org/features/menno-riggleman-interview. Accessed 3 Apr. 2018.

Potter, Taylor. Interview. 4 Apr. 2018.

Potter, Taylor. “Pennsylvania School Newspaper Censored after School Board Member

Condemns Homosexuality and Teaching Evolution.” The Student Press Law Center, 3

Feb. 2018, www.splc.org/article/2018/03/elizabethtown-expression-censorship.

Robrish, Dan. “National Honor Society Gets 60 More EAHS Students.” The

Elizabethtown Advocate, 22 Mar. 2018, etownpa.com/national-honor-society-gets-60-

eahs-students/. Accessed 3 Apr. 2018.

Yearsley, Elizabeth. "Elizabeth Yearsley." Linkedin, www.linkedin.com/in/

elizabeth-yearsley-458b2453/. Accessed 5 Apr. 2018.


CROSS EXAMINATION
Crossed by Questions/Outline

Camille Michelle Balliet


- You are fully familiar with section 12.9 subsection c subsection 2 that
states student’s freedom of expression while remaining responsible
and accountable correct?
- As the superintendent of the district, what is your ultimate job/ goal?
- Who do you find to be responsible of this issue?
- Have you been briefed on the EAHS journalistic/ yearbook club code
and the stipulations listed with in said code?

Matt Principal Maura Hobson


- What is the statement you censored
- Why are you only attempting to censor one side- online publication
- Threaten

Elias Mary Catherine Roper Deputy Legal Director for the Western PA branch of
the ACLU
- Are you aware that Pennsylvania has one of the most protective
student rights laws in the country
- Introduce SPLC map
- Your own organization acknowledges this fact in the PA ACLU
handbook
- You are indeed a legal expert for the ACLU
- This does indeed contradict your previous statement
- You’re a legal expert of the ACLU without being an expert on the the
legal expertise provided by the ACLU
- Anti-Hazelwood Laws- Pennsylvania is also one of the most least
relevant in terms of this precedent
- Laws which ensure student’s rights are not infringed upon by
this precedent
- The simple truth is not disputable
- Censoring this truth is in violation clear violation of section 12.9
- Simple truth that has been responsibly fulfilled.

Young- Bin Dr. Robert Reynolds


- Are you aware that the student journalists of Hazelwood High School
wrote their articles as a part of a class while the student journalists of
Elizabethtown Area High School wrote their articles as a part of a
club?
- What were the articles that started the Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier about?
- Only ask if not stated already
- What was the verdict of Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier?
- Are you aware that the reasoning behind this verdict for the divorce
article is because the author did not adhere to journalistic standards by
informing the father of the story and giving him an opportunity to
respond and therefore being irresponsible journalists?
- Is it true that you didn’t want to publish the pregnancy article because
you were concerned that students may be able to recognize the identity
of the girls who were interviewed?
- So these articles were about students within the school and not about
the board members that are outside of school whose opinions should
be known to the public?

Camille Mr. Riggleman


- Where did you go to school Mr. Riggleman?
- What was your major as well as your minor study?
- What then, is your level of professional experience with journalistic
expertise
- Lack of expertise
- Do you see yourself as someone who like to hear the opinions of
others?
- Favoring opinion
- Why are you so easily in favor of Martin;s censorship? --- Because it
projects a different opinion than yours?
- Question intent
- Now Mr. Riggleman I imagine you are a man who likes everything to
be concise and in the order.
- Is there tangible evidence that you will be mocked because of your
comments, or do you simply just fear the fact that your repitaure will
be tarnished by your ill spoken words?
- You say this is to keep the peace and avoid controversy, but is the
truth simply that you are just scared of a wave of backlash that you
were not prepared for?

Young-Bin Ms. Jasmine McNealy


- Does the First Amendment apply to everyone in the United States of
America.
- Even students?
- Do you think, as an expert, and student should be censored?
- As a first amendment lawyer, you are aware that Pennsylvania has one
of the most protective student rights laws in the country, aren’t you?
- So are you aware of Pennsylvania Administration code 12.9?
Your honor I now call forth plaintiff exhibit C which has been accepted into
evidence.
- Can you read, out loud, Part C? And the numbers below it, if you will.
- (c) Students may use publications, handbills, announcements,
assemblies, group meetings, buttons, armbands and any other
means of common communication, provided that the use of
public school communications facilities shall be in accordance
with the regulations of the authority in charge of those
facilities.
- (1) Students have the responsibility to obey laws
governing libel and obscenity and to be aware of the
full meaning of their expression.
- (2) Students have the responsibility to be aware of the
feelings and opinions of others and to give others a fair
opportunity to express their views.
- As a first amendment lawyer, can you tell me confidently that the
student journalists of Elizabethtown Area High School have broken
the code?
- If you are not aware of the details of the article, I can tell you
that the article is a transcript of the interview with minor edits
for clarification, as plaintiff evidence A will prove. Actually,
you honor, may I have plaintiff exhibit A be given to the
witness?

Matt Carmel Blank


-