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Physics

Subject : Physics
Nature of the Physical World and Measurement
1. Scope of Physics - Answer (click here)
2. Physics, Technology and Society - Answer (click here)
3. Forces of nature - Answer (click here)
4. Measurement - Answer (click here)
5. Derived quantities and their units - Answer (click here)
6. SI standards - Answer (click here)
7. Rules and conventions for writing SI units and their symbols - Answer
(click here)
8. Expressing larger and smaller physical quantities - Answer (click here)
9. Determination of distance, mass, time - Answer (click here)
10. Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments - Answer (click here)
11. Measurement: Significant figures - Answer (click here)
12. Measurement: Rounding off - Answer (click here)
13. Classification of Errors in Measurement - Answer (click here)
14. Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
15. Uses and Limitations of Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)

Kinematics
1. Scope of Physics - Answer (click here)
2. Physics, Technology and Society - Answer (click here)
3. Forces of nature - Answer (click here)
4. Measurement - Answer (click here)
5. Derived quantities and their units - Answer (click here)
6. SI standards - Answer (click here)
7. Rules and conventions for writing SI units and their symbols - Answer
(click here)
8. Expressing larger and smaller physical quantities - Answer (click here)
9. Determination of distance, mass, time - Answer (click here)
10. Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments - Answer (click here)
11. Measurement: Significant figures - Answer (click here)
12. Measurement: Rounding off - Answer (click here)
13. Classification of Errors in Measurement - Answer (click here)
14. Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
15. Uses and Limitations of Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
16. Kinematics - Rest and Motion - Answer (click here)
17. Motion in one dimension (rectilinear motion) - Answer (click here)
18. Equations of motion - Answer (click here)
19. Graphical representations - displacement, velocity,acceleration with time
graph - Answer (click here)
20. Representation of a vector quantities - Answer (click here)
21. Different types of vectors - Answer (click here)
22. Addition of vectors: Triangle and Parallelogram law of vectors - Answer
(click here)
23. Subtraction of vectors - Answer (click here)
24. Resolution of vectors and rectangular components - Answer (click here)
25. Multiplication of two vectors - Answer (click here)
26. Projectile motion - Answer (click here)
27. Motion of a projectile thrown horizontally - Answer (click here)
28. Motion of a projectile projected at an angle with the horizontal (oblique
projection) - Answer (click here)
29. Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
30. Three types of the inertia - Answer (click here)
31. Examples for Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
32. Newton's second law of motion - Answer (click here)
33. Impulsive force and Impulse of a force - Answer (click here)
34. Newton's third Law of motion - Answer (click here)
35. Applications of Newton s third law of motion - Answer (click here)
36. Proof and Applications of Law of conservation of momentum - Answer
(click here)
37. Concurrent forces and Coplanar forces - Answer (click here)
38. Parallelogram and Triangle law of forces - Answer (click here)
39. Experimental verification of triangle law, parallelogram law and Lami's
theorem - Answer (click here)
40. Uniform circular motion - Answer (click here)
41. Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity - Answer (click here)
42. Centripetal acceleration, Centripetal force and Centripetal reaction -
Answer (click here)
43. Applications of centripetal forces - Answer (click here)
44. Banking of curved roads and tracks and Condition for skidding - Answer
(click here)
45. Motion in a vertical circle - Answer (click here)
46. Motion on a level circular road - Answer (click here)
47. Work : Work done by a constant force and variable force - Answer (click
here)
48. Potential energy and Kinetic energy - Answer (click here)
49. Principle of work and energy (work - energy theorem) Statement -
Answer (click here)
50. Conservative forces and non-conservative forces - Answer (click here)
51. Collision: Types - Elastic collision and Inelastic collision - Answer (click
here)

Dynamics of Rotational Motion


1. Scope of Physics - Answer (click here)
2. Physics, Technology and Society - Answer (click here)
3. Forces of nature - Answer (click here)
4. Measurement - Answer (click here)
5. Derived quantities and their units - Answer (click here)
6. SI standards - Answer (click here)
7. Rules and conventions for writing SI units and their symbols - Answer
(click here)
8. Expressing larger and smaller physical quantities - Answer (click here)
9. Determination of distance, mass, time - Answer (click here)
10. Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments - Answer (click here)
11. Measurement: Significant figures - Answer (click here)
12. Measurement: Rounding off - Answer (click here)
13. Classification of Errors in Measurement - Answer (click here)
14. Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
15. Uses and Limitations of Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
16. Kinematics - Rest and Motion - Answer (click here)
17. Motion in one dimension (rectilinear motion) - Answer (click here)
18. Equations of motion - Answer (click here)
19. Graphical representations - displacement, velocity,acceleration with time
graph - Answer (click here)
20. Representation of a vector quantities - Answer (click here)
21. Different types of vectors - Answer (click here)
22. Addition of vectors: Triangle and Parallelogram law of vectors - Answer
(click here)
23. Subtraction of vectors - Answer (click here)
24. Resolution of vectors and rectangular components - Answer (click here)
25. Multiplication of two vectors - Answer (click here)
26. Projectile motion - Answer (click here)
27. Motion of a projectile thrown horizontally - Answer (click here)
28. Motion of a projectile projected at an angle with the horizontal (oblique
projection) - Answer (click here)
29. Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
30. Three types of the inertia - Answer (click here)
31. Examples for Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
32. Newton's second law of motion - Answer (click here)
33. Impulsive force and Impulse of a force - Answer (click here)
34. Newton's third Law of motion - Answer (click here)
35. Applications of Newton s third law of motion - Answer (click here)
36. Proof and Applications of Law of conservation of momentum - Answer
(click here)
37. Concurrent forces and Coplanar forces - Answer (click here)
38. Parallelogram and Triangle law of forces - Answer (click here)
39. Experimental verification of triangle law, parallelogram law and Lami's
theorem - Answer (click here)
40. Uniform circular motion - Answer (click here)
41. Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity - Answer (click here)
42. Centripetal acceleration, Centripetal force and Centripetal reaction -
Answer (click here)
43. Applications of centripetal forces - Answer (click here)
44. Banking of curved roads and tracks and Condition for skidding - Answer
(click here)
45. Motion in a vertical circle - Answer (click here)
46. Motion on a level circular road - Answer (click here)
47. Work : Work done by a constant force and variable force - Answer (click
here)
48. Potential energy and Kinetic energy - Answer (click here)
49. Principle of work and energy (work - energy theorem) Statement -
Answer (click here)
50. Conservative forces and non-conservative forces - Answer (click here)
51. Collision: Types - Elastic collision and Inelastic collision - Answer (click
here)
52. Centre of mass - Answer (click here)
53. Centre of gravity - Answer (click here)
54. Equilibrium of bodies and types of equilibrium - Answer (click here)
55. Rotational motion of rigid bodies - Answer (click here)
56. Rotational kinetic energy and moment of inertia of a rigid body - Answer
(click here)
57. Theorems of moment of inertia : Perpendicular and Parallel axes
theorem - Answer (click here)
58. Moment of a force - Answer (click here)
59. Couple and moment of the couple (Torque) - Answer (click here)
60. Angular momentum of a rigid body - Answer (click here)
61. Relation between torque and angular acceleration - Answer (click here)
62. Conservation of angular momentum with Illustration - Answer (click here)

Gravitation and Space Science


1. Scope of Physics - Answer (click here)
2. Physics, Technology and Society - Answer (click here)
3. Forces of nature - Answer (click here)
4. Measurement - Answer (click here)
5. Derived quantities and their units - Answer (click here)
6. SI standards - Answer (click here)
7. Rules and conventions for writing SI units and their symbols - Answer
(click here)
8. Expressing larger and smaller physical quantities - Answer (click here)
9. Determination of distance, mass, time - Answer (click here)
10. Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments - Answer (click here)
11. Measurement: Significant figures - Answer (click here)
12. Measurement: Rounding off - Answer (click here)
13. Classification of Errors in Measurement - Answer (click here)
14. Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
15. Uses and Limitations of Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
16. Kinematics - Rest and Motion - Answer (click here)
17. Motion in one dimension (rectilinear motion) - Answer (click here)
18. Equations of motion - Answer (click here)
19. Graphical representations - displacement, velocity,acceleration with time
graph - Answer (click here)
20. Representation of a vector quantities - Answer (click here)
21. Different types of vectors - Answer (click here)
22. Addition of vectors: Triangle and Parallelogram law of vectors - Answer
(click here)
23. Subtraction of vectors - Answer (click here)
24. Resolution of vectors and rectangular components - Answer (click here)
25. Multiplication of two vectors - Answer (click here)
26. Projectile motion - Answer (click here)
27. Motion of a projectile thrown horizontally - Answer (click here)
28. Motion of a projectile projected at an angle with the horizontal (oblique
projection) - Answer (click here)
29. Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
30. Three types of the inertia - Answer (click here)
31. Examples for Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
32. Newton's second law of motion - Answer (click here)
33. Impulsive force and Impulse of a force - Answer (click here)
34. Newton's third Law of motion - Answer (click here)
35. Applications of Newton s third law of motion - Answer (click here)
36. Proof and Applications of Law of conservation of momentum - Answer
(click here)
37. Concurrent forces and Coplanar forces - Answer (click here)
38. Parallelogram and Triangle law of forces - Answer (click here)
39. Experimental verification of triangle law, parallelogram law and Lami's
theorem - Answer (click here)
40. Uniform circular motion - Answer (click here)
41. Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity - Answer (click here)
42. Centripetal acceleration, Centripetal force and Centripetal reaction -
Answer (click here)
43. Applications of centripetal forces - Answer (click here)
44. Banking of curved roads and tracks and Condition for skidding - Answer
(click here)
45. Motion in a vertical circle - Answer (click here)
46. Motion on a level circular road - Answer (click here)
47. Work : Work done by a constant force and variable force - Answer (click
here)
48. Potential energy and Kinetic energy - Answer (click here)
49. Principle of work and energy (work - energy theorem) Statement -
Answer (click here)
50. Conservative forces and non-conservative forces - Answer (click here)
51. Collision: Types - Elastic collision and Inelastic collision - Answer (click
here)
52. Centre of mass - Answer (click here)
53. Centre of gravity - Answer (click here)
54. Equilibrium of bodies and types of equilibrium - Answer (click here)
55. Rotational motion of rigid bodies - Answer (click here)
56. Rotational kinetic energy and moment of inertia of a rigid body - Answer
(click here)
57. Theorems of moment of inertia : Perpendicular and Parallel axes
theorem - Answer (click here)
58. Moment of a force - Answer (click here)
59. Couple and moment of the couple (Torque) - Answer (click here)
60. Angular momentum of a rigid body - Answer (click here)
61. Relation between torque and angular acceleration - Answer (click here)
62. Conservation of angular momentum with Illustration - Answer (click here)
63. Newton's law of gravitation - Answer (click here)
64. Acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
65. Acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the Earth - Answer (click here)
66. Variation of acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
67. Gravitational field: potential difference and potential energy - Answer
(click here)
68. Inertial mass and Gravitational mass - Answer (click here)
69. Escape speed derivation and with the atmosphere of a planet - Answer
(click here)
70. Satellites: Orbital velocity, Time period and Energy - Answer (click here)
71. Geo-stationary satellites and Polar satellites - Answer (click here)
72. Uses of satellites - Answer (click here)
73. Indian space programme: List of Indian satellites and Indian Launch
Vehicles (Rockets) - Answer (click here)
74. Weightlessness, Rockets - principle and Types of fuels - Answer (click here)
75. The Solar system - Answer (click here)
76. Kepler's laws of planetary motion: The law of orbits, areas, periods -
Answer (click here)
77. Size, Surface temperatures, Mass, Atmosphere of the planets - Answer
(click here)
78. Conditions for life on any planet - Answer (click here)
79. Asteroids, Comets, Meteors and Meteorites inthe Solar system - Answer
(click here)
80. Stars, Constellations, Galaxy in the Solar system - Answer (click here)
81. Milky Way galaxy - Answer (click here)
82. Origin of the Universe - Answer (click here)

Mechanics of Solids and Fluids


1. Scope of Physics - Answer (click here)
2. Physics, Technology and Society - Answer (click here)
3. Forces of nature - Answer (click here)
4. Measurement - Answer (click here)
5. Derived quantities and their units - Answer (click here)
6. SI standards - Answer (click here)
7. Rules and conventions for writing SI units and their symbols - Answer
(click here)
8. Expressing larger and smaller physical quantities - Answer (click here)
9. Determination of distance, mass, time - Answer (click here)
10. Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments - Answer (click here)
11. Measurement: Significant figures - Answer (click here)
12. Measurement: Rounding off - Answer (click here)
13. Classification of Errors in Measurement - Answer (click here)
14. Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
15. Uses and Limitations of Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
16. Kinematics - Rest and Motion - Answer (click here)
17. Motion in one dimension (rectilinear motion) - Answer (click here)
18. Equations of motion - Answer (click here)
19. Graphical representations - displacement, velocity,acceleration with time
graph - Answer (click here)
20. Representation of a vector quantities - Answer (click here)
21. Different types of vectors - Answer (click here)
22. Addition of vectors: Triangle and Parallelogram law of vectors - Answer
(click here)
23. Subtraction of vectors - Answer (click here)
24. Resolution of vectors and rectangular components - Answer (click here)
25. Multiplication of two vectors - Answer (click here)
26. Projectile motion - Answer (click here)
27. Motion of a projectile thrown horizontally - Answer (click here)
28. Motion of a projectile projected at an angle with the horizontal (oblique
projection) - Answer (click here)
29. Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
30. Three types of the inertia - Answer (click here)
31. Examples for Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
32. Newton's second law of motion - Answer (click here)
33. Impulsive force and Impulse of a force - Answer (click here)
34. Newton's third Law of motion - Answer (click here)
35. Applications of Newton s third law of motion - Answer (click here)
36. Proof and Applications of Law of conservation of momentum - Answer
(click here)
37. Concurrent forces and Coplanar forces - Answer (click here)
38. Parallelogram and Triangle law of forces - Answer (click here)
39. Experimental verification of triangle law, parallelogram law and Lami's
theorem - Answer (click here)
40. Uniform circular motion - Answer (click here)
41. Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity - Answer (click here)
42. Centripetal acceleration, Centripetal force and Centripetal reaction -
Answer (click here)
43. Applications of centripetal forces - Answer (click here)
44. Banking of curved roads and tracks and Condition for skidding - Answer
(click here)
45. Motion in a vertical circle - Answer (click here)
46. Motion on a level circular road - Answer (click here)
47. Work : Work done by a constant force and variable force - Answer (click
here)
48. Potential energy and Kinetic energy - Answer (click here)
49. Principle of work and energy (work - energy theorem) Statement -
Answer (click here)
50. Conservative forces and non-conservative forces - Answer (click here)
51. Collision: Types - Elastic collision and Inelastic collision - Answer (click
here)
52. Centre of mass - Answer (click here)
53. Centre of gravity - Answer (click here)
54. Equilibrium of bodies and types of equilibrium - Answer (click here)
55. Rotational motion of rigid bodies - Answer (click here)
56. Rotational kinetic energy and moment of inertia of a rigid body - Answer
(click here)
57. Theorems of moment of inertia : Perpendicular and Parallel axes
theorem - Answer (click here)
58. Moment of a force - Answer (click here)
59. Couple and moment of the couple (Torque) - Answer (click here)
60. Angular momentum of a rigid body - Answer (click here)
61. Relation between torque and angular acceleration - Answer (click here)
62. Conservation of angular momentum with Illustration - Answer (click here)
63. Newton's law of gravitation - Answer (click here)
64. Acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
65. Acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the Earth - Answer (click here)
66. Variation of acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
67. Gravitational field: potential difference and potential energy - Answer
(click here)
68. Inertial mass and Gravitational mass - Answer (click here)
69. Escape speed derivation and with the atmosphere of a planet - Answer
(click here)
70. Satellites: Orbital velocity, Time period and Energy - Answer (click here)
71. Geo-stationary satellites and Polar satellites - Answer (click here)
72. Uses of satellites - Answer (click here)
73. Indian space programme: List of Indian satellites and Indian Launch
Vehicles (Rockets) - Answer (click here)
74. Weightlessness, Rockets - principle and Types of fuels - Answer (click here)
75. The Solar system - Answer (click here)
76. Kepler's laws of planetary motion: The law of orbits, areas, periods -
Answer (click here)
77. Size, Surface temperatures, Mass, Atmosphere of the planets - Answer
(click here)
78. Conditions for life on any planet - Answer (click here)
79. Asteroids, Comets, Meteors and Meteorites inthe Solar system - Answer
(click here)
80. Stars, Constellations, Galaxy in the Solar system - Answer (click here)
81. Milky Way galaxy - Answer (click here)
82. Origin of the Universe - Answer (click here)
83. Mechanics of Solids and Fluids - Answer (click here)
84. Intermolecular or interatomic forces - Answer (click here)
85. Elasticity: Stress, strain Elastic limit, Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
86. Experimental verification of Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
87. Study of stress - strain relationship - Answer (click here)
88. Three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
89. Relation between the three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
90. Determination of Young's modulusby Searle's method - Answer (click here)
91. Applications of modulus of elasticity - Answer (click here)
92. Pressure due to a liquid column - Answer (click here)
93. Pascal's law and effect of gravity - Answer (click here)
94. Applications of Pascal's law: Hydraulic lift and brake - Answer (click here)
95. Co-efficient of viscosity - Answer (click here)
96. Viscosity: Streamline flow and Turbulent flow - Answer (click here)
97. Stoke's law (for highly viscous liquids) - Answer (click here)
98. Determination of coefficient of viscosity of water by Poiseuille's flow
method - Answer (click here)
99. Surface tension: Intermolecular, Cohesive, Adhesive force - Answer (click
here)
100. Experiments to demonstrate surface tension - Answer (click here)
101. Molecular theory of surface tension - Answer (click here)
102. Fluid Surface energy and surface tension - Answer (click here)
103. Pressure difference and pressure inside a liquid drop and a soap bubble -
Answer (click here)
104. Capillarity and Illustrations of capillarity - Answer (click here)
105. Experimental determination of surface tension of water by capillary rise
method - Answer (click here)
106. Factors affecting and Applications surface tension - Answer (click here)
107. Total energy of a liquid: Pressure, Kineti, Potential energy - Answer (click
here)
108. Fluid Equation of continuity - Answer (click here)
109. Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)
110. Application of Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)

Oscillations
1. Scope of Physics - Answer (click here)
2. Physics, Technology and Society - Answer (click here)
3. Forces of nature - Answer (click here)
4. Measurement - Answer (click here)
5. Derived quantities and their units - Answer (click here)
6. SI standards - Answer (click here)
7. Rules and conventions for writing SI units and their symbols - Answer
(click here)
8. Expressing larger and smaller physical quantities - Answer (click here)
9. Determination of distance, mass, time - Answer (click here)
10. Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments - Answer (click here)
11. Measurement: Significant figures - Answer (click here)
12. Measurement: Rounding off - Answer (click here)
13. Classification of Errors in Measurement - Answer (click here)
14. Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
15. Uses and Limitations of Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
16. Kinematics - Rest and Motion - Answer (click here)
17. Motion in one dimension (rectilinear motion) - Answer (click here)
18. Equations of motion - Answer (click here)
19. Graphical representations - displacement, velocity,acceleration with time
graph - Answer (click here)
20. Representation of a vector quantities - Answer (click here)
21. Different types of vectors - Answer (click here)
22. Addition of vectors: Triangle and Parallelogram law of vectors - Answer
(click here)
23. Subtraction of vectors - Answer (click here)
24. Resolution of vectors and rectangular components - Answer (click here)
25. Multiplication of two vectors - Answer (click here)
26. Projectile motion - Answer (click here)
27. Motion of a projectile thrown horizontally - Answer (click here)
28. Motion of a projectile projected at an angle with the horizontal (oblique
projection) - Answer (click here)
29. Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
30. Three types of the inertia - Answer (click here)
31. Examples for Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
32. Newton's second law of motion - Answer (click here)
33. Impulsive force and Impulse of a force - Answer (click here)
34. Newton's third Law of motion - Answer (click here)
35. Applications of Newton s third law of motion - Answer (click here)
36. Proof and Applications of Law of conservation of momentum - Answer
(click here)
37. Concurrent forces and Coplanar forces - Answer (click here)
38. Parallelogram and Triangle law of forces - Answer (click here)
39. Experimental verification of triangle law, parallelogram law and Lami's
theorem - Answer (click here)
40. Uniform circular motion - Answer (click here)
41. Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity - Answer (click here)
42. Centripetal acceleration, Centripetal force and Centripetal reaction -
Answer (click here)
43. Applications of centripetal forces - Answer (click here)
44. Banking of curved roads and tracks and Condition for skidding - Answer
(click here)
45. Motion in a vertical circle - Answer (click here)
46. Motion on a level circular road - Answer (click here)
47. Work : Work done by a constant force and variable force - Answer (click
here)
48. Potential energy and Kinetic energy - Answer (click here)
49. Principle of work and energy (work - energy theorem) Statement -
Answer (click here)
50. Conservative forces and non-conservative forces - Answer (click here)
51. Collision: Types - Elastic collision and Inelastic collision - Answer (click
here)
52. Centre of mass - Answer (click here)
53. Centre of gravity - Answer (click here)
54. Equilibrium of bodies and types of equilibrium - Answer (click here)
55. Rotational motion of rigid bodies - Answer (click here)
56. Rotational kinetic energy and moment of inertia of a rigid body - Answer
(click here)
57. Theorems of moment of inertia : Perpendicular and Parallel axes
theorem - Answer (click here)
58. Moment of a force - Answer (click here)
59. Couple and moment of the couple (Torque) - Answer (click here)
60. Angular momentum of a rigid body - Answer (click here)
61. Relation between torque and angular acceleration - Answer (click here)
62. Conservation of angular momentum with Illustration - Answer (click here)
63. Newton's law of gravitation - Answer (click here)
64. Acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
65. Acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the Earth - Answer (click here)
66. Variation of acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
67. Gravitational field: potential difference and potential energy - Answer
(click here)
68. Inertial mass and Gravitational mass - Answer (click here)
69. Escape speed derivation and with the atmosphere of a planet - Answer
(click here)
70. Satellites: Orbital velocity, Time period and Energy - Answer (click here)
71. Geo-stationary satellites and Polar satellites - Answer (click here)
72. Uses of satellites - Answer (click here)
73. Indian space programme: List of Indian satellites and Indian Launch
Vehicles (Rockets) - Answer (click here)
74. Weightlessness, Rockets - principle and Types of fuels - Answer (click here)
75. The Solar system - Answer (click here)
76. Kepler's laws of planetary motion: The law of orbits, areas, periods -
Answer (click here)
77. Size, Surface temperatures, Mass, Atmosphere of the planets - Answer
(click here)
78. Conditions for life on any planet - Answer (click here)
79. Asteroids, Comets, Meteors and Meteorites inthe Solar system - Answer
(click here)
80. Stars, Constellations, Galaxy in the Solar system - Answer (click here)
81. Milky Way galaxy - Answer (click here)
82. Origin of the Universe - Answer (click here)
83. Mechanics of Solids and Fluids - Answer (click here)
84. Intermolecular or interatomic forces - Answer (click here)
85. Elasticity: Stress, strain Elastic limit, Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
86. Experimental verification of Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
87. Study of stress - strain relationship - Answer (click here)
88. Three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
89. Relation between the three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
90. Determination of Young's modulusby Searle's method - Answer (click here)
91. Applications of modulus of elasticity - Answer (click here)
92. Pressure due to a liquid column - Answer (click here)
93. Pascal's law and effect of gravity - Answer (click here)
94. Applications of Pascal's law: Hydraulic lift and brake - Answer (click here)
95. Co-efficient of viscosity - Answer (click here)
96. Viscosity: Streamline flow and Turbulent flow - Answer (click here)
97. Stoke's law (for highly viscous liquids) - Answer (click here)
98. Determination of coefficient of viscosity of water by Poiseuille's flow
method - Answer (click here)
99. Surface tension: Intermolecular, Cohesive, Adhesive force - Answer (click
here)
100. Experiments to demonstrate surface tension - Answer (click here)
101. Molecular theory of surface tension - Answer (click here)
102. Fluid Surface energy and surface tension - Answer (click here)
103. Pressure difference and pressure inside a liquid drop and a soap bubble -
Answer (click here)
104. Capillarity and Illustrations of capillarity - Answer (click here)
105. Experimental determination of surface tension of water by capillary rise
method - Answer (click here)
106. Factors affecting and Applications surface tension - Answer (click here)
107. Total energy of a liquid: Pressure, Kineti, Potential energy - Answer (click
here)
108. Fluid Equation of continuity - Answer (click here)
109. Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)
110. Application of Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)
111. The projection of uniform circular motion on a diameter is SHM - Answer
(click here)
112. Important terms in simple harmonic motion - Answer (click here)
113. Dynamics of harmonic oscillations - Answer (click here)
114. Angular harmonic oscillator - Answer (click here)
115. Horizontal and Vertical oscillations of spring - Answer (click here)
116. Oscillation of liquid column in a U - tube - Answer (click here)
117. Oscillations of a simple pendulum - Answer (click here)
118. Laws of pendulum - Answer (click here)
119. Kinetic and Potential in simple harmonic motion - Answer (click here)
120. Types of oscillations - Answer (click here)

Wave Motion
1. Scope of Physics - Answer (click here)
2. Physics, Technology and Society - Answer (click here)
3. Forces of nature - Answer (click here)
4. Measurement - Answer (click here)
5. Derived quantities and their units - Answer (click here)
6. SI standards - Answer (click here)
7. Rules and conventions for writing SI units and their symbols - Answer
(click here)
8. Expressing larger and smaller physical quantities - Answer (click here)
9. Determination of distance, mass, time - Answer (click here)
10. Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments - Answer (click here)
11. Measurement: Significant figures - Answer (click here)
12. Measurement: Rounding off - Answer (click here)
13. Classification of Errors in Measurement - Answer (click here)
14. Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
15. Uses and Limitations of Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
16. Kinematics - Rest and Motion - Answer (click here)
17. Motion in one dimension (rectilinear motion) - Answer (click here)
18. Equations of motion - Answer (click here)
19. Graphical representations - displacement, velocity,acceleration with time
graph - Answer (click here)
20. Representation of a vector quantities - Answer (click here)
21. Different types of vectors - Answer (click here)
22. Addition of vectors: Triangle and Parallelogram law of vectors - Answer
(click here)
23. Subtraction of vectors - Answer (click here)
24. Resolution of vectors and rectangular components - Answer (click here)
25. Multiplication of two vectors - Answer (click here)
26. Projectile motion - Answer (click here)
27. Motion of a projectile thrown horizontally - Answer (click here)
28. Motion of a projectile projected at an angle with the horizontal (oblique
projection) - Answer (click here)
29. Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
30. Three types of the inertia - Answer (click here)
31. Examples for Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
32. Newton's second law of motion - Answer (click here)
33. Impulsive force and Impulse of a force - Answer (click here)
34. Newton's third Law of motion - Answer (click here)
35. Applications of Newton s third law of motion - Answer (click here)
36. Proof and Applications of Law of conservation of momentum - Answer
(click here)
37. Concurrent forces and Coplanar forces - Answer (click here)
38. Parallelogram and Triangle law of forces - Answer (click here)
39. Experimental verification of triangle law, parallelogram law and Lami's
theorem - Answer (click here)
40. Uniform circular motion - Answer (click here)
41. Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity - Answer (click here)
42. Centripetal acceleration, Centripetal force and Centripetal reaction -
Answer (click here)
43. Applications of centripetal forces - Answer (click here)
44. Banking of curved roads and tracks and Condition for skidding - Answer
(click here)
45. Motion in a vertical circle - Answer (click here)
46. Motion on a level circular road - Answer (click here)
47. Work : Work done by a constant force and variable force - Answer (click
here)
48. Potential energy and Kinetic energy - Answer (click here)
49. Principle of work and energy (work - energy theorem) Statement -
Answer (click here)
50. Conservative forces and non-conservative forces - Answer (click here)
51. Collision: Types - Elastic collision and Inelastic collision - Answer (click
here)
52. Centre of mass - Answer (click here)
53. Centre of gravity - Answer (click here)
54. Equilibrium of bodies and types of equilibrium - Answer (click here)
55. Rotational motion of rigid bodies - Answer (click here)
56. Rotational kinetic energy and moment of inertia of a rigid body - Answer
(click here)
57. Theorems of moment of inertia : Perpendicular and Parallel axes
theorem - Answer (click here)
58. Moment of a force - Answer (click here)
59. Couple and moment of the couple (Torque) - Answer (click here)
60. Angular momentum of a rigid body - Answer (click here)
61. Relation between torque and angular acceleration - Answer (click here)
62. Conservation of angular momentum with Illustration - Answer (click here)
63. Newton's law of gravitation - Answer (click here)
64. Acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
65. Acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the Earth - Answer (click here)
66. Variation of acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
67. Gravitational field: potential difference and potential energy - Answer
(click here)
68. Inertial mass and Gravitational mass - Answer (click here)
69. Escape speed derivation and with the atmosphere of a planet - Answer
(click here)
70. Satellites: Orbital velocity, Time period and Energy - Answer (click here)
71. Geo-stationary satellites and Polar satellites - Answer (click here)
72. Uses of satellites - Answer (click here)
73. Indian space programme: List of Indian satellites and Indian Launch
Vehicles (Rockets) - Answer (click here)
74. Weightlessness, Rockets - principle and Types of fuels - Answer (click here)
75. The Solar system - Answer (click here)
76. Kepler's laws of planetary motion: The law of orbits, areas, periods -
Answer (click here)
77. Size, Surface temperatures, Mass, Atmosphere of the planets - Answer
(click here)
78. Conditions for life on any planet - Answer (click here)
79. Asteroids, Comets, Meteors and Meteorites inthe Solar system - Answer
(click here)
80. Stars, Constellations, Galaxy in the Solar system - Answer (click here)
81. Milky Way galaxy - Answer (click here)
82. Origin of the Universe - Answer (click here)
83. Mechanics of Solids and Fluids - Answer (click here)
84. Intermolecular or interatomic forces - Answer (click here)
85. Elasticity: Stress, strain Elastic limit, Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
86. Experimental verification of Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
87. Study of stress - strain relationship - Answer (click here)
88. Three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
89. Relation between the three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
90. Determination of Young's modulusby Searle's method - Answer (click here)
91. Applications of modulus of elasticity - Answer (click here)
92. Pressure due to a liquid column - Answer (click here)
93. Pascal's law and effect of gravity - Answer (click here)
94. Applications of Pascal's law: Hydraulic lift and brake - Answer (click here)
95. Co-efficient of viscosity - Answer (click here)
96. Viscosity: Streamline flow and Turbulent flow - Answer (click here)
97. Stoke's law (for highly viscous liquids) - Answer (click here)
98. Determination of coefficient of viscosity of water by Poiseuille's flow
method - Answer (click here)
99. Surface tension: Intermolecular, Cohesive, Adhesive force - Answer (click
here)
100. Experiments to demonstrate surface tension - Answer (click here)
101. Molecular theory of surface tension - Answer (click here)
102. Fluid Surface energy and surface tension - Answer (click here)
103. Pressure difference and pressure inside a liquid drop and a soap bubble -
Answer (click here)
104. Capillarity and Illustrations of capillarity - Answer (click here)
105. Experimental determination of surface tension of water by capillary rise
method - Answer (click here)
106. Factors affecting and Applications surface tension - Answer (click here)
107. Total energy of a liquid: Pressure, Kineti, Potential energy - Answer (click
here)
108. Fluid Equation of continuity - Answer (click here)
109. Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)
110. Application of Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)
111. The projection of uniform circular motion on a diameter is SHM - Answer
(click here)
112. Important terms in simple harmonic motion - Answer (click here)
113. Dynamics of harmonic oscillations - Answer (click here)
114. Angular harmonic oscillator - Answer (click here)
115. Horizontal and Vertical oscillations of spring - Answer (click here)
116. Oscillation of liquid column in a U - tube - Answer (click here)
117. Oscillations of a simple pendulum - Answer (click here)
118. Laws of pendulum - Answer (click here)
119. Kinetic and Potential in simple harmonic motion - Answer (click here)
120. Types of oscillations - Answer (click here)
121. Characteristics of wave motion - Answer (click here)
122. Mechanical wave motion - Transverse and Longitudinal wave motion -
Answer (click here)
123. Relationship between velocity, frequency and wavelength of a wave -
Answer (click here)
124. Velocity of wave in different media - Answer (click here)
125. Laplace?s correction - Answer (click here)
126. Factors affecting velocity of sound in gases - Answer (click here)
127. Equation of a plane progressive wave - Answer (click here)
128. Characteristics of progressive wave - Answer (click here)
129. Progressive wave : Intensity and sound level - Answer (click here)
130. Applications of reflection of sound waves - Answer (click here)
131. Applications of refraction of sound - Answer (click here)
132. Superposition principle of waves - Answer (click here)
133. Interference of waves - Answer (click here)
134. Experimental demonstration of interference of sound - Answer (click here)
135. Beats - Analytical method and Uses of beats - Answer (click here)
136. Analytical method and Characteristics of stationary waves - Answer (click
here)
137. Standing waves in strings - Sonometer - Answer (click here)
138. Vibrations of air column in Organ pipes - Answer (click here)
139. Resonance air column apparatus - Answer (click here)
140. Doppler effect : Different cases and Applications - Answer (click here)

Heat and Thermodynamics


1. Scope of Physics - Answer (click here)
2. Physics, Technology and Society - Answer (click here)
3. Forces of nature - Answer (click here)
4. Measurement - Answer (click here)
5. Derived quantities and their units - Answer (click here)
6. SI standards - Answer (click here)
7. Rules and conventions for writing SI units and their symbols - Answer
(click here)
8. Expressing larger and smaller physical quantities - Answer (click here)
9. Determination of distance, mass, time - Answer (click here)
10. Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments - Answer (click here)
11. Measurement: Significant figures - Answer (click here)
12. Measurement: Rounding off - Answer (click here)
13. Classification of Errors in Measurement - Answer (click here)
14. Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
15. Uses and Limitations of Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
16. Kinematics - Rest and Motion - Answer (click here)
17. Motion in one dimension (rectilinear motion) - Answer (click here)
18. Equations of motion - Answer (click here)
19. Graphical representations - displacement, velocity,acceleration with time
graph - Answer (click here)
20. Representation of a vector quantities - Answer (click here)
21. Different types of vectors - Answer (click here)
22. Addition of vectors: Triangle and Parallelogram law of vectors - Answer
(click here)
23. Subtraction of vectors - Answer (click here)
24. Resolution of vectors and rectangular components - Answer (click here)
25. Multiplication of two vectors - Answer (click here)
26. Projectile motion - Answer (click here)
27. Motion of a projectile thrown horizontally - Answer (click here)
28. Motion of a projectile projected at an angle with the horizontal (oblique
projection) - Answer (click here)
29. Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
30. Three types of the inertia - Answer (click here)
31. Examples for Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
32. Newton's second law of motion - Answer (click here)
33. Impulsive force and Impulse of a force - Answer (click here)
34. Newton's third Law of motion - Answer (click here)
35. Applications of Newton s third law of motion - Answer (click here)
36. Proof and Applications of Law of conservation of momentum - Answer
(click here)
37. Concurrent forces and Coplanar forces - Answer (click here)
38. Parallelogram and Triangle law of forces - Answer (click here)
39. Experimental verification of triangle law, parallelogram law and Lami's
theorem - Answer (click here)
40. Uniform circular motion - Answer (click here)
41. Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity - Answer (click here)
42. Centripetal acceleration, Centripetal force and Centripetal reaction -
Answer (click here)
43. Applications of centripetal forces - Answer (click here)
44. Banking of curved roads and tracks and Condition for skidding - Answer
(click here)
45. Motion in a vertical circle - Answer (click here)
46. Motion on a level circular road - Answer (click here)
47. Work : Work done by a constant force and variable force - Answer (click
here)
48. Potential energy and Kinetic energy - Answer (click here)
49. Principle of work and energy (work - energy theorem) Statement -
Answer (click here)
50. Conservative forces and non-conservative forces - Answer (click here)
51. Collision: Types - Elastic collision and Inelastic collision - Answer (click
here)
52. Centre of mass - Answer (click here)
53. Centre of gravity - Answer (click here)
54. Equilibrium of bodies and types of equilibrium - Answer (click here)
55. Rotational motion of rigid bodies - Answer (click here)
56. Rotational kinetic energy and moment of inertia of a rigid body - Answer
(click here)
57. Theorems of moment of inertia : Perpendicular and Parallel axes
theorem - Answer (click here)
58. Moment of a force - Answer (click here)
59. Couple and moment of the couple (Torque) - Answer (click here)
60. Angular momentum of a rigid body - Answer (click here)
61. Relation between torque and angular acceleration - Answer (click here)
62. Conservation of angular momentum with Illustration - Answer (click here)
63. Newton's law of gravitation - Answer (click here)
64. Acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
65. Acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the Earth - Answer (click here)
66. Variation of acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
67. Gravitational field: potential difference and potential energy - Answer
(click here)
68. Inertial mass and Gravitational mass - Answer (click here)
69. Escape speed derivation and with the atmosphere of a planet - Answer
(click here)
70. Satellites: Orbital velocity, Time period and Energy - Answer (click here)
71. Geo-stationary satellites and Polar satellites - Answer (click here)
72. Uses of satellites - Answer (click here)
73. Indian space programme: List of Indian satellites and Indian Launch
Vehicles (Rockets) - Answer (click here)
74. Weightlessness, Rockets - principle and Types of fuels - Answer (click here)
75. The Solar system - Answer (click here)
76. Kepler's laws of planetary motion: The law of orbits, areas, periods -
Answer (click here)
77. Size, Surface temperatures, Mass, Atmosphere of the planets - Answer
(click here)
78. Conditions for life on any planet - Answer (click here)
79. Asteroids, Comets, Meteors and Meteorites inthe Solar system - Answer
(click here)
80. Stars, Constellations, Galaxy in the Solar system - Answer (click here)
81. Milky Way galaxy - Answer (click here)
82. Origin of the Universe - Answer (click here)
83. Mechanics of Solids and Fluids - Answer (click here)
84. Intermolecular or interatomic forces - Answer (click here)
85. Elasticity: Stress, strain Elastic limit, Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
86. Experimental verification of Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
87. Study of stress - strain relationship - Answer (click here)
88. Three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
89. Relation between the three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
90. Determination of Young's modulusby Searle's method - Answer (click here)
91. Applications of modulus of elasticity - Answer (click here)
92. Pressure due to a liquid column - Answer (click here)
93. Pascal's law and effect of gravity - Answer (click here)
94. Applications of Pascal's law: Hydraulic lift and brake - Answer (click here)
95. Co-efficient of viscosity - Answer (click here)
96. Viscosity: Streamline flow and Turbulent flow - Answer (click here)
97. Stoke's law (for highly viscous liquids) - Answer (click here)
98. Determination of coefficient of viscosity of water by Poiseuille's flow
method - Answer (click here)
99. Surface tension: Intermolecular, Cohesive, Adhesive force - Answer (click
here)
100. Experiments to demonstrate surface tension - Answer (click here)
101. Molecular theory of surface tension - Answer (click here)
102. Fluid Surface energy and surface tension - Answer (click here)
103. Pressure difference and pressure inside a liquid drop and a soap bubble -
Answer (click here)
104. Capillarity and Illustrations of capillarity - Answer (click here)
105. Experimental determination of surface tension of water by capillary rise
method - Answer (click here)
106. Factors affecting and Applications surface tension - Answer (click here)
107. Total energy of a liquid: Pressure, Kineti, Potential energy - Answer (click
here)
108. Fluid Equation of continuity - Answer (click here)
109. Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)
110. Application of Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)
111. The projection of uniform circular motion on a diameter is SHM - Answer
(click here)
112. Important terms in simple harmonic motion - Answer (click here)
113. Dynamics of harmonic oscillations - Answer (click here)
114. Angular harmonic oscillator - Answer (click here)
115. Horizontal and Vertical oscillations of spring - Answer (click here)
116. Oscillation of liquid column in a U - tube - Answer (click here)
117. Oscillations of a simple pendulum - Answer (click here)
118. Laws of pendulum - Answer (click here)
119. Kinetic and Potential in simple harmonic motion - Answer (click here)
120. Types of oscillations - Answer (click here)
121. Characteristics of wave motion - Answer (click here)
122. Mechanical wave motion - Transverse and Longitudinal wave motion -
Answer (click here)
123. Relationship between velocity, frequency and wavelength of a wave -
Answer (click here)
124. Velocity of wave in different media - Answer (click here)
125. Laplace?s correction - Answer (click here)
126. Factors affecting velocity of sound in gases - Answer (click here)
127. Equation of a plane progressive wave - Answer (click here)
128. Characteristics of progressive wave - Answer (click here)
129. Progressive wave : Intensity and sound level - Answer (click here)
130. Applications of reflection of sound waves - Answer (click here)
131. Applications of refraction of sound - Answer (click here)
132. Superposition principle of waves - Answer (click here)
133. Interference of waves - Answer (click here)
134. Experimental demonstration of interference of sound - Answer (click here)
135. Beats - Analytical method and Uses of beats - Answer (click here)
136. Analytical method and Characteristics of stationary waves - Answer (click
here)
137. Standing waves in strings - Sonometer - Answer (click here)
138. Vibrations of air column in Organ pipes - Answer (click here)
139. Resonance air column apparatus - Answer (click here)
140. Doppler effect : Different cases and Applications - Answer (click here)
141. Heat and Thermodynamics - Introduction - Answer (click here)
142. Postulates of Kinetic theory of gases - Answer (click here)
143. Pressure exerted by a gas - Answer (click here)
144. Degrees of freedom of molecule - Answer (click here)
145. Law of equipartition of energy - Answer (click here)
146. Thermal equilibrium - Answer (click here)
147. Molar specific heat capacity of a gas - Answer (click here)
148. First law of thermodynamics - Answer (click here)
149. Relation between Cp and Cv (Meyer's relation) - Answer (click here)
150. Indicator diagram (P-V diagram) - Answer (click here)
151. Isothermal process and Workdone in an isothermal expansion - Answer
(click here)
152. Adiabatic process and Work done in an adiabatic expansion - Answer
(click here)
153. Thermodynamic : Reversible and irreversible processes - Answer (click
here)
154. Second law of thermodynamics- Kelvin's, Clausius, Kelvin - Planck's
statement - Answer (click here)
155. Carnot engine - Essential parts, Working, four stages of operations -
Answer (click here)
156. Refrigerator : Coefficient of performance and Inferences - Answer (click
here)
157. Transfer of heat - Conduction, Convection, Radiation - Answer (click here)
158. Perfect black body - Answer (click here)
159. Experimental verification of Newton's law of cooling - Answer (click here)
160. Surface temperature of the Sun - Answer (click here)
161. Angstrom pyrheliometer - Answer (click here)

Ray Optics
1. Scope of Physics - Answer (click here)
2. Physics, Technology and Society - Answer (click here)
3. Forces of nature - Answer (click here)
4. Measurement - Answer (click here)
5. Derived quantities and their units - Answer (click here)
6. SI standards - Answer (click here)
7. Rules and conventions for writing SI units and their symbols - Answer
(click here)
8. Expressing larger and smaller physical quantities - Answer (click here)
9. Determination of distance, mass, time - Answer (click here)
10. Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments - Answer (click here)
11. Measurement: Significant figures - Answer (click here)
12. Measurement: Rounding off - Answer (click here)
13. Classification of Errors in Measurement - Answer (click here)
14. Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
15. Uses and Limitations of Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
16. Kinematics - Rest and Motion - Answer (click here)
17. Motion in one dimension (rectilinear motion) - Answer (click here)
18. Equations of motion - Answer (click here)
19. Graphical representations - displacement, velocity,acceleration with time
graph - Answer (click here)
20. Representation of a vector quantities - Answer (click here)
21. Different types of vectors - Answer (click here)
22. Addition of vectors: Triangle and Parallelogram law of vectors - Answer
(click here)
23. Subtraction of vectors - Answer (click here)
24. Resolution of vectors and rectangular components - Answer (click here)
25. Multiplication of two vectors - Answer (click here)
26. Projectile motion - Answer (click here)
27. Motion of a projectile thrown horizontally - Answer (click here)
28. Motion of a projectile projected at an angle with the horizontal (oblique
projection) - Answer (click here)
29. Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
30. Three types of the inertia - Answer (click here)
31. Examples for Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
32. Newton's second law of motion - Answer (click here)
33. Impulsive force and Impulse of a force - Answer (click here)
34. Newton's third Law of motion - Answer (click here)
35. Applications of Newton s third law of motion - Answer (click here)
36. Proof and Applications of Law of conservation of momentum - Answer
(click here)
37. Concurrent forces and Coplanar forces - Answer (click here)
38. Parallelogram and Triangle law of forces - Answer (click here)
39. Experimental verification of triangle law, parallelogram law and Lami's
theorem - Answer (click here)
40. Uniform circular motion - Answer (click here)
41. Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity - Answer (click here)
42. Centripetal acceleration, Centripetal force and Centripetal reaction -
Answer (click here)
43. Applications of centripetal forces - Answer (click here)
44. Banking of curved roads and tracks and Condition for skidding - Answer
(click here)
45. Motion in a vertical circle - Answer (click here)
46. Motion on a level circular road - Answer (click here)
47. Work : Work done by a constant force and variable force - Answer (click
here)
48. Potential energy and Kinetic energy - Answer (click here)
49. Principle of work and energy (work - energy theorem) Statement -
Answer (click here)
50. Conservative forces and non-conservative forces - Answer (click here)
51. Collision: Types - Elastic collision and Inelastic collision - Answer (click
here)
52. Centre of mass - Answer (click here)
53. Centre of gravity - Answer (click here)
54. Equilibrium of bodies and types of equilibrium - Answer (click here)
55. Rotational motion of rigid bodies - Answer (click here)
56. Rotational kinetic energy and moment of inertia of a rigid body - Answer
(click here)
57. Theorems of moment of inertia : Perpendicular and Parallel axes
theorem - Answer (click here)
58. Moment of a force - Answer (click here)
59. Couple and moment of the couple (Torque) - Answer (click here)
60. Angular momentum of a rigid body - Answer (click here)
61. Relation between torque and angular acceleration - Answer (click here)
62. Conservation of angular momentum with Illustration - Answer (click here)
63. Newton's law of gravitation - Answer (click here)
64. Acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
65. Acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the Earth - Answer (click here)
66. Variation of acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
67. Gravitational field: potential difference and potential energy - Answer
(click here)
68. Inertial mass and Gravitational mass - Answer (click here)
69. Escape speed derivation and with the atmosphere of a planet - Answer
(click here)
70. Satellites: Orbital velocity, Time period and Energy - Answer (click here)
71. Geo-stationary satellites and Polar satellites - Answer (click here)
72. Uses of satellites - Answer (click here)
73. Indian space programme: List of Indian satellites and Indian Launch
Vehicles (Rockets) - Answer (click here)
74. Weightlessness, Rockets - principle and Types of fuels - Answer (click here)
75. The Solar system - Answer (click here)
76. Kepler's laws of planetary motion: The law of orbits, areas, periods -
Answer (click here)
77. Size, Surface temperatures, Mass, Atmosphere of the planets - Answer
(click here)
78. Conditions for life on any planet - Answer (click here)
79. Asteroids, Comets, Meteors and Meteorites inthe Solar system - Answer
(click here)
80. Stars, Constellations, Galaxy in the Solar system - Answer (click here)
81. Milky Way galaxy - Answer (click here)
82. Origin of the Universe - Answer (click here)
83. Mechanics of Solids and Fluids - Answer (click here)
84. Intermolecular or interatomic forces - Answer (click here)
85. Elasticity: Stress, strain Elastic limit, Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
86. Experimental verification of Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
87. Study of stress - strain relationship - Answer (click here)
88. Three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
89. Relation between the three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
90. Determination of Young's modulusby Searle's method - Answer (click here)
91. Applications of modulus of elasticity - Answer (click here)
92. Pressure due to a liquid column - Answer (click here)
93. Pascal's law and effect of gravity - Answer (click here)
94. Applications of Pascal's law: Hydraulic lift and brake - Answer (click here)
95. Co-efficient of viscosity - Answer (click here)
96. Viscosity: Streamline flow and Turbulent flow - Answer (click here)
97. Stoke's law (for highly viscous liquids) - Answer (click here)
98. Determination of coefficient of viscosity of water by Poiseuille's flow
method - Answer (click here)
99. Surface tension: Intermolecular, Cohesive, Adhesive force - Answer (click
here)
100. Experiments to demonstrate surface tension - Answer (click here)
101. Molecular theory of surface tension - Answer (click here)
102. Fluid Surface energy and surface tension - Answer (click here)
103. Pressure difference and pressure inside a liquid drop and a soap bubble -
Answer (click here)
104. Capillarity and Illustrations of capillarity - Answer (click here)
105. Experimental determination of surface tension of water by capillary rise
method - Answer (click here)
106. Factors affecting and Applications surface tension - Answer (click here)
107. Total energy of a liquid: Pressure, Kineti, Potential energy - Answer (click
here)
108. Fluid Equation of continuity - Answer (click here)
109. Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)
110. Application of Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)
111. The projection of uniform circular motion on a diameter is SHM - Answer
(click here)
112. Important terms in simple harmonic motion - Answer (click here)
113. Dynamics of harmonic oscillations - Answer (click here)
114. Angular harmonic oscillator - Answer (click here)
115. Horizontal and Vertical oscillations of spring - Answer (click here)
116. Oscillation of liquid column in a U - tube - Answer (click here)
117. Oscillations of a simple pendulum - Answer (click here)
118. Laws of pendulum - Answer (click here)
119. Kinetic and Potential in simple harmonic motion - Answer (click here)
120. Types of oscillations - Answer (click here)
121. Characteristics of wave motion - Answer (click here)
122. Mechanical wave motion - Transverse and Longitudinal wave motion -
Answer (click here)
123. Relationship between velocity, frequency and wavelength of a wave -
Answer (click here)
124. Velocity of wave in different media - Answer (click here)
125. Laplace?s correction - Answer (click here)
126. Factors affecting velocity of sound in gases - Answer (click here)
127. Equation of a plane progressive wave - Answer (click here)
128. Characteristics of progressive wave - Answer (click here)
129. Progressive wave : Intensity and sound level - Answer (click here)
130. Applications of reflection of sound waves - Answer (click here)
131. Applications of refraction of sound - Answer (click here)
132. Superposition principle of waves - Answer (click here)
133. Interference of waves - Answer (click here)
134. Experimental demonstration of interference of sound - Answer (click here)
135. Beats - Analytical method and Uses of beats - Answer (click here)
136. Analytical method and Characteristics of stationary waves - Answer (click
here)
137. Standing waves in strings - Sonometer - Answer (click here)
138. Vibrations of air column in Organ pipes - Answer (click here)
139. Resonance air column apparatus - Answer (click here)
140. Doppler effect : Different cases and Applications - Answer (click here)
141. Heat and Thermodynamics - Introduction - Answer (click here)
142. Postulates of Kinetic theory of gases - Answer (click here)
143. Pressure exerted by a gas - Answer (click here)
144. Degrees of freedom of molecule - Answer (click here)
145. Law of equipartition of energy - Answer (click here)
146. Thermal equilibrium - Answer (click here)
147. Molar specific heat capacity of a gas - Answer (click here)
148. First law of thermodynamics - Answer (click here)
149. Relation between Cp and Cv (Meyer's relation) - Answer (click here)
150. Indicator diagram (P-V diagram) - Answer (click here)
151. Isothermal process and Workdone in an isothermal expansion - Answer
(click here)
152. Adiabatic process and Work done in an adiabatic expansion - Answer
(click here)
153. Thermodynamic : Reversible and irreversible processes - Answer (click
here)
154. Second law of thermodynamics- Kelvin's, Clausius, Kelvin - Planck's
statement - Answer (click here)
155. Carnot engine - Essential parts, Working, four stages of operations -
Answer (click here)
156. Refrigerator : Coefficient of performance and Inferences - Answer (click
here)
157. Transfer of heat - Conduction, Convection, Radiation - Answer (click here)
158. Perfect black body - Answer (click here)
159. Experimental verification of Newton's law of cooling - Answer (click here)
160. Surface temperature of the Sun - Answer (click here)
161. Angstrom pyrheliometer - Answer (click here)
162. Reflection of light - Answer (click here)
163. Image in a plane mirror - Answer (click here)
164. Reflection at curved surfaces - Answer (click here)
165. Total internal reflection - Answer (click here)
166. Applications of Total internal reflection - Answer (click here)
167. Michelson's method - Answer (click here)
168. Importance of velocity of light - Answer (click here)
169. Refraction of light - Answer (click here)
170. Refraction at a spherical surface - Answer (click here)
171. Lens maker's formula and lens formula and Magnification - Answer (click
here)
172. Combination of thin lenses in contact - Answer (click here)
173. Refraction of light through a prism - Answer (click here)
174. Dispersion of light and Dispersive power - Answer (click here)
175. Spectrometer - Answer (click here)
176. Basic Parts and Adjustments of the spectrometer - Answer (click here)
177. Determination of the refractive index of the material of the prism -
Answer (click here)
178. Formation of rainbows - Answer (click here)

Magnetism
1. Scope of Physics - Answer (click here)
2. Physics, Technology and Society - Answer (click here)
3. Forces of nature - Answer (click here)
4. Measurement - Answer (click here)
5. Derived quantities and their units - Answer (click here)
6. SI standards - Answer (click here)
7. Rules and conventions for writing SI units and their symbols - Answer
(click here)
8. Expressing larger and smaller physical quantities - Answer (click here)
9. Determination of distance, mass, time - Answer (click here)
10. Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments - Answer (click here)
11. Measurement: Significant figures - Answer (click here)
12. Measurement: Rounding off - Answer (click here)
13. Classification of Errors in Measurement - Answer (click here)
14. Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
15. Uses and Limitations of Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
16. Kinematics - Rest and Motion - Answer (click here)
17. Motion in one dimension (rectilinear motion) - Answer (click here)
18. Equations of motion - Answer (click here)
19. Graphical representations - displacement, velocity,acceleration with time
graph - Answer (click here)
20. Representation of a vector quantities - Answer (click here)
21. Different types of vectors - Answer (click here)
22. Addition of vectors: Triangle and Parallelogram law of vectors - Answer
(click here)
23. Subtraction of vectors - Answer (click here)
24. Resolution of vectors and rectangular components - Answer (click here)
25. Multiplication of two vectors - Answer (click here)
26. Projectile motion - Answer (click here)
27. Motion of a projectile thrown horizontally - Answer (click here)
28. Motion of a projectile projected at an angle with the horizontal (oblique
projection) - Answer (click here)
29. Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
30. Three types of the inertia - Answer (click here)
31. Examples for Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
32. Newton's second law of motion - Answer (click here)
33. Impulsive force and Impulse of a force - Answer (click here)
34. Newton's third Law of motion - Answer (click here)
35. Applications of Newton s third law of motion - Answer (click here)
36. Proof and Applications of Law of conservation of momentum - Answer
(click here)
37. Concurrent forces and Coplanar forces - Answer (click here)
38. Parallelogram and Triangle law of forces - Answer (click here)
39. Experimental verification of triangle law, parallelogram law and Lami's
theorem - Answer (click here)
40. Uniform circular motion - Answer (click here)
41. Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity - Answer (click here)
42. Centripetal acceleration, Centripetal force and Centripetal reaction -
Answer (click here)
43. Applications of centripetal forces - Answer (click here)
44. Banking of curved roads and tracks and Condition for skidding - Answer
(click here)
45. Motion in a vertical circle - Answer (click here)
46. Motion on a level circular road - Answer (click here)
47. Work : Work done by a constant force and variable force - Answer (click
here)
48. Potential energy and Kinetic energy - Answer (click here)
49. Principle of work and energy (work - energy theorem) Statement -
Answer (click here)
50. Conservative forces and non-conservative forces - Answer (click here)
51. Collision: Types - Elastic collision and Inelastic collision - Answer (click
here)
52. Centre of mass - Answer (click here)
53. Centre of gravity - Answer (click here)
54. Equilibrium of bodies and types of equilibrium - Answer (click here)
55. Rotational motion of rigid bodies - Answer (click here)
56. Rotational kinetic energy and moment of inertia of a rigid body - Answer
(click here)
57. Theorems of moment of inertia : Perpendicular and Parallel axes
theorem - Answer (click here)
58. Moment of a force - Answer (click here)
59. Couple and moment of the couple (Torque) - Answer (click here)
60. Angular momentum of a rigid body - Answer (click here)
61. Relation between torque and angular acceleration - Answer (click here)
62. Conservation of angular momentum with Illustration - Answer (click here)
63. Newton's law of gravitation - Answer (click here)
64. Acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
65. Acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the Earth - Answer (click here)
66. Variation of acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
67. Gravitational field: potential difference and potential energy - Answer
(click here)
68. Inertial mass and Gravitational mass - Answer (click here)
69. Escape speed derivation and with the atmosphere of a planet - Answer
(click here)
70. Satellites: Orbital velocity, Time period and Energy - Answer (click here)
71. Geo-stationary satellites and Polar satellites - Answer (click here)
72. Uses of satellites - Answer (click here)
73. Indian space programme: List of Indian satellites and Indian Launch
Vehicles (Rockets) - Answer (click here)
74. Weightlessness, Rockets - principle and Types of fuels - Answer (click here)
75. The Solar system - Answer (click here)
76. Kepler's laws of planetary motion: The law of orbits, areas, periods -
Answer (click here)
77. Size, Surface temperatures, Mass, Atmosphere of the planets - Answer
(click here)
78. Conditions for life on any planet - Answer (click here)
79. Asteroids, Comets, Meteors and Meteorites inthe Solar system - Answer
(click here)
80. Stars, Constellations, Galaxy in the Solar system - Answer (click here)
81. Milky Way galaxy - Answer (click here)
82. Origin of the Universe - Answer (click here)
83. Mechanics of Solids and Fluids - Answer (click here)
84. Intermolecular or interatomic forces - Answer (click here)
85. Elasticity: Stress, strain Elastic limit, Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
86. Experimental verification of Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
87. Study of stress - strain relationship - Answer (click here)
88. Three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
89. Relation between the three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
90. Determination of Young's modulusby Searle's method - Answer (click here)
91. Applications of modulus of elasticity - Answer (click here)
92. Pressure due to a liquid column - Answer (click here)
93. Pascal's law and effect of gravity - Answer (click here)
94. Applications of Pascal's law: Hydraulic lift and brake - Answer (click here)
95. Co-efficient of viscosity - Answer (click here)
96. Viscosity: Streamline flow and Turbulent flow - Answer (click here)
97. Stoke's law (for highly viscous liquids) - Answer (click here)
98. Determination of coefficient of viscosity of water by Poiseuille's flow
method - Answer (click here)
99. Surface tension: Intermolecular, Cohesive, Adhesive force - Answer (click
here)
100. Experiments to demonstrate surface tension - Answer (click here)
101. Molecular theory of surface tension - Answer (click here)
102. Fluid Surface energy and surface tension - Answer (click here)
103. Pressure difference and pressure inside a liquid drop and a soap bubble -
Answer (click here)
104. Capillarity and Illustrations of capillarity - Answer (click here)
105. Experimental determination of surface tension of water by capillary rise
method - Answer (click here)
106. Factors affecting and Applications surface tension - Answer (click here)
107. Total energy of a liquid: Pressure, Kineti, Potential energy - Answer (click
here)
108. Fluid Equation of continuity - Answer (click here)
109. Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)
110. Application of Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)
111. The projection of uniform circular motion on a diameter is SHM - Answer
(click here)
112. Important terms in simple harmonic motion - Answer (click here)
113. Dynamics of harmonic oscillations - Answer (click here)
114. Angular harmonic oscillator - Answer (click here)
115. Horizontal and Vertical oscillations of spring - Answer (click here)
116. Oscillation of liquid column in a U - tube - Answer (click here)
117. Oscillations of a simple pendulum - Answer (click here)
118. Laws of pendulum - Answer (click here)
119. Kinetic and Potential in simple harmonic motion - Answer (click here)
120. Types of oscillations - Answer (click here)
121. Characteristics of wave motion - Answer (click here)
122. Mechanical wave motion - Transverse and Longitudinal wave motion -
Answer (click here)
123. Relationship between velocity, frequency and wavelength of a wave -
Answer (click here)
124. Velocity of wave in different media - Answer (click here)
125. Laplace?s correction - Answer (click here)
126. Factors affecting velocity of sound in gases - Answer (click here)
127. Equation of a plane progressive wave - Answer (click here)
128. Characteristics of progressive wave - Answer (click here)
129. Progressive wave : Intensity and sound level - Answer (click here)
130. Applications of reflection of sound waves - Answer (click here)
131. Applications of refraction of sound - Answer (click here)
132. Superposition principle of waves - Answer (click here)
133. Interference of waves - Answer (click here)
134. Experimental demonstration of interference of sound - Answer (click here)
135. Beats - Analytical method and Uses of beats - Answer (click here)
136. Analytical method and Characteristics of stationary waves - Answer (click
here)
137. Standing waves in strings - Sonometer - Answer (click here)
138. Vibrations of air column in Organ pipes - Answer (click here)
139. Resonance air column apparatus - Answer (click here)
140. Doppler effect : Different cases and Applications - Answer (click here)
141. Heat and Thermodynamics - Introduction - Answer (click here)
142. Postulates of Kinetic theory of gases - Answer (click here)
143. Pressure exerted by a gas - Answer (click here)
144. Degrees of freedom of molecule - Answer (click here)
145. Law of equipartition of energy - Answer (click here)
146. Thermal equilibrium - Answer (click here)
147. Molar specific heat capacity of a gas - Answer (click here)
148. First law of thermodynamics - Answer (click here)
149. Relation between Cp and Cv (Meyer's relation) - Answer (click here)
150. Indicator diagram (P-V diagram) - Answer (click here)
151. Isothermal process and Workdone in an isothermal expansion - Answer
(click here)
152. Adiabatic process and Work done in an adiabatic expansion - Answer
(click here)
153. Thermodynamic : Reversible and irreversible processes - Answer (click
here)
154. Second law of thermodynamics- Kelvin's, Clausius, Kelvin - Planck's
statement - Answer (click here)
155. Carnot engine - Essential parts, Working, four stages of operations -
Answer (click here)
156. Refrigerator : Coefficient of performance and Inferences - Answer (click
here)
157. Transfer of heat - Conduction, Convection, Radiation - Answer (click here)
158. Perfect black body - Answer (click here)
159. Experimental verification of Newton's law of cooling - Answer (click here)
160. Surface temperature of the Sun - Answer (click here)
161. Angstrom pyrheliometer - Answer (click here)
162. Reflection of light - Answer (click here)
163. Image in a plane mirror - Answer (click here)
164. Reflection at curved surfaces - Answer (click here)
165. Total internal reflection - Answer (click here)
166. Applications of Total internal reflection - Answer (click here)
167. Michelson's method - Answer (click here)
168. Importance of velocity of light - Answer (click here)
169. Refraction of light - Answer (click here)
170. Refraction at a spherical surface - Answer (click here)
171. Lens maker's formula and lens formula and Magnification - Answer (click
here)
172. Combination of thin lenses in contact - Answer (click here)
173. Refraction of light through a prism - Answer (click here)
174. Dispersion of light and Dispersive power - Answer (click here)
175. Spectrometer - Answer (click here)
176. Basic Parts and Adjustments of the spectrometer - Answer (click here)
177. Determination of the refractive index of the material of the prism -
Answer (click here)
178. Formation of rainbows - Answer (click here)
179. Earth?s magnetic field and magnetic elements - Answer (click here)
180. Basic properties of magnets - Answer (click here)
181. Force between two magnetic poles - Answer (click here)
182. Magnetic induction at a point along the axial line due to a magnetic
dipole (Bar magnet) - Answer (click here)
183. Magnetic induction at a point along the equatorial line of a bar magnet -
Answer (click here)
184. Mapping of magnetic field due to a bar magnet - Answer (click here)
185. Torque on a bar magnet placed in a uniform magnetic field - Answer (click
here)
186. Tangent law - Answer (click here)
187. End-on (or) Tan A position- Deflection magnetometer - Answer (click here)
188. Broad?side on (or) Tan B position - Deflection magnetometer - Answer
(click here)
189. Magnetic properties of materials - Answer (click here)
190. Properties of diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic substances -
Answer (click here)
191. Hysteresis and Hysteresis loss - Answer (click here)
192. Uses of ferromagnetic materials - Answer (click here)

Electrostatics
1. Scope of Physics - Answer (click here)
2. Physics, Technology and Society - Answer (click here)
3. Forces of nature - Answer (click here)
4. Measurement - Answer (click here)
5. Derived quantities and their units - Answer (click here)
6. SI standards - Answer (click here)
7. Rules and conventions for writing SI units and their symbols - Answer
(click here)
8. Expressing larger and smaller physical quantities - Answer (click here)
9. Determination of distance, mass, time - Answer (click here)
10. Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments - Answer (click here)
11. Measurement: Significant figures - Answer (click here)
12. Measurement: Rounding off - Answer (click here)
13. Classification of Errors in Measurement - Answer (click here)
14. Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
15. Uses and Limitations of Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
16. Kinematics - Rest and Motion - Answer (click here)
17. Motion in one dimension (rectilinear motion) - Answer (click here)
18. Equations of motion - Answer (click here)
19. Graphical representations - displacement, velocity,acceleration with time
graph - Answer (click here)
20. Representation of a vector quantities - Answer (click here)
21. Different types of vectors - Answer (click here)
22. Addition of vectors: Triangle and Parallelogram law of vectors - Answer
(click here)
23. Subtraction of vectors - Answer (click here)
24. Resolution of vectors and rectangular components - Answer (click here)
25. Multiplication of two vectors - Answer (click here)
26. Projectile motion - Answer (click here)
27. Motion of a projectile thrown horizontally - Answer (click here)
28. Motion of a projectile projected at an angle with the horizontal (oblique
projection) - Answer (click here)
29. Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
30. Three types of the inertia - Answer (click here)
31. Examples for Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
32. Newton's second law of motion - Answer (click here)
33. Impulsive force and Impulse of a force - Answer (click here)
34. Newton's third Law of motion - Answer (click here)
35. Applications of Newton s third law of motion - Answer (click here)
36. Proof and Applications of Law of conservation of momentum - Answer
(click here)
37. Concurrent forces and Coplanar forces - Answer (click here)
38. Parallelogram and Triangle law of forces - Answer (click here)
39. Experimental verification of triangle law, parallelogram law and Lami's
theorem - Answer (click here)
40. Uniform circular motion - Answer (click here)
41. Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity - Answer (click here)
42. Centripetal acceleration, Centripetal force and Centripetal reaction -
Answer (click here)
43. Applications of centripetal forces - Answer (click here)
44. Banking of curved roads and tracks and Condition for skidding - Answer
(click here)
45. Motion in a vertical circle - Answer (click here)
46. Motion on a level circular road - Answer (click here)
47. Work : Work done by a constant force and variable force - Answer (click
here)
48. Potential energy and Kinetic energy - Answer (click here)
49. Principle of work and energy (work - energy theorem) Statement -
Answer (click here)
50. Conservative forces and non-conservative forces - Answer (click here)
51. Collision: Types - Elastic collision and Inelastic collision - Answer (click
here)
52. Centre of mass - Answer (click here)
53. Centre of gravity - Answer (click here)
54. Equilibrium of bodies and types of equilibrium - Answer (click here)
55. Rotational motion of rigid bodies - Answer (click here)
56. Rotational kinetic energy and moment of inertia of a rigid body - Answer
(click here)
57. Theorems of moment of inertia : Perpendicular and Parallel axes
theorem - Answer (click here)
58. Moment of a force - Answer (click here)
59. Couple and moment of the couple (Torque) - Answer (click here)
60. Angular momentum of a rigid body - Answer (click here)
61. Relation between torque and angular acceleration - Answer (click here)
62. Conservation of angular momentum with Illustration - Answer (click here)
63. Newton's law of gravitation - Answer (click here)
64. Acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
65. Acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the Earth - Answer (click here)
66. Variation of acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
67. Gravitational field: potential difference and potential energy - Answer
(click here)
68. Inertial mass and Gravitational mass - Answer (click here)
69. Escape speed derivation and with the atmosphere of a planet - Answer
(click here)
70. Satellites: Orbital velocity, Time period and Energy - Answer (click here)
71. Geo-stationary satellites and Polar satellites - Answer (click here)
72. Uses of satellites - Answer (click here)
73. Indian space programme: List of Indian satellites and Indian Launch
Vehicles (Rockets) - Answer (click here)
74. Weightlessness, Rockets - principle and Types of fuels - Answer (click here)
75. The Solar system - Answer (click here)
76. Kepler's laws of planetary motion: The law of orbits, areas, periods -
Answer (click here)
77. Size, Surface temperatures, Mass, Atmosphere of the planets - Answer
(click here)
78. Conditions for life on any planet - Answer (click here)
79. Asteroids, Comets, Meteors and Meteorites inthe Solar system - Answer
(click here)
80. Stars, Constellations, Galaxy in the Solar system - Answer (click here)
81. Milky Way galaxy - Answer (click here)
82. Origin of the Universe - Answer (click here)
83. Mechanics of Solids and Fluids - Answer (click here)
84. Intermolecular or interatomic forces - Answer (click here)
85. Elasticity: Stress, strain Elastic limit, Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
86. Experimental verification of Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
87. Study of stress - strain relationship - Answer (click here)
88. Three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
89. Relation between the three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
90. Determination of Young's modulusby Searle's method - Answer (click here)
91. Applications of modulus of elasticity - Answer (click here)
92. Pressure due to a liquid column - Answer (click here)
93. Pascal's law and effect of gravity - Answer (click here)
94. Applications of Pascal's law: Hydraulic lift and brake - Answer (click here)
95. Co-efficient of viscosity - Answer (click here)
96. Viscosity: Streamline flow and Turbulent flow - Answer (click here)
97. Stoke's law (for highly viscous liquids) - Answer (click here)
98. Determination of coefficient of viscosity of water by Poiseuille's flow
method - Answer (click here)
99. Surface tension: Intermolecular, Cohesive, Adhesive force - Answer (click
here)
100. Experiments to demonstrate surface tension - Answer (click here)
101. Molecular theory of surface tension - Answer (click here)
102. Fluid Surface energy and surface tension - Answer (click here)
103. Pressure difference and pressure inside a liquid drop and a soap bubble -
Answer (click here)
104. Capillarity and Illustrations of capillarity - Answer (click here)
105. Experimental determination of surface tension of water by capillary rise
method - Answer (click here)
106. Factors affecting and Applications surface tension - Answer (click here)
107. Total energy of a liquid: Pressure, Kineti, Potential energy - Answer (click
here)
108. Fluid Equation of continuity - Answer (click here)
109. Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)
110. Application of Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)
111. The projection of uniform circular motion on a diameter is SHM - Answer
(click here)
112. Important terms in simple harmonic motion - Answer (click here)
113. Dynamics of harmonic oscillations - Answer (click here)
114. Angular harmonic oscillator - Answer (click here)
115. Horizontal and Vertical oscillations of spring - Answer (click here)
116. Oscillation of liquid column in a U - tube - Answer (click here)
117. Oscillations of a simple pendulum - Answer (click here)
118. Laws of pendulum - Answer (click here)
119. Kinetic and Potential in simple harmonic motion - Answer (click here)
120. Types of oscillations - Answer (click here)
121. Characteristics of wave motion - Answer (click here)
122. Mechanical wave motion - Transverse and Longitudinal wave motion -
Answer (click here)
123. Relationship between velocity, frequency and wavelength of a wave -
Answer (click here)
124. Velocity of wave in different media - Answer (click here)
125. Laplace?s correction - Answer (click here)
126. Factors affecting velocity of sound in gases - Answer (click here)
127. Equation of a plane progressive wave - Answer (click here)
128. Characteristics of progressive wave - Answer (click here)
129. Progressive wave : Intensity and sound level - Answer (click here)
130. Applications of reflection of sound waves - Answer (click here)
131. Applications of refraction of sound - Answer (click here)
132. Superposition principle of waves - Answer (click here)
133. Interference of waves - Answer (click here)
134. Experimental demonstration of interference of sound - Answer (click here)
135. Beats - Analytical method and Uses of beats - Answer (click here)
136. Analytical method and Characteristics of stationary waves - Answer (click
here)
137. Standing waves in strings - Sonometer - Answer (click here)
138. Vibrations of air column in Organ pipes - Answer (click here)
139. Resonance air column apparatus - Answer (click here)
140. Doppler effect : Different cases and Applications - Answer (click here)
141. Heat and Thermodynamics - Introduction - Answer (click here)
142. Postulates of Kinetic theory of gases - Answer (click here)
143. Pressure exerted by a gas - Answer (click here)
144. Degrees of freedom of molecule - Answer (click here)
145. Law of equipartition of energy - Answer (click here)
146. Thermal equilibrium - Answer (click here)
147. Molar specific heat capacity of a gas - Answer (click here)
148. First law of thermodynamics - Answer (click here)
149. Relation between Cp and Cv (Meyer's relation) - Answer (click here)
150. Indicator diagram (P-V diagram) - Answer (click here)
151. Isothermal process and Workdone in an isothermal expansion - Answer
(click here)
152. Adiabatic process and Work done in an adiabatic expansion - Answer
(click here)
153. Thermodynamic : Reversible and irreversible processes - Answer (click
here)
154. Second law of thermodynamics- Kelvin's, Clausius, Kelvin - Planck's
statement - Answer (click here)
155. Carnot engine - Essential parts, Working, four stages of operations -
Answer (click here)
156. Refrigerator : Coefficient of performance and Inferences - Answer (click
here)
157. Transfer of heat - Conduction, Convection, Radiation - Answer (click here)
158. Perfect black body - Answer (click here)
159. Experimental verification of Newton's law of cooling - Answer (click here)
160. Surface temperature of the Sun - Answer (click here)
161. Angstrom pyrheliometer - Answer (click here)
162. Reflection of light - Answer (click here)
163. Image in a plane mirror - Answer (click here)
164. Reflection at curved surfaces - Answer (click here)
165. Total internal reflection - Answer (click here)
166. Applications of Total internal reflection - Answer (click here)
167. Michelson's method - Answer (click here)
168. Importance of velocity of light - Answer (click here)
169. Refraction of light - Answer (click here)
170. Refraction at a spherical surface - Answer (click here)
171. Lens maker's formula and lens formula and Magnification - Answer (click
here)
172. Combination of thin lenses in contact - Answer (click here)
173. Refraction of light through a prism - Answer (click here)
174. Dispersion of light and Dispersive power - Answer (click here)
175. Spectrometer - Answer (click here)
176. Basic Parts and Adjustments of the spectrometer - Answer (click here)
177. Determination of the refractive index of the material of the prism -
Answer (click here)
178. Formation of rainbows - Answer (click here)
179. Earth?s magnetic field and magnetic elements - Answer (click here)
180. Basic properties of magnets - Answer (click here)
181. Force between two magnetic poles - Answer (click here)
182. Magnetic induction at a point along the axial line due to a magnetic
dipole (Bar magnet) - Answer (click here)
183. Magnetic induction at a point along the equatorial line of a bar magnet -
Answer (click here)
184. Mapping of magnetic field due to a bar magnet - Answer (click here)
185. Torque on a bar magnet placed in a uniform magnetic field - Answer (click
here)
186. Tangent law - Answer (click here)
187. End-on (or) Tan A position- Deflection magnetometer - Answer (click here)
188. Broad?side on (or) Tan B position - Deflection magnetometer - Answer
(click here)
189. Magnetic properties of materials - Answer (click here)
190. Properties of diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic substances -
Answer (click here)
191. Hysteresis and Hysteresis loss - Answer (click here)
192. Uses of ferromagnetic materials - Answer (click here)
193. Electrostatics - frictional electricity - Answer (click here)
194. Basic properties of electric charge - Answer (click here)
195. Definition of Coulomb's law , Principle of Superposition, Electric Field,
Electric Field Intensity (E) - Answer (click here)
196. Electric Field: Definition of Electric lines of force and Properties of lines
of forces - Answer (click here)
197. Electric potential: Definition of Electric potential and Relation between
electric field and potential - Answer (click here)
198. Gauss's law and its applications - Answer (click here)
199. Electrostatic induction - Answer (click here)
200. Principle of a capacitor and Energy stored in a capacitor - Answer (click
here)
201. Lightning conductor -Van de Graaff Generator- working principle and
construction - Answer (click here)

Current Electricity
1. Scope of Physics - Answer (click here)
2. Physics, Technology and Society - Answer (click here)
3. Forces of nature - Answer (click here)
4. Measurement - Answer (click here)
5. Derived quantities and their units - Answer (click here)
6. SI standards - Answer (click here)
7. Rules and conventions for writing SI units and their symbols - Answer
(click here)
8. Expressing larger and smaller physical quantities - Answer (click here)
9. Determination of distance, mass, time - Answer (click here)
10. Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments - Answer (click here)
11. Measurement: Significant figures - Answer (click here)
12. Measurement: Rounding off - Answer (click here)
13. Classification of Errors in Measurement - Answer (click here)
14. Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
15. Uses and Limitations of Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
16. Kinematics - Rest and Motion - Answer (click here)
17. Motion in one dimension (rectilinear motion) - Answer (click here)
18. Equations of motion - Answer (click here)
19. Graphical representations - displacement, velocity,acceleration with time
graph - Answer (click here)
20. Representation of a vector quantities - Answer (click here)
21. Different types of vectors - Answer (click here)
22. Addition of vectors: Triangle and Parallelogram law of vectors - Answer
(click here)
23. Subtraction of vectors - Answer (click here)
24. Resolution of vectors and rectangular components - Answer (click here)
25. Multiplication of two vectors - Answer (click here)
26. Projectile motion - Answer (click here)
27. Motion of a projectile thrown horizontally - Answer (click here)
28. Motion of a projectile projected at an angle with the horizontal (oblique
projection) - Answer (click here)
29. Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
30. Three types of the inertia - Answer (click here)
31. Examples for Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
32. Newton's second law of motion - Answer (click here)
33. Impulsive force and Impulse of a force - Answer (click here)
34. Newton's third Law of motion - Answer (click here)
35. Applications of Newton s third law of motion - Answer (click here)
36. Proof and Applications of Law of conservation of momentum - Answer
(click here)
37. Concurrent forces and Coplanar forces - Answer (click here)
38. Parallelogram and Triangle law of forces - Answer (click here)
39. Experimental verification of triangle law, parallelogram law and Lami's
theorem - Answer (click here)
40. Uniform circular motion - Answer (click here)
41. Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity - Answer (click here)
42. Centripetal acceleration, Centripetal force and Centripetal reaction -
Answer (click here)
43. Applications of centripetal forces - Answer (click here)
44. Banking of curved roads and tracks and Condition for skidding - Answer
(click here)
45. Motion in a vertical circle - Answer (click here)
46. Motion on a level circular road - Answer (click here)
47. Work : Work done by a constant force and variable force - Answer (click
here)
48. Potential energy and Kinetic energy - Answer (click here)
49. Principle of work and energy (work - energy theorem) Statement -
Answer (click here)
50. Conservative forces and non-conservative forces - Answer (click here)
51. Collision: Types - Elastic collision and Inelastic collision - Answer (click
here)
52. Centre of mass - Answer (click here)
53. Centre of gravity - Answer (click here)
54. Equilibrium of bodies and types of equilibrium - Answer (click here)
55. Rotational motion of rigid bodies - Answer (click here)
56. Rotational kinetic energy and moment of inertia of a rigid body - Answer
(click here)
57. Theorems of moment of inertia : Perpendicular and Parallel axes
theorem - Answer (click here)
58. Moment of a force - Answer (click here)
59. Couple and moment of the couple (Torque) - Answer (click here)
60. Angular momentum of a rigid body - Answer (click here)
61. Relation between torque and angular acceleration - Answer (click here)
62. Conservation of angular momentum with Illustration - Answer (click here)
63. Newton's law of gravitation - Answer (click here)
64. Acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
65. Acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the Earth - Answer (click here)
66. Variation of acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
67. Gravitational field: potential difference and potential energy - Answer
(click here)
68. Inertial mass and Gravitational mass - Answer (click here)
69. Escape speed derivation and with the atmosphere of a planet - Answer
(click here)
70. Satellites: Orbital velocity, Time period and Energy - Answer (click here)
71. Geo-stationary satellites and Polar satellites - Answer (click here)
72. Uses of satellites - Answer (click here)
73. Indian space programme: List of Indian satellites and Indian Launch
Vehicles (Rockets) - Answer (click here)
74. Weightlessness, Rockets - principle and Types of fuels - Answer (click here)
75. The Solar system - Answer (click here)
76. Kepler's laws of planetary motion: The law of orbits, areas, periods -
Answer (click here)
77. Size, Surface temperatures, Mass, Atmosphere of the planets - Answer
(click here)
78. Conditions for life on any planet - Answer (click here)
79. Asteroids, Comets, Meteors and Meteorites inthe Solar system - Answer
(click here)
80. Stars, Constellations, Galaxy in the Solar system - Answer (click here)
81. Milky Way galaxy - Answer (click here)
82. Origin of the Universe - Answer (click here)
83. Mechanics of Solids and Fluids - Answer (click here)
84. Intermolecular or interatomic forces - Answer (click here)
85. Elasticity: Stress, strain Elastic limit, Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
86. Experimental verification of Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
87. Study of stress - strain relationship - Answer (click here)
88. Three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
89. Relation between the three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
90. Determination of Young's modulusby Searle's method - Answer (click here)
91. Applications of modulus of elasticity - Answer (click here)
92. Pressure due to a liquid column - Answer (click here)
93. Pascal's law and effect of gravity - Answer (click here)
94. Applications of Pascal's law: Hydraulic lift and brake - Answer (click here)
95. Co-efficient of viscosity - Answer (click here)
96. Viscosity: Streamline flow and Turbulent flow - Answer (click here)
97. Stoke's law (for highly viscous liquids) - Answer (click here)
98. Determination of coefficient of viscosity of water by Poiseuille's flow
method - Answer (click here)
99. Surface tension: Intermolecular, Cohesive, Adhesive force - Answer (click
here)
100. Experiments to demonstrate surface tension - Answer (click here)
101. Molecular theory of surface tension - Answer (click here)
102. Fluid Surface energy and surface tension - Answer (click here)
103. Pressure difference and pressure inside a liquid drop and a soap bubble -
Answer (click here)
104. Capillarity and Illustrations of capillarity - Answer (click here)
105. Experimental determination of surface tension of water by capillary rise
method - Answer (click here)
106. Factors affecting and Applications surface tension - Answer (click here)
107. Total energy of a liquid: Pressure, Kineti, Potential energy - Answer (click
here)
108. Fluid Equation of continuity - Answer (click here)
109. Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)
110. Application of Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)
111. The projection of uniform circular motion on a diameter is SHM - Answer
(click here)
112. Important terms in simple harmonic motion - Answer (click here)
113. Dynamics of harmonic oscillations - Answer (click here)
114. Angular harmonic oscillator - Answer (click here)
115. Horizontal and Vertical oscillations of spring - Answer (click here)
116. Oscillation of liquid column in a U - tube - Answer (click here)
117. Oscillations of a simple pendulum - Answer (click here)
118. Laws of pendulum - Answer (click here)
119. Kinetic and Potential in simple harmonic motion - Answer (click here)
120. Types of oscillations - Answer (click here)
121. Characteristics of wave motion - Answer (click here)
122. Mechanical wave motion - Transverse and Longitudinal wave motion -
Answer (click here)
123. Relationship between velocity, frequency and wavelength of a wave -
Answer (click here)
124. Velocity of wave in different media - Answer (click here)
125. Laplace?s correction - Answer (click here)
126. Factors affecting velocity of sound in gases - Answer (click here)
127. Equation of a plane progressive wave - Answer (click here)
128. Characteristics of progressive wave - Answer (click here)
129. Progressive wave : Intensity and sound level - Answer (click here)
130. Applications of reflection of sound waves - Answer (click here)
131. Applications of refraction of sound - Answer (click here)
132. Superposition principle of waves - Answer (click here)
133. Interference of waves - Answer (click here)
134. Experimental demonstration of interference of sound - Answer (click here)
135. Beats - Analytical method and Uses of beats - Answer (click here)
136. Analytical method and Characteristics of stationary waves - Answer (click
here)
137. Standing waves in strings - Sonometer - Answer (click here)
138. Vibrations of air column in Organ pipes - Answer (click here)
139. Resonance air column apparatus - Answer (click here)
140. Doppler effect : Different cases and Applications - Answer (click here)
141. Heat and Thermodynamics - Introduction - Answer (click here)
142. Postulates of Kinetic theory of gases - Answer (click here)
143. Pressure exerted by a gas - Answer (click here)
144. Degrees of freedom of molecule - Answer (click here)
145. Law of equipartition of energy - Answer (click here)
146. Thermal equilibrium - Answer (click here)
147. Molar specific heat capacity of a gas - Answer (click here)
148. First law of thermodynamics - Answer (click here)
149. Relation between Cp and Cv (Meyer's relation) - Answer (click here)
150. Indicator diagram (P-V diagram) - Answer (click here)
151. Isothermal process and Workdone in an isothermal expansion - Answer
(click here)
152. Adiabatic process and Work done in an adiabatic expansion - Answer
(click here)
153. Thermodynamic : Reversible and irreversible processes - Answer (click
here)
154. Second law of thermodynamics- Kelvin's, Clausius, Kelvin - Planck's
statement - Answer (click here)
155. Carnot engine - Essential parts, Working, four stages of operations -
Answer (click here)
156. Refrigerator : Coefficient of performance and Inferences - Answer (click
here)
157. Transfer of heat - Conduction, Convection, Radiation - Answer (click here)
158. Perfect black body - Answer (click here)
159. Experimental verification of Newton's law of cooling - Answer (click here)
160. Surface temperature of the Sun - Answer (click here)
161. Angstrom pyrheliometer - Answer (click here)
162. Reflection of light - Answer (click here)
163. Image in a plane mirror - Answer (click here)
164. Reflection at curved surfaces - Answer (click here)
165. Total internal reflection - Answer (click here)
166. Applications of Total internal reflection - Answer (click here)
167. Michelson's method - Answer (click here)
168. Importance of velocity of light - Answer (click here)
169. Refraction of light - Answer (click here)
170. Refraction at a spherical surface - Answer (click here)
171. Lens maker's formula and lens formula and Magnification - Answer (click
here)
172. Combination of thin lenses in contact - Answer (click here)
173. Refraction of light through a prism - Answer (click here)
174. Dispersion of light and Dispersive power - Answer (click here)
175. Spectrometer - Answer (click here)
176. Basic Parts and Adjustments of the spectrometer - Answer (click here)
177. Determination of the refractive index of the material of the prism -
Answer (click here)
178. Formation of rainbows - Answer (click here)
179. Earth?s magnetic field and magnetic elements - Answer (click here)
180. Basic properties of magnets - Answer (click here)
181. Force between two magnetic poles - Answer (click here)
182. Magnetic induction at a point along the axial line due to a magnetic
dipole (Bar magnet) - Answer (click here)
183. Magnetic induction at a point along the equatorial line of a bar magnet -
Answer (click here)
184. Mapping of magnetic field due to a bar magnet - Answer (click here)
185. Torque on a bar magnet placed in a uniform magnetic field - Answer (click
here)
186. Tangent law - Answer (click here)
187. End-on (or) Tan A position- Deflection magnetometer - Answer (click here)
188. Broad?side on (or) Tan B position - Deflection magnetometer - Answer
(click here)
189. Magnetic properties of materials - Answer (click here)
190. Properties of diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic substances -
Answer (click here)
191. Hysteresis and Hysteresis loss - Answer (click here)
192. Uses of ferromagnetic materials - Answer (click here)
193. Electrostatics - frictional electricity - Answer (click here)
194. Basic properties of electric charge - Answer (click here)
195. Definition of Coulomb's law , Principle of Superposition, Electric Field,
Electric Field Intensity (E) - Answer (click here)
196. Electric Field: Definition of Electric lines of force and Properties of lines
of forces - Answer (click here)
197. Electric potential: Definition of Electric potential and Relation between
electric field and potential - Answer (click here)
198. Gauss's law and its applications - Answer (click here)
199. Electrostatic induction - Answer (click here)
200. Principle of a capacitor and Energy stored in a capacitor - Answer (click
here)
201. Lightning conductor -Van de Graaff Generator- working principle and
construction - Answer (click here)
202. Definition of Electric current and discription of Current Electricity -
Answer (click here)
203. Combination of resistors: Resistors in series and parallel - Answer (click
here)
204. Kirchoff's law and Potentiometer - Answer (click here)
205. Superconductivity Defination and Applications of superconductors -
Answer (click here)
206. Carbon resistors and Colour code for carbon resistors - Answer (click here)
207. Temperature dependence of resistance and Internal resistance of a cell -
Answer (click here)
208. Electric energy and electric power - Answer (click here)
209. Faraday's laws of electrolysis | Chemical effect of current | Verification
of Faraday's laws of electrolysis - Answer (click here)
210. Electric cells and Voltaic cell - Answer (click here)
211. Primary Cell - Daniel cell, Leclanche cell - Answer (click here)
212. Secondary Cells - Lead - Acid accumulator - Applications of secondary
cells - Answer (click here)

Effects of Electric Current


1. Scope of Physics - Answer (click here)
2. Physics, Technology and Society - Answer (click here)
3. Forces of nature - Answer (click here)
4. Measurement - Answer (click here)
5. Derived quantities and their units - Answer (click here)
6. SI standards - Answer (click here)
7. Rules and conventions for writing SI units and their symbols - Answer
(click here)
8. Expressing larger and smaller physical quantities - Answer (click here)
9. Determination of distance, mass, time - Answer (click here)
10. Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments - Answer (click here)
11. Measurement: Significant figures - Answer (click here)
12. Measurement: Rounding off - Answer (click here)
13. Classification of Errors in Measurement - Answer (click here)
14. Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
15. Uses and Limitations of Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
16. Kinematics - Rest and Motion - Answer (click here)
17. Motion in one dimension (rectilinear motion) - Answer (click here)
18. Equations of motion - Answer (click here)
19. Graphical representations - displacement, velocity,acceleration with time
graph - Answer (click here)
20. Representation of a vector quantities - Answer (click here)
21. Different types of vectors - Answer (click here)
22. Addition of vectors: Triangle and Parallelogram law of vectors - Answer
(click here)
23. Subtraction of vectors - Answer (click here)
24. Resolution of vectors and rectangular components - Answer (click here)
25. Multiplication of two vectors - Answer (click here)
26. Projectile motion - Answer (click here)
27. Motion of a projectile thrown horizontally - Answer (click here)
28. Motion of a projectile projected at an angle with the horizontal (oblique
projection) - Answer (click here)
29. Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
30. Three types of the inertia - Answer (click here)
31. Examples for Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
32. Newton's second law of motion - Answer (click here)
33. Impulsive force and Impulse of a force - Answer (click here)
34. Newton's third Law of motion - Answer (click here)
35. Applications of Newton s third law of motion - Answer (click here)
36. Proof and Applications of Law of conservation of momentum - Answer
(click here)
37. Concurrent forces and Coplanar forces - Answer (click here)
38. Parallelogram and Triangle law of forces - Answer (click here)
39. Experimental verification of triangle law, parallelogram law and Lami's
theorem - Answer (click here)
40. Uniform circular motion - Answer (click here)
41. Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity - Answer (click here)
42. Centripetal acceleration, Centripetal force and Centripetal reaction -
Answer (click here)
43. Applications of centripetal forces - Answer (click here)
44. Banking of curved roads and tracks and Condition for skidding - Answer
(click here)
45. Motion in a vertical circle - Answer (click here)
46. Motion on a level circular road - Answer (click here)
47. Work : Work done by a constant force and variable force - Answer (click
here)
48. Potential energy and Kinetic energy - Answer (click here)
49. Principle of work and energy (work - energy theorem) Statement -
Answer (click here)
50. Conservative forces and non-conservative forces - Answer (click here)
51. Collision: Types - Elastic collision and Inelastic collision - Answer (click
here)
52. Centre of mass - Answer (click here)
53. Centre of gravity - Answer (click here)
54. Equilibrium of bodies and types of equilibrium - Answer (click here)
55. Rotational motion of rigid bodies - Answer (click here)
56. Rotational kinetic energy and moment of inertia of a rigid body - Answer
(click here)
57. Theorems of moment of inertia : Perpendicular and Parallel axes
theorem - Answer (click here)
58. Moment of a force - Answer (click here)
59. Couple and moment of the couple (Torque) - Answer (click here)
60. Angular momentum of a rigid body - Answer (click here)
61. Relation between torque and angular acceleration - Answer (click here)
62. Conservation of angular momentum with Illustration - Answer (click here)
63. Newton's law of gravitation - Answer (click here)
64. Acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
65. Acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the Earth - Answer (click here)
66. Variation of acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
67. Gravitational field: potential difference and potential energy - Answer
(click here)
68. Inertial mass and Gravitational mass - Answer (click here)
69. Escape speed derivation and with the atmosphere of a planet - Answer
(click here)
70. Satellites: Orbital velocity, Time period and Energy - Answer (click here)
71. Geo-stationary satellites and Polar satellites - Answer (click here)
72. Uses of satellites - Answer (click here)
73. Indian space programme: List of Indian satellites and Indian Launch
Vehicles (Rockets) - Answer (click here)
74. Weightlessness, Rockets - principle and Types of fuels - Answer (click here)
75. The Solar system - Answer (click here)
76. Kepler's laws of planetary motion: The law of orbits, areas, periods -
Answer (click here)
77. Size, Surface temperatures, Mass, Atmosphere of the planets - Answer
(click here)
78. Conditions for life on any planet - Answer (click here)
79. Asteroids, Comets, Meteors and Meteorites inthe Solar system - Answer
(click here)
80. Stars, Constellations, Galaxy in the Solar system - Answer (click here)
81. Milky Way galaxy - Answer (click here)
82. Origin of the Universe - Answer (click here)
83. Mechanics of Solids and Fluids - Answer (click here)
84. Intermolecular or interatomic forces - Answer (click here)
85. Elasticity: Stress, strain Elastic limit, Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
86. Experimental verification of Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
87. Study of stress - strain relationship - Answer (click here)
88. Three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
89. Relation between the three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
90. Determination of Young's modulusby Searle's method - Answer (click here)
91. Applications of modulus of elasticity - Answer (click here)
92. Pressure due to a liquid column - Answer (click here)
93. Pascal's law and effect of gravity - Answer (click here)
94. Applications of Pascal's law: Hydraulic lift and brake - Answer (click here)
95. Co-efficient of viscosity - Answer (click here)
96. Viscosity: Streamline flow and Turbulent flow - Answer (click here)
97. Stoke's law (for highly viscous liquids) - Answer (click here)
98. Determination of coefficient of viscosity of water by Poiseuille's flow
method - Answer (click here)
99. Surface tension: Intermolecular, Cohesive, Adhesive force - Answer (click
here)
100. Experiments to demonstrate surface tension - Answer (click here)
101. Molecular theory of surface tension - Answer (click here)
102. Fluid Surface energy and surface tension - Answer (click here)
103. Pressure difference and pressure inside a liquid drop and a soap bubble -
Answer (click here)
104. Capillarity and Illustrations of capillarity - Answer (click here)
105. Experimental determination of surface tension of water by capillary rise
method - Answer (click here)
106. Factors affecting and Applications surface tension - Answer (click here)
107. Total energy of a liquid: Pressure, Kineti, Potential energy - Answer (click
here)
108. Fluid Equation of continuity - Answer (click here)
109. Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)
110. Application of Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)
111. The projection of uniform circular motion on a diameter is SHM - Answer
(click here)
112. Important terms in simple harmonic motion - Answer (click here)
113. Dynamics of harmonic oscillations - Answer (click here)
114. Angular harmonic oscillator - Answer (click here)
115. Horizontal and Vertical oscillations of spring - Answer (click here)
116. Oscillation of liquid column in a U - tube - Answer (click here)
117. Oscillations of a simple pendulum - Answer (click here)
118. Laws of pendulum - Answer (click here)
119. Kinetic and Potential in simple harmonic motion - Answer (click here)
120. Types of oscillations - Answer (click here)
121. Characteristics of wave motion - Answer (click here)
122. Mechanical wave motion - Transverse and Longitudinal wave motion -
Answer (click here)
123. Relationship between velocity, frequency and wavelength of a wave -
Answer (click here)
124. Velocity of wave in different media - Answer (click here)
125. Laplace?s correction - Answer (click here)
126. Factors affecting velocity of sound in gases - Answer (click here)
127. Equation of a plane progressive wave - Answer (click here)
128. Characteristics of progressive wave - Answer (click here)
129. Progressive wave : Intensity and sound level - Answer (click here)
130. Applications of reflection of sound waves - Answer (click here)
131. Applications of refraction of sound - Answer (click here)
132. Superposition principle of waves - Answer (click here)
133. Interference of waves - Answer (click here)
134. Experimental demonstration of interference of sound - Answer (click here)
135. Beats - Analytical method and Uses of beats - Answer (click here)
136. Analytical method and Characteristics of stationary waves - Answer (click
here)
137. Standing waves in strings - Sonometer - Answer (click here)
138. Vibrations of air column in Organ pipes - Answer (click here)
139. Resonance air column apparatus - Answer (click here)
140. Doppler effect : Different cases and Applications - Answer (click here)
141. Heat and Thermodynamics - Introduction - Answer (click here)
142. Postulates of Kinetic theory of gases - Answer (click here)
143. Pressure exerted by a gas - Answer (click here)
144. Degrees of freedom of molecule - Answer (click here)
145. Law of equipartition of energy - Answer (click here)
146. Thermal equilibrium - Answer (click here)
147. Molar specific heat capacity of a gas - Answer (click here)
148. First law of thermodynamics - Answer (click here)
149. Relation between Cp and Cv (Meyer's relation) - Answer (click here)
150. Indicator diagram (P-V diagram) - Answer (click here)
151. Isothermal process and Workdone in an isothermal expansion - Answer
(click here)
152. Adiabatic process and Work done in an adiabatic expansion - Answer
(click here)
153. Thermodynamic : Reversible and irreversible processes - Answer (click
here)
154. Second law of thermodynamics- Kelvin's, Clausius, Kelvin - Planck's
statement - Answer (click here)
155. Carnot engine - Essential parts, Working, four stages of operations -
Answer (click here)
156. Refrigerator : Coefficient of performance and Inferences - Answer (click
here)
157. Transfer of heat - Conduction, Convection, Radiation - Answer (click here)
158. Perfect black body - Answer (click here)
159. Experimental verification of Newton's law of cooling - Answer (click here)
160. Surface temperature of the Sun - Answer (click here)
161. Angstrom pyrheliometer - Answer (click here)
162. Reflection of light - Answer (click here)
163. Image in a plane mirror - Answer (click here)
164. Reflection at curved surfaces - Answer (click here)
165. Total internal reflection - Answer (click here)
166. Applications of Total internal reflection - Answer (click here)
167. Michelson's method - Answer (click here)
168. Importance of velocity of light - Answer (click here)
169. Refraction of light - Answer (click here)
170. Refraction at a spherical surface - Answer (click here)
171. Lens maker's formula and lens formula and Magnification - Answer (click
here)
172. Combination of thin lenses in contact - Answer (click here)
173. Refraction of light through a prism - Answer (click here)
174. Dispersion of light and Dispersive power - Answer (click here)
175. Spectrometer - Answer (click here)
176. Basic Parts and Adjustments of the spectrometer - Answer (click here)
177. Determination of the refractive index of the material of the prism -
Answer (click here)
178. Formation of rainbows - Answer (click here)
179. Earth?s magnetic field and magnetic elements - Answer (click here)
180. Basic properties of magnets - Answer (click here)
181. Force between two magnetic poles - Answer (click here)
182. Magnetic induction at a point along the axial line due to a magnetic
dipole (Bar magnet) - Answer (click here)
183. Magnetic induction at a point along the equatorial line of a bar magnet -
Answer (click here)
184. Mapping of magnetic field due to a bar magnet - Answer (click here)
185. Torque on a bar magnet placed in a uniform magnetic field - Answer (click
here)
186. Tangent law - Answer (click here)
187. End-on (or) Tan A position- Deflection magnetometer - Answer (click here)
188. Broad?side on (or) Tan B position - Deflection magnetometer - Answer
(click here)
189. Magnetic properties of materials - Answer (click here)
190. Properties of diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic substances -
Answer (click here)
191. Hysteresis and Hysteresis loss - Answer (click here)
192. Uses of ferromagnetic materials - Answer (click here)
193. Electrostatics - frictional electricity - Answer (click here)
194. Basic properties of electric charge - Answer (click here)
195. Definition of Coulomb's law , Principle of Superposition, Electric Field,
Electric Field Intensity (E) - Answer (click here)
196. Electric Field: Definition of Electric lines of force and Properties of lines
of forces - Answer (click here)
197. Electric potential: Definition of Electric potential and Relation between
electric field and potential - Answer (click here)
198. Gauss's law and its applications - Answer (click here)
199. Electrostatic induction - Answer (click here)
200. Principle of a capacitor and Energy stored in a capacitor - Answer (click
here)
201. Lightning conductor -Van de Graaff Generator- working principle and
construction - Answer (click here)
202. Definition of Electric current and discription of Current Electricity -
Answer (click here)
203. Combination of resistors: Resistors in series and parallel - Answer (click
here)
204. Kirchoff's law and Potentiometer - Answer (click here)
205. Superconductivity Defination and Applications of superconductors -
Answer (click here)
206. Carbon resistors and Colour code for carbon resistors - Answer (click here)
207. Temperature dependence of resistance and Internal resistance of a cell -
Answer (click here)
208. Electric energy and electric power - Answer (click here)
209. Faraday's laws of electrolysis | Chemical effect of current | Verification
of Faraday's laws of electrolysis - Answer (click here)
210. Electric cells and Voltaic cell - Answer (click here)
211. Primary Cell - Daniel cell, Leclanche cell - Answer (click here)
212. Secondary Cells - Lead - Acid accumulator - Applications of secondary
cells - Answer (click here)
213. Applications of Joule heating - Answer (click here)
214. Seebeck effect - Answer (click here)
215. Neutral and Inversion temperature - Answer (click here)
216. Peltier effect and Peltier Co-efficient (π) - Answer (click here)
217. Thomson effect and Thomson coefficient (σ) - Answer (click here)
218. Thermopile - Answer (click here)
219. Biot - Savart Law - Answer (click here)
220. Tangent galvanometer : Theory and Construction of Tangent
galvanometer - Answer (click here)
221. Solenoid and Right hand palm rule - Answer (click here)
222. Magnetic Lorentz force - Answer (click here)
223. Cyclotron- Principle, Construction, Working and Limitations of
Cyclotron - Answer (click here)
224. Moving coil galvanometer : Principle, Construction, Pointer type
moving coil galvanometer, Current sensitivity of a galvanometer - Answer
(click here)
225. Heating effect : Joule's law - Answer (click here)
226. Verification of Joule's law - Answer (click here)
227. Magnetic effect of current - Answer (click here)
228. Magnetic field around a straight conductor carrying current - Answer (click
here)
229. Magnetic field due to a circular loop carrying current - Answer (click here)
230. Biot Savart Law and Magnetic induction - Answer (click here)
231. Ampere's Circuital Law - Answer (click here)
232. Magnetic induction due to a long solenoid carrying current - Answer (click
here)
233. Magnetic Lorentz force and Cyclotron - Answer (click here)
234. Motion of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field - Answer (click
here)
235. Force on a current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field - Answer
(click here)
236. Force between two long parallel current-carrying conductors - Answer
(click here)
237. Torque experienced by a current loop in a uniform magnetic field -
Answer (click here)
238. Conversion of galvanometer into an ammeter - Answer (click here)
239. Conversion of galvanometer into a voltmeter - Answer (click here)
240. Current loop as a magnetic dipole - Answer (click here)
241. The magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron - Answer (click here)

Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current


1. Scope of Physics - Answer (click here)
2. Physics, Technology and Society - Answer (click here)
3. Forces of nature - Answer (click here)
4. Measurement - Answer (click here)
5. Derived quantities and their units - Answer (click here)
6. SI standards - Answer (click here)
7. Rules and conventions for writing SI units and their symbols - Answer
(click here)
8. Expressing larger and smaller physical quantities - Answer (click here)
9. Determination of distance, mass, time - Answer (click here)
10. Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments - Answer (click here)
11. Measurement: Significant figures - Answer (click here)
12. Measurement: Rounding off - Answer (click here)
13. Classification of Errors in Measurement - Answer (click here)
14. Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
15. Uses and Limitations of Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
16. Kinematics - Rest and Motion - Answer (click here)
17. Motion in one dimension (rectilinear motion) - Answer (click here)
18. Equations of motion - Answer (click here)
19. Graphical representations - displacement, velocity,acceleration with time
graph - Answer (click here)
20. Representation of a vector quantities - Answer (click here)
21. Different types of vectors - Answer (click here)
22. Addition of vectors: Triangle and Parallelogram law of vectors - Answer
(click here)
23. Subtraction of vectors - Answer (click here)
24. Resolution of vectors and rectangular components - Answer (click here)
25. Multiplication of two vectors - Answer (click here)
26. Projectile motion - Answer (click here)
27. Motion of a projectile thrown horizontally - Answer (click here)
28. Motion of a projectile projected at an angle with the horizontal (oblique
projection) - Answer (click here)
29. Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
30. Three types of the inertia - Answer (click here)
31. Examples for Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
32. Newton's second law of motion - Answer (click here)
33. Impulsive force and Impulse of a force - Answer (click here)
34. Newton's third Law of motion - Answer (click here)
35. Applications of Newton s third law of motion - Answer (click here)
36. Proof and Applications of Law of conservation of momentum - Answer
(click here)
37. Concurrent forces and Coplanar forces - Answer (click here)
38. Parallelogram and Triangle law of forces - Answer (click here)
39. Experimental verification of triangle law, parallelogram law and Lami's
theorem - Answer (click here)
40. Uniform circular motion - Answer (click here)
41. Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity - Answer (click here)
42. Centripetal acceleration, Centripetal force and Centripetal reaction -
Answer (click here)
43. Applications of centripetal forces - Answer (click here)
44. Banking of curved roads and tracks and Condition for skidding - Answer
(click here)
45. Motion in a vertical circle - Answer (click here)
46. Motion on a level circular road - Answer (click here)
47. Work : Work done by a constant force and variable force - Answer (click
here)
48. Potential energy and Kinetic energy - Answer (click here)
49. Principle of work and energy (work - energy theorem) Statement -
Answer (click here)
50. Conservative forces and non-conservative forces - Answer (click here)
51. Collision: Types - Elastic collision and Inelastic collision - Answer (click
here)
52. Centre of mass - Answer (click here)
53. Centre of gravity - Answer (click here)
54. Equilibrium of bodies and types of equilibrium - Answer (click here)
55. Rotational motion of rigid bodies - Answer (click here)
56. Rotational kinetic energy and moment of inertia of a rigid body - Answer
(click here)
57. Theorems of moment of inertia : Perpendicular and Parallel axes
theorem - Answer (click here)
58. Moment of a force - Answer (click here)
59. Couple and moment of the couple (Torque) - Answer (click here)
60. Angular momentum of a rigid body - Answer (click here)
61. Relation between torque and angular acceleration - Answer (click here)
62. Conservation of angular momentum with Illustration - Answer (click here)
63. Newton's law of gravitation - Answer (click here)
64. Acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
65. Acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the Earth - Answer (click here)
66. Variation of acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
67. Gravitational field: potential difference and potential energy - Answer
(click here)
68. Inertial mass and Gravitational mass - Answer (click here)
69. Escape speed derivation and with the atmosphere of a planet - Answer
(click here)
70. Satellites: Orbital velocity, Time period and Energy - Answer (click here)
71. Geo-stationary satellites and Polar satellites - Answer (click here)
72. Uses of satellites - Answer (click here)
73. Indian space programme: List of Indian satellites and Indian Launch
Vehicles (Rockets) - Answer (click here)
74. Weightlessness, Rockets - principle and Types of fuels - Answer (click here)
75. The Solar system - Answer (click here)
76. Kepler's laws of planetary motion: The law of orbits, areas, periods -
Answer (click here)
77. Size, Surface temperatures, Mass, Atmosphere of the planets - Answer
(click here)
78. Conditions for life on any planet - Answer (click here)
79. Asteroids, Comets, Meteors and Meteorites inthe Solar system - Answer
(click here)
80. Stars, Constellations, Galaxy in the Solar system - Answer (click here)
81. Milky Way galaxy - Answer (click here)
82. Origin of the Universe - Answer (click here)
83. Mechanics of Solids and Fluids - Answer (click here)
84. Intermolecular or interatomic forces - Answer (click here)
85. Elasticity: Stress, strain Elastic limit, Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
86. Experimental verification of Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
87. Study of stress - strain relationship - Answer (click here)
88. Three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
89. Relation between the three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
90. Determination of Young's modulusby Searle's method - Answer (click here)
91. Applications of modulus of elasticity - Answer (click here)
92. Pressure due to a liquid column - Answer (click here)
93. Pascal's law and effect of gravity - Answer (click here)
94. Applications of Pascal's law: Hydraulic lift and brake - Answer (click here)
95. Co-efficient of viscosity - Answer (click here)
96. Viscosity: Streamline flow and Turbulent flow - Answer (click here)
97. Stoke's law (for highly viscous liquids) - Answer (click here)
98. Determination of coefficient of viscosity of water by Poiseuille's flow
method - Answer (click here)
99. Surface tension: Intermolecular, Cohesive, Adhesive force - Answer (click
here)
100. Experiments to demonstrate surface tension - Answer (click here)
101. Molecular theory of surface tension - Answer (click here)
102. Fluid Surface energy and surface tension - Answer (click here)
103. Pressure difference and pressure inside a liquid drop and a soap bubble -
Answer (click here)
104. Capillarity and Illustrations of capillarity - Answer (click here)
105. Experimental determination of surface tension of water by capillary rise
method - Answer (click here)
106. Factors affecting and Applications surface tension - Answer (click here)
107. Total energy of a liquid: Pressure, Kineti, Potential energy - Answer (click
here)
108. Fluid Equation of continuity - Answer (click here)
109. Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)
110. Application of Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)
111. The projection of uniform circular motion on a diameter is SHM - Answer
(click here)
112. Important terms in simple harmonic motion - Answer (click here)
113. Dynamics of harmonic oscillations - Answer (click here)
114. Angular harmonic oscillator - Answer (click here)
115. Horizontal and Vertical oscillations of spring - Answer (click here)
116. Oscillation of liquid column in a U - tube - Answer (click here)
117. Oscillations of a simple pendulum - Answer (click here)
118. Laws of pendulum - Answer (click here)
119. Kinetic and Potential in simple harmonic motion - Answer (click here)
120. Types of oscillations - Answer (click here)
121. Characteristics of wave motion - Answer (click here)
122. Mechanical wave motion - Transverse and Longitudinal wave motion -
Answer (click here)
123. Relationship between velocity, frequency and wavelength of a wave -
Answer (click here)
124. Velocity of wave in different media - Answer (click here)
125. Laplace?s correction - Answer (click here)
126. Factors affecting velocity of sound in gases - Answer (click here)
127. Equation of a plane progressive wave - Answer (click here)
128. Characteristics of progressive wave - Answer (click here)
129. Progressive wave : Intensity and sound level - Answer (click here)
130. Applications of reflection of sound waves - Answer (click here)
131. Applications of refraction of sound - Answer (click here)
132. Superposition principle of waves - Answer (click here)
133. Interference of waves - Answer (click here)
134. Experimental demonstration of interference of sound - Answer (click here)
135. Beats - Analytical method and Uses of beats - Answer (click here)
136. Analytical method and Characteristics of stationary waves - Answer (click
here)
137. Standing waves in strings - Sonometer - Answer (click here)
138. Vibrations of air column in Organ pipes - Answer (click here)
139. Resonance air column apparatus - Answer (click here)
140. Doppler effect : Different cases and Applications - Answer (click here)
141. Heat and Thermodynamics - Introduction - Answer (click here)
142. Postulates of Kinetic theory of gases - Answer (click here)
143. Pressure exerted by a gas - Answer (click here)
144. Degrees of freedom of molecule - Answer (click here)
145. Law of equipartition of energy - Answer (click here)
146. Thermal equilibrium - Answer (click here)
147. Molar specific heat capacity of a gas - Answer (click here)
148. First law of thermodynamics - Answer (click here)
149. Relation between Cp and Cv (Meyer's relation) - Answer (click here)
150. Indicator diagram (P-V diagram) - Answer (click here)
151. Isothermal process and Workdone in an isothermal expansion - Answer
(click here)
152. Adiabatic process and Work done in an adiabatic expansion - Answer
(click here)
153. Thermodynamic : Reversible and irreversible processes - Answer (click
here)
154. Second law of thermodynamics- Kelvin's, Clausius, Kelvin - Planck's
statement - Answer (click here)
155. Carnot engine - Essential parts, Working, four stages of operations -
Answer (click here)
156. Refrigerator : Coefficient of performance and Inferences - Answer (click
here)
157. Transfer of heat - Conduction, Convection, Radiation - Answer (click here)
158. Perfect black body - Answer (click here)
159. Experimental verification of Newton's law of cooling - Answer (click here)
160. Surface temperature of the Sun - Answer (click here)
161. Angstrom pyrheliometer - Answer (click here)
162. Reflection of light - Answer (click here)
163. Image in a plane mirror - Answer (click here)
164. Reflection at curved surfaces - Answer (click here)
165. Total internal reflection - Answer (click here)
166. Applications of Total internal reflection - Answer (click here)
167. Michelson's method - Answer (click here)
168. Importance of velocity of light - Answer (click here)
169. Refraction of light - Answer (click here)
170. Refraction at a spherical surface - Answer (click here)
171. Lens maker's formula and lens formula and Magnification - Answer (click
here)
172. Combination of thin lenses in contact - Answer (click here)
173. Refraction of light through a prism - Answer (click here)
174. Dispersion of light and Dispersive power - Answer (click here)
175. Spectrometer - Answer (click here)
176. Basic Parts and Adjustments of the spectrometer - Answer (click here)
177. Determination of the refractive index of the material of the prism -
Answer (click here)
178. Formation of rainbows - Answer (click here)
179. Earth?s magnetic field and magnetic elements - Answer (click here)
180. Basic properties of magnets - Answer (click here)
181. Force between two magnetic poles - Answer (click here)
182. Magnetic induction at a point along the axial line due to a magnetic
dipole (Bar magnet) - Answer (click here)
183. Magnetic induction at a point along the equatorial line of a bar magnet -
Answer (click here)
184. Mapping of magnetic field due to a bar magnet - Answer (click here)
185. Torque on a bar magnet placed in a uniform magnetic field - Answer (click
here)
186. Tangent law - Answer (click here)
187. End-on (or) Tan A position- Deflection magnetometer - Answer (click here)
188. Broad?side on (or) Tan B position - Deflection magnetometer - Answer
(click here)
189. Magnetic properties of materials - Answer (click here)
190. Properties of diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic substances -
Answer (click here)
191. Hysteresis and Hysteresis loss - Answer (click here)
192. Uses of ferromagnetic materials - Answer (click here)
193. Electrostatics - frictional electricity - Answer (click here)
194. Basic properties of electric charge - Answer (click here)
195. Definition of Coulomb's law , Principle of Superposition, Electric Field,
Electric Field Intensity (E) - Answer (click here)
196. Electric Field: Definition of Electric lines of force and Properties of lines
of forces - Answer (click here)
197. Electric potential: Definition of Electric potential and Relation between
electric field and potential - Answer (click here)
198. Gauss's law and its applications - Answer (click here)
199. Electrostatic induction - Answer (click here)
200. Principle of a capacitor and Energy stored in a capacitor - Answer (click
here)
201. Lightning conductor -Van de Graaff Generator- working principle and
construction - Answer (click here)
202. Definition of Electric current and discription of Current Electricity -
Answer (click here)
203. Combination of resistors: Resistors in series and parallel - Answer (click
here)
204. Kirchoff's law and Potentiometer - Answer (click here)
205. Superconductivity Defination and Applications of superconductors -
Answer (click here)
206. Carbon resistors and Colour code for carbon resistors - Answer (click here)
207. Temperature dependence of resistance and Internal resistance of a cell -
Answer (click here)
208. Electric energy and electric power - Answer (click here)
209. Faraday's laws of electrolysis | Chemical effect of current | Verification
of Faraday's laws of electrolysis - Answer (click here)
210. Electric cells and Voltaic cell - Answer (click here)
211. Primary Cell - Daniel cell, Leclanche cell - Answer (click here)
212. Secondary Cells - Lead - Acid accumulator - Applications of secondary
cells - Answer (click here)
213. Applications of Joule heating - Answer (click here)
214. Seebeck effect - Answer (click here)
215. Neutral and Inversion temperature - Answer (click here)
216. Peltier effect and Peltier Co-efficient (π) - Answer (click here)
217. Thomson effect and Thomson coefficient (σ) - Answer (click here)
218. Thermopile - Answer (click here)
219. Biot - Savart Law - Answer (click here)
220. Tangent galvanometer : Theory and Construction of Tangent
galvanometer - Answer (click here)
221. Solenoid and Right hand palm rule - Answer (click here)
222. Magnetic Lorentz force - Answer (click here)
223. Cyclotron- Principle, Construction, Working and Limitations of
Cyclotron - Answer (click here)
224. Moving coil galvanometer : Principle, Construction, Pointer type
moving coil galvanometer, Current sensitivity of a galvanometer - Answer
(click here)
225. Heating effect : Joule's law - Answer (click here)
226. Verification of Joule's law - Answer (click here)
227. Magnetic effect of current - Answer (click here)
228. Magnetic field around a straight conductor carrying current - Answer (click
here)
229. Magnetic field due to a circular loop carrying current - Answer (click here)
230. Biot Savart Law and Magnetic induction - Answer (click here)
231. Ampere's Circuital Law - Answer (click here)
232. Magnetic induction due to a long solenoid carrying current - Answer (click
here)
233. Magnetic Lorentz force and Cyclotron - Answer (click here)
234. Motion of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field - Answer (click
here)
235. Force on a current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field - Answer
(click here)
236. Force between two long parallel current-carrying conductors - Answer
(click here)
237. Torque experienced by a current loop in a uniform magnetic field -
Answer (click here)
238. Conversion of galvanometer into an ammeter - Answer (click here)
239. Conversion of galvanometer into a voltmeter - Answer (click here)
240. Current loop as a magnetic dipole - Answer (click here)
241. The magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron - Answer (click here)
242. AC generator (Dynamo) - Single phase and AC generator (Alternator) -
Three phase - Answer (click here)
243. Eddy currents and Applications of Eddy current - Answer (click here)
244. Transformer Principle - Efficiency of a transformer - Energy losses in a
transformer - Answer (click here)
245. Electromagnetic induction - Answer (click here)
246. Magnetic flux - Answer (click here)
247. Induced emf and current - Electromagnetic induction - Answer (click here)
248. Faraday's laws of electromagnetic induction - Answer (click here)
249. Lenz's law - Answer (click here)
250. Self Induction - Answer (click here)
251. Coefficient of self induction - Answer (click here)
252. Self inductance of a long solenoid - Answer (click here)
253. Mutual induction and Coefficient of mutual induction - Answer (click here)
254. Methods of producing induced emf - Answer (click here)
255. AC generator (Dynamo) - Single phase - Answer (click here)
256. Eddy currents - Answer (click here)
257. Transformer - Answer (click here)
258. Long distance power transmission - Answer (click here)
259. Alternating current - Answer (click here)
260. AC Circuit with resistor, inductor and capacitor - Answer (click here)
261. Choke coil: Construction and Working - Answer (click here)

Electromagnetic Waves and Wave Optics


1. Scope of Physics - Answer (click here)
2. Physics, Technology and Society - Answer (click here)
3. Forces of nature - Answer (click here)
4. Measurement - Answer (click here)
5. Derived quantities and their units - Answer (click here)
6. SI standards - Answer (click here)
7. Rules and conventions for writing SI units and their symbols - Answer
(click here)
8. Expressing larger and smaller physical quantities - Answer (click here)
9. Determination of distance, mass, time - Answer (click here)
10. Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments - Answer (click here)
11. Measurement: Significant figures - Answer (click here)
12. Measurement: Rounding off - Answer (click here)
13. Classification of Errors in Measurement - Answer (click here)
14. Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
15. Uses and Limitations of Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
16. Kinematics - Rest and Motion - Answer (click here)
17. Motion in one dimension (rectilinear motion) - Answer (click here)
18. Equations of motion - Answer (click here)
19. Graphical representations - displacement, velocity,acceleration with time
graph - Answer (click here)
20. Representation of a vector quantities - Answer (click here)
21. Different types of vectors - Answer (click here)
22. Addition of vectors: Triangle and Parallelogram law of vectors - Answer
(click here)
23. Subtraction of vectors - Answer (click here)
24. Resolution of vectors and rectangular components - Answer (click here)
25. Multiplication of two vectors - Answer (click here)
26. Projectile motion - Answer (click here)
27. Motion of a projectile thrown horizontally - Answer (click here)
28. Motion of a projectile projected at an angle with the horizontal (oblique
projection) - Answer (click here)
29. Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
30. Three types of the inertia - Answer (click here)
31. Examples for Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
32. Newton's second law of motion - Answer (click here)
33. Impulsive force and Impulse of a force - Answer (click here)
34. Newton's third Law of motion - Answer (click here)
35. Applications of Newton s third law of motion - Answer (click here)
36. Proof and Applications of Law of conservation of momentum - Answer
(click here)
37. Concurrent forces and Coplanar forces - Answer (click here)
38. Parallelogram and Triangle law of forces - Answer (click here)
39. Experimental verification of triangle law, parallelogram law and Lami's
theorem - Answer (click here)
40. Uniform circular motion - Answer (click here)
41. Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity - Answer (click here)
42. Centripetal acceleration, Centripetal force and Centripetal reaction -
Answer (click here)
43. Applications of centripetal forces - Answer (click here)
44. Banking of curved roads and tracks and Condition for skidding - Answer
(click here)
45. Motion in a vertical circle - Answer (click here)
46. Motion on a level circular road - Answer (click here)
47. Work : Work done by a constant force and variable force - Answer (click
here)
48. Potential energy and Kinetic energy - Answer (click here)
49. Principle of work and energy (work - energy theorem) Statement -
Answer (click here)
50. Conservative forces and non-conservative forces - Answer (click here)
51. Collision: Types - Elastic collision and Inelastic collision - Answer (click
here)
52. Centre of mass - Answer (click here)
53. Centre of gravity - Answer (click here)
54. Equilibrium of bodies and types of equilibrium - Answer (click here)
55. Rotational motion of rigid bodies - Answer (click here)
56. Rotational kinetic energy and moment of inertia of a rigid body - Answer
(click here)
57. Theorems of moment of inertia : Perpendicular and Parallel axes
theorem - Answer (click here)
58. Moment of a force - Answer (click here)
59. Couple and moment of the couple (Torque) - Answer (click here)
60. Angular momentum of a rigid body - Answer (click here)
61. Relation between torque and angular acceleration - Answer (click here)
62. Conservation of angular momentum with Illustration - Answer (click here)
63. Newton's law of gravitation - Answer (click here)
64. Acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
65. Acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the Earth - Answer (click here)
66. Variation of acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
67. Gravitational field: potential difference and potential energy - Answer
(click here)
68. Inertial mass and Gravitational mass - Answer (click here)
69. Escape speed derivation and with the atmosphere of a planet - Answer
(click here)
70. Satellites: Orbital velocity, Time period and Energy - Answer (click here)
71. Geo-stationary satellites and Polar satellites - Answer (click here)
72. Uses of satellites - Answer (click here)
73. Indian space programme: List of Indian satellites and Indian Launch
Vehicles (Rockets) - Answer (click here)
74. Weightlessness, Rockets - principle and Types of fuels - Answer (click here)
75. The Solar system - Answer (click here)
76. Kepler's laws of planetary motion: The law of orbits, areas, periods -
Answer (click here)
77. Size, Surface temperatures, Mass, Atmosphere of the planets - Answer
(click here)
78. Conditions for life on any planet - Answer (click here)
79. Asteroids, Comets, Meteors and Meteorites inthe Solar system - Answer
(click here)
80. Stars, Constellations, Galaxy in the Solar system - Answer (click here)
81. Milky Way galaxy - Answer (click here)
82. Origin of the Universe - Answer (click here)
83. Mechanics of Solids and Fluids - Answer (click here)
84. Intermolecular or interatomic forces - Answer (click here)
85. Elasticity: Stress, strain Elastic limit, Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
86. Experimental verification of Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
87. Study of stress - strain relationship - Answer (click here)
88. Three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
89. Relation between the three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
90. Determination of Young's modulusby Searle's method - Answer (click here)
91. Applications of modulus of elasticity - Answer (click here)
92. Pressure due to a liquid column - Answer (click here)
93. Pascal's law and effect of gravity - Answer (click here)
94. Applications of Pascal's law: Hydraulic lift and brake - Answer (click here)
95. Co-efficient of viscosity - Answer (click here)
96. Viscosity: Streamline flow and Turbulent flow - Answer (click here)
97. Stoke's law (for highly viscous liquids) - Answer (click here)
98. Determination of coefficient of viscosity of water by Poiseuille's flow
method - Answer (click here)
99. Surface tension: Intermolecular, Cohesive, Adhesive force - Answer (click
here)
100. Experiments to demonstrate surface tension - Answer (click here)
101. Molecular theory of surface tension - Answer (click here)
102. Fluid Surface energy and surface tension - Answer (click here)
103. Pressure difference and pressure inside a liquid drop and a soap bubble -
Answer (click here)
104. Capillarity and Illustrations of capillarity - Answer (click here)
105. Experimental determination of surface tension of water by capillary rise
method - Answer (click here)
106. Factors affecting and Applications surface tension - Answer (click here)
107. Total energy of a liquid: Pressure, Kineti, Potential energy - Answer (click
here)
108. Fluid Equation of continuity - Answer (click here)
109. Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)
110. Application of Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)
111. The projection of uniform circular motion on a diameter is SHM - Answer
(click here)
112. Important terms in simple harmonic motion - Answer (click here)
113. Dynamics of harmonic oscillations - Answer (click here)
114. Angular harmonic oscillator - Answer (click here)
115. Horizontal and Vertical oscillations of spring - Answer (click here)
116. Oscillation of liquid column in a U - tube - Answer (click here)
117. Oscillations of a simple pendulum - Answer (click here)
118. Laws of pendulum - Answer (click here)
119. Kinetic and Potential in simple harmonic motion - Answer (click here)
120. Types of oscillations - Answer (click here)
121. Characteristics of wave motion - Answer (click here)
122. Mechanical wave motion - Transverse and Longitudinal wave motion -
Answer (click here)
123. Relationship between velocity, frequency and wavelength of a wave -
Answer (click here)
124. Velocity of wave in different media - Answer (click here)
125. Laplace?s correction - Answer (click here)
126. Factors affecting velocity of sound in gases - Answer (click here)
127. Equation of a plane progressive wave - Answer (click here)
128. Characteristics of progressive wave - Answer (click here)
129. Progressive wave : Intensity and sound level - Answer (click here)
130. Applications of reflection of sound waves - Answer (click here)
131. Applications of refraction of sound - Answer (click here)
132. Superposition principle of waves - Answer (click here)
133. Interference of waves - Answer (click here)
134. Experimental demonstration of interference of sound - Answer (click here)
135. Beats - Analytical method and Uses of beats - Answer (click here)
136. Analytical method and Characteristics of stationary waves - Answer (click
here)
137. Standing waves in strings - Sonometer - Answer (click here)
138. Vibrations of air column in Organ pipes - Answer (click here)
139. Resonance air column apparatus - Answer (click here)
140. Doppler effect : Different cases and Applications - Answer (click here)
141. Heat and Thermodynamics - Introduction - Answer (click here)
142. Postulates of Kinetic theory of gases - Answer (click here)
143. Pressure exerted by a gas - Answer (click here)
144. Degrees of freedom of molecule - Answer (click here)
145. Law of equipartition of energy - Answer (click here)
146. Thermal equilibrium - Answer (click here)
147. Molar specific heat capacity of a gas - Answer (click here)
148. First law of thermodynamics - Answer (click here)
149. Relation between Cp and Cv (Meyer's relation) - Answer (click here)
150. Indicator diagram (P-V diagram) - Answer (click here)
151. Isothermal process and Workdone in an isothermal expansion - Answer
(click here)
152. Adiabatic process and Work done in an adiabatic expansion - Answer
(click here)
153. Thermodynamic : Reversible and irreversible processes - Answer (click
here)
154. Second law of thermodynamics- Kelvin's, Clausius, Kelvin - Planck's
statement - Answer (click here)
155. Carnot engine - Essential parts, Working, four stages of operations -
Answer (click here)
156. Refrigerator : Coefficient of performance and Inferences - Answer (click
here)
157. Transfer of heat - Conduction, Convection, Radiation - Answer (click here)
158. Perfect black body - Answer (click here)
159. Experimental verification of Newton's law of cooling - Answer (click here)
160. Surface temperature of the Sun - Answer (click here)
161. Angstrom pyrheliometer - Answer (click here)
162. Reflection of light - Answer (click here)
163. Image in a plane mirror - Answer (click here)
164. Reflection at curved surfaces - Answer (click here)
165. Total internal reflection - Answer (click here)
166. Applications of Total internal reflection - Answer (click here)
167. Michelson's method - Answer (click here)
168. Importance of velocity of light - Answer (click here)
169. Refraction of light - Answer (click here)
170. Refraction at a spherical surface - Answer (click here)
171. Lens maker's formula and lens formula and Magnification - Answer (click
here)
172. Combination of thin lenses in contact - Answer (click here)
173. Refraction of light through a prism - Answer (click here)
174. Dispersion of light and Dispersive power - Answer (click here)
175. Spectrometer - Answer (click here)
176. Basic Parts and Adjustments of the spectrometer - Answer (click here)
177. Determination of the refractive index of the material of the prism -
Answer (click here)
178. Formation of rainbows - Answer (click here)
179. Earth?s magnetic field and magnetic elements - Answer (click here)
180. Basic properties of magnets - Answer (click here)
181. Force between two magnetic poles - Answer (click here)
182. Magnetic induction at a point along the axial line due to a magnetic
dipole (Bar magnet) - Answer (click here)
183. Magnetic induction at a point along the equatorial line of a bar magnet -
Answer (click here)
184. Mapping of magnetic field due to a bar magnet - Answer (click here)
185. Torque on a bar magnet placed in a uniform magnetic field - Answer (click
here)
186. Tangent law - Answer (click here)
187. End-on (or) Tan A position- Deflection magnetometer - Answer (click here)
188. Broad?side on (or) Tan B position - Deflection magnetometer - Answer
(click here)
189. Magnetic properties of materials - Answer (click here)
190. Properties of diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic substances -
Answer (click here)
191. Hysteresis and Hysteresis loss - Answer (click here)
192. Uses of ferromagnetic materials - Answer (click here)
193. Electrostatics - frictional electricity - Answer (click here)
194. Basic properties of electric charge - Answer (click here)
195. Definition of Coulomb's law , Principle of Superposition, Electric Field,
Electric Field Intensity (E) - Answer (click here)
196. Electric Field: Definition of Electric lines of force and Properties of lines
of forces - Answer (click here)
197. Electric potential: Definition of Electric potential and Relation between
electric field and potential - Answer (click here)
198. Gauss's law and its applications - Answer (click here)
199. Electrostatic induction - Answer (click here)
200. Principle of a capacitor and Energy stored in a capacitor - Answer (click
here)
201. Lightning conductor -Van de Graaff Generator- working principle and
construction - Answer (click here)
202. Definition of Electric current and discription of Current Electricity -
Answer (click here)
203. Combination of resistors: Resistors in series and parallel - Answer (click
here)
204. Kirchoff's law and Potentiometer - Answer (click here)
205. Superconductivity Defination and Applications of superconductors -
Answer (click here)
206. Carbon resistors and Colour code for carbon resistors - Answer (click here)
207. Temperature dependence of resistance and Internal resistance of a cell -
Answer (click here)
208. Electric energy and electric power - Answer (click here)
209. Faraday's laws of electrolysis | Chemical effect of current | Verification
of Faraday's laws of electrolysis - Answer (click here)
210. Electric cells and Voltaic cell - Answer (click here)
211. Primary Cell - Daniel cell, Leclanche cell - Answer (click here)
212. Secondary Cells - Lead - Acid accumulator - Applications of secondary
cells - Answer (click here)
213. Applications of Joule heating - Answer (click here)
214. Seebeck effect - Answer (click here)
215. Neutral and Inversion temperature - Answer (click here)
216. Peltier effect and Peltier Co-efficient (π) - Answer (click here)
217. Thomson effect and Thomson coefficient (σ) - Answer (click here)
218. Thermopile - Answer (click here)
219. Biot - Savart Law - Answer (click here)
220. Tangent galvanometer : Theory and Construction of Tangent
galvanometer - Answer (click here)
221. Solenoid and Right hand palm rule - Answer (click here)
222. Magnetic Lorentz force - Answer (click here)
223. Cyclotron- Principle, Construction, Working and Limitations of
Cyclotron - Answer (click here)
224. Moving coil galvanometer : Principle, Construction, Pointer type
moving coil galvanometer, Current sensitivity of a galvanometer - Answer
(click here)
225. Heating effect : Joule's law - Answer (click here)
226. Verification of Joule's law - Answer (click here)
227. Magnetic effect of current - Answer (click here)
228. Magnetic field around a straight conductor carrying current - Answer (click
here)
229. Magnetic field due to a circular loop carrying current - Answer (click here)
230. Biot Savart Law and Magnetic induction - Answer (click here)
231. Ampere's Circuital Law - Answer (click here)
232. Magnetic induction due to a long solenoid carrying current - Answer (click
here)
233. Magnetic Lorentz force and Cyclotron - Answer (click here)
234. Motion of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field - Answer (click
here)
235. Force on a current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field - Answer
(click here)
236. Force between two long parallel current-carrying conductors - Answer
(click here)
237. Torque experienced by a current loop in a uniform magnetic field -
Answer (click here)
238. Conversion of galvanometer into an ammeter - Answer (click here)
239. Conversion of galvanometer into a voltmeter - Answer (click here)
240. Current loop as a magnetic dipole - Answer (click here)
241. The magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron - Answer (click here)
242. AC generator (Dynamo) - Single phase and AC generator (Alternator) -
Three phase - Answer (click here)
243. Eddy currents and Applications of Eddy current - Answer (click here)
244. Transformer Principle - Efficiency of a transformer - Energy losses in a
transformer - Answer (click here)
245. Electromagnetic induction - Answer (click here)
246. Magnetic flux - Answer (click here)
247. Induced emf and current - Electromagnetic induction - Answer (click here)
248. Faraday's laws of electromagnetic induction - Answer (click here)
249. Lenz's law - Answer (click here)
250. Self Induction - Answer (click here)
251. Coefficient of self induction - Answer (click here)
252. Self inductance of a long solenoid - Answer (click here)
253. Mutual induction and Coefficient of mutual induction - Answer (click here)
254. Methods of producing induced emf - Answer (click here)
255. AC generator (Dynamo) - Single phase - Answer (click here)
256. Eddy currents - Answer (click here)
257. Transformer - Answer (click here)
258. Long distance power transmission - Answer (click here)
259. Alternating current - Answer (click here)
260. AC Circuit with resistor, inductor and capacitor - Answer (click here)
261. Choke coil: Construction and Working - Answer (click here)
262. Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman(C.V.Raman) Life - Answer (click here)
263. Uses of electromagnetic spectrum - Answer (click here)
264. Types of spectra - Emission spectra, Line spectrum, Band Spectrum,
Absorption Spectra - Answer (click here)
265. Fraunhofer lines - Fluorescence - Phosphorescence - Answer (click here)
266. Theories of light : Corpuscular theory, Wave theory, Electromagnetic
theory, Quantum theory - Answer (click here)
267. Scattering of light : Tyndal scattering, Raman effect - Answer (click here)
268. Wave front : Huygen's principle - Answer (click here)
269. Condition for sustained interference and Young's double slit experiment
- Answer (click here)
270. Newton's rings : Experiment, Theory - Answer (click here)
271. Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction - Answer (click here)
272. Diffraction grating explanation with Theory - Answer (click here)
273. Polarisation of transverse waves - Answer (click here)
274. Double refraction - Answer (click here)
275. Polaroids explanation and Uses of Polaroid - Answer (click here)
276. Nicol prism and Types of crystals - Answer (click here)
277. Optical activity - Answer (click here)
278. Specific rotation - Answer (click here)
279. Electromagnetic Waves and Wave optics - Answer (click here)
280. Characteristics of electromagnetic waves - Answer (click here)
281. Hertz experiment - Answer (click here)
282. Types of spectra - Answer (click here)
283. Theories of light - Answer (click here)
284. Scattering of light - Answer (click here)
285. Wave front - Answer (click here)
286. Superposition principle - Answer (click here)
287. Diffraction - Answer (click here)
288. Polarisation - Answer (click here)

Atomic Physics
1. Scope of Physics - Answer (click here)
2. Physics, Technology and Society - Answer (click here)
3. Forces of nature - Answer (click here)
4. Measurement - Answer (click here)
5. Derived quantities and their units - Answer (click here)
6. SI standards - Answer (click here)
7. Rules and conventions for writing SI units and their symbols - Answer
(click here)
8. Expressing larger and smaller physical quantities - Answer (click here)
9. Determination of distance, mass, time - Answer (click here)
10. Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments - Answer (click here)
11. Measurement: Significant figures - Answer (click here)
12. Measurement: Rounding off - Answer (click here)
13. Classification of Errors in Measurement - Answer (click here)
14. Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
15. Uses and Limitations of Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
16. Kinematics - Rest and Motion - Answer (click here)
17. Motion in one dimension (rectilinear motion) - Answer (click here)
18. Equations of motion - Answer (click here)
19. Graphical representations - displacement, velocity,acceleration with time
graph - Answer (click here)
20. Representation of a vector quantities - Answer (click here)
21. Different types of vectors - Answer (click here)
22. Addition of vectors: Triangle and Parallelogram law of vectors - Answer
(click here)
23. Subtraction of vectors - Answer (click here)
24. Resolution of vectors and rectangular components - Answer (click here)
25. Multiplication of two vectors - Answer (click here)
26. Projectile motion - Answer (click here)
27. Motion of a projectile thrown horizontally - Answer (click here)
28. Motion of a projectile projected at an angle with the horizontal (oblique
projection) - Answer (click here)
29. Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
30. Three types of the inertia - Answer (click here)
31. Examples for Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
32. Newton's second law of motion - Answer (click here)
33. Impulsive force and Impulse of a force - Answer (click here)
34. Newton's third Law of motion - Answer (click here)
35. Applications of Newton s third law of motion - Answer (click here)
36. Proof and Applications of Law of conservation of momentum - Answer
(click here)
37. Concurrent forces and Coplanar forces - Answer (click here)
38. Parallelogram and Triangle law of forces - Answer (click here)
39. Experimental verification of triangle law, parallelogram law and Lami's
theorem - Answer (click here)
40. Uniform circular motion - Answer (click here)
41. Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity - Answer (click here)
42. Centripetal acceleration, Centripetal force and Centripetal reaction -
Answer (click here)
43. Applications of centripetal forces - Answer (click here)
44. Banking of curved roads and tracks and Condition for skidding - Answer
(click here)
45. Motion in a vertical circle - Answer (click here)
46. Motion on a level circular road - Answer (click here)
47. Work : Work done by a constant force and variable force - Answer (click
here)
48. Potential energy and Kinetic energy - Answer (click here)
49. Principle of work and energy (work - energy theorem) Statement -
Answer (click here)
50. Conservative forces and non-conservative forces - Answer (click here)
51. Collision: Types - Elastic collision and Inelastic collision - Answer (click
here)
52. Centre of mass - Answer (click here)
53. Centre of gravity - Answer (click here)
54. Equilibrium of bodies and types of equilibrium - Answer (click here)
55. Rotational motion of rigid bodies - Answer (click here)
56. Rotational kinetic energy and moment of inertia of a rigid body - Answer
(click here)
57. Theorems of moment of inertia : Perpendicular and Parallel axes
theorem - Answer (click here)
58. Moment of a force - Answer (click here)
59. Couple and moment of the couple (Torque) - Answer (click here)
60. Angular momentum of a rigid body - Answer (click here)
61. Relation between torque and angular acceleration - Answer (click here)
62. Conservation of angular momentum with Illustration - Answer (click here)
63. Newton's law of gravitation - Answer (click here)
64. Acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
65. Acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the Earth - Answer (click here)
66. Variation of acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
67. Gravitational field: potential difference and potential energy - Answer
(click here)
68. Inertial mass and Gravitational mass - Answer (click here)
69. Escape speed derivation and with the atmosphere of a planet - Answer
(click here)
70. Satellites: Orbital velocity, Time period and Energy - Answer (click here)
71. Geo-stationary satellites and Polar satellites - Answer (click here)
72. Uses of satellites - Answer (click here)
73. Indian space programme: List of Indian satellites and Indian Launch
Vehicles (Rockets) - Answer (click here)
74. Weightlessness, Rockets - principle and Types of fuels - Answer (click here)
75. The Solar system - Answer (click here)
76. Kepler's laws of planetary motion: The law of orbits, areas, periods -
Answer (click here)
77. Size, Surface temperatures, Mass, Atmosphere of the planets - Answer
(click here)
78. Conditions for life on any planet - Answer (click here)
79. Asteroids, Comets, Meteors and Meteorites inthe Solar system - Answer
(click here)
80. Stars, Constellations, Galaxy in the Solar system - Answer (click here)
81. Milky Way galaxy - Answer (click here)
82. Origin of the Universe - Answer (click here)
83. Mechanics of Solids and Fluids - Answer (click here)
84. Intermolecular or interatomic forces - Answer (click here)
85. Elasticity: Stress, strain Elastic limit, Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
86. Experimental verification of Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
87. Study of stress - strain relationship - Answer (click here)
88. Three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
89. Relation between the three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
90. Determination of Young's modulusby Searle's method - Answer (click here)
91. Applications of modulus of elasticity - Answer (click here)
92. Pressure due to a liquid column - Answer (click here)
93. Pascal's law and effect of gravity - Answer (click here)
94. Applications of Pascal's law: Hydraulic lift and brake - Answer (click here)
95. Co-efficient of viscosity - Answer (click here)
96. Viscosity: Streamline flow and Turbulent flow - Answer (click here)
97. Stoke's law (for highly viscous liquids) - Answer (click here)
98. Determination of coefficient of viscosity of water by Poiseuille's flow
method - Answer (click here)
99. Surface tension: Intermolecular, Cohesive, Adhesive force - Answer (click
here)
100. Experiments to demonstrate surface tension - Answer (click here)
101. Molecular theory of surface tension - Answer (click here)
102. Fluid Surface energy and surface tension - Answer (click here)
103. Pressure difference and pressure inside a liquid drop and a soap bubble -
Answer (click here)
104. Capillarity and Illustrations of capillarity - Answer (click here)
105. Experimental determination of surface tension of water by capillary rise
method - Answer (click here)
106. Factors affecting and Applications surface tension - Answer (click here)
107. Total energy of a liquid: Pressure, Kineti, Potential energy - Answer (click
here)
108. Fluid Equation of continuity - Answer (click here)
109. Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)
110. Application of Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)
111. The projection of uniform circular motion on a diameter is SHM - Answer
(click here)
112. Important terms in simple harmonic motion - Answer (click here)
113. Dynamics of harmonic oscillations - Answer (click here)
114. Angular harmonic oscillator - Answer (click here)
115. Horizontal and Vertical oscillations of spring - Answer (click here)
116. Oscillation of liquid column in a U - tube - Answer (click here)
117. Oscillations of a simple pendulum - Answer (click here)
118. Laws of pendulum - Answer (click here)
119. Kinetic and Potential in simple harmonic motion - Answer (click here)
120. Types of oscillations - Answer (click here)
121. Characteristics of wave motion - Answer (click here)
122. Mechanical wave motion - Transverse and Longitudinal wave motion -
Answer (click here)
123. Relationship between velocity, frequency and wavelength of a wave -
Answer (click here)
124. Velocity of wave in different media - Answer (click here)
125. Laplace?s correction - Answer (click here)
126. Factors affecting velocity of sound in gases - Answer (click here)
127. Equation of a plane progressive wave - Answer (click here)
128. Characteristics of progressive wave - Answer (click here)
129. Progressive wave : Intensity and sound level - Answer (click here)
130. Applications of reflection of sound waves - Answer (click here)
131. Applications of refraction of sound - Answer (click here)
132. Superposition principle of waves - Answer (click here)
133. Interference of waves - Answer (click here)
134. Experimental demonstration of interference of sound - Answer (click here)
135. Beats - Analytical method and Uses of beats - Answer (click here)
136. Analytical method and Characteristics of stationary waves - Answer (click
here)
137. Standing waves in strings - Sonometer - Answer (click here)
138. Vibrations of air column in Organ pipes - Answer (click here)
139. Resonance air column apparatus - Answer (click here)
140. Doppler effect : Different cases and Applications - Answer (click here)
141. Heat and Thermodynamics - Introduction - Answer (click here)
142. Postulates of Kinetic theory of gases - Answer (click here)
143. Pressure exerted by a gas - Answer (click here)
144. Degrees of freedom of molecule - Answer (click here)
145. Law of equipartition of energy - Answer (click here)
146. Thermal equilibrium - Answer (click here)
147. Molar specific heat capacity of a gas - Answer (click here)
148. First law of thermodynamics - Answer (click here)
149. Relation between Cp and Cv (Meyer's relation) - Answer (click here)
150. Indicator diagram (P-V diagram) - Answer (click here)
151. Isothermal process and Workdone in an isothermal expansion - Answer
(click here)
152. Adiabatic process and Work done in an adiabatic expansion - Answer
(click here)
153. Thermodynamic : Reversible and irreversible processes - Answer (click
here)
154. Second law of thermodynamics- Kelvin's, Clausius, Kelvin - Planck's
statement - Answer (click here)
155. Carnot engine - Essential parts, Working, four stages of operations -
Answer (click here)
156. Refrigerator : Coefficient of performance and Inferences - Answer (click
here)
157. Transfer of heat - Conduction, Convection, Radiation - Answer (click here)
158. Perfect black body - Answer (click here)
159. Experimental verification of Newton's law of cooling - Answer (click here)
160. Surface temperature of the Sun - Answer (click here)
161. Angstrom pyrheliometer - Answer (click here)
162. Reflection of light - Answer (click here)
163. Image in a plane mirror - Answer (click here)
164. Reflection at curved surfaces - Answer (click here)
165. Total internal reflection - Answer (click here)
166. Applications of Total internal reflection - Answer (click here)
167. Michelson's method - Answer (click here)
168. Importance of velocity of light - Answer (click here)
169. Refraction of light - Answer (click here)
170. Refraction at a spherical surface - Answer (click here)
171. Lens maker's formula and lens formula and Magnification - Answer (click
here)
172. Combination of thin lenses in contact - Answer (click here)
173. Refraction of light through a prism - Answer (click here)
174. Dispersion of light and Dispersive power - Answer (click here)
175. Spectrometer - Answer (click here)
176. Basic Parts and Adjustments of the spectrometer - Answer (click here)
177. Determination of the refractive index of the material of the prism -
Answer (click here)
178. Formation of rainbows - Answer (click here)
179. Earth?s magnetic field and magnetic elements - Answer (click here)
180. Basic properties of magnets - Answer (click here)
181. Force between two magnetic poles - Answer (click here)
182. Magnetic induction at a point along the axial line due to a magnetic
dipole (Bar magnet) - Answer (click here)
183. Magnetic induction at a point along the equatorial line of a bar magnet -
Answer (click here)
184. Mapping of magnetic field due to a bar magnet - Answer (click here)
185. Torque on a bar magnet placed in a uniform magnetic field - Answer (click
here)
186. Tangent law - Answer (click here)
187. End-on (or) Tan A position- Deflection magnetometer - Answer (click here)
188. Broad?side on (or) Tan B position - Deflection magnetometer - Answer
(click here)
189. Magnetic properties of materials - Answer (click here)
190. Properties of diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic substances -
Answer (click here)
191. Hysteresis and Hysteresis loss - Answer (click here)
192. Uses of ferromagnetic materials - Answer (click here)
193. Electrostatics - frictional electricity - Answer (click here)
194. Basic properties of electric charge - Answer (click here)
195. Definition of Coulomb's law , Principle of Superposition, Electric Field,
Electric Field Intensity (E) - Answer (click here)
196. Electric Field: Definition of Electric lines of force and Properties of lines
of forces - Answer (click here)
197. Electric potential: Definition of Electric potential and Relation between
electric field and potential - Answer (click here)
198. Gauss's law and its applications - Answer (click here)
199. Electrostatic induction - Answer (click here)
200. Principle of a capacitor and Energy stored in a capacitor - Answer (click
here)
201. Lightning conductor -Van de Graaff Generator- working principle and
construction - Answer (click here)
202. Definition of Electric current and discription of Current Electricity -
Answer (click here)
203. Combination of resistors: Resistors in series and parallel - Answer (click
here)
204. Kirchoff's law and Potentiometer - Answer (click here)
205. Superconductivity Defination and Applications of superconductors -
Answer (click here)
206. Carbon resistors and Colour code for carbon resistors - Answer (click here)
207. Temperature dependence of resistance and Internal resistance of a cell -
Answer (click here)
208. Electric energy and electric power - Answer (click here)
209. Faraday's laws of electrolysis | Chemical effect of current | Verification
of Faraday's laws of electrolysis - Answer (click here)
210. Electric cells and Voltaic cell - Answer (click here)
211. Primary Cell - Daniel cell, Leclanche cell - Answer (click here)
212. Secondary Cells - Lead - Acid accumulator - Applications of secondary
cells - Answer (click here)
213. Applications of Joule heating - Answer (click here)
214. Seebeck effect - Answer (click here)
215. Neutral and Inversion temperature - Answer (click here)
216. Peltier effect and Peltier Co-efficient (π) - Answer (click here)
217. Thomson effect and Thomson coefficient (σ) - Answer (click here)
218. Thermopile - Answer (click here)
219. Biot - Savart Law - Answer (click here)
220. Tangent galvanometer : Theory and Construction of Tangent
galvanometer - Answer (click here)
221. Solenoid and Right hand palm rule - Answer (click here)
222. Magnetic Lorentz force - Answer (click here)
223. Cyclotron- Principle, Construction, Working and Limitations of
Cyclotron - Answer (click here)
224. Moving coil galvanometer : Principle, Construction, Pointer type
moving coil galvanometer, Current sensitivity of a galvanometer - Answer
(click here)
225. Heating effect : Joule's law - Answer (click here)
226. Verification of Joule's law - Answer (click here)
227. Magnetic effect of current - Answer (click here)
228. Magnetic field around a straight conductor carrying current - Answer (click
here)
229. Magnetic field due to a circular loop carrying current - Answer (click here)
230. Biot Savart Law and Magnetic induction - Answer (click here)
231. Ampere's Circuital Law - Answer (click here)
232. Magnetic induction due to a long solenoid carrying current - Answer (click
here)
233. Magnetic Lorentz force and Cyclotron - Answer (click here)
234. Motion of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field - Answer (click
here)
235. Force on a current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field - Answer
(click here)
236. Force between two long parallel current-carrying conductors - Answer
(click here)
237. Torque experienced by a current loop in a uniform magnetic field -
Answer (click here)
238. Conversion of galvanometer into an ammeter - Answer (click here)
239. Conversion of galvanometer into a voltmeter - Answer (click here)
240. Current loop as a magnetic dipole - Answer (click here)
241. The magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron - Answer (click here)
242. AC generator (Dynamo) - Single phase and AC generator (Alternator) -
Three phase - Answer (click here)
243. Eddy currents and Applications of Eddy current - Answer (click here)
244. Transformer Principle - Efficiency of a transformer - Energy losses in a
transformer - Answer (click here)
245. Electromagnetic induction - Answer (click here)
246. Magnetic flux - Answer (click here)
247. Induced emf and current - Electromagnetic induction - Answer (click here)
248. Faraday's laws of electromagnetic induction - Answer (click here)
249. Lenz's law - Answer (click here)
250. Self Induction - Answer (click here)
251. Coefficient of self induction - Answer (click here)
252. Self inductance of a long solenoid - Answer (click here)
253. Mutual induction and Coefficient of mutual induction - Answer (click here)
254. Methods of producing induced emf - Answer (click here)
255. AC generator (Dynamo) - Single phase - Answer (click here)
256. Eddy currents - Answer (click here)
257. Transformer - Answer (click here)
258. Long distance power transmission - Answer (click here)
259. Alternating current - Answer (click here)
260. AC Circuit with resistor, inductor and capacitor - Answer (click here)
261. Choke coil: Construction and Working - Answer (click here)
262. Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman(C.V.Raman) Life - Answer (click here)
263. Uses of electromagnetic spectrum - Answer (click here)
264. Types of spectra - Emission spectra, Line spectrum, Band Spectrum,
Absorption Spectra - Answer (click here)
265. Fraunhofer lines - Fluorescence - Phosphorescence - Answer (click here)
266. Theories of light : Corpuscular theory, Wave theory, Electromagnetic
theory, Quantum theory - Answer (click here)
267. Scattering of light : Tyndal scattering, Raman effect - Answer (click here)
268. Wave front : Huygen's principle - Answer (click here)
269. Condition for sustained interference and Young's double slit experiment
- Answer (click here)
270. Newton's rings : Experiment, Theory - Answer (click here)
271. Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction - Answer (click here)
272. Diffraction grating explanation with Theory - Answer (click here)
273. Polarisation of transverse waves - Answer (click here)
274. Double refraction - Answer (click here)
275. Polaroids explanation and Uses of Polaroid - Answer (click here)
276. Nicol prism and Types of crystals - Answer (click here)
277. Optical activity - Answer (click here)
278. Specific rotation - Answer (click here)
279. Electromagnetic Waves and Wave optics - Answer (click here)
280. Characteristics of electromagnetic waves - Answer (click here)
281. Hertz experiment - Answer (click here)
282. Types of spectra - Answer (click here)
283. Theories of light - Answer (click here)
284. Scattering of light - Answer (click here)
285. Wave front - Answer (click here)
286. Superposition principle - Answer (click here)
287. Diffraction - Answer (click here)
288. Polarisation - Answer (click here)
289. Discharge of electricity through gases at low pressure - Discovery of
electrons - Answer (click here)
290. Properties of Cathode rays - Answer (click here)
291. Canal rays and Properties of Positive rays (or) Canal rays - Answer (click
here)
292. Thomson's method - Determination of specific charge (e/m) of an
electron - Answer (click here)
293. Millikan's oil drop experiment - Determination of charge of an electron -
Answer (click here)
294. Thomson atom model and its Drawbacks - Answer (click here)
295. Rutherford's α - particle scattering experiment - Answer (click here)
296. Rutherford atom model and its Drawbacks - Answer (click here)
297. Bohr atom model - Answer (click here)
298. Spectral series of hydrogen atom and Energy level diagram - Answer (click
here)
299. Excitation and ionization potential of an atom - Answer (click here)
300. Shortcomings of Bohr's theory - Answer (click here)
301. Sommerfeld atom model and its Drawbacks - Answer (click here)
302. Production of X-rays - Modern Coolidge tube - Answer (click here)
303. Types of X-rays: Soft and Hard X-rays - Answer (click here)
304. Properties of X-rays - Answer (click here)
305. Detection, Diffraction and Absorption of X-rays - Answer (click here)
306. Laue experiment - Answer (click here)
307. Bragg's law for X-ray diffraction - Answer (click here)
308. Bragg's X-ray spectrometer - Answer (click here)
309. X-ray spectra - continuous and characteristic X-ray spectra - Answer (click
here)
310. Moseley's law and Applications of Moseley's law - Answer (click here)
311. Medical, Industrial and Scientific Applications of X-rays - Answer (click
here)
312. Spontaneous and stimulated emission of Laser - Answer (click here)
313. Ruby laser - Generation Process and Energy Level - Answer (click here)
314. Helium neon laser - Generation Process and Energy Level - Answer (click
here)
315. Medical, Industrial and Scientific Applications of laser - Answer (click
here)

Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter and Relativity


1. Scope of Physics - Answer (click here)
2. Physics, Technology and Society - Answer (click here)
3. Forces of nature - Answer (click here)
4. Measurement - Answer (click here)
5. Derived quantities and their units - Answer (click here)
6. SI standards - Answer (click here)
7. Rules and conventions for writing SI units and their symbols - Answer
(click here)
8. Expressing larger and smaller physical quantities - Answer (click here)
9. Determination of distance, mass, time - Answer (click here)
10. Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments - Answer (click here)
11. Measurement: Significant figures - Answer (click here)
12. Measurement: Rounding off - Answer (click here)
13. Classification of Errors in Measurement - Answer (click here)
14. Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
15. Uses and Limitations of Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
16. Kinematics - Rest and Motion - Answer (click here)
17. Motion in one dimension (rectilinear motion) - Answer (click here)
18. Equations of motion - Answer (click here)
19. Graphical representations - displacement, velocity,acceleration with time
graph - Answer (click here)
20. Representation of a vector quantities - Answer (click here)
21. Different types of vectors - Answer (click here)
22. Addition of vectors: Triangle and Parallelogram law of vectors - Answer
(click here)
23. Subtraction of vectors - Answer (click here)
24. Resolution of vectors and rectangular components - Answer (click here)
25. Multiplication of two vectors - Answer (click here)
26. Projectile motion - Answer (click here)
27. Motion of a projectile thrown horizontally - Answer (click here)
28. Motion of a projectile projected at an angle with the horizontal (oblique
projection) - Answer (click here)
29. Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
30. Three types of the inertia - Answer (click here)
31. Examples for Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
32. Newton's second law of motion - Answer (click here)
33. Impulsive force and Impulse of a force - Answer (click here)
34. Newton's third Law of motion - Answer (click here)
35. Applications of Newton s third law of motion - Answer (click here)
36. Proof and Applications of Law of conservation of momentum - Answer
(click here)
37. Concurrent forces and Coplanar forces - Answer (click here)
38. Parallelogram and Triangle law of forces - Answer (click here)
39. Experimental verification of triangle law, parallelogram law and Lami's
theorem - Answer (click here)
40. Uniform circular motion - Answer (click here)
41. Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity - Answer (click here)
42. Centripetal acceleration, Centripetal force and Centripetal reaction -
Answer (click here)
43. Applications of centripetal forces - Answer (click here)
44. Banking of curved roads and tracks and Condition for skidding - Answer
(click here)
45. Motion in a vertical circle - Answer (click here)
46. Motion on a level circular road - Answer (click here)
47. Work : Work done by a constant force and variable force - Answer (click
here)
48. Potential energy and Kinetic energy - Answer (click here)
49. Principle of work and energy (work - energy theorem) Statement -
Answer (click here)
50. Conservative forces and non-conservative forces - Answer (click here)
51. Collision: Types - Elastic collision and Inelastic collision - Answer (click
here)
52. Centre of mass - Answer (click here)
53. Centre of gravity - Answer (click here)
54. Equilibrium of bodies and types of equilibrium - Answer (click here)
55. Rotational motion of rigid bodies - Answer (click here)
56. Rotational kinetic energy and moment of inertia of a rigid body - Answer
(click here)
57. Theorems of moment of inertia : Perpendicular and Parallel axes
theorem - Answer (click here)
58. Moment of a force - Answer (click here)
59. Couple and moment of the couple (Torque) - Answer (click here)
60. Angular momentum of a rigid body - Answer (click here)
61. Relation between torque and angular acceleration - Answer (click here)
62. Conservation of angular momentum with Illustration - Answer (click here)
63. Newton's law of gravitation - Answer (click here)
64. Acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
65. Acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the Earth - Answer (click here)
66. Variation of acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
67. Gravitational field: potential difference and potential energy - Answer
(click here)
68. Inertial mass and Gravitational mass - Answer (click here)
69. Escape speed derivation and with the atmosphere of a planet - Answer
(click here)
70. Satellites: Orbital velocity, Time period and Energy - Answer (click here)
71. Geo-stationary satellites and Polar satellites - Answer (click here)
72. Uses of satellites - Answer (click here)
73. Indian space programme: List of Indian satellites and Indian Launch
Vehicles (Rockets) - Answer (click here)
74. Weightlessness, Rockets - principle and Types of fuels - Answer (click here)
75. The Solar system - Answer (click here)
76. Kepler's laws of planetary motion: The law of orbits, areas, periods -
Answer (click here)
77. Size, Surface temperatures, Mass, Atmosphere of the planets - Answer
(click here)
78. Conditions for life on any planet - Answer (click here)
79. Asteroids, Comets, Meteors and Meteorites inthe Solar system - Answer
(click here)
80. Stars, Constellations, Galaxy in the Solar system - Answer (click here)
81. Milky Way galaxy - Answer (click here)
82. Origin of the Universe - Answer (click here)
83. Mechanics of Solids and Fluids - Answer (click here)
84. Intermolecular or interatomic forces - Answer (click here)
85. Elasticity: Stress, strain Elastic limit, Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
86. Experimental verification of Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
87. Study of stress - strain relationship - Answer (click here)
88. Three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
89. Relation between the three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
90. Determination of Young's modulusby Searle's method - Answer (click here)
91. Applications of modulus of elasticity - Answer (click here)
92. Pressure due to a liquid column - Answer (click here)
93. Pascal's law and effect of gravity - Answer (click here)
94. Applications of Pascal's law: Hydraulic lift and brake - Answer (click here)
95. Co-efficient of viscosity - Answer (click here)
96. Viscosity: Streamline flow and Turbulent flow - Answer (click here)
97. Stoke's law (for highly viscous liquids) - Answer (click here)
98. Determination of coefficient of viscosity of water by Poiseuille's flow
method - Answer (click here)
99. Surface tension: Intermolecular, Cohesive, Adhesive force - Answer (click
here)
100. Experiments to demonstrate surface tension - Answer (click here)
101. Molecular theory of surface tension - Answer (click here)
102. Fluid Surface energy and surface tension - Answer (click here)
103. Pressure difference and pressure inside a liquid drop and a soap bubble -
Answer (click here)
104. Capillarity and Illustrations of capillarity - Answer (click here)
105. Experimental determination of surface tension of water by capillary rise
method - Answer (click here)
106. Factors affecting and Applications surface tension - Answer (click here)
107. Total energy of a liquid: Pressure, Kineti, Potential energy - Answer (click
here)
108. Fluid Equation of continuity - Answer (click here)
109. Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)
110. Application of Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)
111. The projection of uniform circular motion on a diameter is SHM - Answer
(click here)
112. Important terms in simple harmonic motion - Answer (click here)
113. Dynamics of harmonic oscillations - Answer (click here)
114. Angular harmonic oscillator - Answer (click here)
115. Horizontal and Vertical oscillations of spring - Answer (click here)
116. Oscillation of liquid column in a U - tube - Answer (click here)
117. Oscillations of a simple pendulum - Answer (click here)
118. Laws of pendulum - Answer (click here)
119. Kinetic and Potential in simple harmonic motion - Answer (click here)
120. Types of oscillations - Answer (click here)
121. Characteristics of wave motion - Answer (click here)
122. Mechanical wave motion - Transverse and Longitudinal wave motion -
Answer (click here)
123. Relationship between velocity, frequency and wavelength of a wave -
Answer (click here)
124. Velocity of wave in different media - Answer (click here)
125. Laplace?s correction - Answer (click here)
126. Factors affecting velocity of sound in gases - Answer (click here)
127. Equation of a plane progressive wave - Answer (click here)
128. Characteristics of progressive wave - Answer (click here)
129. Progressive wave : Intensity and sound level - Answer (click here)
130. Applications of reflection of sound waves - Answer (click here)
131. Applications of refraction of sound - Answer (click here)
132. Superposition principle of waves - Answer (click here)
133. Interference of waves - Answer (click here)
134. Experimental demonstration of interference of sound - Answer (click here)
135. Beats - Analytical method and Uses of beats - Answer (click here)
136. Analytical method and Characteristics of stationary waves - Answer (click
here)
137. Standing waves in strings - Sonometer - Answer (click here)
138. Vibrations of air column in Organ pipes - Answer (click here)
139. Resonance air column apparatus - Answer (click here)
140. Doppler effect : Different cases and Applications - Answer (click here)
141. Heat and Thermodynamics - Introduction - Answer (click here)
142. Postulates of Kinetic theory of gases - Answer (click here)
143. Pressure exerted by a gas - Answer (click here)
144. Degrees of freedom of molecule - Answer (click here)
145. Law of equipartition of energy - Answer (click here)
146. Thermal equilibrium - Answer (click here)
147. Molar specific heat capacity of a gas - Answer (click here)
148. First law of thermodynamics - Answer (click here)
149. Relation between Cp and Cv (Meyer's relation) - Answer (click here)
150. Indicator diagram (P-V diagram) - Answer (click here)
151. Isothermal process and Workdone in an isothermal expansion - Answer
(click here)
152. Adiabatic process and Work done in an adiabatic expansion - Answer
(click here)
153. Thermodynamic : Reversible and irreversible processes - Answer (click
here)
154. Second law of thermodynamics- Kelvin's, Clausius, Kelvin - Planck's
statement - Answer (click here)
155. Carnot engine - Essential parts, Working, four stages of operations -
Answer (click here)
156. Refrigerator : Coefficient of performance and Inferences - Answer (click
here)
157. Transfer of heat - Conduction, Convection, Radiation - Answer (click here)
158. Perfect black body - Answer (click here)
159. Experimental verification of Newton's law of cooling - Answer (click here)
160. Surface temperature of the Sun - Answer (click here)
161. Angstrom pyrheliometer - Answer (click here)
162. Reflection of light - Answer (click here)
163. Image in a plane mirror - Answer (click here)
164. Reflection at curved surfaces - Answer (click here)
165. Total internal reflection - Answer (click here)
166. Applications of Total internal reflection - Answer (click here)
167. Michelson's method - Answer (click here)
168. Importance of velocity of light - Answer (click here)
169. Refraction of light - Answer (click here)
170. Refraction at a spherical surface - Answer (click here)
171. Lens maker's formula and lens formula and Magnification - Answer (click
here)
172. Combination of thin lenses in contact - Answer (click here)
173. Refraction of light through a prism - Answer (click here)
174. Dispersion of light and Dispersive power - Answer (click here)
175. Spectrometer - Answer (click here)
176. Basic Parts and Adjustments of the spectrometer - Answer (click here)
177. Determination of the refractive index of the material of the prism -
Answer (click here)
178. Formation of rainbows - Answer (click here)
179. Earth?s magnetic field and magnetic elements - Answer (click here)
180. Basic properties of magnets - Answer (click here)
181. Force between two magnetic poles - Answer (click here)
182. Magnetic induction at a point along the axial line due to a magnetic
dipole (Bar magnet) - Answer (click here)
183. Magnetic induction at a point along the equatorial line of a bar magnet -
Answer (click here)
184. Mapping of magnetic field due to a bar magnet - Answer (click here)
185. Torque on a bar magnet placed in a uniform magnetic field - Answer (click
here)
186. Tangent law - Answer (click here)
187. End-on (or) Tan A position- Deflection magnetometer - Answer (click here)
188. Broad?side on (or) Tan B position - Deflection magnetometer - Answer
(click here)
189. Magnetic properties of materials - Answer (click here)
190. Properties of diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic substances -
Answer (click here)
191. Hysteresis and Hysteresis loss - Answer (click here)
192. Uses of ferromagnetic materials - Answer (click here)
193. Electrostatics - frictional electricity - Answer (click here)
194. Basic properties of electric charge - Answer (click here)
195. Definition of Coulomb's law , Principle of Superposition, Electric Field,
Electric Field Intensity (E) - Answer (click here)
196. Electric Field: Definition of Electric lines of force and Properties of lines
of forces - Answer (click here)
197. Electric potential: Definition of Electric potential and Relation between
electric field and potential - Answer (click here)
198. Gauss's law and its applications - Answer (click here)
199. Electrostatic induction - Answer (click here)
200. Principle of a capacitor and Energy stored in a capacitor - Answer (click
here)
201. Lightning conductor -Van de Graaff Generator- working principle and
construction - Answer (click here)
202. Definition of Electric current and discription of Current Electricity -
Answer (click here)
203. Combination of resistors: Resistors in series and parallel - Answer (click
here)
204. Kirchoff's law and Potentiometer - Answer (click here)
205. Superconductivity Defination and Applications of superconductors -
Answer (click here)
206. Carbon resistors and Colour code for carbon resistors - Answer (click here)
207. Temperature dependence of resistance and Internal resistance of a cell -
Answer (click here)
208. Electric energy and electric power - Answer (click here)
209. Faraday's laws of electrolysis | Chemical effect of current | Verification
of Faraday's laws of electrolysis - Answer (click here)
210. Electric cells and Voltaic cell - Answer (click here)
211. Primary Cell - Daniel cell, Leclanche cell - Answer (click here)
212. Secondary Cells - Lead - Acid accumulator - Applications of secondary
cells - Answer (click here)
213. Applications of Joule heating - Answer (click here)
214. Seebeck effect - Answer (click here)
215. Neutral and Inversion temperature - Answer (click here)
216. Peltier effect and Peltier Co-efficient (π) - Answer (click here)
217. Thomson effect and Thomson coefficient (σ) - Answer (click here)
218. Thermopile - Answer (click here)
219. Biot - Savart Law - Answer (click here)
220. Tangent galvanometer : Theory and Construction of Tangent
galvanometer - Answer (click here)
221. Solenoid and Right hand palm rule - Answer (click here)
222. Magnetic Lorentz force - Answer (click here)
223. Cyclotron- Principle, Construction, Working and Limitations of
Cyclotron - Answer (click here)
224. Moving coil galvanometer : Principle, Construction, Pointer type
moving coil galvanometer, Current sensitivity of a galvanometer - Answer
(click here)
225. Heating effect : Joule's law - Answer (click here)
226. Verification of Joule's law - Answer (click here)
227. Magnetic effect of current - Answer (click here)
228. Magnetic field around a straight conductor carrying current - Answer (click
here)
229. Magnetic field due to a circular loop carrying current - Answer (click here)
230. Biot Savart Law and Magnetic induction - Answer (click here)
231. Ampere's Circuital Law - Answer (click here)
232. Magnetic induction due to a long solenoid carrying current - Answer (click
here)
233. Magnetic Lorentz force and Cyclotron - Answer (click here)
234. Motion of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field - Answer (click
here)
235. Force on a current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field - Answer
(click here)
236. Force between two long parallel current-carrying conductors - Answer
(click here)
237. Torque experienced by a current loop in a uniform magnetic field -
Answer (click here)
238. Conversion of galvanometer into an ammeter - Answer (click here)
239. Conversion of galvanometer into a voltmeter - Answer (click here)
240. Current loop as a magnetic dipole - Answer (click here)
241. The magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron - Answer (click here)
242. AC generator (Dynamo) - Single phase and AC generator (Alternator) -
Three phase - Answer (click here)
243. Eddy currents and Applications of Eddy current - Answer (click here)
244. Transformer Principle - Efficiency of a transformer - Energy losses in a
transformer - Answer (click here)
245. Electromagnetic induction - Answer (click here)
246. Magnetic flux - Answer (click here)
247. Induced emf and current - Electromagnetic induction - Answer (click here)
248. Faraday's laws of electromagnetic induction - Answer (click here)
249. Lenz's law - Answer (click here)
250. Self Induction - Answer (click here)
251. Coefficient of self induction - Answer (click here)
252. Self inductance of a long solenoid - Answer (click here)
253. Mutual induction and Coefficient of mutual induction - Answer (click here)
254. Methods of producing induced emf - Answer (click here)
255. AC generator (Dynamo) - Single phase - Answer (click here)
256. Eddy currents - Answer (click here)
257. Transformer - Answer (click here)
258. Long distance power transmission - Answer (click here)
259. Alternating current - Answer (click here)
260. AC Circuit with resistor, inductor and capacitor - Answer (click here)
261. Choke coil: Construction and Working - Answer (click here)
262. Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman(C.V.Raman) Life - Answer (click here)
263. Uses of electromagnetic spectrum - Answer (click here)
264. Types of spectra - Emission spectra, Line spectrum, Band Spectrum,
Absorption Spectra - Answer (click here)
265. Fraunhofer lines - Fluorescence - Phosphorescence - Answer (click here)
266. Theories of light : Corpuscular theory, Wave theory, Electromagnetic
theory, Quantum theory - Answer (click here)
267. Scattering of light : Tyndal scattering, Raman effect - Answer (click here)
268. Wave front : Huygen's principle - Answer (click here)
269. Condition for sustained interference and Young's double slit experiment
- Answer (click here)
270. Newton's rings : Experiment, Theory - Answer (click here)
271. Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction - Answer (click here)
272. Diffraction grating explanation with Theory - Answer (click here)
273. Polarisation of transverse waves - Answer (click here)
274. Double refraction - Answer (click here)
275. Polaroids explanation and Uses of Polaroid - Answer (click here)
276. Nicol prism and Types of crystals - Answer (click here)
277. Optical activity - Answer (click here)
278. Specific rotation - Answer (click here)
279. Electromagnetic Waves and Wave optics - Answer (click here)
280. Characteristics of electromagnetic waves - Answer (click here)
281. Hertz experiment - Answer (click here)
282. Types of spectra - Answer (click here)
283. Theories of light - Answer (click here)
284. Scattering of light - Answer (click here)
285. Wave front - Answer (click here)
286. Superposition principle - Answer (click here)
287. Diffraction - Answer (click here)
288. Polarisation - Answer (click here)
289. Discharge of electricity through gases at low pressure - Discovery of
electrons - Answer (click here)
290. Properties of Cathode rays - Answer (click here)
291. Canal rays and Properties of Positive rays (or) Canal rays - Answer (click
here)
292. Thomson's method - Determination of specific charge (e/m) of an
electron - Answer (click here)
293. Millikan's oil drop experiment - Determination of charge of an electron -
Answer (click here)
294. Thomson atom model and its Drawbacks - Answer (click here)
295. Rutherford's α - particle scattering experiment - Answer (click here)
296. Rutherford atom model and its Drawbacks - Answer (click here)
297. Bohr atom model - Answer (click here)
298. Spectral series of hydrogen atom and Energy level diagram - Answer (click
here)
299. Excitation and ionization potential of an atom - Answer (click here)
300. Shortcomings of Bohr's theory - Answer (click here)
301. Sommerfeld atom model and its Drawbacks - Answer (click here)
302. Production of X-rays - Modern Coolidge tube - Answer (click here)
303. Types of X-rays: Soft and Hard X-rays - Answer (click here)
304. Properties of X-rays - Answer (click here)
305. Detection, Diffraction and Absorption of X-rays - Answer (click here)
306. Laue experiment - Answer (click here)
307. Bragg's law for X-ray diffraction - Answer (click here)
308. Bragg's X-ray spectrometer - Answer (click here)
309. X-ray spectra - continuous and characteristic X-ray spectra - Answer (click
here)
310. Moseley's law and Applications of Moseley's law - Answer (click here)
311. Medical, Industrial and Scientific Applications of X-rays - Answer (click
here)
312. Spontaneous and stimulated emission of Laser - Answer (click here)
313. Ruby laser - Generation Process and Energy Level - Answer (click here)
314. Helium neon laser - Generation Process and Energy Level - Answer (click
here)
315. Medical, Industrial and Scientific Applications of laser - Answer (click
here)
316. Photoelectric effect - Dual Nature of Radiation - Answer (click here)
317. Hallwachs Experiment - photo electric effect - Answer (click here)
318. Effect of potential difference on the photoelectric current - Answer (click
here)
319. Effect of frequency of incident radiation on stopping potential - Answer
(click here)
320. Laws of photoelectric emission - Answer (click here)
321. Einstein's photoelectric equation - Answer (click here)
322. Photoelectric cells and their types, applications - Answer (click here)
323. de Broglie wavelength of matter waves and an electron - Answer (click
here)
324. Electron microscope: Construction, working, Uses, Limitations - Answer
(click here)
325. Relativity: Concept of Space and Frame of reference - Answer (click here)
326. Special theory of relativity - Answer (click here)
327. Einstein's mass-energy equivalence - Answer (click here)

Nuclear Physics
1. Scope of Physics - Answer (click here)
2. Physics, Technology and Society - Answer (click here)
3. Forces of nature - Answer (click here)
4. Measurement - Answer (click here)
5. Derived quantities and their units - Answer (click here)
6. SI standards - Answer (click here)
7. Rules and conventions for writing SI units and their symbols - Answer
(click here)
8. Expressing larger and smaller physical quantities - Answer (click here)
9. Determination of distance, mass, time - Answer (click here)
10. Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments - Answer (click here)
11. Measurement: Significant figures - Answer (click here)
12. Measurement: Rounding off - Answer (click here)
13. Classification of Errors in Measurement - Answer (click here)
14. Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
15. Uses and Limitations of Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
16. Kinematics - Rest and Motion - Answer (click here)
17. Motion in one dimension (rectilinear motion) - Answer (click here)
18. Equations of motion - Answer (click here)
19. Graphical representations - displacement, velocity,acceleration with time
graph - Answer (click here)
20. Representation of a vector quantities - Answer (click here)
21. Different types of vectors - Answer (click here)
22. Addition of vectors: Triangle and Parallelogram law of vectors - Answer
(click here)
23. Subtraction of vectors - Answer (click here)
24. Resolution of vectors and rectangular components - Answer (click here)
25. Multiplication of two vectors - Answer (click here)
26. Projectile motion - Answer (click here)
27. Motion of a projectile thrown horizontally - Answer (click here)
28. Motion of a projectile projected at an angle with the horizontal (oblique
projection) - Answer (click here)
29. Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
30. Three types of the inertia - Answer (click here)
31. Examples for Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
32. Newton's second law of motion - Answer (click here)
33. Impulsive force and Impulse of a force - Answer (click here)
34. Newton's third Law of motion - Answer (click here)
35. Applications of Newton s third law of motion - Answer (click here)
36. Proof and Applications of Law of conservation of momentum - Answer
(click here)
37. Concurrent forces and Coplanar forces - Answer (click here)
38. Parallelogram and Triangle law of forces - Answer (click here)
39. Experimental verification of triangle law, parallelogram law and Lami's
theorem - Answer (click here)
40. Uniform circular motion - Answer (click here)
41. Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity - Answer (click here)
42. Centripetal acceleration, Centripetal force and Centripetal reaction -
Answer (click here)
43. Applications of centripetal forces - Answer (click here)
44. Banking of curved roads and tracks and Condition for skidding - Answer
(click here)
45. Motion in a vertical circle - Answer (click here)
46. Motion on a level circular road - Answer (click here)
47. Work : Work done by a constant force and variable force - Answer (click
here)
48. Potential energy and Kinetic energy - Answer (click here)
49. Principle of work and energy (work - energy theorem) Statement -
Answer (click here)
50. Conservative forces and non-conservative forces - Answer (click here)
51. Collision: Types - Elastic collision and Inelastic collision - Answer (click
here)
52. Centre of mass - Answer (click here)
53. Centre of gravity - Answer (click here)
54. Equilibrium of bodies and types of equilibrium - Answer (click here)
55. Rotational motion of rigid bodies - Answer (click here)
56. Rotational kinetic energy and moment of inertia of a rigid body - Answer
(click here)
57. Theorems of moment of inertia : Perpendicular and Parallel axes
theorem - Answer (click here)
58. Moment of a force - Answer (click here)
59. Couple and moment of the couple (Torque) - Answer (click here)
60. Angular momentum of a rigid body - Answer (click here)
61. Relation between torque and angular acceleration - Answer (click here)
62. Conservation of angular momentum with Illustration - Answer (click here)
63. Newton's law of gravitation - Answer (click here)
64. Acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
65. Acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the Earth - Answer (click here)
66. Variation of acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
67. Gravitational field: potential difference and potential energy - Answer
(click here)
68. Inertial mass and Gravitational mass - Answer (click here)
69. Escape speed derivation and with the atmosphere of a planet - Answer
(click here)
70. Satellites: Orbital velocity, Time period and Energy - Answer (click here)
71. Geo-stationary satellites and Polar satellites - Answer (click here)
72. Uses of satellites - Answer (click here)
73. Indian space programme: List of Indian satellites and Indian Launch
Vehicles (Rockets) - Answer (click here)
74. Weightlessness, Rockets - principle and Types of fuels - Answer (click here)
75. The Solar system - Answer (click here)
76. Kepler's laws of planetary motion: The law of orbits, areas, periods -
Answer (click here)
77. Size, Surface temperatures, Mass, Atmosphere of the planets - Answer
(click here)
78. Conditions for life on any planet - Answer (click here)
79. Asteroids, Comets, Meteors and Meteorites inthe Solar system - Answer
(click here)
80. Stars, Constellations, Galaxy in the Solar system - Answer (click here)
81. Milky Way galaxy - Answer (click here)
82. Origin of the Universe - Answer (click here)
83. Mechanics of Solids and Fluids - Answer (click here)
84. Intermolecular or interatomic forces - Answer (click here)
85. Elasticity: Stress, strain Elastic limit, Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
86. Experimental verification of Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
87. Study of stress - strain relationship - Answer (click here)
88. Three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
89. Relation between the three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
90. Determination of Young's modulusby Searle's method - Answer (click here)
91. Applications of modulus of elasticity - Answer (click here)
92. Pressure due to a liquid column - Answer (click here)
93. Pascal's law and effect of gravity - Answer (click here)
94. Applications of Pascal's law: Hydraulic lift and brake - Answer (click here)
95. Co-efficient of viscosity - Answer (click here)
96. Viscosity: Streamline flow and Turbulent flow - Answer (click here)
97. Stoke's law (for highly viscous liquids) - Answer (click here)
98. Determination of coefficient of viscosity of water by Poiseuille's flow
method - Answer (click here)
99. Surface tension: Intermolecular, Cohesive, Adhesive force - Answer (click
here)
100. Experiments to demonstrate surface tension - Answer (click here)
101. Molecular theory of surface tension - Answer (click here)
102. Fluid Surface energy and surface tension - Answer (click here)
103. Pressure difference and pressure inside a liquid drop and a soap bubble -
Answer (click here)
104. Capillarity and Illustrations of capillarity - Answer (click here)
105. Experimental determination of surface tension of water by capillary rise
method - Answer (click here)
106. Factors affecting and Applications surface tension - Answer (click here)
107. Total energy of a liquid: Pressure, Kineti, Potential energy - Answer (click
here)
108. Fluid Equation of continuity - Answer (click here)
109. Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)
110. Application of Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)
111. The projection of uniform circular motion on a diameter is SHM - Answer
(click here)
112. Important terms in simple harmonic motion - Answer (click here)
113. Dynamics of harmonic oscillations - Answer (click here)
114. Angular harmonic oscillator - Answer (click here)
115. Horizontal and Vertical oscillations of spring - Answer (click here)
116. Oscillation of liquid column in a U - tube - Answer (click here)
117. Oscillations of a simple pendulum - Answer (click here)
118. Laws of pendulum - Answer (click here)
119. Kinetic and Potential in simple harmonic motion - Answer (click here)
120. Types of oscillations - Answer (click here)
121. Characteristics of wave motion - Answer (click here)
122. Mechanical wave motion - Transverse and Longitudinal wave motion -
Answer (click here)
123. Relationship between velocity, frequency and wavelength of a wave -
Answer (click here)
124. Velocity of wave in different media - Answer (click here)
125. Laplace?s correction - Answer (click here)
126. Factors affecting velocity of sound in gases - Answer (click here)
127. Equation of a plane progressive wave - Answer (click here)
128. Characteristics of progressive wave - Answer (click here)
129. Progressive wave : Intensity and sound level - Answer (click here)
130. Applications of reflection of sound waves - Answer (click here)
131. Applications of refraction of sound - Answer (click here)
132. Superposition principle of waves - Answer (click here)
133. Interference of waves - Answer (click here)
134. Experimental demonstration of interference of sound - Answer (click here)
135. Beats - Analytical method and Uses of beats - Answer (click here)
136. Analytical method and Characteristics of stationary waves - Answer (click
here)
137. Standing waves in strings - Sonometer - Answer (click here)
138. Vibrations of air column in Organ pipes - Answer (click here)
139. Resonance air column apparatus - Answer (click here)
140. Doppler effect : Different cases and Applications - Answer (click here)
141. Heat and Thermodynamics - Introduction - Answer (click here)
142. Postulates of Kinetic theory of gases - Answer (click here)
143. Pressure exerted by a gas - Answer (click here)
144. Degrees of freedom of molecule - Answer (click here)
145. Law of equipartition of energy - Answer (click here)
146. Thermal equilibrium - Answer (click here)
147. Molar specific heat capacity of a gas - Answer (click here)
148. First law of thermodynamics - Answer (click here)
149. Relation between Cp and Cv (Meyer's relation) - Answer (click here)
150. Indicator diagram (P-V diagram) - Answer (click here)
151. Isothermal process and Workdone in an isothermal expansion - Answer
(click here)
152. Adiabatic process and Work done in an adiabatic expansion - Answer
(click here)
153. Thermodynamic : Reversible and irreversible processes - Answer (click
here)
154. Second law of thermodynamics- Kelvin's, Clausius, Kelvin - Planck's
statement - Answer (click here)
155. Carnot engine - Essential parts, Working, four stages of operations -
Answer (click here)
156. Refrigerator : Coefficient of performance and Inferences - Answer (click
here)
157. Transfer of heat - Conduction, Convection, Radiation - Answer (click here)
158. Perfect black body - Answer (click here)
159. Experimental verification of Newton's law of cooling - Answer (click here)
160. Surface temperature of the Sun - Answer (click here)
161. Angstrom pyrheliometer - Answer (click here)
162. Reflection of light - Answer (click here)
163. Image in a plane mirror - Answer (click here)
164. Reflection at curved surfaces - Answer (click here)
165. Total internal reflection - Answer (click here)
166. Applications of Total internal reflection - Answer (click here)
167. Michelson's method - Answer (click here)
168. Importance of velocity of light - Answer (click here)
169. Refraction of light - Answer (click here)
170. Refraction at a spherical surface - Answer (click here)
171. Lens maker's formula and lens formula and Magnification - Answer (click
here)
172. Combination of thin lenses in contact - Answer (click here)
173. Refraction of light through a prism - Answer (click here)
174. Dispersion of light and Dispersive power - Answer (click here)
175. Spectrometer - Answer (click here)
176. Basic Parts and Adjustments of the spectrometer - Answer (click here)
177. Determination of the refractive index of the material of the prism -
Answer (click here)
178. Formation of rainbows - Answer (click here)
179. Earth?s magnetic field and magnetic elements - Answer (click here)
180. Basic properties of magnets - Answer (click here)
181. Force between two magnetic poles - Answer (click here)
182. Magnetic induction at a point along the axial line due to a magnetic
dipole (Bar magnet) - Answer (click here)
183. Magnetic induction at a point along the equatorial line of a bar magnet -
Answer (click here)
184. Mapping of magnetic field due to a bar magnet - Answer (click here)
185. Torque on a bar magnet placed in a uniform magnetic field - Answer (click
here)
186. Tangent law - Answer (click here)
187. End-on (or) Tan A position- Deflection magnetometer - Answer (click here)
188. Broad?side on (or) Tan B position - Deflection magnetometer - Answer
(click here)
189. Magnetic properties of materials - Answer (click here)
190. Properties of diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic substances -
Answer (click here)
191. Hysteresis and Hysteresis loss - Answer (click here)
192. Uses of ferromagnetic materials - Answer (click here)
193. Electrostatics - frictional electricity - Answer (click here)
194. Basic properties of electric charge - Answer (click here)
195. Definition of Coulomb's law , Principle of Superposition, Electric Field,
Electric Field Intensity (E) - Answer (click here)
196. Electric Field: Definition of Electric lines of force and Properties of lines
of forces - Answer (click here)
197. Electric potential: Definition of Electric potential and Relation between
electric field and potential - Answer (click here)
198. Gauss's law and its applications - Answer (click here)
199. Electrostatic induction - Answer (click here)
200. Principle of a capacitor and Energy stored in a capacitor - Answer (click
here)
201. Lightning conductor -Van de Graaff Generator- working principle and
construction - Answer (click here)
202. Definition of Electric current and discription of Current Electricity -
Answer (click here)
203. Combination of resistors: Resistors in series and parallel - Answer (click
here)
204. Kirchoff's law and Potentiometer - Answer (click here)
205. Superconductivity Defination and Applications of superconductors -
Answer (click here)
206. Carbon resistors and Colour code for carbon resistors - Answer (click here)
207. Temperature dependence of resistance and Internal resistance of a cell -
Answer (click here)
208. Electric energy and electric power - Answer (click here)
209. Faraday's laws of electrolysis | Chemical effect of current | Verification
of Faraday's laws of electrolysis - Answer (click here)
210. Electric cells and Voltaic cell - Answer (click here)
211. Primary Cell - Daniel cell, Leclanche cell - Answer (click here)
212. Secondary Cells - Lead - Acid accumulator - Applications of secondary
cells - Answer (click here)
213. Applications of Joule heating - Answer (click here)
214. Seebeck effect - Answer (click here)
215. Neutral and Inversion temperature - Answer (click here)
216. Peltier effect and Peltier Co-efficient (π) - Answer (click here)
217. Thomson effect and Thomson coefficient (σ) - Answer (click here)
218. Thermopile - Answer (click here)
219. Biot - Savart Law - Answer (click here)
220. Tangent galvanometer : Theory and Construction of Tangent
galvanometer - Answer (click here)
221. Solenoid and Right hand palm rule - Answer (click here)
222. Magnetic Lorentz force - Answer (click here)
223. Cyclotron- Principle, Construction, Working and Limitations of
Cyclotron - Answer (click here)
224. Moving coil galvanometer : Principle, Construction, Pointer type
moving coil galvanometer, Current sensitivity of a galvanometer - Answer
(click here)
225. Heating effect : Joule's law - Answer (click here)
226. Verification of Joule's law - Answer (click here)
227. Magnetic effect of current - Answer (click here)
228. Magnetic field around a straight conductor carrying current - Answer (click
here)
229. Magnetic field due to a circular loop carrying current - Answer (click here)
230. Biot Savart Law and Magnetic induction - Answer (click here)
231. Ampere's Circuital Law - Answer (click here)
232. Magnetic induction due to a long solenoid carrying current - Answer (click
here)
233. Magnetic Lorentz force and Cyclotron - Answer (click here)
234. Motion of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field - Answer (click
here)
235. Force on a current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field - Answer
(click here)
236. Force between two long parallel current-carrying conductors - Answer
(click here)
237. Torque experienced by a current loop in a uniform magnetic field -
Answer (click here)
238. Conversion of galvanometer into an ammeter - Answer (click here)
239. Conversion of galvanometer into a voltmeter - Answer (click here)
240. Current loop as a magnetic dipole - Answer (click here)
241. The magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron - Answer (click here)
242. AC generator (Dynamo) - Single phase and AC generator (Alternator) -
Three phase - Answer (click here)
243. Eddy currents and Applications of Eddy current - Answer (click here)
244. Transformer Principle - Efficiency of a transformer - Energy losses in a
transformer - Answer (click here)
245. Electromagnetic induction - Answer (click here)
246. Magnetic flux - Answer (click here)
247. Induced emf and current - Electromagnetic induction - Answer (click here)
248. Faraday's laws of electromagnetic induction - Answer (click here)
249. Lenz's law - Answer (click here)
250. Self Induction - Answer (click here)
251. Coefficient of self induction - Answer (click here)
252. Self inductance of a long solenoid - Answer (click here)
253. Mutual induction and Coefficient of mutual induction - Answer (click here)
254. Methods of producing induced emf - Answer (click here)
255. AC generator (Dynamo) - Single phase - Answer (click here)
256. Eddy currents - Answer (click here)
257. Transformer - Answer (click here)
258. Long distance power transmission - Answer (click here)
259. Alternating current - Answer (click here)
260. AC Circuit with resistor, inductor and capacitor - Answer (click here)
261. Choke coil: Construction and Working - Answer (click here)
262. Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman(C.V.Raman) Life - Answer (click here)
263. Uses of electromagnetic spectrum - Answer (click here)
264. Types of spectra - Emission spectra, Line spectrum, Band Spectrum,
Absorption Spectra - Answer (click here)
265. Fraunhofer lines - Fluorescence - Phosphorescence - Answer (click here)
266. Theories of light : Corpuscular theory, Wave theory, Electromagnetic
theory, Quantum theory - Answer (click here)
267. Scattering of light : Tyndal scattering, Raman effect - Answer (click here)
268. Wave front : Huygen's principle - Answer (click here)
269. Condition for sustained interference and Young's double slit experiment
- Answer (click here)
270. Newton's rings : Experiment, Theory - Answer (click here)
271. Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction - Answer (click here)
272. Diffraction grating explanation with Theory - Answer (click here)
273. Polarisation of transverse waves - Answer (click here)
274. Double refraction - Answer (click here)
275. Polaroids explanation and Uses of Polaroid - Answer (click here)
276. Nicol prism and Types of crystals - Answer (click here)
277. Optical activity - Answer (click here)
278. Specific rotation - Answer (click here)
279. Electromagnetic Waves and Wave optics - Answer (click here)
280. Characteristics of electromagnetic waves - Answer (click here)
281. Hertz experiment - Answer (click here)
282. Types of spectra - Answer (click here)
283. Theories of light - Answer (click here)
284. Scattering of light - Answer (click here)
285. Wave front - Answer (click here)
286. Superposition principle - Answer (click here)
287. Diffraction - Answer (click here)
288. Polarisation - Answer (click here)
289. Discharge of electricity through gases at low pressure - Discovery of
electrons - Answer (click here)
290. Properties of Cathode rays - Answer (click here)
291. Canal rays and Properties of Positive rays (or) Canal rays - Answer (click
here)
292. Thomson's method - Determination of specific charge (e/m) of an
electron - Answer (click here)
293. Millikan's oil drop experiment - Determination of charge of an electron -
Answer (click here)
294. Thomson atom model and its Drawbacks - Answer (click here)
295. Rutherford's α - particle scattering experiment - Answer (click here)
296. Rutherford atom model and its Drawbacks - Answer (click here)
297. Bohr atom model - Answer (click here)
298. Spectral series of hydrogen atom and Energy level diagram - Answer (click
here)
299. Excitation and ionization potential of an atom - Answer (click here)
300. Shortcomings of Bohr's theory - Answer (click here)
301. Sommerfeld atom model and its Drawbacks - Answer (click here)
302. Production of X-rays - Modern Coolidge tube - Answer (click here)
303. Types of X-rays: Soft and Hard X-rays - Answer (click here)
304. Properties of X-rays - Answer (click here)
305. Detection, Diffraction and Absorption of X-rays - Answer (click here)
306. Laue experiment - Answer (click here)
307. Bragg's law for X-ray diffraction - Answer (click here)
308. Bragg's X-ray spectrometer - Answer (click here)
309. X-ray spectra - continuous and characteristic X-ray spectra - Answer (click
here)
310. Moseley's law and Applications of Moseley's law - Answer (click here)
311. Medical, Industrial and Scientific Applications of X-rays - Answer (click
here)
312. Spontaneous and stimulated emission of Laser - Answer (click here)
313. Ruby laser - Generation Process and Energy Level - Answer (click here)
314. Helium neon laser - Generation Process and Energy Level - Answer (click
here)
315. Medical, Industrial and Scientific Applications of laser - Answer (click
here)
316. Photoelectric effect - Dual Nature of Radiation - Answer (click here)
317. Hallwachs Experiment - photo electric effect - Answer (click here)
318. Effect of potential difference on the photoelectric current - Answer (click
here)
319. Effect of frequency of incident radiation on stopping potential - Answer
(click here)
320. Laws of photoelectric emission - Answer (click here)
321. Einstein's photoelectric equation - Answer (click here)
322. Photoelectric cells and their types, applications - Answer (click here)
323. de Broglie wavelength of matter waves and an electron - Answer (click
here)
324. Electron microscope: Construction, working, Uses, Limitations - Answer
(click here)
325. Relativity: Concept of Space and Frame of reference - Answer (click here)
326. Special theory of relativity - Answer (click here)
327. Einstein's mass-energy equivalence - Answer (click here)
328. Classification of nuclei and Properties of nucleus Nuclear size - Answer
(click here)
329. Explanation of Nuclear binding energy curve - Answer (click here)
330. Bainbridge mass spectrometer - Determination of isotopic masses of
nuclei - Answer (click here)
331. Nuclear force and Radioactivity - Answer (click here)
332. Properties of Alpha α, beta β and gamma γ rays - Answer (click here)
333. Radioactive displacement law - Answer (click here)
334. Neutron - Discovery and Properties of neutrons - Answer (click here)
335. Artificial radioactivity - Answer (click here)
336. Applications of radio-isotopes - Answer (click here)
337. Biological hazards of nuclear radiations - Answer (click here)
338. Artificial radioactivity transmutation and Particle accelerators - Answer
(click here)
339. Geiger - Muller counter: Construction and Operation - Answer (click here)
340. Energy released in Nuclear fission - Answer (click here)
341. Radioactive Chain reaction - Answer (click here)
342. Atom bomb - Principle and construction - Answer (click here)
343. Nuclear reactor: Design and Function of parts, Uses - Answer (click here)
344. Nuclear power programme in India - Answer (click here)
345. Nuclear fusion: Hydrogen bomb and Stellar energy - Answer (click here)
346. Cosmic Rays: Latitude effect, Altitude effect, Cosmic ray showers -
Answer (click here)
347. Elementary particles of atom - new nuclear particles - Answer (click here)

Semiconductor Devices and their Applications


1. Scope of Physics - Answer (click here)
2. Physics, Technology and Society - Answer (click here)
3. Forces of nature - Answer (click here)
4. Measurement - Answer (click here)
5. Derived quantities and their units - Answer (click here)
6. SI standards - Answer (click here)
7. Rules and conventions for writing SI units and their symbols - Answer
(click here)
8. Expressing larger and smaller physical quantities - Answer (click here)
9. Determination of distance, mass, time - Answer (click here)
10. Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments - Answer (click here)
11. Measurement: Significant figures - Answer (click here)
12. Measurement: Rounding off - Answer (click here)
13. Classification of Errors in Measurement - Answer (click here)
14. Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
15. Uses and Limitations of Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
16. Kinematics - Rest and Motion - Answer (click here)
17. Motion in one dimension (rectilinear motion) - Answer (click here)
18. Equations of motion - Answer (click here)
19. Graphical representations - displacement, velocity,acceleration with time
graph - Answer (click here)
20. Representation of a vector quantities - Answer (click here)
21. Different types of vectors - Answer (click here)
22. Addition of vectors: Triangle and Parallelogram law of vectors - Answer
(click here)
23. Subtraction of vectors - Answer (click here)
24. Resolution of vectors and rectangular components - Answer (click here)
25. Multiplication of two vectors - Answer (click here)
26. Projectile motion - Answer (click here)
27. Motion of a projectile thrown horizontally - Answer (click here)
28. Motion of a projectile projected at an angle with the horizontal (oblique
projection) - Answer (click here)
29. Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
30. Three types of the inertia - Answer (click here)
31. Examples for Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
32. Newton's second law of motion - Answer (click here)
33. Impulsive force and Impulse of a force - Answer (click here)
34. Newton's third Law of motion - Answer (click here)
35. Applications of Newton s third law of motion - Answer (click here)
36. Proof and Applications of Law of conservation of momentum - Answer
(click here)
37. Concurrent forces and Coplanar forces - Answer (click here)
38. Parallelogram and Triangle law of forces - Answer (click here)
39. Experimental verification of triangle law, parallelogram law and Lami's
theorem - Answer (click here)
40. Uniform circular motion - Answer (click here)
41. Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity - Answer (click here)
42. Centripetal acceleration, Centripetal force and Centripetal reaction -
Answer (click here)
43. Applications of centripetal forces - Answer (click here)
44. Banking of curved roads and tracks and Condition for skidding - Answer
(click here)
45. Motion in a vertical circle - Answer (click here)
46. Motion on a level circular road - Answer (click here)
47. Work : Work done by a constant force and variable force - Answer (click
here)
48. Potential energy and Kinetic energy - Answer (click here)
49. Principle of work and energy (work - energy theorem) Statement -
Answer (click here)
50. Conservative forces and non-conservative forces - Answer (click here)
51. Collision: Types - Elastic collision and Inelastic collision - Answer (click
here)
52. Centre of mass - Answer (click here)
53. Centre of gravity - Answer (click here)
54. Equilibrium of bodies and types of equilibrium - Answer (click here)
55. Rotational motion of rigid bodies - Answer (click here)
56. Rotational kinetic energy and moment of inertia of a rigid body - Answer
(click here)
57. Theorems of moment of inertia : Perpendicular and Parallel axes
theorem - Answer (click here)
58. Moment of a force - Answer (click here)
59. Couple and moment of the couple (Torque) - Answer (click here)
60. Angular momentum of a rigid body - Answer (click here)
61. Relation between torque and angular acceleration - Answer (click here)
62. Conservation of angular momentum with Illustration - Answer (click here)
63. Newton's law of gravitation - Answer (click here)
64. Acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
65. Acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the Earth - Answer (click here)
66. Variation of acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
67. Gravitational field: potential difference and potential energy - Answer
(click here)
68. Inertial mass and Gravitational mass - Answer (click here)
69. Escape speed derivation and with the atmosphere of a planet - Answer
(click here)
70. Satellites: Orbital velocity, Time period and Energy - Answer (click here)
71. Geo-stationary satellites and Polar satellites - Answer (click here)
72. Uses of satellites - Answer (click here)
73. Indian space programme: List of Indian satellites and Indian Launch
Vehicles (Rockets) - Answer (click here)
74. Weightlessness, Rockets - principle and Types of fuels - Answer (click here)
75. The Solar system - Answer (click here)
76. Kepler's laws of planetary motion: The law of orbits, areas, periods -
Answer (click here)
77. Size, Surface temperatures, Mass, Atmosphere of the planets - Answer
(click here)
78. Conditions for life on any planet - Answer (click here)
79. Asteroids, Comets, Meteors and Meteorites inthe Solar system - Answer
(click here)
80. Stars, Constellations, Galaxy in the Solar system - Answer (click here)
81. Milky Way galaxy - Answer (click here)
82. Origin of the Universe - Answer (click here)
83. Mechanics of Solids and Fluids - Answer (click here)
84. Intermolecular or interatomic forces - Answer (click here)
85. Elasticity: Stress, strain Elastic limit, Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
86. Experimental verification of Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
87. Study of stress - strain relationship - Answer (click here)
88. Three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
89. Relation between the three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
90. Determination of Young's modulusby Searle's method - Answer (click here)
91. Applications of modulus of elasticity - Answer (click here)
92. Pressure due to a liquid column - Answer (click here)
93. Pascal's law and effect of gravity - Answer (click here)
94. Applications of Pascal's law: Hydraulic lift and brake - Answer (click here)
95. Co-efficient of viscosity - Answer (click here)
96. Viscosity: Streamline flow and Turbulent flow - Answer (click here)
97. Stoke's law (for highly viscous liquids) - Answer (click here)
98. Determination of coefficient of viscosity of water by Poiseuille's flow
method - Answer (click here)
99. Surface tension: Intermolecular, Cohesive, Adhesive force - Answer (click
here)
100. Experiments to demonstrate surface tension - Answer (click here)
101. Molecular theory of surface tension - Answer (click here)
102. Fluid Surface energy and surface tension - Answer (click here)
103. Pressure difference and pressure inside a liquid drop and a soap bubble -
Answer (click here)
104. Capillarity and Illustrations of capillarity - Answer (click here)
105. Experimental determination of surface tension of water by capillary rise
method - Answer (click here)
106. Factors affecting and Applications surface tension - Answer (click here)
107. Total energy of a liquid: Pressure, Kineti, Potential energy - Answer (click
here)
108. Fluid Equation of continuity - Answer (click here)
109. Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)
110. Application of Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)
111. The projection of uniform circular motion on a diameter is SHM - Answer
(click here)
112. Important terms in simple harmonic motion - Answer (click here)
113. Dynamics of harmonic oscillations - Answer (click here)
114. Angular harmonic oscillator - Answer (click here)
115. Horizontal and Vertical oscillations of spring - Answer (click here)
116. Oscillation of liquid column in a U - tube - Answer (click here)
117. Oscillations of a simple pendulum - Answer (click here)
118. Laws of pendulum - Answer (click here)
119. Kinetic and Potential in simple harmonic motion - Answer (click here)
120. Types of oscillations - Answer (click here)
121. Characteristics of wave motion - Answer (click here)
122. Mechanical wave motion - Transverse and Longitudinal wave motion -
Answer (click here)
123. Relationship between velocity, frequency and wavelength of a wave -
Answer (click here)
124. Velocity of wave in different media - Answer (click here)
125. Laplace?s correction - Answer (click here)
126. Factors affecting velocity of sound in gases - Answer (click here)
127. Equation of a plane progressive wave - Answer (click here)
128. Characteristics of progressive wave - Answer (click here)
129. Progressive wave : Intensity and sound level - Answer (click here)
130. Applications of reflection of sound waves - Answer (click here)
131. Applications of refraction of sound - Answer (click here)
132. Superposition principle of waves - Answer (click here)
133. Interference of waves - Answer (click here)
134. Experimental demonstration of interference of sound - Answer (click here)
135. Beats - Analytical method and Uses of beats - Answer (click here)
136. Analytical method and Characteristics of stationary waves - Answer (click
here)
137. Standing waves in strings - Sonometer - Answer (click here)
138. Vibrations of air column in Organ pipes - Answer (click here)
139. Resonance air column apparatus - Answer (click here)
140. Doppler effect : Different cases and Applications - Answer (click here)
141. Heat and Thermodynamics - Introduction - Answer (click here)
142. Postulates of Kinetic theory of gases - Answer (click here)
143. Pressure exerted by a gas - Answer (click here)
144. Degrees of freedom of molecule - Answer (click here)
145. Law of equipartition of energy - Answer (click here)
146. Thermal equilibrium - Answer (click here)
147. Molar specific heat capacity of a gas - Answer (click here)
148. First law of thermodynamics - Answer (click here)
149. Relation between Cp and Cv (Meyer's relation) - Answer (click here)
150. Indicator diagram (P-V diagram) - Answer (click here)
151. Isothermal process and Workdone in an isothermal expansion - Answer
(click here)
152. Adiabatic process and Work done in an adiabatic expansion - Answer
(click here)
153. Thermodynamic : Reversible and irreversible processes - Answer (click
here)
154. Second law of thermodynamics- Kelvin's, Clausius, Kelvin - Planck's
statement - Answer (click here)
155. Carnot engine - Essential parts, Working, four stages of operations -
Answer (click here)
156. Refrigerator : Coefficient of performance and Inferences - Answer (click
here)
157. Transfer of heat - Conduction, Convection, Radiation - Answer (click here)
158. Perfect black body - Answer (click here)
159. Experimental verification of Newton's law of cooling - Answer (click here)
160. Surface temperature of the Sun - Answer (click here)
161. Angstrom pyrheliometer - Answer (click here)
162. Reflection of light - Answer (click here)
163. Image in a plane mirror - Answer (click here)
164. Reflection at curved surfaces - Answer (click here)
165. Total internal reflection - Answer (click here)
166. Applications of Total internal reflection - Answer (click here)
167. Michelson's method - Answer (click here)
168. Importance of velocity of light - Answer (click here)
169. Refraction of light - Answer (click here)
170. Refraction at a spherical surface - Answer (click here)
171. Lens maker's formula and lens formula and Magnification - Answer (click
here)
172. Combination of thin lenses in contact - Answer (click here)
173. Refraction of light through a prism - Answer (click here)
174. Dispersion of light and Dispersive power - Answer (click here)
175. Spectrometer - Answer (click here)
176. Basic Parts and Adjustments of the spectrometer - Answer (click here)
177. Determination of the refractive index of the material of the prism -
Answer (click here)
178. Formation of rainbows - Answer (click here)
179. Earth?s magnetic field and magnetic elements - Answer (click here)
180. Basic properties of magnets - Answer (click here)
181. Force between two magnetic poles - Answer (click here)
182. Magnetic induction at a point along the axial line due to a magnetic
dipole (Bar magnet) - Answer (click here)
183. Magnetic induction at a point along the equatorial line of a bar magnet -
Answer (click here)
184. Mapping of magnetic field due to a bar magnet - Answer (click here)
185. Torque on a bar magnet placed in a uniform magnetic field - Answer (click
here)
186. Tangent law - Answer (click here)
187. End-on (or) Tan A position- Deflection magnetometer - Answer (click here)
188. Broad?side on (or) Tan B position - Deflection magnetometer - Answer
(click here)
189. Magnetic properties of materials - Answer (click here)
190. Properties of diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic substances -
Answer (click here)
191. Hysteresis and Hysteresis loss - Answer (click here)
192. Uses of ferromagnetic materials - Answer (click here)
193. Electrostatics - frictional electricity - Answer (click here)
194. Basic properties of electric charge - Answer (click here)
195. Definition of Coulomb's law , Principle of Superposition, Electric Field,
Electric Field Intensity (E) - Answer (click here)
196. Electric Field: Definition of Electric lines of force and Properties of lines
of forces - Answer (click here)
197. Electric potential: Definition of Electric potential and Relation between
electric field and potential - Answer (click here)
198. Gauss's law and its applications - Answer (click here)
199. Electrostatic induction - Answer (click here)
200. Principle of a capacitor and Energy stored in a capacitor - Answer (click
here)
201. Lightning conductor -Van de Graaff Generator- working principle and
construction - Answer (click here)
202. Definition of Electric current and discription of Current Electricity -
Answer (click here)
203. Combination of resistors: Resistors in series and parallel - Answer (click
here)
204. Kirchoff's law and Potentiometer - Answer (click here)
205. Superconductivity Defination and Applications of superconductors -
Answer (click here)
206. Carbon resistors and Colour code for carbon resistors - Answer (click here)
207. Temperature dependence of resistance and Internal resistance of a cell -
Answer (click here)
208. Electric energy and electric power - Answer (click here)
209. Faraday's laws of electrolysis | Chemical effect of current | Verification
of Faraday's laws of electrolysis - Answer (click here)
210. Electric cells and Voltaic cell - Answer (click here)
211. Primary Cell - Daniel cell, Leclanche cell - Answer (click here)
212. Secondary Cells - Lead - Acid accumulator - Applications of secondary
cells - Answer (click here)
213. Applications of Joule heating - Answer (click here)
214. Seebeck effect - Answer (click here)
215. Neutral and Inversion temperature - Answer (click here)
216. Peltier effect and Peltier Co-efficient (π) - Answer (click here)
217. Thomson effect and Thomson coefficient (σ) - Answer (click here)
218. Thermopile - Answer (click here)
219. Biot - Savart Law - Answer (click here)
220. Tangent galvanometer : Theory and Construction of Tangent
galvanometer - Answer (click here)
221. Solenoid and Right hand palm rule - Answer (click here)
222. Magnetic Lorentz force - Answer (click here)
223. Cyclotron- Principle, Construction, Working and Limitations of
Cyclotron - Answer (click here)
224. Moving coil galvanometer : Principle, Construction, Pointer type
moving coil galvanometer, Current sensitivity of a galvanometer - Answer
(click here)
225. Heating effect : Joule's law - Answer (click here)
226. Verification of Joule's law - Answer (click here)
227. Magnetic effect of current - Answer (click here)
228. Magnetic field around a straight conductor carrying current - Answer (click
here)
229. Magnetic field due to a circular loop carrying current - Answer (click here)
230. Biot Savart Law and Magnetic induction - Answer (click here)
231. Ampere's Circuital Law - Answer (click here)
232. Magnetic induction due to a long solenoid carrying current - Answer (click
here)
233. Magnetic Lorentz force and Cyclotron - Answer (click here)
234. Motion of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field - Answer (click
here)
235. Force on a current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field - Answer
(click here)
236. Force between two long parallel current-carrying conductors - Answer
(click here)
237. Torque experienced by a current loop in a uniform magnetic field -
Answer (click here)
238. Conversion of galvanometer into an ammeter - Answer (click here)
239. Conversion of galvanometer into a voltmeter - Answer (click here)
240. Current loop as a magnetic dipole - Answer (click here)
241. The magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron - Answer (click here)
242. AC generator (Dynamo) - Single phase and AC generator (Alternator) -
Three phase - Answer (click here)
243. Eddy currents and Applications of Eddy current - Answer (click here)
244. Transformer Principle - Efficiency of a transformer - Energy losses in a
transformer - Answer (click here)
245. Electromagnetic induction - Answer (click here)
246. Magnetic flux - Answer (click here)
247. Induced emf and current - Electromagnetic induction - Answer (click here)
248. Faraday's laws of electromagnetic induction - Answer (click here)
249. Lenz's law - Answer (click here)
250. Self Induction - Answer (click here)
251. Coefficient of self induction - Answer (click here)
252. Self inductance of a long solenoid - Answer (click here)
253. Mutual induction and Coefficient of mutual induction - Answer (click here)
254. Methods of producing induced emf - Answer (click here)
255. AC generator (Dynamo) - Single phase - Answer (click here)
256. Eddy currents - Answer (click here)
257. Transformer - Answer (click here)
258. Long distance power transmission - Answer (click here)
259. Alternating current - Answer (click here)
260. AC Circuit with resistor, inductor and capacitor - Answer (click here)
261. Choke coil: Construction and Working - Answer (click here)
262. Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman(C.V.Raman) Life - Answer (click here)
263. Uses of electromagnetic spectrum - Answer (click here)
264. Types of spectra - Emission spectra, Line spectrum, Band Spectrum,
Absorption Spectra - Answer (click here)
265. Fraunhofer lines - Fluorescence - Phosphorescence - Answer (click here)
266. Theories of light : Corpuscular theory, Wave theory, Electromagnetic
theory, Quantum theory - Answer (click here)
267. Scattering of light : Tyndal scattering, Raman effect - Answer (click here)
268. Wave front : Huygen's principle - Answer (click here)
269. Condition for sustained interference and Young's double slit experiment
- Answer (click here)
270. Newton's rings : Experiment, Theory - Answer (click here)
271. Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction - Answer (click here)
272. Diffraction grating explanation with Theory - Answer (click here)
273. Polarisation of transverse waves - Answer (click here)
274. Double refraction - Answer (click here)
275. Polaroids explanation and Uses of Polaroid - Answer (click here)
276. Nicol prism and Types of crystals - Answer (click here)
277. Optical activity - Answer (click here)
278. Specific rotation - Answer (click here)
279. Electromagnetic Waves and Wave optics - Answer (click here)
280. Characteristics of electromagnetic waves - Answer (click here)
281. Hertz experiment - Answer (click here)
282. Types of spectra - Answer (click here)
283. Theories of light - Answer (click here)
284. Scattering of light - Answer (click here)
285. Wave front - Answer (click here)
286. Superposition principle - Answer (click here)
287. Diffraction - Answer (click here)
288. Polarisation - Answer (click here)
289. Discharge of electricity through gases at low pressure - Discovery of
electrons - Answer (click here)
290. Properties of Cathode rays - Answer (click here)
291. Canal rays and Properties of Positive rays (or) Canal rays - Answer (click
here)
292. Thomson's method - Determination of specific charge (e/m) of an
electron - Answer (click here)
293. Millikan's oil drop experiment - Determination of charge of an electron -
Answer (click here)
294. Thomson atom model and its Drawbacks - Answer (click here)
295. Rutherford's α - particle scattering experiment - Answer (click here)
296. Rutherford atom model and its Drawbacks - Answer (click here)
297. Bohr atom model - Answer (click here)
298. Spectral series of hydrogen atom and Energy level diagram - Answer (click
here)
299. Excitation and ionization potential of an atom - Answer (click here)
300. Shortcomings of Bohr's theory - Answer (click here)
301. Sommerfeld atom model and its Drawbacks - Answer (click here)
302. Production of X-rays - Modern Coolidge tube - Answer (click here)
303. Types of X-rays: Soft and Hard X-rays - Answer (click here)
304. Properties of X-rays - Answer (click here)
305. Detection, Diffraction and Absorption of X-rays - Answer (click here)
306. Laue experiment - Answer (click here)
307. Bragg's law for X-ray diffraction - Answer (click here)
308. Bragg's X-ray spectrometer - Answer (click here)
309. X-ray spectra - continuous and characteristic X-ray spectra - Answer (click
here)
310. Moseley's law and Applications of Moseley's law - Answer (click here)
311. Medical, Industrial and Scientific Applications of X-rays - Answer (click
here)
312. Spontaneous and stimulated emission of Laser - Answer (click here)
313. Ruby laser - Generation Process and Energy Level - Answer (click here)
314. Helium neon laser - Generation Process and Energy Level - Answer (click
here)
315. Medical, Industrial and Scientific Applications of laser - Answer (click
here)
316. Photoelectric effect - Dual Nature of Radiation - Answer (click here)
317. Hallwachs Experiment - photo electric effect - Answer (click here)
318. Effect of potential difference on the photoelectric current - Answer (click
here)
319. Effect of frequency of incident radiation on stopping potential - Answer
(click here)
320. Laws of photoelectric emission - Answer (click here)
321. Einstein's photoelectric equation - Answer (click here)
322. Photoelectric cells and their types, applications - Answer (click here)
323. de Broglie wavelength of matter waves and an electron - Answer (click
here)
324. Electron microscope: Construction, working, Uses, Limitations - Answer
(click here)
325. Relativity: Concept of Space and Frame of reference - Answer (click here)
326. Special theory of relativity - Answer (click here)
327. Einstein's mass-energy equivalence - Answer (click here)
328. Classification of nuclei and Properties of nucleus Nuclear size - Answer
(click here)
329. Explanation of Nuclear binding energy curve - Answer (click here)
330. Bainbridge mass spectrometer - Determination of isotopic masses of
nuclei - Answer (click here)
331. Nuclear force and Radioactivity - Answer (click here)
332. Properties of Alpha α, beta β and gamma γ rays - Answer (click here)
333. Radioactive displacement law - Answer (click here)
334. Neutron - Discovery and Properties of neutrons - Answer (click here)
335. Artificial radioactivity - Answer (click here)
336. Applications of radio-isotopes - Answer (click here)
337. Biological hazards of nuclear radiations - Answer (click here)
338. Artificial radioactivity transmutation and Particle accelerators - Answer
(click here)
339. Geiger - Muller counter: Construction and Operation - Answer (click here)
340. Energy released in Nuclear fission - Answer (click here)
341. Radioactive Chain reaction - Answer (click here)
342. Atom bomb - Principle and construction - Answer (click here)
343. Nuclear reactor: Design and Function of parts, Uses - Answer (click here)
344. Nuclear power programme in India - Answer (click here)
345. Nuclear fusion: Hydrogen bomb and Stellar energy - Answer (click here)
346. Cosmic Rays: Latitude effect, Altitude effect, Cosmic ray showers -
Answer (click here)
347. Elementary particles of atom - new nuclear particles - Answer (click here)
348. Semiconductors: Energy band in solids - Answer (click here)
349. Semiconductors: Valence band, conduction band and forbidden energy
gap - Answer (click here)
350. Insulators, semiconductors and conductors - forbidden energy gap -
Answer (click here)
351. Electrons and holes in semiconductors - Answer (click here)
352. Intrinsic semiconductor - Answer (click here)
353. Extrinsic semiconductor: N and P -type semiconductor - Answer (click here)
354. PN Junction diode: Forward and Reverse bias characteristics - Answer
(click here)
355. PN junction diode as Half wave and Bridge wave rectifier - Answer (click
here)
356. Avalanche and zener Breakdown mechanisms - Answer (click here)
357. Zener diode and Zener diode as voltage regulator - Answer (click here)
358. Light Emitting Diode (LED) - Answer (click here)
359. Junction transistor - Answer (click here)
360. Working of a PNP transistor - Answer (click here)
361. Transistor circuit configurations - Answer (click here)
362. Characteristics of an NPN transistor in common emitter configuration -
Answer (click here)
363. Transistor as a switch - Answer (click here)
364. Transistor amplifier - Operating point, Working - Answer (click here)
365. Transistor biasing - Voltage divider bias - Answer (click here)
366. Single stage CE amplifier - Answer (click here)
367. Multistage amplifiers - Answer (click here)
368. Feedback in amplifiers- Principle of feedback and - Answer (click here)
369. Transistor oscillators - Barkhausen condition for oscillation - Answer (click
here)
370. Generation of sinusoidal waves by a tuned LC circuit - Answer (click here)
371. Essentials of LC oscillator - Answer (click here)
372. Colpitt's oscillator - Answer (click here)
373. Integrated circuit (IC) - Answer (click here)
374. Digital electronics - Analog signal, Digital signal and logic levels -
Answer (click here)
375. Basic logic gates using discrete components - Answer (click here)
376. Operational amplifier (OP - AMP) - Answer (click here)
377. Circuit symbol and Pin-out configuration of an OP-AMP - Answer (click
here)
378. Basic OP-AMP circuits: Inverting, Non-inverting, Summing, Difference
amplifier - Answer (click here)
379. Cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO) - Answer (click here)
380. Multimeter - Answer (click here)

Communication Systems
1. Scope of Physics - Answer (click here)
2. Physics, Technology and Society - Answer (click here)
3. Forces of nature - Answer (click here)
4. Measurement - Answer (click here)
5. Derived quantities and their units - Answer (click here)
6. SI standards - Answer (click here)
7. Rules and conventions for writing SI units and their symbols - Answer
(click here)
8. Expressing larger and smaller physical quantities - Answer (click here)
9. Determination of distance, mass, time - Answer (click here)
10. Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments - Answer (click here)
11. Measurement: Significant figures - Answer (click here)
12. Measurement: Rounding off - Answer (click here)
13. Classification of Errors in Measurement - Answer (click here)
14. Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
15. Uses and Limitations of Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
16. Kinematics - Rest and Motion - Answer (click here)
17. Motion in one dimension (rectilinear motion) - Answer (click here)
18. Equations of motion - Answer (click here)
19. Graphical representations - displacement, velocity,acceleration with time
graph - Answer (click here)
20. Representation of a vector quantities - Answer (click here)
21. Different types of vectors - Answer (click here)
22. Addition of vectors: Triangle and Parallelogram law of vectors - Answer
(click here)
23. Subtraction of vectors - Answer (click here)
24. Resolution of vectors and rectangular components - Answer (click here)
25. Multiplication of two vectors - Answer (click here)
26. Projectile motion - Answer (click here)
27. Motion of a projectile thrown horizontally - Answer (click here)
28. Motion of a projectile projected at an angle with the horizontal (oblique
projection) - Answer (click here)
29. Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
30. Three types of the inertia - Answer (click here)
31. Examples for Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
32. Newton's second law of motion - Answer (click here)
33. Impulsive force and Impulse of a force - Answer (click here)
34. Newton's third Law of motion - Answer (click here)
35. Applications of Newton s third law of motion - Answer (click here)
36. Proof and Applications of Law of conservation of momentum - Answer
(click here)
37. Concurrent forces and Coplanar forces - Answer (click here)
38. Parallelogram and Triangle law of forces - Answer (click here)
39. Experimental verification of triangle law, parallelogram law and Lami's
theorem - Answer (click here)
40. Uniform circular motion - Answer (click here)
41. Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity - Answer (click here)
42. Centripetal acceleration, Centripetal force and Centripetal reaction -
Answer (click here)
43. Applications of centripetal forces - Answer (click here)
44. Banking of curved roads and tracks and Condition for skidding - Answer
(click here)
45. Motion in a vertical circle - Answer (click here)
46. Motion on a level circular road - Answer (click here)
47. Work : Work done by a constant force and variable force - Answer (click
here)
48. Potential energy and Kinetic energy - Answer (click here)
49. Principle of work and energy (work - energy theorem) Statement -
Answer (click here)
50. Conservative forces and non-conservative forces - Answer (click here)
51. Collision: Types - Elastic collision and Inelastic collision - Answer (click
here)
52. Centre of mass - Answer (click here)
53. Centre of gravity - Answer (click here)
54. Equilibrium of bodies and types of equilibrium - Answer (click here)
55. Rotational motion of rigid bodies - Answer (click here)
56. Rotational kinetic energy and moment of inertia of a rigid body - Answer
(click here)
57. Theorems of moment of inertia : Perpendicular and Parallel axes
theorem - Answer (click here)
58. Moment of a force - Answer (click here)
59. Couple and moment of the couple (Torque) - Answer (click here)
60. Angular momentum of a rigid body - Answer (click here)
61. Relation between torque and angular acceleration - Answer (click here)
62. Conservation of angular momentum with Illustration - Answer (click here)
63. Newton's law of gravitation - Answer (click here)
64. Acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
65. Acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the Earth - Answer (click here)
66. Variation of acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
67. Gravitational field: potential difference and potential energy - Answer
(click here)
68. Inertial mass and Gravitational mass - Answer (click here)
69. Escape speed derivation and with the atmosphere of a planet - Answer
(click here)
70. Satellites: Orbital velocity, Time period and Energy - Answer (click here)
71. Geo-stationary satellites and Polar satellites - Answer (click here)
72. Uses of satellites - Answer (click here)
73. Indian space programme: List of Indian satellites and Indian Launch
Vehicles (Rockets) - Answer (click here)
74. Weightlessness, Rockets - principle and Types of fuels - Answer (click here)
75. The Solar system - Answer (click here)
76. Kepler's laws of planetary motion: The law of orbits, areas, periods -
Answer (click here)
77. Size, Surface temperatures, Mass, Atmosphere of the planets - Answer
(click here)
78. Conditions for life on any planet - Answer (click here)
79. Asteroids, Comets, Meteors and Meteorites inthe Solar system - Answer
(click here)
80. Stars, Constellations, Galaxy in the Solar system - Answer (click here)
81. Milky Way galaxy - Answer (click here)
82. Origin of the Universe - Answer (click here)
83. Mechanics of Solids and Fluids - Answer (click here)
84. Intermolecular or interatomic forces - Answer (click here)
85. Elasticity: Stress, strain Elastic limit, Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
86. Experimental verification of Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
87. Study of stress - strain relationship - Answer (click here)
88. Three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
89. Relation between the three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
90. Determination of Young's modulusby Searle's method - Answer (click here)
91. Applications of modulus of elasticity - Answer (click here)
92. Pressure due to a liquid column - Answer (click here)
93. Pascal's law and effect of gravity - Answer (click here)
94. Applications of Pascal's law: Hydraulic lift and brake - Answer (click here)
95. Co-efficient of viscosity - Answer (click here)
96. Viscosity: Streamline flow and Turbulent flow - Answer (click here)
97. Stoke's law (for highly viscous liquids) - Answer (click here)
98. Determination of coefficient of viscosity of water by Poiseuille's flow
method - Answer (click here)
99. Surface tension: Intermolecular, Cohesive, Adhesive force - Answer (click
here)
100. Experiments to demonstrate surface tension - Answer (click here)
101. Molecular theory of surface tension - Answer (click here)
102. Fluid Surface energy and surface tension - Answer (click here)
103. Pressure difference and pressure inside a liquid drop and a soap bubble -
Answer (click here)
104. Capillarity and Illustrations of capillarity - Answer (click here)
105. Experimental determination of surface tension of water by capillary rise
method - Answer (click here)
106. Factors affecting and Applications surface tension - Answer (click here)
107. Total energy of a liquid: Pressure, Kineti, Potential energy - Answer (click
here)
108. Fluid Equation of continuity - Answer (click here)
109. Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)
110. Application of Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)
111. The projection of uniform circular motion on a diameter is SHM - Answer
(click here)
112. Important terms in simple harmonic motion - Answer (click here)
113. Dynamics of harmonic oscillations - Answer (click here)
114. Angular harmonic oscillator - Answer (click here)
115. Horizontal and Vertical oscillations of spring - Answer (click here)
116. Oscillation of liquid column in a U - tube - Answer (click here)
117. Oscillations of a simple pendulum - Answer (click here)
118. Laws of pendulum - Answer (click here)
119. Kinetic and Potential in simple harmonic motion - Answer (click here)
120. Types of oscillations - Answer (click here)
121. Characteristics of wave motion - Answer (click here)
122. Mechanical wave motion - Transverse and Longitudinal wave motion -
Answer (click here)
123. Relationship between velocity, frequency and wavelength of a wave -
Answer (click here)
124. Velocity of wave in different media - Answer (click here)
125. Laplace?s correction - Answer (click here)
126. Factors affecting velocity of sound in gases - Answer (click here)
127. Equation of a plane progressive wave - Answer (click here)
128. Characteristics of progressive wave - Answer (click here)
129. Progressive wave : Intensity and sound level - Answer (click here)
130. Applications of reflection of sound waves - Answer (click here)
131. Applications of refraction of sound - Answer (click here)
132. Superposition principle of waves - Answer (click here)
133. Interference of waves - Answer (click here)
134. Experimental demonstration of interference of sound - Answer (click here)
135. Beats - Analytical method and Uses of beats - Answer (click here)
136. Analytical method and Characteristics of stationary waves - Answer (click
here)
137. Standing waves in strings - Sonometer - Answer (click here)
138. Vibrations of air column in Organ pipes - Answer (click here)
139. Resonance air column apparatus - Answer (click here)
140. Doppler effect : Different cases and Applications - Answer (click here)
141. Heat and Thermodynamics - Introduction - Answer (click here)
142. Postulates of Kinetic theory of gases - Answer (click here)
143. Pressure exerted by a gas - Answer (click here)
144. Degrees of freedom of molecule - Answer (click here)
145. Law of equipartition of energy - Answer (click here)
146. Thermal equilibrium - Answer (click here)
147. Molar specific heat capacity of a gas - Answer (click here)
148. First law of thermodynamics - Answer (click here)
149. Relation between Cp and Cv (Meyer's relation) - Answer (click here)
150. Indicator diagram (P-V diagram) - Answer (click here)
151. Isothermal process and Workdone in an isothermal expansion - Answer
(click here)
152. Adiabatic process and Work done in an adiabatic expansion - Answer
(click here)
153. Thermodynamic : Reversible and irreversible processes - Answer (click
here)
154. Second law of thermodynamics- Kelvin's, Clausius, Kelvin - Planck's
statement - Answer (click here)
155. Carnot engine - Essential parts, Working, four stages of operations -
Answer (click here)
156. Refrigerator : Coefficient of performance and Inferences - Answer (click
here)
157. Transfer of heat - Conduction, Convection, Radiation - Answer (click here)
158. Perfect black body - Answer (click here)
159. Experimental verification of Newton's law of cooling - Answer (click here)
160. Surface temperature of the Sun - Answer (click here)
161. Angstrom pyrheliometer - Answer (click here)
162. Reflection of light - Answer (click here)
163. Image in a plane mirror - Answer (click here)
164. Reflection at curved surfaces - Answer (click here)
165. Total internal reflection - Answer (click here)
166. Applications of Total internal reflection - Answer (click here)
167. Michelson's method - Answer (click here)
168. Importance of velocity of light - Answer (click here)
169. Refraction of light - Answer (click here)
170. Refraction at a spherical surface - Answer (click here)
171. Lens maker's formula and lens formula and Magnification - Answer (click
here)
172. Combination of thin lenses in contact - Answer (click here)
173. Refraction of light through a prism - Answer (click here)
174. Dispersion of light and Dispersive power - Answer (click here)
175. Spectrometer - Answer (click here)
176. Basic Parts and Adjustments of the spectrometer - Answer (click here)
177. Determination of the refractive index of the material of the prism -
Answer (click here)
178. Formation of rainbows - Answer (click here)
179. Earth?s magnetic field and magnetic elements - Answer (click here)
180. Basic properties of magnets - Answer (click here)
181. Force between two magnetic poles - Answer (click here)
182. Magnetic induction at a point along the axial line due to a magnetic
dipole (Bar magnet) - Answer (click here)
183. Magnetic induction at a point along the equatorial line of a bar magnet -
Answer (click here)
184. Mapping of magnetic field due to a bar magnet - Answer (click here)
185. Torque on a bar magnet placed in a uniform magnetic field - Answer (click
here)
186. Tangent law - Answer (click here)
187. End-on (or) Tan A position- Deflection magnetometer - Answer (click here)
188. Broad?side on (or) Tan B position - Deflection magnetometer - Answer
(click here)
189. Magnetic properties of materials - Answer (click here)
190. Properties of diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic substances -
Answer (click here)
191. Hysteresis and Hysteresis loss - Answer (click here)
192. Uses of ferromagnetic materials - Answer (click here)
193. Electrostatics - frictional electricity - Answer (click here)
194. Basic properties of electric charge - Answer (click here)
195. Definition of Coulomb's law , Principle of Superposition, Electric Field,
Electric Field Intensity (E) - Answer (click here)
196. Electric Field: Definition of Electric lines of force and Properties of lines
of forces - Answer (click here)
197. Electric potential: Definition of Electric potential and Relation between
electric field and potential - Answer (click here)
198. Gauss's law and its applications - Answer (click here)
199. Electrostatic induction - Answer (click here)
200. Principle of a capacitor and Energy stored in a capacitor - Answer (click
here)
201. Lightning conductor -Van de Graaff Generator- working principle and
construction - Answer (click here)
202. Definition of Electric current and discription of Current Electricity -
Answer (click here)
203. Combination of resistors: Resistors in series and parallel - Answer (click
here)
204. Kirchoff's law and Potentiometer - Answer (click here)
205. Superconductivity Defination and Applications of superconductors -
Answer (click here)
206. Carbon resistors and Colour code for carbon resistors - Answer (click here)
207. Temperature dependence of resistance and Internal resistance of a cell -
Answer (click here)
208. Electric energy and electric power - Answer (click here)
209. Faraday's laws of electrolysis | Chemical effect of current | Verification
of Faraday's laws of electrolysis - Answer (click here)
210. Electric cells and Voltaic cell - Answer (click here)
211. Primary Cell - Daniel cell, Leclanche cell - Answer (click here)
212. Secondary Cells - Lead - Acid accumulator - Applications of secondary
cells - Answer (click here)
213. Applications of Joule heating - Answer (click here)
214. Seebeck effect - Answer (click here)
215. Neutral and Inversion temperature - Answer (click here)
216. Peltier effect and Peltier Co-efficient (π) - Answer (click here)
217. Thomson effect and Thomson coefficient (σ) - Answer (click here)
218. Thermopile - Answer (click here)
219. Biot - Savart Law - Answer (click here)
220. Tangent galvanometer : Theory and Construction of Tangent
galvanometer - Answer (click here)
221. Solenoid and Right hand palm rule - Answer (click here)
222. Magnetic Lorentz force - Answer (click here)
223. Cyclotron- Principle, Construction, Working and Limitations of
Cyclotron - Answer (click here)
224. Moving coil galvanometer : Principle, Construction, Pointer type
moving coil galvanometer, Current sensitivity of a galvanometer - Answer
(click here)
225. Heating effect : Joule's law - Answer (click here)
226. Verification of Joule's law - Answer (click here)
227. Magnetic effect of current - Answer (click here)
228. Magnetic field around a straight conductor carrying current - Answer (click
here)
229. Magnetic field due to a circular loop carrying current - Answer (click here)
230. Biot Savart Law and Magnetic induction - Answer (click here)
231. Ampere's Circuital Law - Answer (click here)
232. Magnetic induction due to a long solenoid carrying current - Answer (click
here)
233. Magnetic Lorentz force and Cyclotron - Answer (click here)
234. Motion of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field - Answer (click
here)
235. Force on a current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field - Answer
(click here)
236. Force between two long parallel current-carrying conductors - Answer
(click here)
237. Torque experienced by a current loop in a uniform magnetic field -
Answer (click here)
238. Conversion of galvanometer into an ammeter - Answer (click here)
239. Conversion of galvanometer into a voltmeter - Answer (click here)
240. Current loop as a magnetic dipole - Answer (click here)
241. The magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron - Answer (click here)
242. AC generator (Dynamo) - Single phase and AC generator (Alternator) -
Three phase - Answer (click here)
243. Eddy currents and Applications of Eddy current - Answer (click here)
244. Transformer Principle - Efficiency of a transformer - Energy losses in a
transformer - Answer (click here)
245. Electromagnetic induction - Answer (click here)
246. Magnetic flux - Answer (click here)
247. Induced emf and current - Electromagnetic induction - Answer (click here)
248. Faraday's laws of electromagnetic induction - Answer (click here)
249. Lenz's law - Answer (click here)
250. Self Induction - Answer (click here)
251. Coefficient of self induction - Answer (click here)
252. Self inductance of a long solenoid - Answer (click here)
253. Mutual induction and Coefficient of mutual induction - Answer (click here)
254. Methods of producing induced emf - Answer (click here)
255. AC generator (Dynamo) - Single phase - Answer (click here)
256. Eddy currents - Answer (click here)
257. Transformer - Answer (click here)
258. Long distance power transmission - Answer (click here)
259. Alternating current - Answer (click here)
260. AC Circuit with resistor, inductor and capacitor - Answer (click here)
261. Choke coil: Construction and Working - Answer (click here)
262. Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman(C.V.Raman) Life - Answer (click here)
263. Uses of electromagnetic spectrum - Answer (click here)
264. Types of spectra - Emission spectra, Line spectrum, Band Spectrum,
Absorption Spectra - Answer (click here)
265. Fraunhofer lines - Fluorescence - Phosphorescence - Answer (click here)
266. Theories of light : Corpuscular theory, Wave theory, Electromagnetic
theory, Quantum theory - Answer (click here)
267. Scattering of light : Tyndal scattering, Raman effect - Answer (click here)
268. Wave front : Huygen's principle - Answer (click here)
269. Condition for sustained interference and Young's double slit experiment
- Answer (click here)
270. Newton's rings : Experiment, Theory - Answer (click here)
271. Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction - Answer (click here)
272. Diffraction grating explanation with Theory - Answer (click here)
273. Polarisation of transverse waves - Answer (click here)
274. Double refraction - Answer (click here)
275. Polaroids explanation and Uses of Polaroid - Answer (click here)
276. Nicol prism and Types of crystals - Answer (click here)
277. Optical activity - Answer (click here)
278. Specific rotation - Answer (click here)
279. Electromagnetic Waves and Wave optics - Answer (click here)
280. Characteristics of electromagnetic waves - Answer (click here)
281. Hertz experiment - Answer (click here)
282. Types of spectra - Answer (click here)
283. Theories of light - Answer (click here)
284. Scattering of light - Answer (click here)
285. Wave front - Answer (click here)
286. Superposition principle - Answer (click here)
287. Diffraction - Answer (click here)
288. Polarisation - Answer (click here)
289. Discharge of electricity through gases at low pressure - Discovery of
electrons - Answer (click here)
290. Properties of Cathode rays - Answer (click here)
291. Canal rays and Properties of Positive rays (or) Canal rays - Answer (click
here)
292. Thomson's method - Determination of specific charge (e/m) of an
electron - Answer (click here)
293. Millikan's oil drop experiment - Determination of charge of an electron -
Answer (click here)
294. Thomson atom model and its Drawbacks - Answer (click here)
295. Rutherford's α - particle scattering experiment - Answer (click here)
296. Rutherford atom model and its Drawbacks - Answer (click here)
297. Bohr atom model - Answer (click here)
298. Spectral series of hydrogen atom and Energy level diagram - Answer (click
here)
299. Excitation and ionization potential of an atom - Answer (click here)
300. Shortcomings of Bohr's theory - Answer (click here)
301. Sommerfeld atom model and its Drawbacks - Answer (click here)
302. Production of X-rays - Modern Coolidge tube - Answer (click here)
303. Types of X-rays: Soft and Hard X-rays - Answer (click here)
304. Properties of X-rays - Answer (click here)
305. Detection, Diffraction and Absorption of X-rays - Answer (click here)
306. Laue experiment - Answer (click here)
307. Bragg's law for X-ray diffraction - Answer (click here)
308. Bragg's X-ray spectrometer - Answer (click here)
309. X-ray spectra - continuous and characteristic X-ray spectra - Answer (click
here)
310. Moseley's law and Applications of Moseley's law - Answer (click here)
311. Medical, Industrial and Scientific Applications of X-rays - Answer (click
here)
312. Spontaneous and stimulated emission of Laser - Answer (click here)
313. Ruby laser - Generation Process and Energy Level - Answer (click here)
314. Helium neon laser - Generation Process and Energy Level - Answer (click
here)
315. Medical, Industrial and Scientific Applications of laser - Answer (click
here)
316. Photoelectric effect - Dual Nature of Radiation - Answer (click here)
317. Hallwachs Experiment - photo electric effect - Answer (click here)
318. Effect of potential difference on the photoelectric current - Answer (click
here)
319. Effect of frequency of incident radiation on stopping potential - Answer
(click here)
320. Laws of photoelectric emission - Answer (click here)
321. Einstein's photoelectric equation - Answer (click here)
322. Photoelectric cells and their types, applications - Answer (click here)
323. de Broglie wavelength of matter waves and an electron - Answer (click
here)
324. Electron microscope: Construction, working, Uses, Limitations - Answer
(click here)
325. Relativity: Concept of Space and Frame of reference - Answer (click here)
326. Special theory of relativity - Answer (click here)
327. Einstein's mass-energy equivalence - Answer (click here)
328. Classification of nuclei and Properties of nucleus Nuclear size - Answer
(click here)
329. Explanation of Nuclear binding energy curve - Answer (click here)
330. Bainbridge mass spectrometer - Determination of isotopic masses of
nuclei - Answer (click here)
331. Nuclear force and Radioactivity - Answer (click here)
332. Properties of Alpha α, beta β and gamma γ rays - Answer (click here)
333. Radioactive displacement law - Answer (click here)
334. Neutron - Discovery and Properties of neutrons - Answer (click here)
335. Artificial radioactivity - Answer (click here)
336. Applications of radio-isotopes - Answer (click here)
337. Biological hazards of nuclear radiations - Answer (click here)
338. Artificial radioactivity transmutation and Particle accelerators - Answer
(click here)
339. Geiger - Muller counter: Construction and Operation - Answer (click here)
340. Energy released in Nuclear fission - Answer (click here)
341. Radioactive Chain reaction - Answer (click here)
342. Atom bomb - Principle and construction - Answer (click here)
343. Nuclear reactor: Design and Function of parts, Uses - Answer (click here)
344. Nuclear power programme in India - Answer (click here)
345. Nuclear fusion: Hydrogen bomb and Stellar energy - Answer (click here)
346. Cosmic Rays: Latitude effect, Altitude effect, Cosmic ray showers -
Answer (click here)
347. Elementary particles of atom - new nuclear particles - Answer (click here)
348. Semiconductors: Energy band in solids - Answer (click here)
349. Semiconductors: Valence band, conduction band and forbidden energy
gap - Answer (click here)
350. Insulators, semiconductors and conductors - forbidden energy gap -
Answer (click here)
351. Electrons and holes in semiconductors - Answer (click here)
352. Intrinsic semiconductor - Answer (click here)
353. Extrinsic semiconductor: N and P -type semiconductor - Answer (click here)
354. PN Junction diode: Forward and Reverse bias characteristics - Answer
(click here)
355. PN junction diode as Half wave and Bridge wave rectifier - Answer (click
here)
356. Avalanche and zener Breakdown mechanisms - Answer (click here)
357. Zener diode and Zener diode as voltage regulator - Answer (click here)
358. Light Emitting Diode (LED) - Answer (click here)
359. Junction transistor - Answer (click here)
360. Working of a PNP transistor - Answer (click here)
361. Transistor circuit configurations - Answer (click here)
362. Characteristics of an NPN transistor in common emitter configuration -
Answer (click here)
363. Transistor as a switch - Answer (click here)
364. Transistor amplifier - Operating point, Working - Answer (click here)
365. Transistor biasing - Voltage divider bias - Answer (click here)
366. Single stage CE amplifier - Answer (click here)
367. Multistage amplifiers - Answer (click here)
368. Feedback in amplifiers- Principle of feedback and - Answer (click here)
369. Transistor oscillators - Barkhausen condition for oscillation - Answer (click
here)
370. Generation of sinusoidal waves by a tuned LC circuit - Answer (click here)
371. Essentials of LC oscillator - Answer (click here)
372. Colpitt's oscillator - Answer (click here)
373. Integrated circuit (IC) - Answer (click here)
374. Digital electronics - Analog signal, Digital signal and logic levels -
Answer (click here)
375. Basic logic gates using discrete components - Answer (click here)
376. Operational amplifier (OP - AMP) - Answer (click here)
377. Circuit symbol and Pin-out configuration of an OP-AMP - Answer (click
here)
378. Basic OP-AMP circuits: Inverting, Non-inverting, Summing, Difference
amplifier - Answer (click here)
379. Cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO) - Answer (click here)
380. Multimeter - Answer (click here)
381. Propagation of electromagnetic waves - Answer (click here)
382. Amplitude modulation (AM): Modulation factor, Analysis, Advantages,
Limitations - Answer (click here)
383. Frequency modulation (FM): Advantages and Disadvantages - Answer
(click here)
384. Phase modulation (PM) - Answer (click here)
385. Radio transmission - AM, FM transmitter and AF, RF section - Answer
(click here)
386. Radio reception: simple, AM and FM receiver - Answer (click here)
387. Television: Construction and Working of Vidicon camera tube - Answer
(click here)
388. Television: Scanning and synchronising - Answer (click here)
389. Monochrome picture tube - Answer (click here)
390. Monochrome TV transmission - Answer (click here)
391. Monochrome TV receiver - Answer (click here)
392. RADAR: Principle, Applications, Transmission and reception of radar -
Answer (click here)
393. Analog communication and digital communication - Answer (click here)
394. Modem and Fax (or) Facsimile - Answer (click here)
395. Wire and Cable - Answer (click here)
396. Fiber optical communication: Advantages, Applications - Answer (click
here)
397. Satellite Communication: Merits and Demerits - Answer (click here)