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Plant Biology

Subject : Plant Biology


Introduction
1. Plant Biology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. What is a plant? - Answer (click here)
3. Unifying features of plants - Answer (click here)

The plant cell


1. Plant Biology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. What is a plant? - Answer (click here)
3. Unifying features of plants - Answer (click here)
4. Structure of the plant cell - Answer (click here)

Structure
1. Plant Biology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. What is a plant? - Answer (click here)
3. Unifying features of plants - Answer (click here)
4. Structure of the plant cell - Answer (click here)
5. Structure of Plant cell wall - Answer (click here)
6. Structure of Plant cell Plastids and mitochondria - Answer (click here)
7. Structure of Plant cell Membranes - Answer (click here)
8. Structure of Plant Nucleus and genome - Answer (click here)
9. Plant Cell division - Answer (click here)
10. Vegetative anatomy of Meristems and primary tissues - Answer (click here)

Vegetative anatomy
1. Plant Biology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. What is a plant? - Answer (click here)
3. Unifying features of plants - Answer (click here)
4. Structure of the plant cell - Answer (click here)
5. Structure of Plant cell wall - Answer (click here)
6. Structure of Plant cell Plastids and mitochondria - Answer (click here)
7. Structure of Plant cell Membranes - Answer (click here)
8. Structure of Plant Nucleus and genome - Answer (click here)
9. Plant Cell division - Answer (click here)
10. Vegetative anatomy of Meristems and primary tissues - Answer (click here)
11. Vegetative anatomy of Roots - Answer (click here)
12. Vegetative anatomy of Herbaceous stems and primary growth - Answer
(click here)
13. Vegetative anatomy of Woody stems and secondary growth - Answer
(click here)
14. Vegetative anatomy of Leaves - Answer (click here)

Reproductive anatomy
1. Plant Biology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. What is a plant? - Answer (click here)
3. Unifying features of plants - Answer (click here)
4. Structure of the plant cell - Answer (click here)
5. Structure of Plant cell wall - Answer (click here)
6. Structure of Plant cell Plastids and mitochondria - Answer (click here)
7. Structure of Plant cell Membranes - Answer (click here)
8. Structure of Plant Nucleus and genome - Answer (click here)
9. Plant Cell division - Answer (click here)
10. Vegetative anatomy of Meristems and primary tissues - Answer (click here)
11. Vegetative anatomy of Roots - Answer (click here)
12. Vegetative anatomy of Herbaceous stems and primary growth - Answer
(click here)
13. Vegetative anatomy of Woody stems and secondary growth - Answer
(click here)
14. Vegetative anatomy of Leaves - Answer (click here)
15. Reproductive anatomy of flower - Answer (click here)
16. Reproductive anatomy of Pollen and ovules - Answer (click here)
17. Reproductive anatomy of the seed - Answer (click here)
18. Reproductive anatomy of Fruits - Answer (click here)

Physiology and regulation


1. Plant Biology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. What is a plant? - Answer (click here)
3. Unifying features of plants - Answer (click here)
4. Structure of the plant cell - Answer (click here)
5. Structure of Plant cell wall - Answer (click here)
6. Structure of Plant cell Plastids and mitochondria - Answer (click here)
7. Structure of Plant cell Membranes - Answer (click here)
8. Structure of Plant Nucleus and genome - Answer (click here)
9. Plant Cell division - Answer (click here)
10. Vegetative anatomy of Meristems and primary tissues - Answer (click here)
11. Vegetative anatomy of Roots - Answer (click here)
12. Vegetative anatomy of Herbaceous stems and primary growth - Answer
(click here)
13. Vegetative anatomy of Woody stems and secondary growth - Answer
(click here)
14. Vegetative anatomy of Leaves - Answer (click here)
15. Reproductive anatomy of flower - Answer (click here)
16. Reproductive anatomy of Pollen and ovules - Answer (click here)
17. Reproductive anatomy of the seed - Answer (click here)
18. Reproductive anatomy of Fruits - Answer (click here)
19. Arabidopsis and other model plants - Physiology and regulation - Answer
(click here)
20. Methods in experimental plant science - Physiology and regulation -
Answer (click here)

Growth and development


1. Plant Biology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. What is a plant? - Answer (click here)
3. Unifying features of plants - Answer (click here)
4. Structure of the plant cell - Answer (click here)
5. Structure of Plant cell wall - Answer (click here)
6. Structure of Plant cell Plastids and mitochondria - Answer (click here)
7. Structure of Plant cell Membranes - Answer (click here)
8. Structure of Plant Nucleus and genome - Answer (click here)
9. Plant Cell division - Answer (click here)
10. Vegetative anatomy of Meristems and primary tissues - Answer (click here)
11. Vegetative anatomy of Roots - Answer (click here)
12. Vegetative anatomy of Herbaceous stems and primary growth - Answer
(click here)
13. Vegetative anatomy of Woody stems and secondary growth - Answer
(click here)
14. Vegetative anatomy of Leaves - Answer (click here)
15. Reproductive anatomy of flower - Answer (click here)
16. Reproductive anatomy of Pollen and ovules - Answer (click here)
17. Reproductive anatomy of the seed - Answer (click here)
18. Reproductive anatomy of Fruits - Answer (click here)
19. Arabidopsis and other model plants - Physiology and regulation - Answer
(click here)
20. Methods in experimental plant science - Physiology and regulation -
Answer (click here)
21. Features of Plant growth and development - Answer (click here)
22. Biochemistry of plant growth regulation - Answer (click here)
23. Auxins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
24. Ethylene: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
25. Gibberellins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
26. Cytokinins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
27. Abscisic acid: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
28. Molecular action of hormones and intracellular messengers - Answer (click
here)

Sensing and responding to the environment


1. Plant Biology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. What is a plant? - Answer (click here)
3. Unifying features of plants - Answer (click here)
4. Structure of the plant cell - Answer (click here)
5. Structure of Plant cell wall - Answer (click here)
6. Structure of Plant cell Plastids and mitochondria - Answer (click here)
7. Structure of Plant cell Membranes - Answer (click here)
8. Structure of Plant Nucleus and genome - Answer (click here)
9. Plant Cell division - Answer (click here)
10. Vegetative anatomy of Meristems and primary tissues - Answer (click here)
11. Vegetative anatomy of Roots - Answer (click here)
12. Vegetative anatomy of Herbaceous stems and primary growth - Answer
(click here)
13. Vegetative anatomy of Woody stems and secondary growth - Answer
(click here)
14. Vegetative anatomy of Leaves - Answer (click here)
15. Reproductive anatomy of flower - Answer (click here)
16. Reproductive anatomy of Pollen and ovules - Answer (click here)
17. Reproductive anatomy of the seed - Answer (click here)
18. Reproductive anatomy of Fruits - Answer (click here)
19. Arabidopsis and other model plants - Physiology and regulation - Answer
(click here)
20. Methods in experimental plant science - Physiology and regulation -
Answer (click here)
21. Features of Plant growth and development - Answer (click here)
22. Biochemistry of plant growth regulation - Answer (click here)
23. Auxins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
24. Ethylene: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
25. Gibberellins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
26. Cytokinins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
27. Abscisic acid: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
28. Molecular action of hormones and intracellular messengers - Answer (click
here)
29. Phytochrome, photoperiodism and photomorphogenesis - Answer (click
here)
30. Tropisms - Answer (click here)
31. Nastic responses - Answer (click here)
32. Abscission - Answer (click here)
33. Stress avoidance and adaptation - Answer (click here)

Floral development and reproductive physiology


1. Plant Biology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. What is a plant? - Answer (click here)
3. Unifying features of plants - Answer (click here)
4. Structure of the plant cell - Answer (click here)
5. Structure of Plant cell wall - Answer (click here)
6. Structure of Plant cell Plastids and mitochondria - Answer (click here)
7. Structure of Plant cell Membranes - Answer (click here)
8. Structure of Plant Nucleus and genome - Answer (click here)
9. Plant Cell division - Answer (click here)
10. Vegetative anatomy of Meristems and primary tissues - Answer (click here)
11. Vegetative anatomy of Roots - Answer (click here)
12. Vegetative anatomy of Herbaceous stems and primary growth - Answer
(click here)
13. Vegetative anatomy of Woody stems and secondary growth - Answer
(click here)
14. Vegetative anatomy of Leaves - Answer (click here)
15. Reproductive anatomy of flower - Answer (click here)
16. Reproductive anatomy of Pollen and ovules - Answer (click here)
17. Reproductive anatomy of the seed - Answer (click here)
18. Reproductive anatomy of Fruits - Answer (click here)
19. Arabidopsis and other model plants - Physiology and regulation - Answer
(click here)
20. Methods in experimental plant science - Physiology and regulation -
Answer (click here)
21. Features of Plant growth and development - Answer (click here)
22. Biochemistry of plant growth regulation - Answer (click here)
23. Auxins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
24. Ethylene: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
25. Gibberellins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
26. Cytokinins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
27. Abscisic acid: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
28. Molecular action of hormones and intracellular messengers - Answer (click
here)
29. Phytochrome, photoperiodism and photomorphogenesis - Answer (click
here)
30. Tropisms - Answer (click here)
31. Nastic responses - Answer (click here)
32. Abscission - Answer (click here)
33. Stress avoidance and adaptation - Answer (click here)
34. Plant Physiology of floral initiation and development - Answer (click here)
35. Plant Breeding systems - Answer (click here)
36. Plant Self incompatibility and its Types - Answer (click here)
37. Seed development, dormancy and germination - Answer (click here)

Plants water and mineral nutrition


1. Plant Biology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. What is a plant? - Answer (click here)
3. Unifying features of plants - Answer (click here)
4. Structure of the plant cell - Answer (click here)
5. Structure of Plant cell wall - Answer (click here)
6. Structure of Plant cell Plastids and mitochondria - Answer (click here)
7. Structure of Plant cell Membranes - Answer (click here)
8. Structure of Plant Nucleus and genome - Answer (click here)
9. Plant Cell division - Answer (click here)
10. Vegetative anatomy of Meristems and primary tissues - Answer (click here)
11. Vegetative anatomy of Roots - Answer (click here)
12. Vegetative anatomy of Herbaceous stems and primary growth - Answer
(click here)
13. Vegetative anatomy of Woody stems and secondary growth - Answer
(click here)
14. Vegetative anatomy of Leaves - Answer (click here)
15. Reproductive anatomy of flower - Answer (click here)
16. Reproductive anatomy of Pollen and ovules - Answer (click here)
17. Reproductive anatomy of the seed - Answer (click here)
18. Reproductive anatomy of Fruits - Answer (click here)
19. Arabidopsis and other model plants - Physiology and regulation - Answer
(click here)
20. Methods in experimental plant science - Physiology and regulation -
Answer (click here)
21. Features of Plant growth and development - Answer (click here)
22. Biochemistry of plant growth regulation - Answer (click here)
23. Auxins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
24. Ethylene: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
25. Gibberellins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
26. Cytokinins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
27. Abscisic acid: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
28. Molecular action of hormones and intracellular messengers - Answer (click
here)
29. Phytochrome, photoperiodism and photomorphogenesis - Answer (click
here)
30. Tropisms - Answer (click here)
31. Nastic responses - Answer (click here)
32. Abscission - Answer (click here)
33. Stress avoidance and adaptation - Answer (click here)
34. Plant Physiology of floral initiation and development - Answer (click here)
35. Plant Breeding systems - Answer (click here)
36. Plant Self incompatibility and its Types - Answer (click here)
37. Seed development, dormancy and germination - Answer (click here)
38. Plants and water - Answer (click here)
39. Water retention and stomata - Answer (click here)
40. Movement of nutrient ions across membranes in plant - Answer (click here)
41. Uptake of mineral nutrients by plants - Answer (click here)
42. Functions of mineral nutrients - Answer (click here)

Metabolism
1. Plant Biology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. What is a plant? - Answer (click here)
3. Unifying features of plants - Answer (click here)
4. Structure of the plant cell - Answer (click here)
5. Structure of Plant cell wall - Answer (click here)
6. Structure of Plant cell Plastids and mitochondria - Answer (click here)
7. Structure of Plant cell Membranes - Answer (click here)
8. Structure of Plant Nucleus and genome - Answer (click here)
9. Plant Cell division - Answer (click here)
10. Vegetative anatomy of Meristems and primary tissues - Answer (click here)
11. Vegetative anatomy of Roots - Answer (click here)
12. Vegetative anatomy of Herbaceous stems and primary growth - Answer
(click here)
13. Vegetative anatomy of Woody stems and secondary growth - Answer
(click here)
14. Vegetative anatomy of Leaves - Answer (click here)
15. Reproductive anatomy of flower - Answer (click here)
16. Reproductive anatomy of Pollen and ovules - Answer (click here)
17. Reproductive anatomy of the seed - Answer (click here)
18. Reproductive anatomy of Fruits - Answer (click here)
19. Arabidopsis and other model plants - Physiology and regulation - Answer
(click here)
20. Methods in experimental plant science - Physiology and regulation -
Answer (click here)
21. Features of Plant growth and development - Answer (click here)
22. Biochemistry of plant growth regulation - Answer (click here)
23. Auxins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
24. Ethylene: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
25. Gibberellins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
26. Cytokinins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
27. Abscisic acid: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
28. Molecular action of hormones and intracellular messengers - Answer (click
here)
29. Phytochrome, photoperiodism and photomorphogenesis - Answer (click
here)
30. Tropisms - Answer (click here)
31. Nastic responses - Answer (click here)
32. Abscission - Answer (click here)
33. Stress avoidance and adaptation - Answer (click here)
34. Plant Physiology of floral initiation and development - Answer (click here)
35. Plant Breeding systems - Answer (click here)
36. Plant Self incompatibility and its Types - Answer (click here)
37. Seed development, dormancy and germination - Answer (click here)
38. Plants and water - Answer (click here)
39. Water retention and stomata - Answer (click here)
40. Movement of nutrient ions across membranes in plant - Answer (click here)
41. Uptake of mineral nutrients by plants - Answer (click here)
42. Functions of mineral nutrients - Answer (click here)
43. Photosynthetic pigments and the nature of light - Answer (click here)
44. Major reactions of photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
45. C3 and C4 plants and CAM - Answer (click here)
46. Respiration and carbohydrate metabolism - Answer (click here)
47. Amino acid, lipid, polysaccharide and secondary product metabolism -
Answer (click here)

Plant communities and populations


1. Plant Biology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. What is a plant? - Answer (click here)
3. Unifying features of plants - Answer (click here)
4. Structure of the plant cell - Answer (click here)
5. Structure of Plant cell wall - Answer (click here)
6. Structure of Plant cell Plastids and mitochondria - Answer (click here)
7. Structure of Plant cell Membranes - Answer (click here)
8. Structure of Plant Nucleus and genome - Answer (click here)
9. Plant Cell division - Answer (click here)
10. Vegetative anatomy of Meristems and primary tissues - Answer (click here)
11. Vegetative anatomy of Roots - Answer (click here)
12. Vegetative anatomy of Herbaceous stems and primary growth - Answer
(click here)
13. Vegetative anatomy of Woody stems and secondary growth - Answer
(click here)
14. Vegetative anatomy of Leaves - Answer (click here)
15. Reproductive anatomy of flower - Answer (click here)
16. Reproductive anatomy of Pollen and ovules - Answer (click here)
17. Reproductive anatomy of the seed - Answer (click here)
18. Reproductive anatomy of Fruits - Answer (click here)
19. Arabidopsis and other model plants - Physiology and regulation - Answer
(click here)
20. Methods in experimental plant science - Physiology and regulation -
Answer (click here)
21. Features of Plant growth and development - Answer (click here)
22. Biochemistry of plant growth regulation - Answer (click here)
23. Auxins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
24. Ethylene: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
25. Gibberellins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
26. Cytokinins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
27. Abscisic acid: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
28. Molecular action of hormones and intracellular messengers - Answer (click
here)
29. Phytochrome, photoperiodism and photomorphogenesis - Answer (click
here)
30. Tropisms - Answer (click here)
31. Nastic responses - Answer (click here)
32. Abscission - Answer (click here)
33. Stress avoidance and adaptation - Answer (click here)
34. Plant Physiology of floral initiation and development - Answer (click here)
35. Plant Breeding systems - Answer (click here)
36. Plant Self incompatibility and its Types - Answer (click here)
37. Seed development, dormancy and germination - Answer (click here)
38. Plants and water - Answer (click here)
39. Water retention and stomata - Answer (click here)
40. Movement of nutrient ions across membranes in plant - Answer (click here)
41. Uptake of mineral nutrients by plants - Answer (click here)
42. Functions of mineral nutrients - Answer (click here)
43. Photosynthetic pigments and the nature of light - Answer (click here)
44. Major reactions of photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
45. C3 and C4 plants and CAM - Answer (click here)
46. Respiration and carbohydrate metabolism - Answer (click here)
47. Amino acid, lipid, polysaccharide and secondary product metabolism -
Answer (click here)
48. Physical factors and plant distribution - Answer (click here)
49. Plant communities - Answer (click here)
50. Ecology of different growth forms - Answer (click here)
51. Plant Populations - Answer (click here)
52. Contributions to carbon balance and atmosphere - Answer (click here)

Reproductive ecology
1. Plant Biology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. What is a plant? - Answer (click here)
3. Unifying features of plants - Answer (click here)
4. Structure of the plant cell - Answer (click here)
5. Structure of Plant cell wall - Answer (click here)
6. Structure of Plant cell Plastids and mitochondria - Answer (click here)
7. Structure of Plant cell Membranes - Answer (click here)
8. Structure of Plant Nucleus and genome - Answer (click here)
9. Plant Cell division - Answer (click here)
10. Vegetative anatomy of Meristems and primary tissues - Answer (click here)
11. Vegetative anatomy of Roots - Answer (click here)
12. Vegetative anatomy of Herbaceous stems and primary growth - Answer
(click here)
13. Vegetative anatomy of Woody stems and secondary growth - Answer
(click here)
14. Vegetative anatomy of Leaves - Answer (click here)
15. Reproductive anatomy of flower - Answer (click here)
16. Reproductive anatomy of Pollen and ovules - Answer (click here)
17. Reproductive anatomy of the seed - Answer (click here)
18. Reproductive anatomy of Fruits - Answer (click here)
19. Arabidopsis and other model plants - Physiology and regulation - Answer
(click here)
20. Methods in experimental plant science - Physiology and regulation -
Answer (click here)
21. Features of Plant growth and development - Answer (click here)
22. Biochemistry of plant growth regulation - Answer (click here)
23. Auxins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
24. Ethylene: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
25. Gibberellins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
26. Cytokinins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
27. Abscisic acid: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
28. Molecular action of hormones and intracellular messengers - Answer (click
here)
29. Phytochrome, photoperiodism and photomorphogenesis - Answer (click
here)
30. Tropisms - Answer (click here)
31. Nastic responses - Answer (click here)
32. Abscission - Answer (click here)
33. Stress avoidance and adaptation - Answer (click here)
34. Plant Physiology of floral initiation and development - Answer (click here)
35. Plant Breeding systems - Answer (click here)
36. Plant Self incompatibility and its Types - Answer (click here)
37. Seed development, dormancy and germination - Answer (click here)
38. Plants and water - Answer (click here)
39. Water retention and stomata - Answer (click here)
40. Movement of nutrient ions across membranes in plant - Answer (click here)
41. Uptake of mineral nutrients by plants - Answer (click here)
42. Functions of mineral nutrients - Answer (click here)
43. Photosynthetic pigments and the nature of light - Answer (click here)
44. Major reactions of photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
45. C3 and C4 plants and CAM - Answer (click here)
46. Respiration and carbohydrate metabolism - Answer (click here)
47. Amino acid, lipid, polysaccharide and secondary product metabolism -
Answer (click here)
48. Physical factors and plant distribution - Answer (click here)
49. Plant communities - Answer (click here)
50. Ecology of different growth forms - Answer (click here)
51. Plant Populations - Answer (click here)
52. Contributions to carbon balance and atmosphere - Answer (click here)
53. Ecology of flowering and pollination - Answer (click here)
54. Seed ecology - Answer (click here)
55. Regeneration and establishment - Answer (click here)
56. Polymorphisms and population genetics - Answer (click here)

Interactions between plants and other organisms


1. Plant Biology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. What is a plant? - Answer (click here)
3. Unifying features of plants - Answer (click here)
4. Structure of the plant cell - Answer (click here)
5. Structure of Plant cell wall - Answer (click here)
6. Structure of Plant cell Plastids and mitochondria - Answer (click here)
7. Structure of Plant cell Membranes - Answer (click here)
8. Structure of Plant Nucleus and genome - Answer (click here)
9. Plant Cell division - Answer (click here)
10. Vegetative anatomy of Meristems and primary tissues - Answer (click here)
11. Vegetative anatomy of Roots - Answer (click here)
12. Vegetative anatomy of Herbaceous stems and primary growth - Answer
(click here)
13. Vegetative anatomy of Woody stems and secondary growth - Answer
(click here)
14. Vegetative anatomy of Leaves - Answer (click here)
15. Reproductive anatomy of flower - Answer (click here)
16. Reproductive anatomy of Pollen and ovules - Answer (click here)
17. Reproductive anatomy of the seed - Answer (click here)
18. Reproductive anatomy of Fruits - Answer (click here)
19. Arabidopsis and other model plants - Physiology and regulation - Answer
(click here)
20. Methods in experimental plant science - Physiology and regulation -
Answer (click here)
21. Features of Plant growth and development - Answer (click here)
22. Biochemistry of plant growth regulation - Answer (click here)
23. Auxins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
24. Ethylene: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
25. Gibberellins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
26. Cytokinins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
27. Abscisic acid: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
28. Molecular action of hormones and intracellular messengers - Answer (click
here)
29. Phytochrome, photoperiodism and photomorphogenesis - Answer (click
here)
30. Tropisms - Answer (click here)
31. Nastic responses - Answer (click here)
32. Abscission - Answer (click here)
33. Stress avoidance and adaptation - Answer (click here)
34. Plant Physiology of floral initiation and development - Answer (click here)
35. Plant Breeding systems - Answer (click here)
36. Plant Self incompatibility and its Types - Answer (click here)
37. Seed development, dormancy and germination - Answer (click here)
38. Plants and water - Answer (click here)
39. Water retention and stomata - Answer (click here)
40. Movement of nutrient ions across membranes in plant - Answer (click here)
41. Uptake of mineral nutrients by plants - Answer (click here)
42. Functions of mineral nutrients - Answer (click here)
43. Photosynthetic pigments and the nature of light - Answer (click here)
44. Major reactions of photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
45. C3 and C4 plants and CAM - Answer (click here)
46. Respiration and carbohydrate metabolism - Answer (click here)
47. Amino acid, lipid, polysaccharide and secondary product metabolism -
Answer (click here)
48. Physical factors and plant distribution - Answer (click here)
49. Plant communities - Answer (click here)
50. Ecology of different growth forms - Answer (click here)
51. Plant Populations - Answer (click here)
52. Contributions to carbon balance and atmosphere - Answer (click here)
53. Ecology of flowering and pollination - Answer (click here)
54. Seed ecology - Answer (click here)
55. Regeneration and establishment - Answer (click here)
56. Polymorphisms and population genetics - Answer (click here)
57. Mycorrhiza - Answer (click here)
58. Nitrogen fixation in Plant Biology - Answer (click here)
59. Interactions between plants and animals - Answer (click here)
60. Fungal pathogens and endophytes - Answer (click here)
61. Bacteria, mycoplasma, viruses and heterokonts - Answer (click here)
62. Parasites and saprophytes - Answer (click here)
63. Carnivorous plants - Answer (click here)

Human uses of plants


1. Plant Biology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. What is a plant? - Answer (click here)
3. Unifying features of plants - Answer (click here)
4. Structure of the plant cell - Answer (click here)
5. Structure of Plant cell wall - Answer (click here)
6. Structure of Plant cell Plastids and mitochondria - Answer (click here)
7. Structure of Plant cell Membranes - Answer (click here)
8. Structure of Plant Nucleus and genome - Answer (click here)
9. Plant Cell division - Answer (click here)
10. Vegetative anatomy of Meristems and primary tissues - Answer (click here)
11. Vegetative anatomy of Roots - Answer (click here)
12. Vegetative anatomy of Herbaceous stems and primary growth - Answer
(click here)
13. Vegetative anatomy of Woody stems and secondary growth - Answer
(click here)
14. Vegetative anatomy of Leaves - Answer (click here)
15. Reproductive anatomy of flower - Answer (click here)
16. Reproductive anatomy of Pollen and ovules - Answer (click here)
17. Reproductive anatomy of the seed - Answer (click here)
18. Reproductive anatomy of Fruits - Answer (click here)
19. Arabidopsis and other model plants - Physiology and regulation - Answer
(click here)
20. Methods in experimental plant science - Physiology and regulation -
Answer (click here)
21. Features of Plant growth and development - Answer (click here)
22. Biochemistry of plant growth regulation - Answer (click here)
23. Auxins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
24. Ethylene: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
25. Gibberellins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
26. Cytokinins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
27. Abscisic acid: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
28. Molecular action of hormones and intracellular messengers - Answer (click
here)
29. Phytochrome, photoperiodism and photomorphogenesis - Answer (click
here)
30. Tropisms - Answer (click here)
31. Nastic responses - Answer (click here)
32. Abscission - Answer (click here)
33. Stress avoidance and adaptation - Answer (click here)
34. Plant Physiology of floral initiation and development - Answer (click here)
35. Plant Breeding systems - Answer (click here)
36. Plant Self incompatibility and its Types - Answer (click here)
37. Seed development, dormancy and germination - Answer (click here)
38. Plants and water - Answer (click here)
39. Water retention and stomata - Answer (click here)
40. Movement of nutrient ions across membranes in plant - Answer (click here)
41. Uptake of mineral nutrients by plants - Answer (click here)
42. Functions of mineral nutrients - Answer (click here)
43. Photosynthetic pigments and the nature of light - Answer (click here)
44. Major reactions of photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
45. C3 and C4 plants and CAM - Answer (click here)
46. Respiration and carbohydrate metabolism - Answer (click here)
47. Amino acid, lipid, polysaccharide and secondary product metabolism -
Answer (click here)
48. Physical factors and plant distribution - Answer (click here)
49. Plant communities - Answer (click here)
50. Ecology of different growth forms - Answer (click here)
51. Plant Populations - Answer (click here)
52. Contributions to carbon balance and atmosphere - Answer (click here)
53. Ecology of flowering and pollination - Answer (click here)
54. Seed ecology - Answer (click here)
55. Regeneration and establishment - Answer (click here)
56. Polymorphisms and population genetics - Answer (click here)
57. Mycorrhiza - Answer (click here)
58. Nitrogen fixation in Plant Biology - Answer (click here)
59. Interactions between plants and animals - Answer (click here)
60. Fungal pathogens and endophytes - Answer (click here)
61. Bacteria, mycoplasma, viruses and heterokonts - Answer (click here)
62. Parasites and saprophytes - Answer (click here)
63. Carnivorous plants - Answer (click here)
64. Plants as food - Answer (click here)
65. Uses of Plants for construction - Answer (click here)
66. Uses of Plants in medicine - Answer (click here)
67. Uses of Plants: Uses of secondary compounds, Plants as symbols,
Horticulture - Answer (click here)
68. Bioremediation - Answer (click here)

Plant genetic engineering and biotechnology


1. Plant Biology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. What is a plant? - Answer (click here)
3. Unifying features of plants - Answer (click here)
4. Structure of the plant cell - Answer (click here)
5. Structure of Plant cell wall - Answer (click here)
6. Structure of Plant cell Plastids and mitochondria - Answer (click here)
7. Structure of Plant cell Membranes - Answer (click here)
8. Structure of Plant Nucleus and genome - Answer (click here)
9. Plant Cell division - Answer (click here)
10. Vegetative anatomy of Meristems and primary tissues - Answer (click here)
11. Vegetative anatomy of Roots - Answer (click here)
12. Vegetative anatomy of Herbaceous stems and primary growth - Answer
(click here)
13. Vegetative anatomy of Woody stems and secondary growth - Answer
(click here)
14. Vegetative anatomy of Leaves - Answer (click here)
15. Reproductive anatomy of flower - Answer (click here)
16. Reproductive anatomy of Pollen and ovules - Answer (click here)
17. Reproductive anatomy of the seed - Answer (click here)
18. Reproductive anatomy of Fruits - Answer (click here)
19. Arabidopsis and other model plants - Physiology and regulation - Answer
(click here)
20. Methods in experimental plant science - Physiology and regulation -
Answer (click here)
21. Features of Plant growth and development - Answer (click here)
22. Biochemistry of plant growth regulation - Answer (click here)
23. Auxins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
24. Ethylene: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
25. Gibberellins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
26. Cytokinins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
27. Abscisic acid: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
28. Molecular action of hormones and intracellular messengers - Answer (click
here)
29. Phytochrome, photoperiodism and photomorphogenesis - Answer (click
here)
30. Tropisms - Answer (click here)
31. Nastic responses - Answer (click here)
32. Abscission - Answer (click here)
33. Stress avoidance and adaptation - Answer (click here)
34. Plant Physiology of floral initiation and development - Answer (click here)
35. Plant Breeding systems - Answer (click here)
36. Plant Self incompatibility and its Types - Answer (click here)
37. Seed development, dormancy and germination - Answer (click here)
38. Plants and water - Answer (click here)
39. Water retention and stomata - Answer (click here)
40. Movement of nutrient ions across membranes in plant - Answer (click here)
41. Uptake of mineral nutrients by plants - Answer (click here)
42. Functions of mineral nutrients - Answer (click here)
43. Photosynthetic pigments and the nature of light - Answer (click here)
44. Major reactions of photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
45. C3 and C4 plants and CAM - Answer (click here)
46. Respiration and carbohydrate metabolism - Answer (click here)
47. Amino acid, lipid, polysaccharide and secondary product metabolism -
Answer (click here)
48. Physical factors and plant distribution - Answer (click here)
49. Plant communities - Answer (click here)
50. Ecology of different growth forms - Answer (click here)
51. Plant Populations - Answer (click here)
52. Contributions to carbon balance and atmosphere - Answer (click here)
53. Ecology of flowering and pollination - Answer (click here)
54. Seed ecology - Answer (click here)
55. Regeneration and establishment - Answer (click here)
56. Polymorphisms and population genetics - Answer (click here)
57. Mycorrhiza - Answer (click here)
58. Nitrogen fixation in Plant Biology - Answer (click here)
59. Interactions between plants and animals - Answer (click here)
60. Fungal pathogens and endophytes - Answer (click here)
61. Bacteria, mycoplasma, viruses and heterokonts - Answer (click here)
62. Parasites and saprophytes - Answer (click here)
63. Carnivorous plants - Answer (click here)
64. Plants as food - Answer (click here)
65. Uses of Plants for construction - Answer (click here)
66. Uses of Plants in medicine - Answer (click here)
67. Uses of Plants: Uses of secondary compounds, Plants as symbols,
Horticulture - Answer (click here)
68. Bioremediation - Answer (click here)
69. Plant breeding - Answer (click here)
70. Plant cell and tissue culture - Answer (click here)
71. Plant genetic engineering - Answer (click here)

Plant diversity
1. Plant Biology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. What is a plant? - Answer (click here)
3. Unifying features of plants - Answer (click here)
4. Structure of the plant cell - Answer (click here)
5. Structure of Plant cell wall - Answer (click here)
6. Structure of Plant cell Plastids and mitochondria - Answer (click here)
7. Structure of Plant cell Membranes - Answer (click here)
8. Structure of Plant Nucleus and genome - Answer (click here)
9. Plant Cell division - Answer (click here)
10. Vegetative anatomy of Meristems and primary tissues - Answer (click here)
11. Vegetative anatomy of Roots - Answer (click here)
12. Vegetative anatomy of Herbaceous stems and primary growth - Answer
(click here)
13. Vegetative anatomy of Woody stems and secondary growth - Answer
(click here)
14. Vegetative anatomy of Leaves - Answer (click here)
15. Reproductive anatomy of flower - Answer (click here)
16. Reproductive anatomy of Pollen and ovules - Answer (click here)
17. Reproductive anatomy of the seed - Answer (click here)
18. Reproductive anatomy of Fruits - Answer (click here)
19. Arabidopsis and other model plants - Physiology and regulation - Answer
(click here)
20. Methods in experimental plant science - Physiology and regulation -
Answer (click here)
21. Features of Plant growth and development - Answer (click here)
22. Biochemistry of plant growth regulation - Answer (click here)
23. Auxins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
24. Ethylene: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
25. Gibberellins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
26. Cytokinins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
27. Abscisic acid: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
28. Molecular action of hormones and intracellular messengers - Answer (click
here)
29. Phytochrome, photoperiodism and photomorphogenesis - Answer (click
here)
30. Tropisms - Answer (click here)
31. Nastic responses - Answer (click here)
32. Abscission - Answer (click here)
33. Stress avoidance and adaptation - Answer (click here)
34. Plant Physiology of floral initiation and development - Answer (click here)
35. Plant Breeding systems - Answer (click here)
36. Plant Self incompatibility and its Types - Answer (click here)
37. Seed development, dormancy and germination - Answer (click here)
38. Plants and water - Answer (click here)
39. Water retention and stomata - Answer (click here)
40. Movement of nutrient ions across membranes in plant - Answer (click here)
41. Uptake of mineral nutrients by plants - Answer (click here)
42. Functions of mineral nutrients - Answer (click here)
43. Photosynthetic pigments and the nature of light - Answer (click here)
44. Major reactions of photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
45. C3 and C4 plants and CAM - Answer (click here)
46. Respiration and carbohydrate metabolism - Answer (click here)
47. Amino acid, lipid, polysaccharide and secondary product metabolism -
Answer (click here)
48. Physical factors and plant distribution - Answer (click here)
49. Plant communities - Answer (click here)
50. Ecology of different growth forms - Answer (click here)
51. Plant Populations - Answer (click here)
52. Contributions to carbon balance and atmosphere - Answer (click here)
53. Ecology of flowering and pollination - Answer (click here)
54. Seed ecology - Answer (click here)
55. Regeneration and establishment - Answer (click here)
56. Polymorphisms and population genetics - Answer (click here)
57. Mycorrhiza - Answer (click here)
58. Nitrogen fixation in Plant Biology - Answer (click here)
59. Interactions between plants and animals - Answer (click here)
60. Fungal pathogens and endophytes - Answer (click here)
61. Bacteria, mycoplasma, viruses and heterokonts - Answer (click here)
62. Parasites and saprophytes - Answer (click here)
63. Carnivorous plants - Answer (click here)
64. Plants as food - Answer (click here)
65. Uses of Plants for construction - Answer (click here)
66. Uses of Plants in medicine - Answer (click here)
67. Uses of Plants: Uses of secondary compounds, Plants as symbols,
Horticulture - Answer (click here)
68. Bioremediation - Answer (click here)
69. Plant breeding - Answer (click here)
70. Plant cell and tissue culture - Answer (click here)
71. Plant genetic engineering - Answer (click here)
72. Diversity and life cycles - Answer (click here)
73. The algae - Answer (click here)
74. Bryophytes: Vegetative structure, Water relations, Interactions, Human
uses - Answer (click here)
75. Reproduction in Bryophytes - Answer (click here)

Spore bearing vascular plants


1. Plant Biology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. What is a plant? - Answer (click here)
3. Unifying features of plants - Answer (click here)
4. Structure of the plant cell - Answer (click here)
5. Structure of Plant cell wall - Answer (click here)
6. Structure of Plant cell Plastids and mitochondria - Answer (click here)
7. Structure of Plant cell Membranes - Answer (click here)
8. Structure of Plant Nucleus and genome - Answer (click here)
9. Plant Cell division - Answer (click here)
10. Vegetative anatomy of Meristems and primary tissues - Answer (click here)
11. Vegetative anatomy of Roots - Answer (click here)
12. Vegetative anatomy of Herbaceous stems and primary growth - Answer
(click here)
13. Vegetative anatomy of Woody stems and secondary growth - Answer
(click here)
14. Vegetative anatomy of Leaves - Answer (click here)
15. Reproductive anatomy of flower - Answer (click here)
16. Reproductive anatomy of Pollen and ovules - Answer (click here)
17. Reproductive anatomy of the seed - Answer (click here)
18. Reproductive anatomy of Fruits - Answer (click here)
19. Arabidopsis and other model plants - Physiology and regulation - Answer
(click here)
20. Methods in experimental plant science - Physiology and regulation -
Answer (click here)
21. Features of Plant growth and development - Answer (click here)
22. Biochemistry of plant growth regulation - Answer (click here)
23. Auxins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
24. Ethylene: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
25. Gibberellins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
26. Cytokinins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
27. Abscisic acid: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
28. Molecular action of hormones and intracellular messengers - Answer (click
here)
29. Phytochrome, photoperiodism and photomorphogenesis - Answer (click
here)
30. Tropisms - Answer (click here)
31. Nastic responses - Answer (click here)
32. Abscission - Answer (click here)
33. Stress avoidance and adaptation - Answer (click here)
34. Plant Physiology of floral initiation and development - Answer (click here)
35. Plant Breeding systems - Answer (click here)
36. Plant Self incompatibility and its Types - Answer (click here)
37. Seed development, dormancy and germination - Answer (click here)
38. Plants and water - Answer (click here)
39. Water retention and stomata - Answer (click here)
40. Movement of nutrient ions across membranes in plant - Answer (click here)
41. Uptake of mineral nutrients by plants - Answer (click here)
42. Functions of mineral nutrients - Answer (click here)
43. Photosynthetic pigments and the nature of light - Answer (click here)
44. Major reactions of photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
45. C3 and C4 plants and CAM - Answer (click here)
46. Respiration and carbohydrate metabolism - Answer (click here)
47. Amino acid, lipid, polysaccharide and secondary product metabolism -
Answer (click here)
48. Physical factors and plant distribution - Answer (click here)
49. Plant communities - Answer (click here)
50. Ecology of different growth forms - Answer (click here)
51. Plant Populations - Answer (click here)
52. Contributions to carbon balance and atmosphere - Answer (click here)
53. Ecology of flowering and pollination - Answer (click here)
54. Seed ecology - Answer (click here)
55. Regeneration and establishment - Answer (click here)
56. Polymorphisms and population genetics - Answer (click here)
57. Mycorrhiza - Answer (click here)
58. Nitrogen fixation in Plant Biology - Answer (click here)
59. Interactions between plants and animals - Answer (click here)
60. Fungal pathogens and endophytes - Answer (click here)
61. Bacteria, mycoplasma, viruses and heterokonts - Answer (click here)
62. Parasites and saprophytes - Answer (click here)
63. Carnivorous plants - Answer (click here)
64. Plants as food - Answer (click here)
65. Uses of Plants for construction - Answer (click here)
66. Uses of Plants in medicine - Answer (click here)
67. Uses of Plants: Uses of secondary compounds, Plants as symbols,
Horticulture - Answer (click here)
68. Bioremediation - Answer (click here)
69. Plant breeding - Answer (click here)
70. Plant cell and tissue culture - Answer (click here)
71. Plant genetic engineering - Answer (click here)
72. Diversity and life cycles - Answer (click here)
73. The algae - Answer (click here)
74. Bryophytes: Vegetative structure, Water relations, Interactions, Human
uses - Answer (click here)
75. Reproduction in Bryophytes - Answer (click here)
76. Early evolution, Origins and Life cycle of vascular plants - Answer (click
here)
77. Clubmosses and horsetails - Answer (click here)
78. Vegetative structure of Lycopsida - Answer (click here)
79. Reproduction and Gametophyte in Lycopsida - Answer (click here)
80. Fossil Lycopsida - Answer (click here)
81. Vegetative structure of Equisetopsida - Answer (click here)
82. Reproduction and Gametophyte in Equisetopsida - Answer (click here)
83. Fossil Equisetopsida - Answer (click here)
84. The ferns - Answer (click here)
85. General characteristics of ferns - Answer (click here)
86. Eusporangiate ferns - Answer (click here)
87. Typical leptosporangiate ferns - Answer (click here)
88. Water ferns - Answer (click here)
89. The gametophyte of ferns - Answer (click here)
90. Ecology of ferns - Answer (click here)
91. Fossil ferns - Answer (click here)
92. Evolution of the seed: Progymnospermopsida, Seed plants - Answer (click
here)

Seed plants
1. Plant Biology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. What is a plant? - Answer (click here)
3. Unifying features of plants - Answer (click here)
4. Structure of the plant cell - Answer (click here)
5. Structure of Plant cell wall - Answer (click here)
6. Structure of Plant cell Plastids and mitochondria - Answer (click here)
7. Structure of Plant cell Membranes - Answer (click here)
8. Structure of Plant Nucleus and genome - Answer (click here)
9. Plant Cell division - Answer (click here)
10. Vegetative anatomy of Meristems and primary tissues - Answer (click here)
11. Vegetative anatomy of Roots - Answer (click here)
12. Vegetative anatomy of Herbaceous stems and primary growth - Answer
(click here)
13. Vegetative anatomy of Woody stems and secondary growth - Answer
(click here)
14. Vegetative anatomy of Leaves - Answer (click here)
15. Reproductive anatomy of flower - Answer (click here)
16. Reproductive anatomy of Pollen and ovules - Answer (click here)
17. Reproductive anatomy of the seed - Answer (click here)
18. Reproductive anatomy of Fruits - Answer (click here)
19. Arabidopsis and other model plants - Physiology and regulation - Answer
(click here)
20. Methods in experimental plant science - Physiology and regulation -
Answer (click here)
21. Features of Plant growth and development - Answer (click here)
22. Biochemistry of plant growth regulation - Answer (click here)
23. Auxins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
24. Ethylene: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
25. Gibberellins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
26. Cytokinins: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
27. Abscisic acid: Hormones in plants - Answer (click here)
28. Molecular action of hormones and intracellular messengers - Answer (click
here)
29. Phytochrome, photoperiodism and photomorphogenesis - Answer (click
here)
30. Tropisms - Answer (click here)
31. Nastic responses - Answer (click here)
32. Abscission - Answer (click here)
33. Stress avoidance and adaptation - Answer (click here)
34. Plant Physiology of floral initiation and development - Answer (click here)
35. Plant Breeding systems - Answer (click here)
36. Plant Self incompatibility and its Types - Answer (click here)
37. Seed development, dormancy and germination - Answer (click here)
38. Plants and water - Answer (click here)
39. Water retention and stomata - Answer (click here)
40. Movement of nutrient ions across membranes in plant - Answer (click here)
41. Uptake of mineral nutrients by plants - Answer (click here)
42. Functions of mineral nutrients - Answer (click here)
43. Photosynthetic pigments and the nature of light - Answer (click here)
44. Major reactions of photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
45. C3 and C4 plants and CAM - Answer (click here)
46. Respiration and carbohydrate metabolism - Answer (click here)
47. Amino acid, lipid, polysaccharide and secondary product metabolism -
Answer (click here)
48. Physical factors and plant distribution - Answer (click here)
49. Plant communities - Answer (click here)
50. Ecology of different growth forms - Answer (click here)
51. Plant Populations - Answer (click here)
52. Contributions to carbon balance and atmosphere - Answer (click here)
53. Ecology of flowering and pollination - Answer (click here)
54. Seed ecology - Answer (click here)
55. Regeneration and establishment - Answer (click here)
56. Polymorphisms and population genetics - Answer (click here)
57. Mycorrhiza - Answer (click here)
58. Nitrogen fixation in Plant Biology - Answer (click here)
59. Interactions between plants and animals - Answer (click here)
60. Fungal pathogens and endophytes - Answer (click here)
61. Bacteria, mycoplasma, viruses and heterokonts - Answer (click here)
62. Parasites and saprophytes - Answer (click here)
63. Carnivorous plants - Answer (click here)
64. Plants as food - Answer (click here)
65. Uses of Plants for construction - Answer (click here)
66. Uses of Plants in medicine - Answer (click here)
67. Uses of Plants: Uses of secondary compounds, Plants as symbols,
Horticulture - Answer (click here)
68. Bioremediation - Answer (click here)
69. Plant breeding - Answer (click here)
70. Plant cell and tissue culture - Answer (click here)
71. Plant genetic engineering - Answer (click here)
72. Diversity and life cycles - Answer (click here)
73. The algae - Answer (click here)
74. Bryophytes: Vegetative structure, Water relations, Interactions, Human
uses - Answer (click here)
75. Reproduction in Bryophytes - Answer (click here)
76. Early evolution, Origins and Life cycle of vascular plants - Answer (click
here)
77. Clubmosses and horsetails - Answer (click here)
78. Vegetative structure of Lycopsida - Answer (click here)
79. Reproduction and Gametophyte in Lycopsida - Answer (click here)
80. Fossil Lycopsida - Answer (click here)
81. Vegetative structure of Equisetopsida - Answer (click here)
82. Reproduction and Gametophyte in Equisetopsida - Answer (click here)
83. Fossil Equisetopsida - Answer (click here)
84. The ferns - Answer (click here)
85. General characteristics of ferns - Answer (click here)
86. Eusporangiate ferns - Answer (click here)
87. Typical leptosporangiate ferns - Answer (click here)
88. Water ferns - Answer (click here)
89. The gametophyte of ferns - Answer (click here)
90. Ecology of ferns - Answer (click here)
91. Fossil ferns - Answer (click here)
92. Evolution of the seed: Progymnospermopsida, Seed plants - Answer (click
here)
93. Early seed plants: Pteridosperms, fossil seed, Bennettitales and
Caytoniales - Answer (click here)
94. Conifers: Ecology, human uses, Male and Female reproductive
structures, Fertilization and the seed, Stems and roots, Leaves - Answer
(click here)
95. Male and Female reproductive structures of Conifers - Answer (click here)
96. Cycads and Reproduction in cycads - Answer (click here)
97. Ginkgo and Reproduction in ginkgo - Answer (click here)
98. Gnetales and Reproduction in the Gnetales - Answer (click here)
99. Evolution of flowering plants - Answer (click here)
100. Origin of the flower - Answer (click here)
101. The earliest flowering plants - Answer (click here)
102. Early and Later evolution of flowering plants - Answer (click here)
103. Specialization in flowers - Answer (click here)
104. Evolution of vegetative structure, fruits and seeds - Answer (click here)
105. Classification and Three families of flowering plants - Answer (click here)
106. Mechanisms of Seed plants evolution - Answer (click here)