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Mathematical Optimization Approaches for Facility Layout Problems

Mathematical Optimization Approaches for Facility Layout Problems

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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ejor

Invited Review

The state-of-the-art and future research directions

Miguel F. Anjos a,∗, Manuel V. C. Vieira b

a

GERAD & Department of Mathematics and Industrial Engineering, Polytechnique Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada H3C 3A7

b

Departamento de Matemática, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia & CMA, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Facility layout problems are an important class of operations research problems that has been studied for

Received 2 February 2016 several decades. Most variants of facility layout are NP-hard, therefore global optimal solutions are diﬃ-

Accepted 30 January 2017

cult or impossible to compute in reasonable time. Mathematical optimization approaches that guarantee

Available online 3 February 2017

global optimality of solutions or tight bounds on the global optimal value have nevertheless been suc-

Keywords: cessfully applied to several variants of facility layout. This review covers three classes of layout problems,

Facilities planning and design namely row layout, unequal-areas layout, and multiﬂoor layout. We summarize the main contributions

Unequal-areas facility layout to the area made using mathematical optimization, mostly mixed integer linear optimization and conic

Row layout optimization. For each class of problems, we also brieﬂy discuss directions that remain open for future

Mixed integer linear optimization research.

Semideﬁnite optimization

© 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

in numerical analysis (Brusco & Stahl, 20 0 0), VLSI ﬁxed-outline

Facility layout problems (FLPs) are a general class of operations ﬂoorplanning (Luo, Anjos, & Vannelli, 2008), and optimal data

research problems concerned with ﬁnding the optimal arrange- memory layout generation for digital signal processors (Wess &

ment of a given number of nonoverlapping indivisible departments Zeitlhofer, 2004).

within a given facility. The objective is to minimize the total ex- FLPs have been extensively studied in the literature since the

pected cost of inter-departmental ﬂows inside the facility, where 1960s. Numerous variations on the basic problem described above

the cost incurred for each pair of departments is equal to the have been considered, and different models have been proposed

rectilinear distance between the centroids of the departments mul- for each variation. Examples of such variations are: specially struc-

tiplied by their pairwise cost. This cost, generally non-negative, ac- tured instances of the problem (e.g. layouts on rows or on loops);

counts in the aggregate for adjacency preferences as well as costs dynamic FLPs with time-dependencies; FLPs under uncertainty in

that may arise from transportation, the construction of a material- the data; and multi-objective FLPs. We refer the reader to the

handling system, or connection wiring. The facility and the books (Heragu, 2008; Kusiak, 1990) and survey papers (Meller &

departments are rectangular, and the area of each department is Gau, 1996; Singh & Sharma, 2006) for more information about the

speciﬁed, but if the department’s dimensions can vary, then deter- FLP and its variations. A growing collection of FLP benchmark in-

mining them is also part of the FLP. stances is available online (Anjos, 2015).

FLPs have a variety of applications. Much of the work was mo- The FLP is NP-hard in general, so solving it to global optimality

tivated by the physical organization of manufacturing systems, see in reasonable time is generally diﬃcult. Indeed the restricted ver-

e.g. Meller and Gau (1996). The FLP is particularly relevant in ﬂexi- sion where the dimensions of the departments are all equal and

ble manufacturing systems that produce an array of different parts. ﬁxed, and the optimization is taken over a ﬁxed set of possible lo-

The layout of the production components has a signiﬁcant impact cations for the departments, is known as the quadratic assignment

on the costs and the productivity of these systems, see e.g. Hassan problem, a combinatorial optimization problem well known for

(1994). Other applications of FLPs include balancing hydraulic its computational diﬃculty, see e.g. Loiola, de Abreu, Boaventura-

Netto, Hahn, and Querido (2007).

∗ The constraints of the basic FLP can be grouped into two sets:

Corresponding author.

E-mail addresses: anjos@stanfordalumni.org (M.F. Anjos), mvcv@fct.unl.pt

(M.V.C. Vieira). • Department shape requirements include the required area, and

URL: http://www.miguelanjos.com (M.F. Anjos) restrictions on the dimensions (height and width) such as

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2017.01.049

0377-2217/© 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2 M.F. Anjos, M.V.C. Vieira / European Journal of Operational Research 261 (2017) 1–16

pect ratios. These requirements generally lead to convex con-

straints but still pose some challenges. In particular, requiring

small aspect ratios, while desirable in real-world applications,

generally makes the problem harder. On the other hand, while Fig. 1. SRFLP along the path of an AGV.

the area constraint traditionally required a careful linearization

approach, it can be modeled exactly using conic optimization,

see e.g. Anjos and Liers (2012). number of rows, and a pairwise non-negative weight for each pair

• Department location requirements include the nonoverlap of de- of departments, determine (i) an assignment of departments to

partments, ﬁtting every department within the facility, assign- rows, and (ii) the positions of the departments in each row, so that

ing certain departments to, or forbidding them from, particular the total of the weighted center-to-center distances is minimized.

locations within the facility. The main challenge here are the Row FLPs arise in practical contexts where the departments are to

nonoverlap constraints that are inherently nonconvex and com- be placed in rows with a predetermined separation between the

binatorial. rows due to factors such as the material-handling system or the

ﬂows of people. Moreover, within each row, a minimum clearance

This review is focused on FLPs with the following properties: between departments is needed to satisfy safety and operational

1. the departments have different areas requirements. We assume that this clearance is included in the

2. the facility can be one-, two-, or three-dimensional. lengths of the departments. We also assume that the rows and the

departments all have the same height, that any department can be

The different dimensions lead to the three broad classes of FLPs

assigned to any row, and that the distances between adjacent rows

covered in this review, namely row FLPs (Section 2), unequal-areas

are equal. Under these assumptions, solving an instance of the row

FLPs (Section 3), and multiﬂoor FLPs (Section 4).

FLP means resolving three questions:

One-dimensional facilities lead to row FLPs, and we categorize

them in terms of the number of rows: single-row, double-row, or 1. Assign each department to exactly one row;

multi-row. Single-row and double-row problems commonly occur 2. Express mathematically the center-to-center distance between

in practical applications, as we discuss in Sections 2.1 and 2.2 re- departments (that may or may not be in the same row);

spectively. Multi-row problems are a natural extension of the prob- 3. Handle possible empty space between departments.

lem to three or more rows, and are considered in Section 2.3.

Unequal-areas FLPs have two-dimensional facilities with a sin- Section 2.1 is concerned with the simplest version of row FLP,

gle ﬂoor, and we assume that the facility is rectangular and that namely the single-row FLP. Section 2.2 covers the double-row FLP,

all the departments ﬁt inside the facility. Unlike in the case of row and Section 2.3 extends the coverage to the general multirow FLP.

layouts, not only the position but also the dimensions of each de-

partment are optimized. After discussing models and approaches 2.1. The single-row FLP

for the basic two-dimensional problem in Sections 3.1–3.4, we con-

sider in Section 3.5 the special case of ﬂexible bay layouts, a type An instance of the Single-Row FLP (SRFLP) consists of n one-

of layout that resembles row FLPs but with the fundamental differ- dimensional departments with given positive lengths 1 , . . . , n and

ence that the width of the bays can vary, depending on the total pairwise costs cij . The problem is to ﬁnd a permutation of the de-

area of the departments in each bay. partments that minimizes the weighted sum of the pairwise dis-

Three-dimensional facilities give rise to multiﬂoor FLPs in tances. Fig. 1 provides an illustration of the SRFLP in the context

which departments are to be placed over two or more ﬂoors. This of placing the departments along the path of an automated guided

is the focus of Section 4. The survey in Section 4.1 shows that vehicle (AGV) transporting material between the departments; in

most of the literature proposes models for speciﬁc applications this context the objective is to minimize the distance travelled by

rather than for the general problem. For this reason we propose the AGV. The SRFLP is the most studied of the row FLPs. Some-

in Section 4.2 a formulation for a generic form of the problem that times called the one-dimensional space allocation problem, it has

we hope will motivate further research into multiﬂoor FLP. interesting connections to well-known combinatorial optimization

Regarding the choice of methodologies, we limit the scope of problems such as maximum-cut, quadratic linear ordering, and lin-

this review to mathematical optimization-based approaches. These ear arrangement (see Anjos & Liers, 2012).

include exact methods, but as the problems increase in diﬃculty Because there is only one row, there is no need to assign de-

very rapidly, we also include heuristic methods that use math- partments to rows. Moreover, cij ≥ 0 ensures that there is no

ematical optimization approximations and/or relaxations. While empty space between departments at optimality. Hence the re-

there is a rich literature on heuristic algorithms for FLPs (see maining question is to express the center-to-center distance be-

e.g. Kothari & Ghosh, 2012; Meller & Gau, 1996; Singh & Sharma, tween departments.

2006), our focus here is on mathematical optimization approaches, A key observation, ﬁrst made by Simmons (1969), is that the

primarily mixed integer linear optimization (MILO), often referred SRFLP can be expressed as

to as mixed integer programing or MIP, semideﬁnite optimization

1

(SDO), also called semideﬁnite programing or SDP, and nonlinear min ci j i + j + Dπ (i, j ) ,

optimization. Because of their importance to the success of these π ∈ n 2

i< j

approaches, we also include brief discussions of symmetry break-

ing (Section 5) and valid inequalities (Section 6) as these are es- where n denotes the set of all permutations of {1, 2, . . . , n}, and

sential ingredients for solving the resulting relaxations eﬃciently. Dπ (i, j) is the center-to-center distance between departments i and

We conclude with a summary of directions for future research j under permutation π .

in Section 7. A ﬁrst observation here that if π denotes the permuta-

tion symmetric to π , deﬁned by πi = πn+1−i , i = 1, . . . , n, then

2. Row FLPs Dπ (i, j ) = Dπ (i, j ). In other words, the order of the departments

in a particular layout can be reversed without changing the value

Row FLPs share the following common problem statement: of the objective function. Hence, it is possible to simplify the prob-

given a set of rectangular departments each of a given length, a lem by considering only the permutations that have a particular

M.F. Anjos, M.V.C. Vieira / European Journal of Operational Research 261 (2017) 1–16 3

facility, say facility 1, in the left half of the arrangement. Alterna- 2.1.2. SDO model

tively, we can require that a speciﬁc facility be to the left of an- To present an SDO-based relaxation, we begin by introducing {

other; this is known as the position p − k method, see Section 5. ± 1} binary variables as in customary in SDO (see Anjos & Liers,

This type of symmetry-breaking strategy can help reduce the com- 2012). For each pair of departments ij with 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n, deﬁne

putational cost of a mathematical optimization algorithm for SRFLP

and for other types of layout problems, see Section 5. One aspect 1, if i is to the right of j,

Ri j :=

unique to the SDO-based approach is that it implicitly accounts for −1, otherwise.

these symmetries, and thus does not require the use of additional In this deﬁnition, the order of the subscripts matters, and Ri j =

explicit symmetry-breaking constraints, see Section 2.1.2. −R ji .

A second observation is that it is not necessary to know the posi- For an assignment of ± 1 values to the Rij variables to represent

tion of each department; it suﬃces to know for each pair of depart- a permutation, it is necessary to enforce the transitivity condition:

ments which departments are between them. Hence the key here if i is to the right of j and j is to the right of k, then i is to the

is the concept of betweenness. right of k.

There is a large amount of literature on the SRFLP. For more Equivalently, if Ri j = R jk then Rik = Ri j . This condition can be

detailed expositions on the state-of-the-art for the SRFLP, includ- formulated using quadratic constraints:

ing extensions, meta-heuristics, and exact approaches, we refer the

reader to Kothari and Ghosh (2012) and to the recent review paper Ri j R jk − Ri j Rik − Rik R jk = −1 for all triples 1 ≤ i < j < k ≤ n.

(Keller & Buscher, 2015) in this journal. (6)

To give the reader a sense of the mathematical optimization

approaches to the SRFLP, we present here two different ways to Using the Rij variables, it is straightforward to express between-

model betweenness. One is based on MILO and the other based on ness after observing that Rki Rk j = −1 if and only if facility k is be-

SDO. tween i and j. Hence the objective function can be expressed as

2.1.1. MILO model

1 1 − Rki Rk j

ci j i + j + k ,

The approach sketched here was originally proposed in Amaral 2 2

i< j k=i, j

(2009b). Other MILO models for SRFLP include, in chronological or-

der, (Amaral, 20 06; 20 08; Heragu & Kusiak, 1991; Love & Wong, and the consequent formulation of SRFLP is:

1976).

ci j

For three distinct departments i, j, k, deﬁne the betweenness min K− k Rki Rk j − k Rik Rk j + k Rik R jk

variables ζ ijk as: 2

i< j k<i i<k< j k> j

s.t. (7)

1, if department k lies between departments i and j,

ζi jk = Ri j R jk − Ri j Rik − Rik R jk = −1 for all triples i < j < k

0, otherwise.

R2i j = 1 for all i < j

Using these variables, the objective function of the SRFLP is ex-

c

pressed as: where K := ( i< j 2i j )( nk=1 k ).

Applying standard techniques from SDO, this formulation leads

1 to the following SDO relaxation (Anjos, Kennings, & Vannelli,

ci j i + j + k ζi jk

2 2005):

i< j k=i, j

and this is optimized subject to the following constraints: ci j

min K− k Xki,k j − k Xik,k j + k Xik, jk

ζi jk + ζik j + ζ jki = 1, for all {i, j, k} ⊆ {1, . . . , n}, (1) 2

i< j k<i i<k< j k> j

s.t.

(8)

ζi jd + ζ jkd − ζikd ≥ 0, for all {i, j, k, d} ⊆ {1, . . . , n}, (2) Xi j, jk − Xi j,ik − Xik, jk = −1 for all triples i < j < k

Xii = 1, for i = 1, . . . , n

ζi jd + ζ jkd + ζikd ≤ 2, for all {i, j, k, d} ⊆ {1, . . . , n}, (3) X 0, X ∈ S ( 2 )

n

ζi jk ∈ {0, 1}, for all {i, j, k} ⊆ {1, . . . , n}. (4)

S (2 ) is the set of symmetric matrices of dimension n2 . The inter-

n

A polyhedral study concerning this formulation can be found in pretation of the entries of X is that X pi ,p j = R pi R p j for any two pairs

Sanjeevi and Kianfar (2010). When Eq. (4) is relaxed to 0 ≤ ζ ijk ≤ pi , pj .

1, the resulting linear optimization (LO) relaxation is weak. Thus Note that if every Rij variable is replaced by its negative, then

an additional class of valid inequalities that improve the relaxation there is no change whatsoever to the formulation. In this way, the

is proposed in Amaral (2009b). formulation (7) and the corresponding SDO relaxation (8) implic-

itly account for the symmetry of the SRFLP.

Proposition 1 Amaral (2009b). Let β ≤ n be a positive even integer

Subsequent improvements to the relaxation (8) were given in

and let S ⊆ {1, . . . , n} such that |S| = β . For each r ∈ S, and for any

Hungerländer and Rendl (2013). We refer the reader to that paper

partition (S1 , S2 ) of S\{r} such that |S1 | = 12 β , the inequality

and to Keller and Buscher (2015) for more details.

ζtqr + ζtqr − ζmin{t ,q},max{t ,q},r ≤ 0 (5)

t <q,t ∈S1 ,q∈S1 t <q,t ∈S2 ,q∈S2 t∈S1 ,q∈S2 2.2. The double-row FLP

is valid for the above formulation of the SRFLP.

The Double-Row FLP (DRFLP) is an extension of the SRFLP

It is straightforward to check that for β = 4, (5) is of the form in which departments can be placed on both sides of a central

(2). it is shown in Amaral (2009b) that the size of the LO relax- corridor. The distance between the two rows is assumed to be

ation can be reduced by projecting the feasible set into a lower- negligible, and thus the center-to-center distance between two

dimensional space. departments is measured parallel to the corridor. Fig. 2 illustrates

4 M.F. Anjos, M.V.C. Vieira / European Journal of Operational Research 261 (2017) 1–16

+

i j

xi + ≤ x j + L(1 − yi j ), 1 ≤ i, j ≤ n, i = j (14)

2

Fig. 2. DRFLP with a corridor for an AGV. + +

i j i j

di j − yi j − y ji ≥ 0, 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n (15)

2 2

the DRFLP with the corridor as the operating space for an AGV.

Another application for the DRFLP is the arrangement of rooms in

buildings, see e.g. Ahonen, de Alvarenga, and Amaral (2014). To the y ∈ Qn (16)

best of our knowledge, the ﬁrst reference to double-row layouts

is in Heragu and Kusiak (1988) where a nonlinear optimization

model is proposed and used to ﬁnd locally optimal solutions. Most yi j ∈ {0, 1}, 1 ≤ i, j ≤ n, i = j (17)

of the subsequent mathematical optimization approaches in the

literature use either MILO (with the ﬁrst model introduced in i i

Chung and Tanchoco, 2010 and a recent new model in Amaral, ≤ xi ≤ L − , 1 ≤ i ≤ n (18)

2 2

2013a) or SDO (Hungerländer & Anjos, 2015).

Unlike for the SRFLP, there is in the DRFLP a need to address where we use the continuous variables

all three questions for row FLPs. The assignment of departments to

rows is somewhat simpliﬁed by the fact that there are only two • xi representing the position of the center of i (1 ≤ i ≤ n) along

rows: it suﬃces to determine which departments are placed in the the corridor,

ﬁrst row, because the remaining departments must be in the sec- • dij representing the distance between (the centers of) i and j (1

ond row. On the other hand, betweenness no longer suﬃces to de- ≤ i < j ≤ n) measured parallel to the corridor.

termine center-to-center distances, and the optimal layout may in- n

volve some empty space between departments. Also L = i=1 i , and

In this section we describe two approaches that extend in dif-

The integral points of the polytope Qn are precisely the y-incidence

ferent ways the MILO models proposed for the SRFLP. Both ex-

vectors of interest (Amaral, 2013a; Coll, Ribeiro, & de Souza, 2006).

tensions involve a combination of discrete and continuous vari-

Constraints (13) give the rectilinear distance between each

ables, where the former represent the assignment of departments

pair of departments. Constraints (16) and (17) characterize the y-

to rows and the relative position of two departments, and the lat-

incidence vectors, and constraints (18) are bounds on the x vari-

ter give the positions of the department centers with respect to a

ables. Constraints (14) ensure that departments assigned to the

ﬁxed origin. Without loss of generality the corridor is placed along

same row do not overlap.

the x-axis, and the origin is at the left end of the corridor.

Constraints (15) ensure that if department i is placed in the

A model with O(n2 ) binary variables

same row as department j, then the distance between their cen-

Consider the binary vector y = (yi j )1≤i, j≤n such that

ters is at least (i + j )/2. Note that constraints (15) are redundant

1, if department i is to the left of department j in the presence of constraints (13) and (14), but they may be help-

yi j = and both i and j are in the same row; ful for a branching algorithm.

0, otherwise. A model with O(n3 ) binary variables

For this model, we deﬁne two sets of binary variables:

The following inequalities are valid for all y-incidence vectors rep-

resenting a partition of the n departments into two ordered sub-

1, if department i is assigned to row k

sets: yik =

0, otherwise.

yik + yki + y jk + yk j − yi j − y ji ≤ 1, 1 ≤ i, j, k ≤ n, i < j, k = i, j

1, if department j is placed to the right of

(9)

zki j = department i in row k

yik + y ji + yk j − yki − yi j − y jk ≤ 1, 1 ≤ i, j, k ≤ n, i, k < j, k = i 0, otherwise.

(10)

As in the previous model, we use continuous variables to deter-

yi j + yik + y jk + y ji + yki + yk j ≥ 1, {i, j, k} ⊂ {1, . . . , n}. (11) mine the location of the departments. Speciﬁcally we let xik denote

Constraints (9) are transitivity constraints with respect to row the absolute location of department i in row k, and set it to zero if

assignments. They ensure that if i and k are in the same row i is not assigned to row k.

(yik + yki = 1) and k and j are in the same row (y jk + yk j = 1), then These deﬁnitions support the model proposed in Chung and

1 + 1 − (yi j + y ji ) ≤ 1, implying yi j + y ji ≥ 1, i.e., i and j are in the Tanchoco (2010). This model explicitly accounts for clearances be-

same row. tween departments. As corrected in Zhang and Murray (2012), the

Constraints (10) are three-cycle constraints. They forbid a solu- model is:

tion where k is placed to the right of i, i is to the right of j, and j n−1

n

is to the right of k (thus forming an impossible cycle). min ci j v+i j + v−i j

Constraints (11) require that at least two of i, j, k must be in the i=1 j=i+1

same row. It also ensures that no more than two rows are used.

s.t. xik − x jk + v+

ij

− v−

ij

= 0, i ∈ I1 , j ∈ I2 (19)

We now state the MILO model of Amaral (2013a):

k∈K k∈K

n−1

n

min ci j di j (12)

xik ≤ Myik , i = 1, . . . , n, k ∈ K (20)

i=1 j=i+1

M.F. Anjos, M.V.C. Vieira / European Journal of Operational Research 261 (2017) 1–16 5

yik = 1, i = 1, . . . , n (21) In terms of approaches using MILO and SDO, as noted in

k∈K Section 2.2.1, the O(n3 ) MILO formulation of Zhang and Murray

(2012) for the DRFLP can be easily extended to the MRFLP (this

i yik + j yik

+ aik zk ji ≤ xik − x jk + M (1 − zk ji ) (22) was not speciﬁcally done in that paper). More recently, an SDO-

2 based approach was introduced in Hungerländer and Anjos (2015),

and it is this approach that we present here. To the best of our

i ∈ I1 , j ∈ I2 , k ∈ K

knowledge, this is the only global optimization approach for the

i yik + j yik general row FLP with more than two rows.

+ aik zki j ≤ x jk − xik + M (1 − zki j ), (23)

2

2.3.1. SDO model

i ∈ I1 , j ∈ I2 , k ∈ K The SDO model presented in Hungerländer and Anjos (2015) for

1 the MRFLP is based on the SDO formulation for the SRFLP pre-

zki j + zk ji ≤ (yik + y jk ), i ∈ I1 , j ∈ I2 , k ∈ K (24)

2 sented in Section 2.1.2. The idea is to ﬁrst assume that the assign-

ment of departments to rows is ﬁxed and that no spaces are al-

zki j + zk ji + 1 ≥ yik + y jk , i ∈ I1 , j ∈ I2 , k ∈ K (25) lowed between departments in the same row. This restricted ver-

sion of the MRFLP is called the k-Parallel Row Ordering Problem

(k-PROP), see Section 2.3.2 and the references therein for more de-

xik ≥ 0, i ∈ I, k ∈ K

tails.

v+i j , v−i j ≥ 0, i ∈ I1 , j ∈ I2 Consider the k-PROP with n departments and m rows, and

yik ∈ {0, 1}, i ∈ I, k ∈ K let the assignment of departments to rows be speciﬁed by r :

{1, . . . , n} → {1, . . . , m}. Deﬁne the binary variables Rij as in

zki j ∈ {0, 1}, i ∈ I, j ∈ I \ {i}, k ∈ K (26)

Section 2.1.2, and let dij represent the center-to-center distance be-

where aij is the required clearance between departments i and j, tween i and j measured parallel to the rows. If i and j are assigned

I1 = {1, . . . , n − 1}, I2 = {i +1, . . . , n}, K = {1, 2} is the set of rows, to the same row, i.e., if r (i ) = r ( j ), then

and the constant M = i∈I i + max j∈I ai j is analogous to L in the 1 1 − Rki Rk j 1 + Rik Rk j

previous model but also includes the clearances. di j = ( i + j ) + k + k

2 2 2

Constraints (19) compute the distances between departments. k∈N, k<i k∈N, i<k< j

r ( k )= r ( i ) r ( k )= r ( i )

Constraints (20) set xik = 0 when department i is not assigned to

1 − Rik R jk

row k. Constraints (21) ensure that a department is assigned to just + k , (27)

one row. Constraints (22) and (23) prevent departments from over- 2

k∈N, k> j

lapping if they are located in the same row. r ( k )= r ( i )

Constraints (24) and (25) ensure consistency between the vari- while if r (i ) = r ( j )

ables y and z as follows: if yik = 1 and y jk = 1 then (24) and ⎡⎛ ⎞

(25) together ensure that exactly one of zkij and zkji is equal to one.

⎢⎜ j 1 + Rk j 1 − R jk ⎟

Otherwise, i.e., if at least one of yik and yjk is equal to zero, then d i j = R i j ⎣⎝

2

+ k

2

+ k

2

⎠

(24) sets both zkij and zkji to zero. Constraints (25) force either zkij k∈N, k< j k∈N, k> j

or zkji to be 1 if i and j are both in row k. r ( k )= r ( j ) r ( k )= r ( j )

⎛ ⎞⎤

Note that the O(n2 ) model has signiﬁcantly fewer variables than

the O(n3 ) model, and that the meaning of the continuous variables ⎜ i 1 + Rki 1 − Rik ⎟⎥

xik differs between the two models. Finally, it is important to ob- −⎝ + k + k ⎠⎦. (28)

2 2 2

k∈N, k<i k∈N, k>i

serve that while the O(n2 ) model is speciﬁc to the DRFLP, the O(n3 ) r ( k )= r ( i ) r ( k )= r ( i )

model can be applied directly to the MRFLP by increasing the car-

The above relations, plus the triangle inequalities relating the dis-

dinality of K.

tances between every triplet of departments i, j, k:

2.2.2. SDO model zi j + zik ≥ z jk , zi j + zik ≥ z jk , zik + z jk ≥ zi j , 1 ≤ i < j < k ≤ n,

An SDO-based approach for the MRFLP was developed in (29)

Hungerländer and Anjos (2015) and also applied to the DRFLP. This

are used in Hungerländer and Anjos (2015) to extend the SDO for-

approach is presented in Section 2.3.1.

mulation for the SRFLP to an SDO formulation for the k-PROP. For

the sake of brevity here, we refer the reader to Hungerländer and

2.3. The multirow FLP Anjos (2015) for the technical details.

Once an SDO formulation of the k-PROP is obtained, the possi-

The MRFLP is a natural extension of row layout to three or more bility of spaces is handled using the following results:

rows. An instance of the MRFLP has a given number of rows to

which the departments can be assigned, the departments all have Theorem 1 (Hungerländer & Anjos, 2015). If all the department

the same height (equal to the row height), the distances between lengths i are integer, then there is always an optimal solution to the

adjacent rows are equal, and departments can in general be as- MRFLP on the half-integer grid.

signed to any row.

Corollary 1 (Hungerländer & Anjos, 2015). If all the department

The MRFLP has received very limited attention in the operations

lengths i are integer, then for each instance of the MRFLP, we ob-

research literature to date. In terms of practical applications, it cap-

tain an equivalent instance of the k-PROP by adding spacing depart-

tures the basic structure of contexts where the departments are to

ments of length 0.5 such that the length of each row becomes equal

be arranged in well-deﬁned rows because the separation between

to M := ni=1 i .

the rows is predetermined. It is thus a problem that is discrete in

one dimension and continuous in the other. Heuristic algorithms The strategy is thus to add spacing departments of length 0.5

were proposed in Heragu and Kusiak (1988), and a nonlinear op- and with all involved connectivities equal to zero, and then ap-

timization formulation was given in Gen and Cheng (1997) and ply the SDO approach for k-PROP. Because the number of spac-

solved using a genetic algorithm (GA). ing departments needed will normally be too large for practical

6 M.F. Anjos, M.V.C. Vieira / European Journal of Operational Research 261 (2017) 1–16

computation, several results are proved in Hungerländer and Anjos For the DRFLP, the O(n2 ) model was used in Amaral (2013a) to

(2015) to reduce the number of spacing departments needed. obtain solutions of instances with up to 12 departments within one

Finally, to remove the restriction that the assignment of de- hour. The O(n3 ) model was also tested in Amaral (2013a) but was

partments to rows is ﬁxed, Hungerländer and Anjos (2015) ob- unable to solve instances with more than 10 departments within

tain global optimal solutions (respectively bounds) by using this three hours. The corrected model of Zhang and Murray (2012) was

approach for all possible assignments (respectively for a subset of used in Murray, Smith, and Zhang (2013) for asymmetric ﬂows. The

them). constraints are (20)–(26), and the objective function is

2.3.2. Special cases of the MRFLP (ci j + c ji ) v+i j + v−i j .

The diﬃculty in solving the general MRFLP has motivated the i∈I1 j∈I2

study of a number of special cases with simplifying assumptions The conclusion of the computational tests is that with a time limit

and/or speciﬁc structure that allow for more effective modeling of 10 minutes, most of the heuristic algorithms perform better

and solution approaches. than CPLEX on instances with more than 20 departments.

Finally for the MRFLP, tight global bounds were computed in

The equidistant MRFLP

Hungerländer and Anjos (2015) for instances with up to 12 de-

A ﬁrst such special case is the equidistant version of the MR-

partments. The authors adapted an approach originally proposed

FLP, denoted MREFLP, in which all departments have the same

in Fischer, Gruber, Rendl, and Sotirov (2006) for the max-cut prob-

length. This structure makes it possible to prove many interest-

lem and several ordering problems. The SDO-based approach was

ing results. The single-row case is known in the literature as

applied to instances with up to 5 rows and up to 8 departments.

the linear arrangement problem, see e.g. Liu and Vannelli (1995),

The results show that the SDO approach is most effective for 4 or

Amaral, Caprara, Letchford, and Salazar (2008), Amaral and Letch-

5 rows. There may be an intuitive explanation for this: as an ex-

ford (2011), Palubeckis (2012), Amaral (2009a), and is well known

treme example, note that it is easier to partition 5 departments

to be NP-hard even if all the pairwise costs are binary (Garey, John-

into 5 rows than into 2 rows. This is in part because the model

son, & Stockmeyer, 1974).

does not take into account the distance between rows, so assign-

The double-row case was considered in Amaral (2011) where a

ing department 1 to row 1 is exactly the same as assigning it to

MILO formulation based on the quadratic assignment problem is

row 4. Accounting for the distances between rows may change the

given.

nature of the results, but has not yet been done to the best of our

For the general MREFLP, it is shown in Anjos, Fischer, and

knowledge.

Hungerländer (2015) that the problem has an optimal solution on

the integer grid (although the lengths of the spaces are in general

3. Unequal-areas FLP

continuous quantities). This implies that only spaces of unit length

need to be used when modeling the MREFLP, and hence that the

The Unequal-Areas FLP (UA-FLP) is concerned with ﬁnding the

problem can be formulated as a purely discrete optimization prob-

optimal arrangement of a given number of nonoverlapping indivis-

lem, as is the case for the SRFLP in Section 2.1. Moreover, exact

ible departments with varying areas so as to minimize the total

results were proved in Anjos et al. (2015) for the minimum num-

expected cost of ﬂows inside the facility. Unlike in the row FLPs,

ber of spaces that must be added so as to preserve at least one

the dimensions of each department are optimized (subject to the

optimal solution. These results lead to both MILO and SDO models

area requirement).

for the MREFLP.

The UA-FLP, sometimes called the single-ﬂoor FLP, has received

The space-free MRFLP much attention in the literature. It was ﬁrst stated in Armour and

Another important special case of the MRFLP is the Space-Free Buffa (1963), and one of the ﬁrst MILO formulations was proposed

MRFLP (SF-MRFLP) in which no spaces are allowed within the in Montreuil (1991) using binary variables to prevent overlap.

rows, all rows have a common left origin, and the leftmost de- We begin with an exact formulation of the UA-FLP in

partment in each row is ﬂush with the left end of the row. When Section 3.1. This allows us to establish notation, and more impor-

there is only one row, the SF-MRFLP is equivalent to the SRFLP. tantly to explicitly show where the main diﬃculties are for solving

Where there are two rows, the SF-MRFLP is also called the Space- UA-FLP. Exact MILO models are covered in Section 2.2.1. This in-

Free DRFLP or the Corridor Allocation Problem, for which a MILO cludes sequence-pair formulations in Section 3.2.1, one of which

formulation was proposed in Amaral (2012), and an SDO approach solved instances with up to 11 departments to global optimality,

in Hungerländer and Anjos (2012). the largest such results to date (Meller, Chen, & Sherali, 2007).

A special case of the SF-MRFLP that has attracted attention is Most of the approaches reviewed here are two-stage frame-

the k-PROP introduced in Section 2.3.1. Because the assignment of works, where the ﬁrst stage determines the relative location of

departments to rows is given, and no spaces are allowed within the departments, and the second stage obtains a ﬁnal layout via

the rows, the k-PROP reduces to ﬁnding the optimal permuta- a mathematical optimization model. Two-stage approaches are

tion of the departments within each row. An SDO approach for k- mathematical optimization-based heuristics that are not guaran-

PROP was mentioned in Section 2.3.1, and another was given in teed to ﬁnd the global optimal layout but they seem to be the

Hungerländer (2014). When the number of rows equals two, this most promising for handling large-scale instances of UA-FLP. The

problem is simply called PROP, and a MILO formulation for it was main differences between the approaches are in the ﬁrst-stage al-

given in Amaral (2013b). gorithms. We present in Section 3.3 approaches that are entirely

based on nonlinear optimization models, one of which was re-

2.4. Computational performance of the models cently shown to be able to compute layouts for instances with up

to 100 departments in less than 15 minutes of computation time

Row FLPs remain highly challenging problems. We summarize (Anjos & Vieira, 2015). Other two-stage approaches are summa-

here the state-of-the-art in terms of the computational perfor- rized in Section 3.4.

mance of the approaches preserved above. A MILO formulation for the important special case of ﬂexible

For both the SRFLP and the single-row MREFLP, the largest in- bay UA-FLP is discussed in Section 3.5

stances solved to optimality had 42 departments, see Hungerländer A number of heuristics for the UA-FLP make use of a slicing-

and Rendl (2013) and Hungerländer (2014) respectively. tree structure. This is a binary tree that represents the ﬂoor plan

M.F. Anjos, M.V.C. Vieira / European Journal of Operational Research 261 (2017) 1–16 7

after applying a recursive partitioning process. Each node of the these constraints are disjunctive and nonconvex, and are the hard-

tree contains either a department or a cut operator, thus each est ones to handle. If the relative position of each pair of depart-

slicing tree corresponds to a particular layout. This strategy was ments is known, then the constraints (37) can be written as linear

ﬁrst used in Otten (1982) in the context of VLSI design and inequalities, and the formulation becomes a (convex) conic opti-

later extended to the UA-FLP in Tam (1992). It was also used in mization problem that is straightforward to solve. This observation

Shayan and Chittilappilly (2004), Diego-Mas, Santamarina-Siurana, motivates the two-stage philosophy in several of the approaches in

Cloquell-Ballester, and Alcaide-Marzal (2008), Scholz, Petrick, and the literature; we present the most prominent in Sections 3.3 and

Domschke (2009), Komarudin and Wong (2010), Chang and Ku 3.4.

(2013). Note that this formulation locates the center of the facility at

the origin, while some of the models below locate the origin at the

3.1. An exact formulation of the UA-FLP bottom left-hand corner of the facility. This difference is otherwise

of no consequence.

We begin by presenting an exact formulation that uses only

continuous variables. The reasons for doing so are two-fold: we 3.2. MILO models

establish some notation that will be common for the remainder

of this section, and we explicit point out where the diﬃculties lie We begin with the MILO model introduced by Meller,

in solving UA-FLP, thus motivating the solution approaches subse- Narayanan, and Vance (1999) and enhanced in Sherali, Fraticelli,

quently presented. and Meller (2003). Deﬁne the binary variables

We assume that we are given the height and width of the fa-

1 if i must precede j horizontally,

cility as hF and wF respectively, and that for each department i we zihj =

0 otherwise,

have lower and upper bounds wmin i

and wmax

i

on its width, and

min

hi and himax on its height. We also assume that β i , an upper zivj =

1 if i must precede j vertically,

bound on the aspect ratio of department i, is given for each de- 0 otherwise.

partment i. It is necessary that β i ≥ 1, and the closer β i is to unity,

The MILO formulation is as follows:

the closer the shape of department i will be to a square.

With this notation, the UA-FLP can be formulated as follows min ci j ( u i j + vi j ) (38)

(see van Camp, Carter, & Vannelli, 1991): 1≤i< j≤n

min ci j ( |xi − x j | + |yi − y j | ) (30) ui j ≥ xi − x j and ui j ≥ x j − xi , 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n

xi ,yi ,hi ,wi s.t. (39)

1≤i< j≤n vi j ≥ yi − y j and vi j ≥ y j − yi , 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n

s.t. wmin ≤ wi ≤ wmax , for i = 1, . . . , n (31) 1 1

i i wi ≤ xi ≤ wF − wi , i = 1, . . . , n

2 2

1 1

hmin

i ≤ hi ≤ hmax

i , for i = 1, . . . , n (32) hi ≤ yi ≤ hF − hi , i = 1 , . . . , n (40)

2 2

i ≤ wi ≤ wmax

i , i = 1, . . . , n

hmin

i ≤ hi ≤ hmax

i , i = 1, . . . , n (41)

w i hi

max , ≤ βi , for i = 1, . . . , n (34)

2

hi w i

λ

ai wi + 4 wmin + ( wmax −) hi

wmin

1 1 1 1 i

−1 i i

xi + wi ≤ wF and wi − xi ≤ wF , for i = 1, . . . , n (35)

2 2 2 2 λ

≥ 2ai wmin + (wmax − wmin ) , λ = 0, 1, . . . , − 1 (42)

1 1 1 1

i

−1 i i

yi + hi ≤ hF and hi − yi ≤ hF , for i = 1, . . . , n (36)

2 2 2 2

zihj + zhji + zivj + zvji = 1, 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n (43)

1 1

|xi − x j | ≥ (wi + w j ) or |yi − y j | ≥ ( hi + h j ),

2 2 1 1

xi + wi ≤ x j − w j + wF (1 − zihj ), i = j

for all 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n. (37) 2 2

1 1

The ﬁrst four sets of constraints enforce the shape requirements. yi + hi ≤ y j − h j + hF (1 − zivj ), i = j (44)

Constraints (31) and (32) enforce the bounds on the width and 2 2

height of each department. Constraints (33) enforce the area re-

zihj , zivj ∈ {0, 1}, i, j ∈ N. (45)

quirement for each department. Note that these constraints can be

relaxed to wi hi ≥ Ai . This relaxed form has the advantage of being Constraints (39) provide a linearization of the objective function

convex, and in fact it can be formulated as a conic constraint (see (30) above. Constraints (40) ensure that each department is within

Section 3.2). Because the optimization will push this relaxed form the facility; they differ from (35) and (36) because this formula-

towards equality, in general wi hi will equal Ai at optimality. More- tion places the origin at the bottom left-hand corner of the facility.

over Theorem 3.1 in Takouda, Anjos, and Vannelli (2005) states Constraints (41) are lower and upper bounds for the widths and

n

that if i=1 Ai = hF wF then the constraints (33) must hold at ev- heights of the departments.

ery feasible solution. Constraints (34) enforce the maximum aspect Constraints (42) are the polyhedral outer approximation on

ratio; it is straightforward to write them as two linear inequality points of (33). This approximation was introduced in Sherali et al.

constraints. (2003) and also used in Meller et al. (2007) and Liu and Meller

The last two sets of constraints enforce the location require- (2007) (see Section 3.2.1 below). This approximation is effective

ments. Constraints (35) and (36) ensure that the departments are in practice but less eﬃcient that using the aforementioned convex

inside the facility. Finally, constraints (37) prevent overlapping; conic relaxation that is supported by most current MILO solvers.

8 M.F. Anjos, M.V.C. Vieira / European Journal of Operational Research 261 (2017) 1–16

xi + wi ≤ x j − w j + wF (2 − zi+j − zi−j ), i, j ∈ N, i = j

straint: 2 2

1 1

− hi

wi yi + hi ≤ y j − h j + hF (1 + zi+j − zi−j ), i, j ∈ N, i = j

hi Ai

0 ⇔ w i + hi ≥ . (46) 2 2

(49)

Ai wi 2 Ai

2

zi+j , zi−j ∈ {0, 1}, i, j ∈ N. (50)

Finally, constraints (43)–(45) use the relative-location variables

zihj and zivj to prevent overlapping: depending on which of the vari- Constraints (47) ensure that every department appears exactly

ables zihj , zivj , zhji , zvji is set to 1, i is to the left of, to the right of, once in each sequence, and constraints (48) are transitivity con-

below, or above j. straints for the two sequences. Together these constraints ensure

An alternative MILO representation of the relative positions of that the binary variables represent valid sequences. Constraints

departments is given in the next section. (49) express nonoverlapping in terms of the sequence-pair vari-

ables.

Using the MILO model above with additional valid inequalities,

3.2.1. Sequence-pair formulations

including p − k symmetry-breaking constraints (see Section 5), in-

Sequence-pair approaches determine the relative positions of

stances of UA-FLP with up to 11 departments were solved to global

the departments using the so-called sequence-pair representation,

optimality in Meller et al. (2007). The computational time reached

and combine this representation with a MILO model similar to the

almost 17 hours for the 11-department instance.

one above to obtain the optimal layout. The sequence-pair rep-

Castillo and Westerlund (2005) proposed a MILO model that

resentation was ﬁrst used for VLSI design in Murata, Fujiyoshi,

satisﬁes the area requirements within a given accuracy ε using

Nakatake, and Kajitani (1995)), and for the FLP in Meller et al.

cutting planes. We omit the details for this because the area con-

(2007) and Liu and Meller (2007).

straints can be handled more effectively using conic optimiza-

A sequence-pair is a pair of sequences of departments, denoted

tion, as mentioned above. We point out however that Castillo and

+ and − , that together encode the relative location of the de-

Westerlund (2005) used the following alternative formulation of

partments. The following theorem indicates how to translate a

nonoverlap that is essentially the sequence-pair representation:

sequence-pair into a layout.

1

Theorem 2 (Meller et al., 2007). Given a sequence-pair ( + , − ) (wi + w j ) − (xi − x j ) ≤ wF (Xi j + Yi j ), 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n (51)

2

and two departments i and j in ( + , − ), i and j satisfy the following

1

horizontal/vertical relationship in the FLP: (wi + w j ) − (x j − xi ) ≤ wF (1 + Xi j − Yi j ), 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n (52)

2

• if j succeeds i in both + and − , then j is to the right of i;

1

• if j precedes i in both + and − , then j is to the left of i; (hi + h j ) − (yi − y j ) ≤ hF (1 − Xi j + Yi j ), 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n (53)

• if j precedes i in + and succeeds i in − , then j is above i; 2

• if j succeeds i in + and precedes i in − , then j is below i. 1

(hi + h j ) − (y j − yi ) ≤ hF (2 − Xi j − Yi j ), 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n (54)

The sequence-pair structure can be incorporated in a MILO

2

model as follows. Given a sequence-pair ( + , − ) and departments

Xi j , Yi j ∈ {0, 1}, 1 ≤ i ≤ n, (55)

i and j, deﬁne the binary variables:

where the variables Xij and Yij are a binary codiﬁcation of the

1 if i precedes j in + , relative position of departments. A GA was implemented in Liu

zi+j =

0 otherwise, and Meller (2007) where each sequence-pair is a chromosome; the

sequence-pair gives the relative position of the departments (ﬁrst

1 if i precedes j in − ,

zi−j = stage), and then a LO model is solved to ﬁnd the best layout (sec-

0 otherwise.

ond stage). They achieved the best results up to then for instances

with up to 35 departments; the computational time was 26 hours

These deﬁnitions lead to Theorem 3:

for the 35-department instance.

Theorem 3 (Meller et al., 2007). For any two departments i and j, A branch-and-bound algorithm that uses the sequence-pair

the following hold: representation was presented in Xie and Sahinidis (2008). A

minimum-cost network ﬂow problem is solved to obtain a feasible

• if zi+j = 1 and zi−j = 1, then i precedes j horizontally; layout from the sequence-pair representation of the relative po-

• if zi+j = 0 and zi−j = 0, then j precedes i horizontally; sition layout. However, this is only valid for a restricted version

• if zi+j = 0 and zi−j = 1, then i precedes j vertically; of the UA-FLP in which the department widths and heights are

• if zi+j = 1 and zi−j = 0, then j precedes i vertically. ﬁxed, and the facility has no limitations. Such an UA-FLP with just

the nonoverlapping constraints can be transformed into a network

A different MILO model (see Meller et al., 2007) for the FLP can ﬂow problem. The advantage is that network ﬂow algorithms can

now be formulated: be several orders of magnitude faster than general LO algorithms.

It was observed in Meller et al. (2007) and Liu and Meller

min ci j ( u i j + vi j ) (2007) that the MILO model with constraints (43) and (45) has

1≤i< j≤n 2n(n−1 ) possible combinations of the binary variables, while the

s.t. (39 )–(42 ) sequence-pair-based MILO formulation has (n!)2 sequences gen-

zi+j + z+ji = 1, 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n erating the same set of relative-position combinations. The au-

thors claim that this difference is key to the effectiveness of the

zi−j + z−ji = 1, 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n (47) sequence-pair approach. The difference is indeed signiﬁcant: using

Stirling’s approximation, we have that (n! )2 = θ (e2(n ln(n )−n ) ) while

2n(n−1 ) = e0.693(n −n ) . However, a comparison of the two formula-

2

+

zik + zk+j − zi+j ≤ 1, 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n

tions shows that another important difference is the presence of

−

zik + zk−j − zi−j ≤ 1, 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n (48) the transitivity constraints (48) in the sequence-pair model. It is

M.F. Anjos, M.V.C. Vieira / European Journal of Operational Research 261 (2017) 1–16 9

not entirely clear to what extent each of these differences con- In practice, attaining a solution with Dij ≈ Tij is not easy. The

tributes to the eﬃciency of the sequence-pair approach. It would approach in Anjos and Vannelli (2006) sacriﬁces convexity and

be interesting to carry out a computational study to clarify this proposes a modiﬁed AR model with the objective:

question.

Di j

min fi j (xi , x j , yi , y j ) − K log , (58)

3.3. Two-stage approaches using nonlinear optimization Ti j

1≤i< j≤n

⎧

nique for VLSI ﬂoorplanning was introduced in Anjos and Vannelli ⎨ci j z + ti j − 1, z ≥ Ti j

(2002). The ﬁrst stage uses the AR technique to establish the rel- f i j ( xi , x j , yi , y j ) = z

ative positions of the departments, and the second stage ﬁnds a ⎩

feasible layout satisfying the relative positions speciﬁed by the so-

2 ci j ti j − 1 , 0 ≤ z < Ti j ,

lution to the ﬁrst stage. The objective of this approach is not to and the logarithmic term steers the optimization away from solu-

achieve global optimality but rather to eﬃciently compute com- tions with Dij ≈ 0. Indeed the minima of this (nonconvex) func-

petitive solutions to large-scale instances of UA-FLP. tion satisfy Dij ≈ Tij . This can be viewed as a compromise in the

The AR model approximates each department by a circle with sense that convexity is lost, but computational eﬃciency is gained

radius ri proportional to the square root of Ai . The model places because a suitable choice of starting point and nonlinear optimiza-

the circles inside the facility while allowing some overlapping. The tion solver makes it possible to compute a solution close to these

amount of overlapping is controlled via a so-called target distance: known minima.

given α > 0, the target distance tij for circles i and j is set as ti j = In the second stage, the nonoverlapping constraints (37) are for-

α (ri + r j )2 . The AR model is: mulated as complementarity constraints. For each pair i, j, we intro-

duce new variables Xij and Yij satisfying

Di j

min ci j Di j + f 1

x,y ti j Xi j ≥ (wi + w j ) − |xi − x j |, Xi j ≥ 0,

1≤i< j≤n

2

1 1

s.t. xi + ri ≤ wF , i = 1, . . . , n Yi j ≥ (hi + h j ) − |yi − y j |, Yi j ≥ 0,

2 2

1

xi − ri ≥ − wF , i = 1, . . . , n Xi jYi j = 0

2

1 This last constraint enforces nonoverlap by requiring that at least

yi + r i ≤ hF , i = 1 , . . . , n

2 one of Xij and Yij equal zero. Using the coordinates of the centers

1 of the circles in the optimal solution of the modiﬁed AR model to

yi − ri ≥ hF , i = 1, . . . , n,

2 initialize the nonlinear optimization solver, this approach improved

where (xi , yi ) is the center of circle i, Di j = (xi − x j )2 + (yi − y j )2 on the then-best-known solutions for large instances, in particular

and f (z ) = 1z − 1 is a penalty function. The constraints keep the for the Armour–Buffa 20-department instance.

circles inside the facility whose center is at the origin. The objec- There are some challenges with this approach so far. First a

tive function is a trade-off between the attractor term cij Dij and the nonconvex model with the repeller function 1z − 1 was proposed

D in Anjos and Vannelli (2002); this model was then modiﬁed in

repeller term f ( t i j ). Anjos and Vannelli (2006) to achieve convexity, but then the ad-

ij

While the constraints are linear, the objective function is non- dition of a new penalty term resulted again in a loss of convexity,

linear and nonconvex. It was convexiﬁed in Anjos and Vannelli though in a more controlled manner. Moreover, the optimization

D

(2002) by replacing the term ci j Di j + f ( t i j ) with the following problem with complementarity constraints is diﬃcult to solve for

ij

piecewise function: large-scale instances.

⎧ % This motivated the signiﬁcant improvements to this approach

⎪

⎪ ti j ti j carried out in Jankovits, Luo, Anjos, and Vannelli (2011). For the

⎪

⎨ci j z + z − 1, z≥

ci j ﬁrst stage, fij (xi , xj , yi , yj ) is replaced by a more complicated expres-

f i j ( xi , x j , yi , y j ) = % (56) sion that also integrates information about the aspect ratio con-

⎪

⎪ ti j

⎪

⎩2 ci j ti j − 1, 0≤z< straints. We refer the reader to Jankovits et al. (2011) for details on

ci j the ﬁrst stage, and instead present below the recent further im-

provements in Anjos and Vieira (2015).

where z = (xi − x j )2 + (yi − y j )2 , and it is assumed that cij > 0.

The more signiﬁcant contributions in Jankovits et al. (2011) are

Note that the second branch of fij is constant, and that by con-

their improved second stage, and the linking of the two stages.

struction, fij attains its minimum whenever the positions of i and j

They introduce the following convex second-stage model that can

satisfy Di j ≤ ti j /ci j . This includes the case where Di j = 0, i.e., the

be solved eﬃciently:

two circles completely overlap. Of course, such a placement is un-

desirable. The ideal arrangement of the circles has Di j ≈ ti j /ci j , min ( ui j + vi j ) (59)

(xi ,yi ),wi ,hi

i.e., close to the boundary of the ﬂat portion of fij . At these points, 1≤i< j≤n

s.t. ui j ≥ xi − x j , for 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n (60)

minimized. This motivates the introduction in Anjos and Vannelli

(2006) of a generalized target distance:

% ui j ≥ x j − xi , for 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n (61)

ti j

Ti j = , 1 ≤ i, j ≤ n, (57)

ci j +

vi j ≥ yi − y j , for 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n (62)

where > 0 is chosen suﬃciently small so that Ti j ≈ ti j /ci j . This

modiﬁcation also removes the need for the assumption that cij >

vi j ≥ y j − yi , for 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n (63)

0.

10 M.F. Anjos, M.V.C. Vieira / European Journal of Operational Research 261 (2017) 1–16

wmin

i ≤ wi ≤ wmax

i , for 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n (64) only approach entirely based on mathematical optimization mod-

els that has been able to reach such large-scale instances of UA-

hmin ≤ hi ≤ hmax , for 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n (65) FLP.

i i

βi wi − hi ≥ 0, for 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n (67)

lated annealing technique was proposed in Bozer and Wang (2012).

One of the graphs represents the horizontal separation of the de-

βi hi − wi ≥ 0, for 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n, (68) partments, and the other represents the vertical separation. Their

plus appropriately chosen linear inequality constraints to ensure results are generally good, but the authors make changes in the

nonoverlap. areas of the facilities or departments. These modiﬁcations are rea-

These nonoverlap constraints are obtained as follows. Consider sonable from a practical point of view, but they make it diﬃcult to

the coordinates of the centers of the circles in the optimal solution compare with other techniques.

to the ﬁrst stage as a set of points on the plane, and compute their A LO-based GA approach, which differs from Liu and Meller

Delaunay triangulation. One of the properties of this triangulation (2007) in the chromosome coding, was introduced in Kulturel-

is that it maximizes the minimum angle over all the angles of the Konak and Konak (2013). The idea is that the GA searches for

triangles; in practice this means that thin triangles are less likely. the relative locations of the departments, and the LO model de-

The edges of the Delaunay triangulation are taken to represent the termines their exact locations and shapes. In particular, a new lo-

relative positions of the departments, and these positions are then cation/shape representation is proposed to encode the relative lo-

enforced by the appropriate linear constraints. For example, if the cations. Speciﬁcally, the relative location of department i is rep-

centers of i and j are connected in the triangulation and j is to the resented as (xi , yi , α i ), where αi = hi /wi . For each (xi , yi , α i ), de-

right of i, then the constraint x j − xi ≥ 12 (wi + w j ) is added to the ﬁne two straight lines, one passing through (xi , yi ) and the upper

model. The result is a second stage model that is a conic optimiza- right corner (xi + wi /2, yi + hi /2 ), and the other passing through

tion problem and can be solved eﬃciently. (xi , yi ) and the upper left corner (xi − wi /2, yi + hi /2 ). These lines

The overall approach in Jankovits et al. (2011) provided fur- split the facility into four regions with reference to department i,

ther improved layouts for the classical Armour–Buffa instance, and so every other department is above or below or left or right of i.

computed high-quality layouts for several 30-department instances Like the sequence-pair representation, the location/shape represen-

in 5 minutes or less of computation time. tation always generates a consistent assignment of the binary de-

Most recently, Anjos and Vieira (2015) further developed the AR cision variables. Note that while the MILO-model does not contain

concept. As the second stage of Jankovits et al. (2011) is highly ef- the transitivity constraints for the integer variables, this encoding

fective, the novelty in Anjos and Vieira (2015) is the formulation of (based on continuous variables) encapsulates transitivity. The re-

the ﬁrst stage. Speciﬁcally they propose a more precise formulation sults in Kulturel-Konak and Konak (2013) show that this approach

that models the departments as rectangles instead of approximat- outperforms previous techniques: the cost function is reduced and

ing them by circles. The aspect ratio constraints can therefore be the computational time is lower.

exactly enforced at the ﬁrst stage, instead of being approximated A similarly structured approach was proposed in Gonçalves and

as in Jankovits et al. (2011). They still forego convexity and use the Resende (2015) using a random-key GA in the ﬁrst stage and a LO

simple objective function model in the second stage. The authors report results on several in-

θi2j stances of UA-FLP from the literature, and ﬁnd slightly better solu-

ci j D2i j + K − 1, tions in a considerably shorter computational time, in comparison

D2i j with the other GA approaches. They also applied their approach to

larger instances with up to 125 departments, but without restric-

where θi2j = 14 (wi + w j )2 + (hi + h j )2 . Note that Dij /θ ij ≈ 1 indi-

tions on the dimensions of the facility. The computational time is

cates that some of the borders of the rectangles are close, regard-

reduced because they do not solve all the LO problems originating

less of whether the rectangles are overlapping (by a small amount)

from the relative-position solutions: they only solve the problems

or not.

that provably yield a feasible solution with a cost not exceeding

The resulting ﬁrst-stage model is:

40% of that of the previous best solution.

θi2j

min ci j D2i j + K −1

xi ,yi ,hi ,wi D2i j 3.5. Flexible bay structure

1≤i< j≤n

s.t. xi + wi ≤ wF and wi − xi ≤ wF , for i = 1, . . . , n,

2 2 2 2 partments are located in parallel bays with ﬂexible widths. This

1 1 1 1 special case of the UA-FLP arises in manufacturing facilities (Meller,

yi + hi ≤ hF and hi − yi ≤ hF , for i = 1, . . . , n,

2 2 2 2 1997). The bay structure is similar to the row structure in row FLPs,

wi hi ≥ Ai , for i = 1, . . . , n, but a fundamental difference is that the width of each bay depends

on the total area of the departments in that bay, whereas in row

β wi − hi ≥ 0, for i = 1, . . . , n,

FLPs, the heights of the rows and of the departments are equal and

β hi − wi ≥ 0, for i = 1, . . . , n, ﬁxed. The bays have straight aisles on both sides, and departments

wmin

i ≤ wi ≤ wmax

i , for i = 1, . . . , n, are not allowed to span multiple bays. This structure restricts the

set of feasible solutions, but it has advantages in practice: the bay

hmin

i ≤ hi ≤ hmax

i , for i = 1, . . . , n. boundaries form the basis of an aisle structure that facilitates the

where K = α 1≤i< j≤n ci j , and 0 < α ≤ 1. By solving for different transfer of the layout solution to an actual facility design.

choices of α (and hence of K), the authors of Anjos and Vieira A MILO formulation for this problem was proposed in Konak,

(2015) improved on the best solutions by earlier techniques. Fur- Kulturel-Konak, Norman, and Smith (2006). The continuous vari-

thermore, they computed layouts for instances with up to 100 de- ables xi , yi represent the location of department i, and hik repre-

partments in less than 15 min of computation time. This is the sent the height of department i in bay k. The binary variables are

M.F. Anjos, M.V.C. Vieira / European Journal of Operational Research 261 (2017) 1–16 11

deﬁned as follows: the bay is used, and zero if the bay is empty. Constraints (75) are

bounds on the department heights. They also enforce hik = 0 when

1, if department i is assigned to bay k

zik = department i is not located in bay k. Constraints (76) deﬁne the

0, otherwise;

heights of the departments. Constraints (78) and (79) ensure that

1, if department i is above department j department i is either above or below department j. Constraints

ri j = in the same bay (77) prevent departments in the same bay from overlapping. Con-

0, otherwise; straints (80) ensure that the departments are inside the facility.

By adding symmetry-breaking constraints (see Section 5) and

1, if bay k is occupied

δk = valid inequalities (see Section 6), instances with up to 14 depart-

0, otherwise.

ments were solved to optimality in Konak et al. (2006). The 14-

The MILO model is: department instance needed around 120 hours of computational

time.

min ci j ( u i j + vi j )

1≤i< j≤n 4. Multiﬂoor FLP

s.t. ui j ≥ xi − x j and ui j ≥ x j − xi , 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n

vi j ≥ yi − y j and vi j ≥ y j − yi , 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n The multiﬂoor FLP (MF-FLP) involves ﬁnding the optimal ar-

rangement of departments in a facility with multiple ﬂoors. Prac-

zik = 1, i ∈ N (69) tical applications include production facilities, hotels, oﬃce build-

k∈K ings, and hospitals. This problem has added complexity in com-

1 parison to the UA-FLP because we must also consider the interac-

wk = hF i∈N zik Ai , k∈K (70)

tions between departments on different ﬂoors. Furthermore, eleva-

tors and/or stairwells are required to transfer people and/or mate-

wmin

i zik ≤ wk ≤ wmax

i + wF (1 − zik ), k ∈ K, i ∈ N (71) rial between the ﬂoors, and these need to be placed at coherent

locations in every ﬂoor that they reach.

xi ≥ w j − 0.5wk − (wF − wmin

i )(1 − zik ), k ∈ K, i ∈ N Globally optimal algorithms for MF-FLP work in general only

j≤k for small instances (Hahn, Smith, & Zhu, 2010). The problem was

ﬁrst investigated in Johnson (1982) and later in Meller and Bozer

xi ≤ w j − 0.5wk + (wF − wmin

i )(1 − zik ), k ∈ K, i ∈ N (72) (1997), but most of the subsequent models in the literature are

j≤k

designed for speciﬁc types of MF-FLP, as the literature survey in

Section 4.1 shows. Indeed there is no commonly agreed deﬁnition

hik h jk max min

j

− − max i

, (2 − zik − z jk ) ≤ 0, i < j of the MF-FLP because different authors make their own assump-

Ai aj Ai aj

tions about the structure of the problem. This lack of a common

hik h jk max min

j deﬁnition makes it hard to compare the approaches. We therefore

− + max i

, (2 − zik − z jk ) ≤ 0, i < j (73) propose in Section 4.2 a general formulation for the MF-FLP that

Ai aj Ai aj

we hope will gain acceptance as a standard formulation, and will

hik = hF δk , k ∈ K (74) lead to increased research activity on this problem.

i∈N

4.1. Survey of the literature

hmin

i zik ≤ hik ≤ hmax

i zik , i ∈ N, k ∈ K (75)

Some approaches ﬁrst distribute the departments over the

hik = hi , i ∈ N (76) ﬂoors, minimizing the vertical interaction costs. This is essentially

i∈N the ﬁrst stage of a two-stage approach, where the second stage

then optimizes the layout of each ﬂoor independently; see Meller

yi − 0.5 hi ≥ y j + 0.5 h j − wH ( 1 − ri j ), i = j (77) and Bozer (1997) and Bernardi and Anjos (2013). Speciﬁcally the

following MILO formulation is used in Meller (1997) to assign de-

ri j + r ji = 1, 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n (78) partments to ﬂoors:

min ci j divj (81)

ri j + r ji ≥ zik + z jk − 1, 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n, k ∈ K (79) 1≤i< j≤n

p

k=1

where K is the set of bays, and N is the set of departments.

p

Constraints (69) ensure that each department is assigned to divj ≥ δ k(zik − z jk ), 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n (83)

a single bay. Constraints (70) calculate the width of each bay as k=1

the total area of the departments assigned to that bay divided by

p

the facility height. Note that under the assumption that i∈N Ai ≤ divj ≥ δ k(z jk − zik ), 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n (84)

wF hF , we have k∈K wk ≤ wF . Constraints (71) impose bounds on k=1

the bay widths, based on the width bounds of the departments as-

n

signed to each bay. Constraints (72) determine the horizontal loca- Ai zik ≤ wF hF , 1 ≤ k ≤ p (85)

tions of the department centroids. In this model, the x-coordinate i=1

is located at the middle of the bays. Therefore, if department i

is assigned to bay k, xi is calculated as xi = kj=1 w j − 0.5wk . This

zik ∈ {0, 1}, 1 ≤ i ≤ n, 1 ≤ k ≤ p, (86)

agrees with constraints (72) with zik = 1. If i and j are in the same where p is the number of ﬂoors. The variable zik equals 1 if de-

bay k, then constraints (73) ensure that the widths of the two de- partment i is assigned to ﬂoor k, and equals 0 otherwise. Con-

partments are the same and equal to the bay width. Constraints straints (82) assign each department to exactly one ﬂoor. Con-

(74) set the total heights of the departments in a bay equal to hF if straints (83) and (84) compute the vertical distance divj between

12 M.F. Anjos, M.V.C. Vieira / European Journal of Operational Research 261 (2017) 1–16

each pair i, j of departments, where δ is the ﬂoor height. Note Let δ denote the ceiling height, p the number of ﬂoors, and e

that the number of elevators. Let also M = wF + hF + δ p. Deﬁne the fol-

& & lowing variables:

& p &

& &

& k(zik − z jk )& zik = 1 if department i is assigned to ﬂoor k, 0 otherwise;

& k=1 &

Zi j = 1 if departments i and j are allocated to the same ﬂoor, 0

otherwise;

is precisely equal to the number of ﬂoors separating i and j. Con-

Xij , Yij : nonoverlapping binary variables;

straints (85) ensure that the departments assigned to each ﬂoor ﬁt

(xi , yi ): coordinates of the centroid of department i;

into that ﬂoor.

divj : vertical distance between i and j;

Each ﬂoor then becomes an instance of UA-FLP with some ad-

ditional constraints to ensure coherence in the location of the el- dihj : horizontal distance between i and j located on the same

evators. Computing the vertical costs still remains a challenge and ﬂoor;

was addressed in Bernardi and Anjos (2013). diej : horizontal distance between i and j located on different

Another possible simpliﬁcation is to restrict all the departments ﬂoors, where the path includes an elevator.

to have the same shape and to require that they be assigned to

speciﬁc locations in the building. This reduces the problem to a Note that the indices n + 1, . . . , n + e correspond to the eleva-

quadratic assignment problem. Such a formulation was used in tors.

Hahn et al. (2010), and was solved using the RLT linearization tech- The formulation is as follows:

nique (Adams & Sherali, 1986; Sherali & Adams, 1990) within a

min ci j (diej + divj )

branch-and-bound algorithm.

1≤i< j≤n

A mathematical formulation of MF-FLP for process plant lay-

out was presented in Patsiatzis and Papageorgiou (2002). Its ob-

p

s.t. zik = 1, 1 ≤ i ≤ n (87)

jective function considers the construction and land costs to de-

k=1

cide the number of ﬂoors and the ﬂoor area. Another model for & &

a processing plant was proposed in Defersha and Chen (2006); it & p &

& &

incorporates many structural and operational issues, but becomes divj = δ & k(zik − z jk )&, 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n

unwieldy.

& k=1 &

A GA is also used in Lee, Roh, and Jeong (2005) to ﬁnd a lay- dihj = |xi − x j | + |yi − y j |, 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n

out with inner walls and passages. The connections between the

departments, passages, and elevators are represented as an adja- diej ≥ dihj , 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n

cency graph, and the distances are calculated using Dijkstra’s al- diej ≥ |xi − x | + |yi − y | + |x j − x | + |y j − y | − MZi j ,

gorithm. This representation allows the measurement of the dis-

tances of paths that use corridors and elevators. The bi-objective 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n, n + 1 ≤ ≤ n + e (88)

model minimizes the total cost of transporting the materials and

maximizes the adjacency achieved. It is applied to a multideck ship Zi j ≥ zik + z jk − 1, 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n, k = 1, . . . , p

layout with inner walls.

Zi j ≤ 1 − zik + z jk , 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n, k = 1, . . . , p

Another bi-objective model is proposed in Hathhorn, Sisikoglu,

and Sir (2013) for a MF-FLP formulation that minimizes not only Zi j ≤ 1 + zik − z jk , 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n, k = 1, . . . , p (89)

the material handling costs (as usual) but also the facility con-

struction costs. This model is similar to the one we present in 1 1 1 1

xi + wi ≤ wF , xi − wi ≥ − wF , 1 ≤ i ≤ n + e

Section 4.2, but a major difference is that the length and width 2 2 2 2

of the facility, the number of elevators, and the number of ﬂoors 1 1 1 1

yi + hi ≤ hF , yi − hi ≥ − hF , 1 ≤ i ≤ n + e (90)

are decision variables. 2 2 2 2

For completeness, we also mention the robust model in

Izadinia, Eshghi, and Salmani (2014) in which some of the usual w i hi = Ai , 1 ≤ i ≤ n

parameters are considered to be uncertain, and the model in Park, w i − β hi ≤ 0 , hi − β w i ≤ 0, 1 ≤ i ≤ n (91)

Koo, Shin, Lee, and Yoon (2011) that takes into account safety dis-

tances in the event of an explosion.

1

xi − x j ≥ (wi + w j ) − wF (1 − Zi j + Xi j + Yi j ), 1 ≤ i < j ≤n+e

2

4.2. A MF-FLP formulation 1

x j − xi ≥ (wi + w j ) − wF (2 − Zi j − Xi j + Yi j ), 1 ≤ i < j ≤n+e

2

We assume that the following parameters are given: the num- 1

yi − y j ≥ (hi + h j ) − hF (2 − Zi j + Xi j − Yi j ), 1 ≤ i < j ≤n+e

ber of departments and their areas, the number of ﬂoors, the di- 2

mensions and height of the ﬂoors, the interconnection costs, and 1

the number and size of the elevators. We consider the elevators to y j − yi ≥ (hi + h j ) − hF (3 − Zi j − Xi j − Yi j ), 1 ≤ i < j ≤n+e

2

be a general system (incorporating elevators, stairs, pipes, etc.) for (92)

vertical movement. We want to determine the locations of the el-

evators and the locations and dimensions of the departments. The

horizontal distance is the rectilinear distance (which is a reliable zik = 1, n + 1 ≤ i ≤ n + e, 1 ≤ k ≤ p

measure, as in the single-ﬂoor case), and the vertical distance will Zi j = 1, n + 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n + e (93)

be measured using the elevators. This makes the formulation com-

plex. The number of ﬂoors and elevators is assumed to be ﬁxed;

Xi j , Yi j , Zi j , zik ∈ {0, 1}, 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n + e, 1 ≤ k ≤ p (94)

if necessary, we could run the model for several different options.

The ﬂoor dimensions are ﬁxed, but they could easily be treated as

decision variables. hi , wi , ≥ 0, 1 ≤ i ≤ n. (95)

M.F. Anjos, M.V.C. Vieira / European Journal of Operational Research 261 (2017) 1–16 13

Constraints (87) allocate each department to exactly one ﬂoor. the symmetry-breaking constraints, they are mostly speciﬁc to the

Constraints (88) compute the distances between each pair of de- problem at hand. A noteworthy exception are the transitivity con-

partments; if two departments are on different ﬂoors, the distance straints, often called triangle inequalities, introduced for the ﬁrst

depends on the elevator position. Constraints (89) set Zi j = 1 if i in this review in the form (1)–(4), and mentioned subsequently

and j are on the same ﬂoor, and 0 otherwise. Constraints (92) pre- throughout, see e.g. constraints (6), (9) and (48). Transitivity can

vent the overlapping of departments and elevators on the same be applied to nearly every variant of the FLP.

ﬂoor. Constraints (89) and (92) have been taken from Patsiatzis For row layout problems, some valid inequalities have been

and Papageorgiou (2002). Constraints (93) ensure that each eleva- proposed for the SRFLP. Proposition 1 contains a description of

tor covers all the ﬂoors and every pair of elevators shares the same valid inequalities, and Amaral and Letchford (2013) presented sev-

ﬂoor. eral large classes of valid inequalities. For the DRFLP, the inequal-

ities (15) in Section 2.2.1 are redundant but may be helpful for a

5. Symmetry-breaking constraints branching algorithm; hence they can be viewed as valid inequali-

ties. However, very little is known with respect to valid inequalities

Many versions of the FLP have symmetric solutions. For exam- for DRFLP and MRFLP.

ple, it is clear that ﬂipping a solution to UA-FLP by 180 degrees Meller et al. (1999) were the ﬁrst to investigate valid inequali-

gives exactly the same solution. This matters because the pres- ties for the UA-FLP. The inequalities reduced the number of nodes

ence of symmetry is often problematic when solving mixed inte- in the branch and bound tree but increased the computational

ger optimization problems. We brieﬂy summarize here the main time. Sherali et al. (2003) determined that the best results were

symmetry-breaking strategies in the literature, primarily from the obtained by incorporating only the B2 and V2 constraints of Meller

point of view of the UA-FLP because this is the problem for which et al. (1999). Using the notation of model (38)–(45), these inequal-

they have most been used. However the strategies can be extended ities are

in a straightforward manner to many of the MILO models dis-

cussed in this review. (B2) ui j ≥ (wmin

i + wmin

j )(zihj + zhji )

One way to break the symmetry in the UA-FLP (Meller et al., (B2) vi j ≥ (hmin

i + hmin

j )(zivj + zvji )

1999) is to require some department k to be located in a spe-

ciﬁc quarter of the facility by adding the pair of constraints xk ≤ (V2) ui j ≥ (wi + w j ) − min{wmax

i + wmax

j , wF }(1 − zihj − zhji )

0.5wF , yk ≤ 0.5hF (where it is assumed that the origin is at the (V2) vi j ≥ (wi + w j ) − min{hmax

i + hmax

j , wF }(1 − zivj − zvji ).

bottom left corner of the facility). This is called the position k

method in Sherali et al. (2003). However, if department k has its These constraints do not reduce the feasible set of the relaxed

centroid located at the facility centroid, then this method does not MILO model because they are redundant, and they do not enforce

work. It is straightforward to extend this method to multirow and the separation of the departments. They are useful in branch and

multiﬂoor layouts. bound algorithms because they improve the lower bounds. In the

An alternative strategy is the position p − k method (Sherali linear relaxation, if

et al., 2003) that considers a given pair of departments p and k zihj , zhji = (wF − wi − w j )/wF and zivj , zvji = (hF − hi − h j )/hF

and requires the centroid of p to be below and to the left of the

centroid of k by adding the following four constraints: then (44) leads to xi ≈ xj , yi ≈ yj , i.e., departments i and j overlap.

h v = 0, and Thus the root lower bound of (38)–(45) is typically zero.

x p ≤ xk , y p ≤ yk , zkp = zkp

Taking this into account, Sherali et al. (2003) model the con-

straint ui j = |xi − x j | in an unusual way. Deﬁne the variables

(xk − x p ) + (yk − y p ) ≥ min{wmin + wmin min

p , hk p }.

+ hmin

k

The departments p and k can be chosen in different ways; a com- 1 if xi ≤ x j ,

tihj =

mon criterion is to choose them to satisfy c pk = maxi, j∈N ci j . It is 0 if xi ≥ x j ,

claimed in Castillo and Westerlund (2005) that simply choosing

where the choice of 0 or 1 is inconsequential when xi = x j . An

departments 1 and 2 works just as well, and there the constraints

x1 − x2 ≥ 0 and y2 − y1 ≥ 0 are used. From Sherali et al. (2003), it upper bound on uij is Ui j = wF − wmin i

− wmin

j

, and it is proved in

is not clear whether the position k method or the position p − k Sherali et al. (2003) that ui j = |xi − x j | can be modeled by

method is better. For the DRFLP, the p − k method was used in

0 ≤ ui j + xi − x j ≤ 2Ui j (1 − ti j ), i < j

Amaral (2013a) with p and k chosen such that c pk = mini, j∈N ci j .

Finally, several classes of hierarchical constraints that are ap- 0 ≤ ui j − xi + x j ) ≤ 2Ui j ti j , i < j

plicable to general symmetric MILO problems were considered in ti j ∈ {0, 1}, i < j.

Sherali and Smith (2001) for the UA-FLP. Those authors study the

A similar set of inequalities exists for vi j = |yi − y j |.

effect of one such class of constraints:

An alternative set of nonoverlapping constraints is proposed in

n

n

Sherali et al. (2003):

4 ixi ≤ n(n + 1 )wF , 4 yi ≤ n ( n + 1 )hF .

i=1 i=1 xi − x j ≥ wi + w j − Mi j (1 − zihj )

They ﬁnd that these constraints can break the symmetry effec- yi − y j ≥ hi + h j − Mi j (1 − zivj )

tively, but their dense structure renders the CPLEX enumeration

procedure relatively ineffective. − (wF − wmin

i − wmin

j ) ≤ xi − x j ≤ wF − wmin

i − wmin

j

− (hF − hmin

i − hmin

j ) ≤ yi − y j ≤ hF − hmin

i − hmin

j

6. Valid inequalities

wmin

i + wmin

j ≤ wi + w j ≤ wmax

i + wmax

j

As already mentioned, valid inequalities are essential for solv-

hmin

i + hmin

j ≤ hi + h j ≤ hmax

i + hmax

j

ing mathematical optimization models eﬃciently in practice, espe-

cially MILO problems. In this Section we gather a number of valid zihj + zhji + zivj + zvji = 1

inequalities used in the literature to improve MILO models. As in

zihj(v ) ∈ {0, 1}.

Section 5, these results are mostly about the UA-FLP, but unlike

14 M.F. Anjos, M.V.C. Vieira / European Journal of Operational Research 261 (2017) 1–16

They construct a convex-hull representation of the above con- Section 4.2 that we hope will gain acceptance in the community

straint set in a higher dimensional space. This convex hull can also and will motivate further research into this most challenging

be derived using the reformulation-linearization technique (RLT) version of facility layout. At the very least, we hope that this

of Sherali, Adams, and Driscoll (1998). Because of the size of this review prompts a discussion of the assumptions that should be

representation, they use it for just one pair of departments, the made in deﬁning a standard version of the problem. This could

positively interacting (nonﬁxed) pair with the largest total area. then lead not only to the development of novel models and

Using this, together with constraints (B2) and (V2), symmetry- solution techniques, including classes of valid inequalities, but also

breaking constraints (see Section 5), and a new branching priority to more effective comparisons of them, which is essential to help

rule, Sherali et al. (2003) solve instances with up to 9 departments the research community make further progress on this diﬃcult

to global optimality. Meller et al. (2007) use inequalities (B2) and but important problem.

(V2) in the context of the sequence-pair representation formula- Finally, symmetry remains a key issue for the computational so-

tion, plus symmetry-breaking constraints, and the same branch- lution of FLPs. General methods for handling symmetry in MILO,

ing priority rule to solve instances with 11 departments within 24 such as isomorphism pruning (Margot, 20 02; 20 03) and orbital

hours. branching (Ostrowski, Linderoth, Rossi, & Smriglio, 2009), have

Finally, symmetry-avoidance constraints and a tightening of the proven advantageous for general problems with general symme-

nonoverlapping constraints via try groups. Problem-speciﬁc techniques have also been proposed,

e.g. orbitopal ﬁxing (Kaibel, Peinhardt, & Pfetsch, 2011; Kaibel &

1

(wi + w j ) − ui j ≤ wF Xi j , 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n Pfetsch, 2008) is an eﬃcient way to break symmetry in bin packing

2

problems, and modiﬁed orbital branching was show to be effective

1

(hi + h j ) − vi j ≤ hF (1 − Xi j ), 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n for for problems with structured symmetry via the unit commit-

2 ment problem (Anjos, 2013; Ostrowski, Anjos, & Vannelli, 2015). It

are used in Castillo and Westerlund (2005). Note that these are the remains to be seen how these results may have an impact for the

same as (B2) and (V2). solution of certain classes of facility layout.

Acknowledgment

Facility layout continues to be the focus of much research, as

evidenced for example in the bibliography of this review that The authors are grateful to the anonymous reviewers for their

includes more than 30 research articles published since 2010. careful reading of an earlier version of this paper, and for their

We covered three classes of layout problems, namely row lay- helpful feedback that allowed us to markedly improve the paper.

out, unequal-areas layout, and multiﬂoor layout, primarily from the Anjos’s research was partially supported by the Natural Sciences

perspective of mathematical optimization techniques, mostly MILO and Engineering Research Council of Canada (Discovery Grant

and SDO. 312125). Vieira’s research was partially supported by the Fundação

Within row layout problems, the single-row FLP is the one most para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (Portuguese Foundation for Science

studied in the literature, and major progress has been achieved in and Technology) through the project PEstOE/MAT/UI0297/2014

recent years since the ﬁrst papers that modeled and solved this (Centro de Matemática e Aplicações).

problem using SDO (Anjos et al., 2005; Anjos & Vannelli, 2008).

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