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Loosely coupled Inter-working of

dual mode WiMAX and EV-DO


terminals

Ramana Isukapalli
risukapalli@alcatel-lucent.com
Apr 30, 2008

All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####


Inter-working among disparate networks
ƒ Inter-working
• Ability of a dual mode MS to operate in two different networks.
• Nomadic or full mobility
ƒ Nomadic
• Operate in two networks “independently”
• No session or service continuity
¾ Unless application can survive change of IP address.
• NOT considered in this presentation.
ƒ Full mobility
• Session and service continuity across networks
• Minimum packet loss and service interruption
⇒ Focus of this presentation

2 | WiMAX W4 | June 2007 All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007


Need for Inter-working
ƒ Lot of progress in fourth generation
wireless networks, recently.
ƒ WiMAX
• Being deployed by many carriers.
• Significant progress in the std. groups.
• Takes a few years for full deployment.
ƒ 4G networks need to inter-work with 3G
networks, till fully deployed.

3 | WiMAX W4 | June 2007 All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007


Inter-working between WiMAX and EV-DO
ƒ MS is active in either one of
the two networks.
ƒ Common core network.
• Unique HA and H-AAA.
ƒ Aim: Session and service
continuity during mobility.
ƒ Use: Mobile IP (MIP) as per RFC
3344.
ƒ HA is the anchor. Creates MIP
tunnel with
• FA in PDSN in EV-DO or
• FA in ASN-GW in WiMAX
ƒ Transparent to user.

4 | WiMAX W4 | June 2007 All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007


Mobile IP (MIP)
ƒ Achieve session continuity
• By using the same HA, and the same AAA for both WiMAX and EV-DO.
• AAA assigns the same HA.
• HA acts as anchor, creates MIP tunnel with FA (PDSN or ASN-GW).
• Correspondent nodes address MS with “Home Address” (HoA).
• HA routes packets to “Care of Address” (CoA) through MIP tunnel.

5 | WiMAX W4 | June 2007 All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007


Coupling of WiMAX and EV-DO networks
ƒ Loose coupling
• Protocol specific procedure within each network for
¾ Network entry, authentication, paging, etc.
• Common core network with unique HA, H-AAA.
• Two separate access networks, separate data paths.
• Useful when a service provider owns two access networks.
ƒ Tight coupling
• ASN-GW of WiMAX tied to PDSN of EV-DO.
¾ No separate data paths, but chained data paths.
¾ Data path of WiMAX traverses RNS/PDSN of EV-DO.
• Needs wider 3G pipes to support 4G traffic.
• A new approach – standards are currently being developed.
• Needs further evaluation wrt. benefits and deficiencies.

ƒ Summary: Loose coupling


• Supports faster development path.
• Easier to achieve with current technology.
• Provides better performance.
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Loose coupling in WiMAX and EV-DO networks

ƒ Two access networks.


ƒ Common billing.
ƒ Separate data paths.

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WiMAX─EV-DO Interworking Alternatives
ƒ Client MIP ─ Client MIP (CMIP ─ CMIP)
• MIP Client on MS in both WiMAX and EV-DO.
¾ MS should send MIP RRQ message.
¾ A common MIP client is required.
• FA functionality in
¾ PDSN in EV-DO.
¾ ASN-GW in WiMAX.

ƒ Client MIP ─ Proxy MIP (CMIP ─ PMIP)


• CMIP in EV-DO (Qualcomm MIP Client can be used).
• PMIP in WiMAX ─ MS uses Simple IP
• ASN-GW acts as the Proxy MIP Client.

8 | WiMAX W4 | June 2007 All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007


CMIP vs. PMIP - based WiMAX Terminals – Key Difference
• More complexity on MS
ASN GW
CMIP
FA • MS controls IP session handoffs CMIP
• Less client context in ASN GW
• Full-featured FA supporting CMIP
Billing
MIP Server
MIP IMS Home CSN

H-AAA
Core
HA
ASN GW: P
MI
FA, PMIP client
Simple IP
(PMIP)
• Less complexity in MS (DHCP for IP session)
• No client awareness of Mobile IP
DHCP • Network performs IP session handoffs PMIP
• MIP client context in ASN GW
• Subset of FA integrated with PMIP client

9 | WiMAX W4 | June 2007 All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007


Functions of MS
ƒ Dual radio, dual physical and MAC layers.
ƒ In WiMAX and EV-DO
• Unique IP address
• Unique NAI
• Access network specific
¾ Authentication and network entry
¾ Paging
¾ Intra-network mobility
⇒ MS behaves as a single mode device in each network.
ƒ Connection Manager
• Manages signal strength in WiMAX and EV-DO
• Triggers inter-technology handoffs.
ƒ Session and service continuity across networks.
ƒ Transparent to end user

10 | WiMAX W4 | June 2007 All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007


Functions of HA and H-AAA
ƒ Home Agent
• Maintains MIP tunnels with FA (in WiMAX or EV-DO).
• Unique for both WiMAX and EV-DO.
ƒ AAA
• Assigns unique HA to the MS, for both WiMAX and EV-DO
• In EV-DO
¾ Validates MN-AAA AE in CMIP RRQ, as per X.S0011-D spec.
¾ Assigns HA and associates it with a SPI
• In WiMAX
¾ Authenticates MS using EAP TTLS or EAP AKA or EAP SIM.
¾ Generates MN-HA key, identifies MN-HA with a unique SPI value.
¾ Assigns HA and associates

11 | WiMAX W4 | June 2007 All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007


Inter-technology handoffs
ƒ Break before make – Break current connection before
making target connection.
• More packet loss than the other two

ƒ Make before break – Make target connection before


breaking current connection
• Less packet loss than break before make

ƒ Make before break w/ simultaneous bindings – maintain


two network connections briefly during handoffs
• Least packet loss
• Open technical issues
¾ Duplicate packets
¾ No support for simultaneous bindings in HA
• More complex than the other two
⇒ Needs further work.
12 | WiMAX W4 | June 2007 All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007
Backup slides

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Call flow-1
ƒ WiMAX to EV-DO
ƒ CMIP in WiMAX
ƒ CMIP in EV-DO
ƒ Make-before-break
ƒ EV-DO to WiMAX is
similar

14 | WiMAX W4 | June 2007 All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007


Call flow-2
ƒ WiMAX to EV-DO
ƒ PMIP in WiMAX
ƒ CMIP in EV-DO
ƒ Make-before-break
ƒ EV-DO to WiMAX is
similar

15 | WiMAX W4 | June 2007 All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007