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Society, Culture and Family Planning with Population maturing and repressing human beings through inter-

Education personal stimulations.

INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY WHY STUDY SOCIOLOGY?

Sociology is the systematic study of social behaviour and human  To obtain factual information about our society and different
groups. It focuses primarily on the influence of social relationships aspects of our social life.
upon people’s attitudes and behaviour and on how societies are
established and change.  To understand our society and to analyse the social factors
causing problems.
It deals with families, gangs, business firms, computer networks,
political parties, schools, religions, and labour unions. It is  To learn the application of scientific methodology.
concerned with love, poverty, conformity, technology,
 To enhance broad-mindedness and tolerance of the ways of
discrimination, illness, alienation, overpopulation and community.
the other people.

THE SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION


DEFINITION OF SOCIOLOGY
 According to Charles Wright Mills, it is the ability to see
 George Simmel - it is a subject which studies human inter- the relation between our personal life and the social world.
relationship. It enables us to see things beyond our established ways of
acting and behaving, and gain a better grasp of the
 Max Weber – it is a science which attempts imperative situation by relating oneself to the bigger society. It is a set
understanding of social actions. of mind that enables us to locate ourselves in the period in
which we live and study the events in our personal lives
 Sorokin - sociology is a study first of all the relationship and against events in society, thus gaining a wider freedom.
correlations between various classes, second between the
social and non social aspects of life and, third it studies  It can help us understand what is happening to us and why
general characteristics common to all classes of society. such social phenomena occur.

DEFINITION OF SOCIOLOGY SOCIOLOGY IS A SCIENCE?

 Ogburn - sociology is concerned with the study of social life  According to Robert Stead sociology is a social science and
and its relations to the factors of culture, natural not a natural science, because it deals with human beings
environment, heredity and group. and social phenomena. It is positive and not normative
science because it studies social phenomena as it is and not
 Emile Durkheim - It is the science of collective as it ought to be. It is pure and not applied science because
representation. it studies underlying factors of a social phenomenon.
Sociology is an abstract and not a concrete science because
 E.S Bugardus - Sociology may be defined as the study of
it studies society in general. It is a science of generalization
the ways in which social experiences function in developing,
and not that of particularization because it studies a social
problem in general and not in particular way. It does not  Karl Marx (Germany)
study a social phenomenon from a particular angle. It is an
empirical or rational science because it tries to follow logical - He wrote Communist Manifesto together with his life-long friend
method of data collection. Friedrich Engels.

SOCIOLOGY AND OTHER SOCIAL SCIENCES - In Marx’s analysis, society was fundamentally divided between
two classes i.e. Bourgeoisie and Proletariat who have opposite
 Anthropology – is the study of humanity and the interests. In his examination of industrial society, he saw the
similarities and diversity of culture. factory as the centre of conflict between the exploiters (the owners
of the means of production and the exploited (the workers).
 Psychology – it is mainly interested in a wide range of
mental, psychological, and behavioural processes. DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIOLOGY

 Economics – concerned with the human activities related  Emile Durkheim (France)
to the production, consumption, and distribution of goods,
services, and wealth within societies. - He was the first professor of Sociology in the University of
Paris. He taught and became a prolific writer and critic.
 Political Science – concerned with the history and theory
of government. - He asserted that behaviour must be understood in that
larger social context, rather an individual action.
 History – the study of past events of human beings.
- Division of Labour in the Society – rapid social change
DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIOLOGY and specialized division of labour produce strains in society.

EUROPE - Suicide – showed the relationship between the individual


and the society when the values of life become dangerous.
 Auguste Comte (French)
DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIOLOGY
- he coined term “sociology” which derived from the Latin
word socius (social/being with others), and Greek logos  Max Weber (Germany)
(study/science).
- He studied legal and economic history in the University of
- Father of Sociology Heidelberg, where he obtained his doctorate degree at the
age of 25. He taught to his student the “Verstehen”
He believed that in order to improve society the theoretical science (sympathetic understanding of the mind of others).
of society should be developed and a systematic investigation of
behaviour should be carried. - He believed that understanding human action by examining
the subjective meaning that people attach to their own
- Positive Philosophy – a book summarizes the stages of behaviour and the behaviour of others. The significance of
development of all knowledge about humanity. the subjective perceptions of power, wealth, ownership, and
social prestige, as well as the objective aspects of these
DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIOLOGY
factors.
DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIOLOGY - They formulated theories emphasizing the importance of social
interaction in the development of human thought of action
 Henri Saint-Simon (Symbolic Interaction Perspective)

- He believed that the law of human behaviour could be DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIOLOGY


determine in the same manner that the law of nature had
been arrived at by natural scientist.  William Summer – collected data on the customs and
moral laws of different societies.
 Herbert Spencer
 Talcott Parsons – he was the founder of the sociology
- His theory of social evolution espoused the idea that department in Harvard, developed general theory of action
societies develop from relative homogeneity and simplicity that analysed social phenomena ranging from individual
to heterogeneity and complexity. (survival of the fittest) behaviour to the larger structure of society. He was a
follower of Durkheim.
DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIOLOGY
 Robert K. Merton – known for the middle-range theory
Other sociologist were:
(concerning with linking general theory to empirical testing
 George Simmel and developing concept of social structure – functions, self-
fulfilling prophecies, deviance, and bureaucracies).
 Ferdinand Toennies
DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIOLOGY
 Wilfredo Pareto
PHILIPPINES
 Karl Mannheim
- It was introduced in the Philippines after the Spanish
DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIOLOGY Regime. First thought by Fr. Valentin Marin to criminology
at UST, using social philosophical way.
UNITED STATES
- It was followed by American educators named A.W Salt
 Robert E. Park – pioneered in the multi-disciplinary
and Murray Barlett (UP-D),Clyde Heflin (Silliman
approach and social ecology.
University in Dumaguete).
 James Adams – popular female social thinkers who studies
- Some Filipino educators named Condrado Benitez and
in the impoverished areas of Chicago.
Luis Rivera also taught sociology in western orientation.
 Charles Horton Cooley
- Serafin N. Macaraeg view sociology as a problem-oriented
 Herbert Mead discipline using scientific view but wasn’t successful.

 W.I Thomas
DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIOLOGY because they play a part in helping society survive. These
institutions include the family, education, government, religion,
- Social sciences studies made by western social sciences on and the economy. If anything adverse happens to one of these
Philippine ethnic group when sociology and anthropology institutions or part are affected and the system no longer functions
were merged by H. Otley Beyer. properly.

- Significance of social facts increasingly became popular in THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES IN SOCIOLOGY


decision-making, and Benicio Catapusan benchmark the
data collection to the rural community of different region. Conflict Perspective

- Philippine Sociological Society (PSS) was organized by - A group in society are engaged in a continuous power
different universities such as (ADMU, UP-D and SU-D). The struggle for control of scare resources. Conflict may take
objective of the organization is to increase knowledge about the form of politics, litigation, negotiations or family
social behaviour, gather data about social problems, train discussions about financial matter. Simmel, Marx and Weber
social sciences teachers and develop cooperation to the contributed significantly to this perspective by focusing on
other countries. the inevitability of clashes between social groups. Today,
advocates of the conflict perspective view social continuous
DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIOLOGY power struggle among competing social group.

- Philippine Social Science Council (PSSC) (1968), was Conflict theorists are primarily concerned with the kinds of changes
formed to improved the quality and relevance of the social that can bring about, whereas functionalists look for stability and
sciences. The PSSC Committee drafted a set of guidelines consensus.
regarding the sets of responsibilities of social scientists in
the “New Society”. It stated that Filipino social scientist had THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES IN SOCIOLOGY
made significant contribution to society and urged them to
continue their tasks under the new social order. Symbolic Interaction Perspective

- Some Filipino sociologists named: Randolf David, Cynthia - It focuses on the communication aspects or language that
Bautista, Sylvia Guerrero, Fr. Renato A. Ocampo, and enables the individual to develop a personal identity within
Ledevina V. Cariño. a society with members having scripted statuses and roles.

THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES IN SOCIOLOGY - It involves the individuals in the society , their definitions or
perceptions of situations, meanings, roles, and interaction
Structural – Functionalism Perspective patterns.

- It also referred as social system theory, equilibrium theory, - The society is reflected in every socialized individual, and its
or functionalism. external forms an structures are likewise reflected through
the social institutions occurring among individuals at the
The society is composed of interrelated parts, each of which serves symbolic level.
a function and contributes to the overall stability of the society.
Societies develop social structure or institutions that persist
SOCIOLOGICAL INQUIRY months, and participates in their activities in order to know
and feel their culture.
GOALS OF SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH
 Participatory Research – this method utilizes the people
 To understand the observable social world. who are the actual targets of the development projects, in
the entire research process.
 To test or verify a hypothesis.
TECHNIQUES AND TOOLS IN SOCIOLOGICAL INQUIRY
 To present repetitive human pattern of behaviour according
to logically related hypothesis and supported by empirical  Observation – it uses various senses in studying a social
evidence. phenomenon or social behaviour. It can be overt or covert.

 To be meaningful.  Interviews

STEPS IN CONDUCTING SOCIOLOGICAL INQUIRY  Structured interview – the researcher followed a more
definite order of questions.
 Define the research problem and review related literature.
 Unstructured interview – the researcher leaves the it to the
 Formulate the hypothesis.
key informants to guide the conversation.
 Plan the research design.
- Interview can also be guided by a questionnaire.
 Gather the data.
 Historical Research – this involves the continuous and
 Analyse the data. systematic search for information and knowledge about past
events related to the life of a person, a group, society, or
 Check or verify the results. the world.

 Communicate the results to others. TECHNIQUES AND TOOLS IN SOCIOLOGICAL INQUIRY

METHODOLOGICAL DESIGN IN SOCIOLOGY  Life History – study of personal life of a person.

 Experimental Method – it is a method for studying the  Case Study – an extensive examination of a specific group
relation between two or more variables under highly over a long period of time is carried out. Ex. A case study of
controlled conditions. a drug addict, a prostitute, a professional or a gang.

 Survey Research – it involves a systematic and large-  Content Analysis – this involves the analysis of how
scale collection of information from people and about the people communicate and the messages people talk or write
people through the use of questionnaire. about.

 Field Research (Participant Observation) – the  Use of films and Tape recorder – used to gain more
researcher/s goes to the field lives with the people for some accurate data such as the visual information and to
preserve in formation.
SOCIETY AND GROUP - This is a society based on the modern scientific knowledge.
(e.g. European modern era)

EVOLUTION OF HUMAN Post-Industrial Society

A). Origin of Species (Sir Charles Darwin) - It described the economic and social changes in the late
twentieth century.
It traced the biological evolution of living organisms from simple
unicellular amoeba to the most complex multi cellular organism like SOCIAL GROUPS
human being.
SOCIAL GROUP
B). Theory of Creation
Society
EVOLUTION OF SOCIETY
- It includes the totality of social organizations and the complex
A) Hunting and Gathering Society network of interconnected, interdependent, and overlapping social
relationships.
- It is the oldest and the simplest form of society. It was also
characterized by a small and sparse population and having a - A large social grouping whose members share the same
nomadic way of life and a very primitive technology. They geographical territory and are subject to the political
have the most primitive tools such as stone axes, spears authority and dominant cultural expectations.
and knives. (e.g. Eskimo tribe)
- According to Perucci and Knudsen: Society have two
B) Horticultural Society aspects. A) society is external to individual B) The
members perceive society and its experiences as a
- It was associated with the elementary discovery that plants constraints upon their lives.
can be grown from seeds. While herding is common in areas
with poor soil, horticultural is more common as means of CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCIAL GROUPS
subsistence in regions with fertile soil.(e.g. Masai tribe in
Kenya)  Collection of individuals.

EVOLUTION OF SOCIETY  Interaction among members.

Agricultural or Feudal Society  Mutual awareness.

- This society introduced the harnessing of animal power. The  “We”-feeling.


mode of production of the hunter gathering society which
 Group unity and solidarity.
produces none of its food, and the horticultural society
which produces food in small gardens rather than big fields.  Common interests.
(e.g. early Egyptian society)
 Group norms.
Industrial Society
 Size of the groups. TYPES OF SOCIAL GROUPS

 Groups are dynamics. GEMEINSCHAFT

 Stability. - Close communal relationship or community.

SOCIAL GROUP - It is a community of intimate, private, and exclusive living


and familism.
Clusters of the Society
- They live and work together and share a common language,
 Aggregates – a number of persons cluster but do not traditions, and customs which are not questioned.
interact with each other. (Example: people standing in a
street corner waiting for a jeepney) GESSELSCHAFT

 Social Category – the groups whose members may never - Organized impersonal relationship or society.
met and do not interact socially, but possess common
identifying status characteristics. (Example: males, females, - There is division of labour, specialization, functional
infants, adults) dependence, and solidarity or cohesion are achieved.

 Collectivity – temporary group like crowds, masses, public, - The members are guided by rational will characterized by
and social movements interacting with each other, but the forethought and deliberation.
interactions are passing or short-lived.
TYPES OF SOCIAL GROUPS
TYPES OF SOCIAL GROUPS
IN-GROUP
PRIMARY GROUP
- The individual identifies and which gives on her a sense of
- They are characterized by intimacy, sympathetic belonging, solidarity, camaraderie, espirits de corps, and a
understanding and friendliness among the members. protective attitude towards the other members.

- The small face-to-face structures, where personalities are - “we are in”
fused into common whole.
OUT-GROUP
SECONDARY GROUP
- It is a group which an individual is in sufficient contact with
- They tend to impose the patterns of conformity on their as to be aware of its existence, but he or she is prone to
members. criticize.

- They serve to offset the prejudices or vested control of the - “they are out”
immediate locality.

- This may be observed in the planning of business, labour,


economic, political and religious organizations.
TYPES OF SOCIAL GROUPS - The theory of “definition of the situation” in ethnic group
relations implies that, what is important is not the physical
FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS characteristics that identify a group but how such
relationship determine the feeling of belonging to each
- They are social structures which are deliberately organized
other.
for the attainment of specific goals which meet their most
fundamental needs. - The Philippine population is composed of Christian
Malay(91.5%), Muslim Malay (4%), Chinese (1.5%), and
- Examples: schools, hospitals, churches, industrial
other cultural minorities (3%).
establishments, etc.
RACE AND ETHNICITY
INFORMAL GROUPS
Minority Group
- They are within the structure of formal organizations.
- It refers to the group that is numerically lesser than the rest
- They may introduced new and unofficial goals into the
of the population. There are in a non-dominant position,
group, redefine channels of communications and
whose members possess ethnic, religious, or linguistic
interactions, or create new procedures to get job done.
characteristics which distinguish them from the rest of the
RACE AND ETHNICITY population.

RACE - Some features of minority group are:

- The classification of humans according to physical a. The members suffer various disadvantages at the and of the
characteristics transmitted at birth to a group of people. another group.

- It is biological concept is determined on the basis of a b. They are identified by group characteristics that are socially
group’s blood line. visible.

ETHNICITY c. It is a self-conscious group with a strong sense of


“oneness).
- The culturally defined differences between ethnic group in
the society. CULTURE AND ITS SOCIETY

- It involves a sharing of culture and certain culture traits. CULTURE AND ITS SOCIETY

RACE AND ETHNICITY Culture

Ethnic Group - It is that complex whole which includes knowledge belief,


art, law, morals custom and other capabilities and habit
- It refers to the group with common cultural backgrounds. acquired by man as a member of society. (Edward Taylor)
- It is the complex whole that consists of all the ways we A. Knowledge - the total range of what has been or perceived as
think and do and everything we have as member of society. true. It includes:
(Robert Bierstadt)
a) Natural knowledge – the accumulated facts about the
- The realm of styles of values of emotional attachments of natural world, including both the biological and physical
intellectual adventures. (MacIver and Page) aspects.

Therefore, culture define as the sum total of behaviour traits which b) Technological knowledge – these are useful in dealing
a person, comes to acquire through instruction and learning. practical problems.

FUNCTIONS OF CULTURE c) Supernatural knowledge – the perception about the actions


of gods, demons, angels or spirits.
 Culture defines situations.
d) Magical knowledge – perceptions about the methods of
 Culture is the treasury of knowledge. influencing supernatural events by manipulating certain
laws of nature.
 Culture provides behaviour patterns.
COMPONENTS OF CULTURE
 Culture defines attitudes, values and goals.
B. Norms – It pertains to society’s standards of propriety,
 Culture models personality.
morality, ethics and legality. Some examples are: eating, talking,
 Culture decides our careers. dressing, cooking, courtship, child rearing, working, spending
leisure time and some special occasions.
CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE
- It was divided into three: folkways, mores and laws.
 Culture is learned.
i. Folkways – are commonly known as the customs, traditions,
 Culture is transmitted. and conventions of society.

 Culture is social and collective. Example: In the Tagalog areas, people eat three times a
day with merienda in the afternoon.
 Culture is ideational.
COMPONENTS OF CULTURE
 Culture is gratifying.
ii. Mores - norms people consider vital to their well being and
 Culture is adaptive.
most cherished values; they are special customs with moral and
 Culture is an integrated whole. ethical significance, which are strongly held and emphasized.

 Culture is shared.

COMPONENTS OF CULTURE
Kinds of Mores D. Material Culture - the concrete and tangible objects produced
and used by man to satisfy his varied needs and wants. It ranges
1. Positive mores/Duty - it refers to the behavior, which from the pre-historic stone tools and weapons to sophisticated and
must and ought to be done because they are ethically and modern spaceships and weapons of mass destruction. E.g. artifacts
morally good. E.g. Giving assistance to the poor and needy. (simple man-made tools and objects such as knapped flint, which
presents evidence of an ancient culture).
2. Negative mores/Taboo - it refers to societal prohibitions
on certain acts which must not be done because they are E. Symbols - refers to an object, gesture, sound, color or design
not only illegal, but amoral and unethical. E.g. incest, rape, that represent something “other than itself “. E.g. Cross for
cannibalism, murder etc Christianity, Dove for peace.

COMPONENTS OF CULTURE ASPECTS OF CULTURE

iii. Laws - these are formalized norms enacted by people vested Cultural Relativism - states that cultures differ, so that a cultural
with legitimate authority. They are group expectations, which have act trait, act, idea has no meaning or function by itself, but has a
formal sanction by the state. meaning only within its cultural setting.

Examples: Republic Acts, Revised Penal Code of the Philippines, Culture Shock - the feeling of disbelief, disorganization and
statutes and Batas Pambansa. frustration one experiences when he encounters cultural patters or
practices which are different from his.

Ethnocentrism - the tendency to see the behaviors, beliefs,


COMPONENTS OF CULTURE
values, and norms of one’s owns group as the only right way of
C. Ideas, Beliefs and Values living and to judge other by those standards.

i. Ideas - the non-materials aspects of culture and embody Xenocentrism - the idea that what is foreign is best and that
man’s conception of his physical and cultural world. E.g. one’s lifestyle, products or ideas are inferior to those others.
idea of a marriage, an educated person
ASPECTS OF CULTURE
ii. Beliefs - the person’s conviction about a certain idea, it
Noble Savage Mentality - the evaluation of one’s culture that of
embodies people’s perception of reality and includes the
others based on the romantic notion that the culture and way of
primitive ideas of the universe as well as the scientist’s
life of the primitives or other simple cultures is better, more
empirical view of the world. E.g. spirits, life after death,
acceptable, and more orderly.
superstitions
Subculture - the smaller group which develop norms, values,
iii. Values - abstract concept of what is important and
beliefs and special languages which make them distinct from the
worthwhile. E.g. nationalism, heroism
broader society.
COMPONENTS OF CULTURE
Counterculture or contra-culture - the subgroups whose  Economic and social betterment. This can be considered
standards come in conflict with and oppose the conventional a positive value, but negates itself if one goes to the extent
standards of the dominant culture. of “selling” oneself and sacrificing other values.

ASPECTS OF CULTURE  Patience, endurance and suffering.

Culture Lag - the gap between the material and non-material ADOPTED FILIPINO VALUES
culture.
 Equal opportunity
Cultural Diversity - the differences and variety of beliefs
practices, values and meanings to each culture universal by the  Achievement and success
members of a society or by different cultural group.
 Material comfort
Universal Patterns of Culture - the broad areas of social living
 Activity and work
found in all societies. The features and elements common to all
cultures rather than to the special culture traits.  Practically and efficiency

PHILIPPINE VALUES  Progress

VALUES  Science
INCONSISTENCY AND CONFLICT
 Democracy and free enterprise
A) Affective – a person’s choice is prized and cherished, and the
person publicly affirms it. (e.g. one’s valuing his/her professions,  Freedom
but not saying “teacher lang po ako”)
 Racism and group superiority
B) Behavioural – if ones values something, he or she shows this
KEY VALUES THAT DOMINATE IN PHILIPPINE WAY OF LIFE
in his or her actions, acts positively about it, and does it habitually.
(e.g. values honestly does not cheat because it is he right thing to Non-rationalism
do not because someone is watching)
- States that the people have to adapt themselves to nature
C) Cognitive – something that one’s values should be chosen and the forces outside themselves.
freely from alternatives after careful thought. (e.g. A woman who
decides to marry must have a good reason in doing so.) Rationalism

BASIC FILIPINO VALUES - The belief that one can actively control and manipulate his
or her destiny by systematic planning, studying, and
 Emotional closeness and security in a family, however training.
it tends to make the Filipino a nation of dependent people.

 Approval from authority and of society.


KEY VALUES THAT DOMINATE IN PHILIPPINE WAY OF LIFE Questions:

Personalism How does a newly born baby become a human or social being?

- It attach to the major importance to personal factors which How much our personality determine by our biological inheritance
guarantees intimacy, warmth and security of kinship, and (nature)?
friendship in getting things done.
How much our personality determine by socio-cultural environment
Interpersonalism (nurture)?

- The tendency to eliminate the influence the friendship or PERSONALITY AND THE SOCIAL SELF
kinship in working situation. Human Development

KEY VALUES THAT DOMINATE IN PHILIPPINE WAY OF LIFE Nature

Particularism - Biological traits transferred from parents to offspring


through genes in the chromosomes of the sex are composed
- A person concern’s is centred on subgroups made up of of biological structures, psychological process, reflexes,
relatives, friends, colleagues, associates, religious affiliates urges, capacity, intelligence, and other physical traits.
of his/her ethnical regional group.
Nurture
- Ethical rules
- Influence one’s action patterns and motivational skills,
Universalism factual knowledge, values and tastes.

- A person’s concern is the advancement of the collective - It is the socio-cultural activity in the environment.
national good.
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
- Legal rules Freud’s Theory of Socialization
KEY VALUES THAT DOMINATE IN PHILIPPINE WAY OF LIFE - According to Sigmund Freud, personality consisted of the
three major systems, namely: the id, ego, and
Filipino Nationalism
superego.
- The advocacy of making ones own nation distinct and
A. Id – is the biological component which is the source of a
separate from others in the intellectual, social, cultural,
number of drives and urges.
economic, political, and moral matters.
B. Ego – the mediator between the needs of the individual and
- It is the feeling of oneness among the nationals who seek to
the real world.
establish the identity and the good of the nation in these
matters. C. Superego – the moral arm of the personality, representing
the traditional rules, values and ideals of the society.
DEVELOPMENT OF SELF
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY - The symbols that constitute a language represent concepts
Freud’s Theory of Socialization by which the person engaged in cooperative activity
acquires the attitudes of others involved in the activity.
Stages of Development
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
1) Oral Stage – from birth to one year old. Eating (sucking) is the Looking-Glass Self
major satisfaction of this stage that gives the baby nourishment
and pleasure. Freud described this stage as one primary narcissism - Charles Horton Cooley
or self-love.
- The ability of children to visualize themselves through
2) Anal Stage – from ages one to three years. The anal zone the eyes of others, to imagine how they appear to
become the centre of the child’s sexual interest. The influencing others.
factors at this stage is toilet training.
- Three Elements of Looking-Glass Self
3) Phallic Stage – between the ages of three to six years. The
greatest source of pleasure comes from the sex organs. The child 1. The imagination of how we appear to other persons.
feels erotic desires towards the parents of the opposite sex.
2. The imagination of the judgement of that appearance.
(Oedipus Complex and Electra Complex)
3. A sort of self-feeling (pride or mortification).
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
Freud’s Theory of Socialization THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
Development of the Self
Stages of Development
- George Herbert Mead expanded the idea of Cooley’s idea
4) Latency Stage – from ages six to eleven or early adolescent.
of the social-self by relating the idea of the self-concept to
Their energies are redirected into concrete, socially acceptable
the role taking.
pursuit such as sports, games, and intellectual. The child possess
new composure and self-control. - Stages:

5) Genital Stage (Puberty) – they focus on the opposite sex, look 1. Play stage – they acquire a sense of self when they develop
around for a potential love-partner, prepare for marriage and adult the “me” or self-consciousness by seeing themselves
responsibilities. through the responses.

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY 2. Game stage - they visualize their own action as a part of a
Symbolic Interactionism whole pattern of group activity.

- This theory poses that the self-identity is developed


through the social interaction with others, mediated
by language in the process of socialization.

- Language is crucial in the development of social-self.


THEORIES OF PERSONALITY 3. Identification – the child cannot make a difference between
Dramaturgical Approach his/her own organism and the environment.

- Erving Goffman said that “All the world is a stage” 4. Language - It is the medium of social interaction.

- The individuals are performing and acting for their audience AGENCIES OF SOCIALIZATION
in everyday life. Family

- This theory elaborated the idea of role (acting in - The family is a permanent, the most complete and primary
accordance with the expected norms attached to a institution that looks after the needs of an individual. It is
particular position) and role performance (the actual usually the most influential group in the child’s life.
conduct of the role in accordance with the position).
- The child comes in contact with human beings specially the
Example: a priest/nun expected to be humble and compassionate mother and the child has physical and social contact.

SOCIALIZATION - It serves as a mediator between the individual and the


other agencies of socialization.
DEFINITIONS OF SOCIALIZATION
- The children learn to cooperate, compete, accommodate.
Socialization
AGENCIES OF SOCIALIZATION
- It is a life long process which enables the individual to learn Church
the content of her/his culture and the many behavioural
patterns of the group to which s/he belongs. - The children are brought to the church by their parents as
early as infancy and are initiated early into saying their
- It is process by which the helpless infant gradually becomes prayers and forming a notion of God.
self aware, knowledgeable person, skilled in the ways of
culture into which he or she is born. (Anthony Giddens) - This is the agency where the children learn the norms of
conduct and codes of behaviour set forth by the church.
- It is a learning process of development of habits, attitudes What s right and wrong are delineated, and prescriptions of
and traits that differentiate individual from one another. rewards and punishments established.
(Anderson and Parker)
- Involvement in such organizations influences the individual’s
PROCESS OF SOCIALIZATION outlook and attitudes.
Stages of Process of Socialization
AGENCIES OF SOCIALIZATION
1. Imitation - self-conscious assumption of another’s acts or School
roles.
- It was considered to be an important formal setting where
2. Suggestion – the process of communicating information the child spends many hours together with friends and
which has not logical or self-evident basis. teachers.
- This the first formal agency which exposes the child to the AGENCIES OF SOCIALIZATION
rules of larger society. Mass Media

- This agency is responsible for inculcating knowledge and - It refers to all instruments of communication such as
skills, which prepare them for adulthood and become television, radio, newspapers, magazines, movies, and
productive and effective citizens of the country, however, records. Media imparts information through audio visual and
many children from poor families cannot afford higher print.
education.
- Its function are primarily to inform, entertain, and educate.
AGENCIES OF SOCIALIZATION
Peer Group - Radio and television programs transmit music and other
forms of entertainment to the viewers.
- Peer group refers to people of almost the same who share
similar interests. The informal grouping of two or more - To children, television is very appealing, and has a certain
members, more or less of the same age, neighbourhood, or extent, become a substitute for activities like reading or
school. playing, however, some TV shows are infused with sex,
crime, scandals, or gossips.
- The office norm, or the unwritten rules of behaviour, is a
product of peer socialization. GENDER SOCIALIZATION

- This is the only agency of socialization not controlled First three word for a new born baby:
primarily by adults.
“It’s a boy” or “It’s a girl”
- They had no definite set of goals except companionship,
 Sex
thus, values were observed such as utang na loob,
pakikisama, or damay. - Refers to the biological or anatomical differences between
males and females.
AGENCIES OF SOCIALIZATION
Workplace  Gender

- Occupation brings about reality in front of the person as the - The psychological, social, and cultural differences between
individual earns for survival to fulfil his ambition. Personal males and females.
goals and basic needs are fulfilled.
“Gender socialization begins from the moment that the baby
- The individual learns to cooperate, adjust with others at the was born.”
work place. This were provided in the form of
apprenticeship, orientation sessions, and training seminars. POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION

- The commitment wherein the work becomes part of the - The process by which people come to acquire political
person’s self-identity. attitudes and values. There are four types of political
socialization such as;
1. Manifest socialization - the certain values and feelings 1. Family of Orientation (origin) – the family into which one is
towards a political system are directly expressed. born, and where one is reared or socialized.

2. Latent manifestation - there is no direct approach to the 2. Family of Procreation – the family established through
problems, and that ideas are transmitted indirectly. marriage and consists of a husband, a wife, sons and a
daughter.
3. Particularistic socialization – the political ideas of
individuals are directed towards a particular value, which SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS
they are required to adhere and appreciate. Types of Family

4. Universalistic socialization - the political energies are not B. Extended Family


directed in one direction, but a liberal outlook is developed.
- It is composed of two or more nuclear families,
SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS economically and socially related to each other.

SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS - The extensions may be through the parent-child


Family relationship; where the unmarried and married children
lives with their families live with their parents.
- The simplest form of social institution each members have
its own role in the society. It unites the individuals into - This type of family emphasizes independent residence,
cooperative group to oversee the bearing and raising of strong allegiance to the members, romantic love, and
children. sexual attraction.

- The family is built on kinship based on blood, marriage, and SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS
adoption. Types of Family

- It consists of a social structure providing a more or less Based of Structure


stable framework for the performance of reciprocal roles
and of certain functions to make the relationship enduring.. A. Conjugal Family

SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS - The spouse and their offspring as of prime importance and
Types of Family which has a fringe comparatively unimportant relatives.
Marital bond is emphasized.
Based on internal organization/membership
B. Consanguine Family
A. Nuclear Family
- The nucleus of blood relatives as more important than the
- It is composed of a husband and his wife and their children spouses. Blood relationships formed during are emphasized.
in a union recognized by the other members of the family. A
nuclear family classified into two:
SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS C. Neolocal
Types of Family
- The couple established residence independent and far form
Based on Descent their parent’s residence.

A. Patrilineal - This is most prevalent in the urban areas and couples are
financially stable.
- Descent affiliates a person with a group of relatives through
his or her father. D. Bilocal

B. Matrilineal - The couple has the option to live either with the bride’s or
groom’s family.
- Descent affiliates a person with a group of relatives related
through his or her mother. - The couple resorted to this method if they are financially
stable.
C. Bilateral
SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS
- Descent affiliates a person with a group of relatives related both Types of Family
to his and her parents.
Based on Authority
SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS
Types of Family A. Patriarchal Family

Based on Residence - It gives the oldest male (husband-male) control over the
rest of the members. This is most dominant in many
A. Patrilocal societies since the biblical times.
- The newly weds are expected to live in the same house - The males speak for the familial group with regard to
close to the groom’s family and common in rural areas. property relationship, legal obligations, and criminal
offenses.
- This is consistent with the expectation of society that “a man
must always provide for the needs of his family”. B. Matriarchal Family

B. Matrilocal - An extremely rare phenomenon, which is a system where the


wife-mother has the authority and power over husband-father.
- The wife brings her husband to her parent’s house. This is
most common when the wife is the only child/daughter or SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS
the last of the offspring to get married. Types of Family
SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS C. Egalitarian Family
Types of Family
- The authority is divided more or less between husband and
Based on Residence wife. This is promoted by the bilateral system of descent.
D. Matricentric Family - Decline of the family’s influence on the individual member if
activities are carried outside the home.
- The father commutes to work and his absence gives the mother a
dominant position in the family, although the father may also share - Industrial system, economic individualism and employment
with the mother in decision-making. offers the individual the opportunity to develop skills, and
feel privileged to choose mate personally.
SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS
Functions of the Family - More permissive norms and behaviour due to city-life
urbanization where daily process of commuting an working
 Regulates sexual behaviour away from home tends to undercut family ties.

 Reproduction - Breakdown of consanguineal family as a functional unit.

 Performs biological maintenance SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS


Functions of the Family
 Socialization
- Dual earner and dual career marriage –provision for the
 Status-placement
economic needs of the family is responsibility of both
 Welfare and protection spouses.

SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS - Mate selection – due to independence we can now select


Social Change and the Family whom we want to marry.

- The family can be a source of social change instigator and a - Solo parenthood
recipient as well.
- Gender role (redefinition of roles)
- More favourable attitude to working women and mothers
- Change patterns in child-rearing
due to increase educational and job opportunities, decrease
number of children and law protecting the women’s and SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS
children’s rights. Economy
- Changing role structure of the family due to employment of - It refers to the structuring and functioning of the
wives, household chores and child care are shared with development and utilization of human and natural resources
spouses. in the production, processing, distribution, and consumption
and material goods and services.
- Changing in the authority of husbands and father due to
wives’ increased economic independence. - It can influence habits, skills, knowledge, expectations,
motivations, aspirations, and ideology.
SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS
Functions of the Family - It also affects social norms, values, and personal
relationships within the society.
SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS 3. Maintain a balance with the other social systems and its
Sociology of Economy social subsystems in the production, processing,
distribution, and consumption of economic goods and
 Property – the network of “rights and duties of one person services.
as against all other persons and groups with respects to
some scarce goods”. 4. Indicates the nature of social stratification in the society,
social class, and mobility differences.
 Technology – it consists of knowledge, skills, and attitudes
necessary to convert available resources into objects people SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS
need or want. Religion

 Division of Labour – represent the differentiation of - It is a universal and widespread phenomenon, a part of the
function performed by the individual member and small cultural system.
groups of the society.
- It is a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to
 Organization of Work – concerned with application of sacred things, uniting into a single, moral community all
sociological principles to the study of economic structures, those who adhere to those beliefs and practices. (Durkheim)
changes in these structures, and the values and ideologies
related to them. - According to Edward Taylor (1968), religion came about as
people tried to comprehend occurrences and conditions
SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS which they could not understand or explain.
Types of Economic Systems
- According to Anthony Giddens, all religions involves a set of
 Capitalism – it focuses on the right to own private symbols which arouses feelings of reverence and awe, and
property, to invest it as capital productive enterprises, and are linked to ceremonial rituals such as church services
to obtain profits form each investment. practiced by a community of believers.

 Socialism – based on the set political theories that SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS


espouses the collective ownership of the means of Elements of Religion
productions and distribution of goods.
1. Beliefs – set of institutionalized beliefs and practices
 Communism – it is a social, political, and economic system dealing with the ultimate meaning of life. (e.g. engkanto)
whereby property is publicly owned.
2. The sacred (reverence) and the profane (irreverence)
SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS
Function of Economy 3. Rituals (prayers, songs etc.) and ceremonies (baptism,
wedding etc.)
1. Provides physical subsistence necessary for group survival
in a society. 4. Moral community – the believers of the religions who
shares common beliefs, rituals, and subjective experiences
2. Generates social changes for the continuity of society. to heighten up group identification.
SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS Symbolic – Interactionist Perspective
Functions of Religion
 It focused their attention on micro-level analysis and
Functionalist Perspective examines the meanings and significance of the teaching,
doctrines, and symbols of religions in an individual’s life.
 Religion provides explanation the unknown and some The religious symbols come to the fore and one gains
measure of certainty in an unknown world. strength or courage danger and even death.
 Religion gives meaning and purpose to certain beliefs and SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS
provides people with a perspective for looking at the world. Types of Religious Institutions

 Religion integrates and maintains the fundamental values  Church


form the ultimate values of the Supreme Being to the
subordinate, material, and practical values. - It is a type of religious organization that is well integrated
into the larger society with well established rules and
 Religion allays the fears and anxieties of an individual by doctrines.
reassuring them of the care and protection of their deity
- A church generally accepts the norms and values of the
SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS society and frequently regards itself as the guardian of the
Functions of Religion established social order.

Functionalist Perspective - It identifies with the state and is integrated with the social,
political and educational functions.
 Religion has an integrative function and is means of social
cohesion or group solidarity. SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS
Types of Religious Institutions
 Religion performs welfare, education and recreation
functions.  Sect
 Religion serves as a means of social control. - A highly cohesive group of believers who strictly adhere to a
religious doctrine and reject many beliefs and practices of
 Religion legitimizes the foundation of the society’s culture
the general society and replace them with beliefs and
and integrates the value system of society.
practices which may appear strange to the non believer.
SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS
 Cult
Functions of Religion
- It is a religious organization often inspired by a charismatic
Social-Conflict Perspective
leader and largely outside a society’s cultural tradition.
 Religion is the “opiate of the people”. It can provide unity People voluntarily follow a leader who preaches new beliefs
for those with the faith, but it can spur conflict between and practices.
opposing religious group. (Karl Marx)
SOCIAL INSTITUITONS Government
Sub-concept about Religion
- It is a complex legal system that has the power and
Folk Catholicism/Folk Protestantism – the beliefs and practices authority to carry out the functions of the state. The
of indigenous that are woven into Christian practices. (e.g. anting- government consists of the legislature, executive and
anting, mangkukulam etc.) judiciary.

Split-level Christianity - two or more thought-and-behaviour SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS


system which are inconsistent with each other coexist within the Basis of Power in Philippine Politics
same person. (e.g. a person who gets married, prepares an
elegant and grant feast for the occasion, but continue to maintain a  Voting – right to suffrage (Art. V)
querida)
 Political Counselling – information middlemen in cities
Magic and Faith Healing - mysterious thing and practices related were consulted on political, legal and other technical
to supernatural forces beyond the five senses. (e.g. psychic power) matters by voters.

SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS  Patronage – straight buying and selling of votes operates


Political Institutions with a network of personalized reciprocity.

- It is the social arrangements for legislating and enforcing  Moulding of public opinion – the efforts to provide more
laws, and providing social services like education, public scientific public opinion polling are done by professional
health, and welfare, distributing public funds, collecting statistical centres.
taxes, conducting foreign affairs, and deciding on issues of
SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS
war and peace.
Power beyond the Law
- It involves the theory, art, and practice of government.
 People Power – large gathering of unarmed people united
- They consist of relatively stable cluster of norms, statuses, by set of political call.
and roles that are involved in the acquisition and exercise of
 Corruption – impedes sustainable development, robs the
power and decision-making.
children of today of the resources they will need to survive.
SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS
 Terrorism – acts of violence or the threat of violence
State and Government
employed by an individual or group as a political strategy.
State
SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS
- It is organized under a government that exercises authority Education
over its subjects with the legitimate monopoly of physical
- It defined as a preparation for effective participation in
force, to imprison and even executes members within its
social relation. It is the controlled process whereby changes
jurisdiction. The state exercises its political authority
in behaviour are produced in the person on a group.
through governments at the national, state and local levels.
- Formal Education – is synonymous with school education. It  Government Budget for Education – the Constitution
consists of sets of definite learning goals and objectives, provides that the highest proportion if the budget should go
generally making use of a more flexible curriculum and to education, but this is hardly applied.
more participative teaching methods.
 Mismatch – training and actual jobs are available are not
- Informal Education – learning through interaction with given due consideration. This result in the unemployment or
others outside in the group. Ideas and facts are acquired underemployment of certificate or degree holders.
through suggestion, observation, example, imitation, and
inculcations from the family, play group, neighbourhood, or
occupational group.
SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS
Proposed Reform in Philippine Education

SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS  Upgrade the salary of teachers to attract more good


Functions of Education students to train as teachers

 To transmit the cultural heritage.  Budget per region is based on participation and unit cost;
this system factors favours the more developed regions
 To help individuals select social roles and to train them for
the roles they have chosen.  Expand the scholarship program for poor students in both
public and private tertiary schools
 To integrate into the cultural mainstream the various sub-
cultures and identities  Encourage participation of the business and industry sector
in higher education
 To serve as source of social and cultural innovation.
 Development of a rationalized apprenticeship program by
the private sector

SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS  K-12 learning education for the us to follow the international
Key Issues in Philippine Education standard

 Quality of Education – elementary and secondary SOCIAL STRATIFICATION


students scored bellows the mean target of 75% based on
standardized tests. This scores is low compared to other SOCIAL STRATIFICATION
countries.
- It is perpetuated by the way wealth, power, and prestige
 Accessibility of Education – drop-out rate is higher are distributed and passed on from one generation to the
among socio-economically disadvantage students. Tertiary next.
schools are concentrated in the developed areas.
- The presence of the following were observed:
1. Inequality - the unequal distribution of scarce goods or - Characterized by equal opportunity and high social mobility
resources, exists in many different types of cultures. (movement up or down a social hierarchy).

2. Social differentiation - how people vary according to SOCIAL STRATIFICATION


social characteristics. Types of Stratification System

3. Social stratification - how people are ranked according to Social Rank in Open Stratification System
the scarce resources they control.
 Class – the position in an economic hierarchy occupied by
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION individuals or families with similar access to, or control over,
Class Status material resources (e.g., working class, professional class).

- It defined as the rank or position in a social hierarchy. The  Class structure - relatively permanent economic hierarchy
status may be classified as: comprising different social classes.

i. Ascribed  Socioeconomic status - the person’s general status within


an economic hierarchy, based on income, education, and
- Assigned at birth occupation.

- Caste system - It represents a rigid form of stratification SOCIAL STRATIFICATION


based on hereditary status, traditional occupation and Types of Stratification System
restrictions on social relationships.
Closed Stratification System
i. Achieved
- Stratification system in which inheritance rather than merit
- Earned by performance. determines social rank.

- Class system - It is the classification of people based on - Little social change possible.
their economic positions in society.
- Reflected in a caste system.
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION
Types of Stratification System - Positions are ascribed, not achieved.

Open Stratification System - Characterized by little social mobility.

- Stratification system in which merit rather than inheritance SOCIAL STRATIFICATION


(ascribed characteristics) determines social rank . Types of Stratification System

- It allows for social change. Social Mobility in Closed Stratification System

- It is reflected in a meritocracy. - Is the changing one’s social position, occurs in a variety of


ways.
- Positions are achieved, not ascribed.
 Upward Mobility -the change to a higher rank. Deviance

 Downward Mobility – the movement to a lower rank. - The function of the pigment of a particular group who
observe the behaviour.
 Intergenerational Mobility - the change of people’s class or
status within their own lifetime experience. EXPLANATION FOR DEVIANT BEHAVIOUR

 Intergenerational Mobility - the movement between Biological


generations, usually measured by comparing the positions
of parents and children. - Being deviant is coming form physical or biological makeup.

SOCIAL STRATIFICATION - According to some biologist, said that deviant behaviour is a


Gender and Age result of aberrant genetic traits.

 Gender Stratification - women all across the globe have Psychological


been accorded inferior position in comparison to men. Men
- Being deviant is a result of personality disorder or
have had and continue to have more physical and social
maladjustment that develops during childhood.
power and status than women in the public sphere.
(Sexism) - It can be observe in from aggression against others or
against society because of frustration.
 Age Stratification - it refers to the social ranking of
individuals at different stages in their lives. There is unequal SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO DEVIANCE
distribution of wealth, power and privileges among people
at different stages in the life course. (Ageism) Functionalist Perspective

DEVIANT BEHAVIOUR - According to Durkheim and Merton assert that deviant


behaviour is a consequence of anomie or normlessness
DEVIANT BEHAVIOUR which results from the existence of diverse sets of norms,
with none of them closely binding upon everybody.
Deviant Behaviour
Control Theory
- The behaviour that violates norms.
- It asserts that deviance is learned. Participation in
- It varies in different cultures or in a given culture in a period
subcultures and counter-cultures is part of the socialization
of time.
process of being a deviant.
Deviant
SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO DEVIANCE
- The expression of radical or unusual political or religious
Conflict Theory
belief.
- The heterogeneous nature of society and the differences in
the distribution of social power lead to a struggle between
social classes. The conflict between the powerful and the - The changes in the society involves the comparisons of the
weak affect the creation of deviance and society’s response past and present in the hope for improvement, stability, or
to it. security in the future.

Symbolic Interactionism CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCIAL CHANGE

- As the people interact with a deviant, they acquire the 1. It happens everywhere although the rate varies from place
techniques, motives, drive, and attitudes appropriate to such to place.
behaviour. Labelling theory, is also belong to this perspective
explaining on how crime and deviance become defined and labelled 2. Social change is sometimes intentional but often unplanned.
and the effect on a person being so labelled, especially by official
3. Social change often generates controversy.
agencies and other persons.
4. Social change are more important than fads and fashions
FORMS OF DEVIANT BEHAVIOUR
which only have a passing significance, like innovations.
 Drug abuse
SOCIAL CHANGE AND TECHNLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT
- The use of drugs, lawful or unlawful, which result in
There are social patterns which are inked to industrialization.
physical, emotional, social, or behavioural impairment.
Peter Berger notes four general characteristics of modernizations:
 Crime
1. The decline of small, traditional communities.
- The violation of a norm codified into law and carries punishment
2. The expansions of personal choices. People see their lives as
for it. The result of crime is injury to the individual and the society.
an unending series of options.
SOCIAL CHANGES
3. Increasing social diversity. Traditions loses its hold and
SOCIAL CHANGE morality becomes a matter of individual attitude.

- The alterations in the patterns and regulations regarding 4. Future orientation and growing awareness of time. Changes
social interaction. of thinking in terms of sunlight and seasons to hours and
minutes.
- This is manifested in the rise and fall of groups,
communities, or institutional structures and functions, or LEVEL OF HUMAN ACTION AND CHANGE
changes in the statuses and roles of members in the family,
1ST: Individual personality – it focuses to externally induced
works setting, church, school, government, leisure, and
stimuli which are stimuli abstracted from the social world that is
other subsystems of the social organizations.
either ignored or considered relevant.
- Its dimensions includes the transformation of culture and
2nd: Interaction among individuals – this involves not only in
social institutions over time.
the relation among human beings but also the personality
development virtually entirely from human interaction.
3rd: Group of social systems – explains that the unit of analysis, SOCIAL MOVEMENT
particularly the emergent properties of the group where the social
level is thought to reside. SOCIAL MOVEMENT

4th: Cultural system – the major emphasis is given by society to - It is a type of collectivity composed of people who share
the learning and transmission of values and symbols. sentiments or grievances who unite to promote or resist
change.
THEORIES OF SOCIAL CHANGE
- It is directed toward changing the established norms,
Evolutionary Theory - characterized primarily by an assumption values, or social structures. Somehow, it challenges the
of smooth, cumulative change, often in a linear fashion, and always existing social order.
in the direction of increasing complexity and adaptability.
- They are large, sometimes informal, groupings of
Equilibrium Theory - characterized by the concept of individuals or organizations which focus on specific political
homeostasis, and focuses on conditions tending towards stability as or social issues.
a consequence.
- Ideology is an important value of social movement.
Conflict Theory - characterized by the assumption that change is
endemic to all social organisms, and focuses on conditions that TYPES OF SOCIAL MOVEMENTS
tend towards instability as a consequence.
According to Scope
Rise and Fall Theory – characterized by the assumption that
1. Reform movement – they advocate changing some norms
societies, cultures, or civilization regress as well as grow, and that
and laws. (e.g. revisions of laws/norms if is not effective)
all societies do not move in the same direction.
2. Radical movement – they dedicate to change the value
CAUSES, SOURCES AND BARRIERS OF SOCIAL CHANGES
systems in a fundamental way. (e.g. monarchy to
- It is the result of cultural change and/or technological democracy)
change, and it can influence either or both. Its rate,
According to Change
direction, and form can be gauged through the factors of
time, place, goals, and objectives. 1. Innovation movement – they want to introduce/change
particular norms, values, etc. (e.g. changing particular
- It is caused by the interplay of a large number of non-social
aspects in general way)
and social factors.
2. Conservative movement – they want to preserve existing
- Some sources of social change are evolution, discovery,
norms, values, etc. (e.g. preservation of norms:
invention, and diffusion. Its order may be understood in
pagmamano)
terms of how individuals, groups, or institutions accept
change.

What are the impacts of social change?


TYPES OF SOCIAL MOVEMENTS people to engage in acts they might consider unthinkable
under typical social circumstances.
According to Targets
 Relative deprivation theory – it emphasize the individual
1. Group-focus movement – hey focused on affecting group in experience of discontent when being deprived of something
the society in general. (e.g. people who are involved to which one believes to be self to be entitled.
specifically in a one perspective)
 Marxist theory/Conflict theory- commonly exist in the
2. Individual-focused movement – they focused on the economic functions.
affecting individual. (e.g. religious movement)
 Value-added/Social strain theory – states that the rapid
According to methods of work social changes came from social movements.

1. Peaceful movements – various movements which use non- COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOUR


violent means of protest as part of a campaign of non-
violent resistance. COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOUR

2. Violent movements – various movements which resort to - The forms of social behaviour bot guided by usual
violence. conventions and involving a transgression of established
institutional patterns and structures. (Turner and Killian)
TYPES OF SOCIAL MOVEMENTS
- It occurs in stress situations, usually brought by social
According to Range changes, and is characterized by a high degree of emotions.

1. Global – social movement with global objectives and goals. - It refers to “ways of thinking” feeling, and acting that
develop among a large number of people which are
2. Local – social movement with local scope.
relatively spontaneous and unstructured.
According to level of support/activity
TYPES OF COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOUR
1. Insiders – often exaggerate the level of support by
 Crowd – is a transitory group of persons in an ambiguous
considering people supporters whose level of
and, to some degree, unstructured situation in which
activity/support is weak.
participants do not have a clear and pre-existing knowledge
2. Outsiders – those who may tend either of how to behave, but feel that they can do something to
underestimate/overestimate the level of support/activity of correct the situation.
elements of a movement, by including/excluding those that
Types of Crowd
insiders would exclude/include.
1. Casual crowd – loosely organized and very momentary type
SOCIAL MOVEMENT THEORIES
of grouping whose member come and go. (e.g. people in a
 Collective action theories (Robert E. Park) – states that the midnight sale)
behaviour is always driven by group dynamics, encouraging
2. Conventionalized crowd – established regular ways of  Emergent perspective – according this theory collective
behaving, depending upon the time and place of behaviour is not characterized by unanimity but by
performance and order of activities. (e.g. people in ball differences in expressions and emotions.
games)
 Smelser’s Value Added Approach –it assess the
3. Acting crowd – volatile group of excited person whose behaviour involved and work out some forms of social
attention is focused on a controversial or provocative issue control.
which arouses action if not indignation.
COMMUNITY
TYPES OF COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOUR
COMMUNITY
 Mass – composed of desperate individuals, each responding
independently to the same stimulus in a similar way. - It is a social organization that is territorially localized and
through which its members satisfy most of their daily needs
- The mass has no social organization, no established leader, and deal with most of their common problems.
no structure of statuses and roles.
- A social grouping where members carry on a common
- The mass behaviour must be observe in migration interdependent life and share commodities or bonds.
evacuation (refugee), reported sties of miracles, sensational
crime trial, public scandal or dramatic scandal or Typhoon - It may be classified as rural and urban, in highly
Yolanda victim. industrialized societies, the distinction between the two
becomes blurred.
TYPES OF COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOUR
- The difference in occupation, population density, social
 Public – the members are confronted by issues and they interaction, social stratification, social differentiation, and
discuss, argue, debate, compromise, and form composite social unity became the criteria.
views.
RURAL COMMUNITY
- The public behaviour can be seen on the issue of public
opinion and through the use of mass communication - Rural community are often small. The occupations of the
(newspaper, radio, television, motion picture, movie, and people are farming, fishing, forestry, supplemented by
internet). cottage industries.

 Social movement (see previous discussion) - Families in rural areas are usually nuclear, consanguineal,
bilateral, and either bilocal or neolocal. A highly incidence
THEORIES ON COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOUR of poverty prevails.

 Convergence perspective – according this theory the - Education in these areas are not accessible to many pupils
participants have common characteristics such as similarity on some barangay. Dropouts rates are higher in the rural
in social positions based on income, education, social class, than in urban areas. Many colleges graduates eventually
and relative deprivation. migrate to the urban areas.
- Majority of the people are Roman Catholic, Aglipayan 1. Air pollution – mostly form fumes and smoke from motor
(north) Islam (south) but believing in folk catholicism. vehicles, factories and other industrial establishments.
Usually fiesta was associated with the religious beliefs and
activity. 2. Water Contamination – results of indiscriminate dumping of
garbage into the creeks, rivers and lakes.
RURAL COMMUNITY
 Garbage – aside from being eyesore, it also serves as the
- Healthcare in rural community are deplorable, and a great contributor for floods during rainy days.
number of children suffer from severe malnutrition.
 Traffic – result of lack of master plan for the authorities
- The government provide services to the rural areas in the and lack of discipline among the owner of the vehicles and
country however, the exist of exploitation and capitalism people.
come into place that became the hindrance of development
to the said area. DEMOGRAPHY AND POPULATION

- Today, in order to improve the conditions the government DEMOGRAPHY AND POPULATION
still have a LOT of project to be done.
- Population refers to the total number of person inhibiting a
URBAN COMMUNITY country, city or any district. It also deals with the
observable and measurable data.
- Is where the concentration of the people within a relatively
small geographic area. The urban community may be a city - Demography is the study of the size and make-up of the
of something resembling a city, which is a relatively large, human population and how it change. The main sources of
dense, and permanent settlement of socially heterogeneous demographic data are:
individuals.
1. The population census, with data on age, sex, occupation,
- The occupations are usually non-agriculture. employment status, and migration.

- In urban community, the idea of urbanization emerged it 2. Vital registration statistics like birth, death, and marriages.
refers to the process of concentrating people within a
3. Sample or special surveys on households.
relatively small geographic area. It is related to social
change and growth. It requires a shift in values, attitudes, 4. Data gathered and processed by government agencies.
and behaviour that are compatible with the local urban
patterns and, therefore, requires a long period of time for a MATHUSIAN THEORY OF POPULATION
peasants to internalize an urban life-style.
Thomas Robert Malthus
URBAN SOCIAL PROBLEMS
- According to his “Essay on the Principle of Population”,
 Pollution – classified into two namely: because of the strong attraction between the two sexes, the
population could multiply rapidly and, resulted to increase
of reproduction faster than food supply.
- Also, as the population grows bigger, food production would PROCESS IN POPULATION CHANGE
be insufficient and most likely, famine and overcrowding
would cause widespread suffering and disease and an  Mortality
increase in death rate, which is nature’s check on over
- The rate of death in population. A population with many old
population.
people will naturally have a higher death rate than a
- He suggested that an alternative is to postpone married comparatively young population. It is also assumed that
until a much later age so that birth rate may be decreased. because women live longer than men, a population with
many women will have lower death rate.
MATHUSIAN THEORY OF POPULATION
 Migration
Two solutions (Thomas Malthus)
- The movement of people for permanent residency. It includes
 Positive checks to overpopulation by increasing the death immigration, movement into an area, while emigration is
rate; which include war, famine, pestilence, and disease. movement out of an area. This can be divided into pull and push
factors.
 Preventive checks to prevent overpopulation by limiting the
number of live births; which include abortion, infanticide, BASIS OF POPULATION EXPLOTION
sexual abstinence, delayed marriage, and contraceptive
use. Historical

- This theory debated in the form of science and technology - One of the most important of Spanish colonization in the
Philippines was the propagation of the Roman Catholic.
PROCESS IN POPULATION CHANGE Since, the church does not favour birth control. There is a
high rate of population growth.
 Fertility
Sociological
- It is the ability to produce offspring. It indicates the rate at
which babies are born. According to the demographers, - In rural areas, they believe that all events are
women have a potential for bearing age at age of 15 to 50. predetermined and inevitable and that the happening that
come their way are the results of fate and destiny.
- The fertility rate of a community was affected by some
factors such as weather, environment, religion and societal - The men and women feel ashamed to submit in artificial
norms about children and marriage. methods of family planning.

 Life expectancy BASIS OF POPULATION EXPLOTION

- The average number of years a persons is expected to live Economic


from time of birth. It is hard to determine this accurately
because local statistics on birth and death rates are - In rural areas, the perception of some people that children
incomplete and inadequate because some data are not serves as their economic assets. They think that a big
registered.
family is better than a small one because children can earn - Sex and sexual attraction is least consideration, but
a livelihood for the family. marriage makes a sexual intercourse legitimate.

Anthropological Family Code of the Philippines to Marriage

- It assumed that basis of population explotion is the Filipino - A special contract of permanent union between a man and a
values, belief system, customs and traditions. The extended family woman entered into in accordance with the law for the
expected that the couple to have a number of children during the establishment of conjugal and family life.
marriage.
- As a contract, it applies to only a man and a woman, it is
One is not surprised to hear remarks like, “bakit wala pa?”, if the permanent; the law prescribed penal and civic sanctions.
pregnancy does not takes place after marriage. The husband is
jokingly branded to be “mahina” if his first child is not followed by - As a status, it is created between parties.
another one year after.
FORMS OF MARRIAGE
BASIS OF POPULATION EXPLOTION
 Monogamy - most common and universal forms of
Political science marriage. It is involve the union of a man and a woman.

- It is observed that those whose come from high income  Polygamy - the plural union where an individual is married
groups, most often, come from educated parents who have to several individuals at the same time. There are three
limited the number of their children. On the other hand, the types: polygyny, polyandry and group marriage.
poor with many children, by and large, do not have taxable
 Adoptive - it is transferred from father to son, many
income.
wealthy family would want to preserve their surnames.
Geography
 Fictive - It is a union between two women, one old and one
- The rate of population growth in the rural areas is significantly young.
higher than that in the urban. (debatable)
 Second marriage – sororate (sister-in-law) or levirate
MARRIAGE marriage (brother-in-law).

Why people marry??? FORMAL REQUISITES FOR MARRIAGE


Philippines
Age preference for marriage??
 Authority of the solemnizing officer (judge/priest)
MARRIAGE
 A valid marriage license (good for 120 days only)
- It is the foundation of the family, an inviolable social
- The legal capacity of the contracting parties who must be a
institutions. This is also serves as the continuation of the
male and a female, and the consent freely given by the
cultural mechanism of the family.
couple in the presence of the solemnizing officer.
- The minimum age for marriage is 18 years but parental  Swingers - middle-aged men who finds pleasure in going
consent is necessary for those below 21 years. into bars and attracting women. They usually collect
women. The opposite for Cougars.
- Presently, some changes in the requisites for marriage has
made: a) no license is necessary if the couple has VOID AND VIODABLE MARRIAGE
lived as husband and wife for at least and there is no
legal impediment to their marriage.  Annulment

PRINCIPLES OF MATE SELECTION - The process which makes the marriage contract null and
void, in which case, the law sees that no marriage has
 Endogamy taken place. The New Family Code recognizes the
annulment of marriage bond where the parties are free to
- It dictates that one should marry within one’s clan or ethnic marry again without fear of violating any law.
group.
- The grounds for annulment are lack of parental consent
 Exogamy of a minor before the marriage, insanity of one party,
fraud, force, intimidation or undue influence,
- The one that marries outside one’s clan or ethnic group.
impotence of one party, and serious sexually
 Levirate transmissible disease of the either party.

- The widows marries the brothers or nearest kin of the VOID AND VIODABLE MARRIAGE
deceased husband.
 Divorce
 Sororate
 Legal separation
- The widower marries the sister or the nearest kin of the
- This is a judicial declaration when the separation of husband
deceased wife.
and wife merely entitles the spouse to live separately (in
CONCEPT BEYOND MONOGAMY house or in bed), but not dissolving the marriage.

 Husband -wife swapping - a formal organization which VOID AND VIODABLE MARRIAGE
handles the activities of the participating members. Parties
Grounds for Legal Separation
are usually held after nine in the evening, when the children
are expected to asleep. NO ONE must have the same sex 1. Adultery/Concubinage
partner for two consecutive times. The anonymity of each
member is well-maintain. 2. Attempt by one spouse against the life of the other.

 Cohabitation - relationship between single male and 3. Repeated physical violence or grossly abusive conduct
females living together as husband and wife with the formal directed against petitioner, a common child, or a child of the
marriage. petitioner.
4. Physical violence or moral pressure to compel the petitioner 3. To supervise his activities, including his recreation.
to change religious or political affiliation.
4. To inculcate in him the value of industry, thrift and self-
5. Attempt of respondent to corrupt or induce the petitioner. reliance.

6. Drug addiction or habitual alcoholism of the respondents. 5. To stimulate his interest in civic affairs, teach him duties of
citizenship, and develop his commitment to his country.
7. Final court judgement sentencing the respondent to
imprisonment of more than 6 years, even if pardoned. 6. To advice him properly on any matter affecting his
development and well-being.
8. Lesbianism or homosexuality of the respondents.
7. To provide him with adequate support.
9. Sexual infidelity or perversion.
8. To administer his property, according to his best interest.
10. Abandonment of the petitioner by respondent without a
justifiable cause for more than one year. FAMILY PLANNING

PARENTHOOD FAMILY PLANNING

RIGHTS AND OBLIGATION OF THE PARENTS - This is a concept of enhancing the quality of life of every
Child and Welfare Code of the Philippines (PD No. 603) member of the family through the use of family planning
methods to regulate the number of the children.
Primary Rights of the Parent – the parents shall have the rights
to the company of their children and, in relation to all other - It reduces the need for unsafe abortion.
persons or institutions dealing with the child’s development, the
primary right and obligation to provide for the upbringing. - Some family planning methods help prevents the
transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted
Right under the Civil Code – parent shall continue to exercise infections.
the rights mentioned in the Article 316 to 326 of the Civil Code
over the person and property of the child. - It reinforces people’s rights to determine the number and
spacing of their children.
Right to Discipline Child – parents have the right to discipline
the child as may be necessary for the formation of his good - It allows people to attain their desired number of children
character, and may therefor require from him obedience to just and determine the spacing of pregnancies. It is achieved
and reasonable rules, suggestions and admonitions. through use of contraceptive methods and the treatment of
infertility.
PARENTAL RESPONSIBILITIES
BENEFITS OF FAMILY PLANNING
1. To give him affection, companionship and understanding.
 Preventing pregnancy-related health risks in women.
2. To extend to him the benefits of moral guidance, self-
discipline and religious instruction.  Reducing infant mortality.
 Help to prevent HIV/AIDS. - The male withdraws his penis from his partner's vagina, and
ejaculates outside the vagina, keeping semen away from
 Empowering people and enhancing education. her external genitalia.

 Reducing adolescent/pre-marital pregnancies. METHODS OF FAMILY PLANNING


 Slowing population. Tubal ligation

Note: Benefits of family planning was not only for the society but - This is don by cutting-off the fallopian tube to block
also for individual health. completely the passage of ovum and prevent it from
meeting the sperm.
METHODS OF FAMILY PLANNING
Vasectomy
Natural family planning
- This requires a simple operation by cutting-off the vas
- The natural way of avoiding pregnancy by observing,
deference so that the sperm will not entre the semen that is
recording, and interpreting changes in the cervical mucus or
discharged.
basal body temperature in order to determine the safe and
unsafe days of menstrual cycle. Note: Minor discomfort is experienced by the acceptor, who need
to rest from work for two to three days after the operation.
- The couple prevents pregnancy by avoiding unprotected
vaginal sex during most fertile days, usually by abstaining METHODS OF FAMILY PLANNING
or by using condoms.
Intrauterine device (IUD)
- There should be an observation of few cycles which is
necessary before effective practice of method. - A small, soft plastic device that is inserted into the uterus.
It can be placed or removed by trained personnel only. The
METHODS OF FAMILY PLANNING acceptors may experience minor discomfort after insertion
and the possibility its being expelled.
Calendar rhythm
Pills/Oral contraceptive
- The use of calculations to determine safe and unsafe days of
the menstrual cycle, based on past cycles. - It is a combination of synthetic hormones. It is intended for
women 19 to 34 years old who desire to space child-
- This method is recommended for women with regular
bearing. It may be inconvenient since the pills is taken daily
menstrual cycles ad who feel themselves capable of
following the requirements of method and for women who METHODS OF FAMILY PLANNING
cannot use artificial contraceptive.
Injectable Contraceptive
Coitus interruptus (Withdrawal)
- This is administered by one-dose injectable contraceptive
containing progesterone and injected every three months.
This is intended for women 18-40 years old who wish to typhoons, eruption of volcano, floods, famine and epidemics
space or limit child-bearing. It gives women freedom from that greatly affects the human lives in the society.
menstruation an the associated blood loss. however, one
advantages of this method may be vaginal spotting even POVERTY
before the regular menstrual period.
- It is a condition that exist when people lack the means to
METHODS OF FAMILY PLANNING satisfy their basic needs. Extreme poverty is the main cause
of malnutrition and poor health.
Implants
- Sociologically, it defines as “denial of choices and
- It is a small, flexible rods or capsules placed under the skin opportunities for living a tolerable life”. It is considered as
of the upper arm; contains progesterone hormone only. the symptom of a social cancer.
Only the health-care provider must insert and remove this
product. It can be used for 3–5 years depending on implant. - It is associated to criminality, breakdown of morals and
Like injectable irregular vaginal bleeding is common but not socially accepted behaviour, low educational attainment,
harmful. low property values and poor life changes.

Condom - It has also devastating effects in the families, often forcing


parents to abandon children to seek employment in their
- It is a soft and thin rubber sheath worn on the erect penis countries, not aware of the social costs.
before sexual intercourse to prevent the sperm. It gives
protection against the transmission of sexually transmitted CAUSES OF POVERTY
diseases. However, this may cause inconvenience to users,
 Colonial mentality
since they have to interrupt love-making in order to put it
on.  Dependence of Philippine economy on foreign capital and
investment
SOCIAL PROBLEMS AND ISSUES
 Capitalism and exploitation
DIMENSIONS AND ORIGIN OF SOCIAL PROBLEMS
 Cheap labour
- It may be inferred that no society succeeds in getting all its
people to behave as expected all the time because all  Graft and corruption
societies have social problems.
 Overpopulation
- A social problems exist when a significant number of people
perceive an undesirable difference between social ideals and  Unemployment and underemployment
social realities.
 Low and limited educational attainment and illiteracy
- In addition, a social problem involves the deviance among
in the society and natural events such as earthquake,
THEORIES OF POVERTY - It also reveals that the upper and middle class students who
can speak and understand the English language have better
Culture of poverty theory chances of passing the prescribed examinations for job
hunting.
- It is the result of cash and economy, labour wage and
production for profit, high rate of employment and THEORIES OF POVERTY
underemployment of unskilled labour, low wages and
inadequate social and economic organizations to serve the Theory of Capitalism
low-income bracket of population.
- The continuous exploitation of poverty of the people to
- It observed that poor members of the society are less accumulate huge profits. The poor are always sacrificed the
permissive in socializing with other children, more fatalistic price of technological development.
about one’s views in life, lack an interest in formal
education, and usually pleasure-oriented. - This theory proposed by Karl Marx which reveals the
relationship and conflict between the exploiters and
THEORIES OF POVERTY exploiter. These relationships had been the entire system of
economic, social and political involvement, which has
Dependency theory virtually been established to maintain the power and
dominate of the owners over the workers.
- accordingly, poverty in underdeveloped society has been
the result of a colonial socio-economic structure. The FACES OF POVERTY
growing of poverty among the underdeveloped countries is
due to the forced incorporation of the economy of the  Shanties under the bridge
developed countries.
 Brain-drain syndrome
- The massive exodus of money from underdeveloped regions
of the world also intensifies the destruction of natural  Criminals
resources.
 Prostitutions
- This apparent dependency of underdeveloped countries to
 Malnutrition
the highly developed countries has led to the increasing
impoverishment of the dependent country.  Increase of mortality rate

THEORIES OF POVERTY  Rapid growth of population

Social Darwinist Theory - This is according to the speech of former President Gloria
Macapagal-Arroyo during the UN Congress in New York City, last
- It assumes that the assets that economic survival of any
2009.
society depends, to a large extent, on the individuals
endowed with superior intelligence that will plan, control, STRATEGIES TO REDUCE POVERTY
regulate and lead its development.
1. Equitable and sustained economic growth.
2. Focused targeting 3. Broken Home – the separation of husband and wife
brought about by war, migration, imprisonment,
3. Effective and efficient delivery of public goods and base employment outside the country, marital discord, bickering,
social services. infidelity, and lack of trust that consequently lead to legal
separation.
4. People empowerment
PREVENTION OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY
5. Long-term solution to the problems of hunger.
Individual Programs
6. Developed literacy programs.
 Individual Behaviour Therapy – aims to modify the
7. Expand employment opportunity.
behaviour of the delinquent by changing the environment in
“Don’t give them fish, instead teach them how to catch a fish” which the behaviour occurs.

CRIME Social Skills Training

- The problem of juvenile delinquency and crime apart to be - It focused on micro-skills, such as eye contact and body
common in all societies. Some of the major causes of postures; macro skills, such as negotiating with and
juvenile delinquency and crime are social disorganization, handling encounters with the police authority; and
poverty and broken homes. institutional behaviour, such as avoiding fights and other
forms of brawls.
- The Child and Youth Welfare Code explicitly defines the
youth offender as “one who is over nine years but under PREVENTION OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY
twenty-one years of age at the time of the commission of
Cognitive Behaviour Programs
the offense”. A child which is nine years old or under when
the offense was committed shall be exempt from criminal  Self-control and self-instruction
liability and shall be placed in the custody of the parents, or
the nearest relative, or the family friend, in the discretion of  Anger control
the court and subject to its supervision.
Role Taking
CAUSES OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY
- The program designed to encourage young male
1. Social Organization – the desire for power, wealth and delinquents to see themselves from the perceptive of other
prestige, the atmosphere where fear, hate, antagonism and people to develop their own role-taking activities.
hostility are prevalent are elegant manifestation of social or
disorganization. Social Problem-solving

2. Poverty – exist when the people didn’t satisfy his/her basic - It includes the skills of sensibility to interpersonal problems, the
needs. ability to choose the desired outcome of a social exchange (means-
end thinking).
PREVENTION OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY sauna attendants, night club hostesses, hospitality girls, escorts
and models.
Moral Reasoning Development
Male Prostitutes – prostitutes that cater principally to
- It increase the morality belief of the young delinquent. homosexual males.
Multimodal Programs They can be seen roaming around in conspicuous places with no
apparent purpose like department stores, shopping malls, lobbies,
- The program will improve the self-control, and reduced
and even hotels and gay bars where homosexuals act as masseurs
problem behaviour.
and escorts.
Institutional and Community Program
TYPES OF PROSTITUTIONS
- This program includes; secure institutions, residential
Child Prostitution
establishment, school-based intervention, family
intervention and diversionary projects. - This common to some foreign tourists coming from different
countries and want to experience what our country can
PROSTITUTIONS
offer. The issue of pedophilia surprising nowadays, since we
- Prostitution as a social problem is considered as old as have always read the “fresh victim” of prostitutions.
mankind. It is the sale and purchase of sexual relations.
- It assumes that broken homes can make people shy way
- This is the act or practice of engaging in sexual relations in from normal adult heterosexual relationship since children
consideration for money. are less threatening and more passive sex partners.

- There can be homosexual favours to women; but it is the - I may also inferred that when the child prostitute grows up,
sale of female sexually to men that have usually been the he/she likely to become a pedophile.
predominant pattern and, to a great extent, has given rise
CAUSES OF PROSTITUTIONS
to the greatest social concern.
Poverty
- Also, there is an misleading view of prostitutions as being
something “done by” prostitutes while ignoring the casual - Being hopeful of a better life, so they sacrifice everything in
significance of male demand for their services, is itself exchange of money.
indicative of the sexual double standard on which
phenomenon of prostitutions rests. Illegal recruitment

TYPES OF PROSTITUTIONS - Sometimes young people from rural areas are the target of
illegal recruitment, a promise of better job and better life
Female Prostitutes – they are usually seen in bar or street and makes them involve in prostitution without knowing than
sometimes calls as “street walkers” or “hookers”. In some cases, they were became one.
there were a called as high class prostitutes known as the “escort
girls” and “guest relation officers”, sometime they are working as
Lack of education and information Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

- The promise of a good-paying job, aside from other benefits - This is a human viral disease that ravages the immune
like free board and lodging, beautiful dresses and expensive system, undermining the body’s capacity to defend itself
jewelry become the motivating factors why they are trapped against certain microbial organisms.
into the illicit trade.
- It is cause by infection with the human immunodeficiency
Why prostitutes stay in their job? virus (HIV), which attacks selected cells in the immune
system and produce defects functions.
1. For a better life until they meet someone who is willing take
them out of this job. - This leads to so-called neuropsychiatric abnormalities, or
psychological disturbances caused by physical damage to
2. Enjoyment; they find it easy, glamorous and less nerve cells.
demanding.
- Historically, the disease first identified in 1980 among
3. Maintenance of fabulous life. homosexual men and injection drug users in New York and
California, shortly after evidence grew of epidemics in
4. Income higher than housemaids.
Saharan-Africa and Haiti.
5. They were forced to this kind of job because of extreme
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
poverty.
- AIDS has become worldwide. By 1995, 477, 900 Americans
6. No available jobs for survival.
had developed the disease which 295, 500 had died and
7. Broken homes. worldwide more than 14 million people were believed to be
infected.
8. Being loners during adolescence.
- In 1996, an estimated 22.6 million people worldwide were
EFFECTS OF PROSTITUTION living with HIV/AIDS (21.8million adults and 830, 000
children).
1. Promotes and facilitates the spread of sexually transmitted
diseases. - The WHO estimate that between 1981, when the first AIDS
cases were reported, and the end of 1996,more than
2. Health problems among prostitutes.
8.4million adults and children had developed AIDS.
3. Drug addiction that lead to commit crimes.
- There were 6.4million death worldwide from AIDS/HIV,
4. It violates the monogamy which is sharing of sex with only about 360, 000 of these deaths occurred in the United
one partner. States.

5. Psychological demanding and adventurous to their partners - In 1984, there are 961 Filipinos infected with this dreadful
for satisfaction. virus.
- It also noted that 22 percent of the HIV positive were of heart problems 12 times that of children in the general
former OFW. population.

The Nature of the Virus FACT or MYTH

- Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is an RNA retrovirus. Is the HIV can transmit through the air?
It has dense cylindrical core that encase two molecules of
viral RNA genetic material. A spherical outer envelop Is the HIV can transmit through casual contact?
surrounds the core.
Is the HIV can transmit through kissing?
- It possesses a special enzyme, called reverse transcriptase,
Is the HIV can transmit though insect bite?
that is bale to make a DNA copy of the viral RNA. This
enable the virus to reverse the normal flow of generic Signs and Symptoms of AIDS
information and to incorporate its viral genes into the
genetic material of its host.  Fever

- The virus may then remain in a latent from for a variable  Rashes
and often lengthy period of time until it is reactivated. The
 Meningitis
mechanisms and triggers of the activation process is
important to the efforts being, made to control HIV  Pneumonia
infection.
 Weight loss
Modes of Transmission
 Anemia
Note: Isolated HIV from a number of body fluids, including blood,
semen, saliva, tears, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, breast milk, and  Diarrhea
cervical and vaginal secretions.
 Anorexia
Sexual intercourse, whether vaginal or anal, with an infected
individual.  Ulcers

- homosexual or heterosexual transmission  Enlarged lymph nodes

Exposure to infected blood or blood products.  Severe skin infection

- blood transfusions  Cough for more than a month

Infected mother to her child before or during birth.  Tuberculosis

- during childbirth or through breast feeding, although some  Tumours in the immune system (lymphomas)
uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers have an incidence
 Variety of neurologic disorders (dementia complex)
Prevention and Control of AIDS Safety Measures against HIV

 Educating the public. Psychological and socio-logical disadvantages:

 Heterosexual person must avoid living a promiscuous life.  A person found to be infected with HIV can be very
depressing and distressing.
 Women found to be infected with the virus should refrain
from sexual intercourse to prevent pregnancy.  The cultural and religious attitudes towards illness and
death on the infected person.
 Screening blood donors and mandatory testing of donated
blood in blood banks, hospitals, and medical clinics.  The feeling of uncertainty, fear, grief, depression, denial
and anxiety will certainly affect his adjustment to his
 Avoid sharing of needles and syringes. environment.

 Using condoms correctly and consistently during sexual  The feeling and fear of being discrimination against and
intercourse. being ostracized by the people around him.

 Avoid sexual contact with persons known or suspected to  The family will likely suffer from the consequence of the
have AIDS. HIV.

 Have a regular medical check-up. Socio-cultural Factors Associated with the Spread of the Virus

Safety Measures against HIV  The presence of the thriving commercial sex industries.

Advantages of being tested:  The frequent visit of a big number of foreigners as tourist in
our country who might potential carriers of the disease.
 The infected individual can receive early treatment and may
live longer.  The growing promiscuity of some Filipino males and
widespread experimental sexual escapades of young adults.
 He/she can develop a good emotional support system in the
early stages of the disease.  Widespread poverty, migration and social interest for a
better life.
 He/she can inform his/her sex partner about his/her
infection.  The inadequacy of public information campaign about the
virus.
 He/she abstain from sexual intercourse with his/her partner,
or they can use protection.  The seemingly declining set of moral value and the
cherished tradition about chastity in the Filipino family.
 He/she can avoid sharing items that come in contact with
blood such as razors, tweezers, needles, and syringes.  The lack of political will on the part of the government to
control and eradicate commercial sex industries in the
country.
- A battered woman is a person who suffers not only physical
or verbal pain inflicted on her by her partner but also deep
Treatment psychological and emotional effect of the abuse.

 Effective drug treatment (it provides clinical benefit and - In the Philippines, married women between the age of 17-
prolonged survival for individuals). 24, 17.3% are battered while 48% belong to the 25-35 age
group suffer emotional and physical violence.
 Medical supervisions and required therapies.
- Although there were a signs of progress and equal rights
 Gene therapy – an alteration of genes on the infected
advocacy, “the women have remained basically inferior and
person to help prevent the virus from spreading uninfected
subordinate to men”.
cells, but still NOT available worldwide.
- According to Women Crises Centre (WCC), predominant
Types:
Christian religious beliefs have helped maintain a sexiest
1. nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors attitude towards women that keep them passive and
submissive to men.
2. non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
Forms of Battering
3. protease inhibitors
Physical

- It consists of a single, manual act or a series of different


Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) act, or a combination of assault with the use of weapons.
Specific methods include slapping, kicking even if she was
- This refers to the infection through transmission with a
pregnant, strangling and shoving her on the floor, banging
person who is infected with the disease through intimate
her he head against the wall, throwing hard objects, pouring
contact with another person.
boiling water, poking the eyes, burning with cigarette,
- The most common type includes syphillis, gonorrhea, hitting with a gun, and forcibly injecting a drugs.
trichmomas, genital warts, genital herpes,
Psychological
lymphogranuloma venereum, grauloma inguinale,
condyloma acuminatum, and hepatitis B. - It consists of various threats, intimidation and sorts of verbal
abuse. These include threat to kill, abandonment, use of degrading
- Some symptoms of STD are: abnormal excretion during
words, public humiliation, openly siding with the relatives against
urination discharge, pain on abdominal/groin area, pain
her, forcing to have children abortion, and withdrawing abortion.
during sex, genital rashes or sore. However, there were
difference in the symptoms among male and female.

To have and to hold...to love and to cherish…for better and


for worst…till death do us part

Battered Women
Forms of Battering  He swings back and forth form sweet to mean, then back.

Sexual  He blames you for his anger.

- It includes demanding sex regardless of her condition,  He panics at the idea of breaking up.
forcing her to perform an unacceptable sex act, forcing her
to watch pornographic materials video shows, catching him  He encourages you not to enjoy life.
performing sex with another woman in their own house and
 He checks upon you.
forcing her and his mistress to live and sleep with him
together.  He calls you names.

Economic Unemployment and Underemployment

- It includes denial or withdrawal of financial support or prohibiting - Unemployment is the condition where one who is able and
her handling money, husband’s total control over conjugal financial willing to work dies not have a job, while,
resources, even controlling the woman’s earning and using the underemployment was characterized by workers whose
household money for gambling, drinking or drugs. educational qualifications, training, experience and skills do
not match the nature of the job they do.
Why Women Stay in Abusive Relationship?
- The unemployment condition in the Philippines has
 Dependency on financial support and emotional bonds
increased an alarming rate; and afflicts the lives of many
including the sake of their children.
people.
 The abused fall in love with the soft side of the abuser,
- Since, unemployment is an important part of our life in
 The abused person still believed that the behaviour will order to survive, to be unemployed is to be out of the
change eventually. cultural and social mainstream.

 Fear and to avoid social stigma of being separated. - Unemployment and underemployment in the country main
result to the sacrifice of the Filipino to work outside the
Note: Read the poem “I Got Flowers Today” by Paulette Kelly and country.
reflect on it. :-)
Types of Unemployment
A Potential Women Beater
Frictional Unemployment
 He hurts you on purpose.
- The members of the labour force search for jobs that best
 He has a scary temper. suit their skills and preferences.

 He puts you down. Structural Unemployment

 He cuts off from your friends. - This is the results from shifts in the pattern of demands for
goods and services or changes in technology, that
preferably requires a hiring of workers who fits for the Andersen, Margaret L. 2003. Sociology – The Essential. Second
position. Edition. Thomson Learning Incorporated, USA.

Cyclical Unemployment Henslin, James M. 2009. Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach.


Pearson Education Incorporated. USA.
- This type of unemployment results form the recession and
economic fails in the country. Macionis, John J. 2010. Sociology. Thirteenth Edition. Pearson
Education South Asia PTE. Singapore.
Technological Unemployment
Panopio, Isabel et.al. 2004. Sociology: Focus on the Philippines.
- It is cause by the advancement of science and technology Fourth Edition. Ken Incorporated. Quezon City.
and eventually some member of the labour force who didn’t
possess the skills will lose their job. Palispis, Epitacio. 2007. Introduction to Sociology and
Anthropology. Rex Printing Company Incorporated, Quezon City.
Seasonal Unemployment
Sulliva, Thomas J. 2004. Sociology: Concept and Application in a
- It results from the reduction in demands for labour either by Diverse World. Pearson Education Incorporated.
climatic or seasonal change.
Thio, Alex. 1998. Sociology. Fifth Edition. Addison-Wesley
Other Social Problems and Issues Educational Publishers Incorporated, USA.

 Family, Legal Separation, and Broken Homes Zulueta, Francisco M. et.al. 2006. Social Problems and Issues in
the Philippines. Revised Edition. National Book Store. Mandaluyong
 Unwed mothers and illegitimate child
City.
 Abortion

 Malnutrition

 Street-children and Child labour/abuse

 Sexual harassment, Pedophilia and Incest

 Gambling

 Squatting

 Floods

 Human Trafficking

 Peace and Order

REFERENCES