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Pharmaceutical Biotechnology: Fundamentals and Applications

Subject : Pharmaceutical Biotechnology: Fundamentals and


Applications
Molecular Biotechnology
1. Molecular Biotechnology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. The Cells: Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell - Answer (click here)
3. Gene Expression - Answer (click here)
4. DNA Replication - Answer (click here)
5. Gene Transcription - Answer (click here)
6. Gene Translation - Answer (click here)
7. Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
8. DNA Transfer - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
9. DNA Sources - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
10. Production by Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
11. DNA Sequencing - Answer (click here)
12. Genome Sequencing - Answer (click here)
13. DNA Hybridization - Answer (click here)
14. PCR Technology - Answer (click here)
15. Cell Cultures: Cultivation of Microbes, Animal and Plant Cell Cultures -
Answer (click here)

Biophysical and Biochemical Analysis of Recombinant Proteins


1. Molecular Biotechnology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. The Cells: Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell - Answer (click here)
3. Gene Expression - Answer (click here)
4. DNA Replication - Answer (click here)
5. Gene Transcription - Answer (click here)
6. Gene Translation - Answer (click here)
7. Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
8. DNA Transfer - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
9. DNA Sources - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
10. Production by Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
11. DNA Sequencing - Answer (click here)
12. Genome Sequencing - Answer (click here)
13. DNA Hybridization - Answer (click here)
14. PCR Technology - Answer (click here)
15. Cell Cultures: Cultivation of Microbes, Animal and Plant Cell Cultures -
Answer (click here)
16. Biophysical and Biochemical Analysis of Recombinant Proteins - Answer
(click here)
17. Protein Structure: Primary Structure - Answer (click here)
18. Protein Structure: Secondary Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Protein Structure: Tertiary Structure - Answer (click here)
20. Protein Structure: Forces - Answer (click here)
21. Protein Structure: Hydration - Answer (click here)
22. Protein Folding - Answer (click here)
23. Protein Stability - Answer (click here)
24. Blotting Techniques - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
25. Immunoassays ELISA - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click
here)
26. Electrophoresis - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
27. Chromatography - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
28. Bioassays - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
29. Mass Spectrometry - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)

Production and Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds


1. Molecular Biotechnology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. The Cells: Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell - Answer (click here)
3. Gene Expression - Answer (click here)
4. DNA Replication - Answer (click here)
5. Gene Transcription - Answer (click here)
6. Gene Translation - Answer (click here)
7. Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
8. DNA Transfer - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
9. DNA Sources - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
10. Production by Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
11. DNA Sequencing - Answer (click here)
12. Genome Sequencing - Answer (click here)
13. DNA Hybridization - Answer (click here)
14. PCR Technology - Answer (click here)
15. Cell Cultures: Cultivation of Microbes, Animal and Plant Cell Cultures -
Answer (click here)
16. Biophysical and Biochemical Analysis of Recombinant Proteins - Answer
(click here)
17. Protein Structure: Primary Structure - Answer (click here)
18. Protein Structure: Secondary Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Protein Structure: Tertiary Structure - Answer (click here)
20. Protein Structure: Forces - Answer (click here)
21. Protein Structure: Hydration - Answer (click here)
22. Protein Folding - Answer (click here)
23. Protein Stability - Answer (click here)
24. Blotting Techniques - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
25. Immunoassays ELISA - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click
here)
26. Electrophoresis - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
27. Chromatography - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
28. Bioassays - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
29. Mass Spectrometry - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
30. Production and Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
31. Expression Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
32. Cultivation Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
33. Cultivation Medium - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
34. Contaminants - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
35. Cellular DNA - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
36. Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
37. Filtration/Centrifugation - Downstream Processing of Biotech
Compounds - Answer (click here)
38. Precipitation - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
39. Chromatography - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds -
Answer (click here)
40. Issues to Consider in Production And purification of Proteins - Answer
(click here)

Formulation of Biotech Products Including Biopharmaceutical


Considerations
1. Molecular Biotechnology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. The Cells: Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell - Answer (click here)
3. Gene Expression - Answer (click here)
4. DNA Replication - Answer (click here)
5. Gene Transcription - Answer (click here)
6. Gene Translation - Answer (click here)
7. Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
8. DNA Transfer - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
9. DNA Sources - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
10. Production by Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
11. DNA Sequencing - Answer (click here)
12. Genome Sequencing - Answer (click here)
13. DNA Hybridization - Answer (click here)
14. PCR Technology - Answer (click here)
15. Cell Cultures: Cultivation of Microbes, Animal and Plant Cell Cultures -
Answer (click here)
16. Biophysical and Biochemical Analysis of Recombinant Proteins - Answer
(click here)
17. Protein Structure: Primary Structure - Answer (click here)
18. Protein Structure: Secondary Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Protein Structure: Tertiary Structure - Answer (click here)
20. Protein Structure: Forces - Answer (click here)
21. Protein Structure: Hydration - Answer (click here)
22. Protein Folding - Answer (click here)
23. Protein Stability - Answer (click here)
24. Blotting Techniques - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
25. Immunoassays ELISA - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click
here)
26. Electrophoresis - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
27. Chromatography - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
28. Bioassays - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
29. Mass Spectrometry - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
30. Production and Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
31. Expression Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
32. Cultivation Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
33. Cultivation Medium - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
34. Contaminants - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
35. Cellular DNA - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
36. Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
37. Filtration/Centrifugation - Downstream Processing of Biotech
Compounds - Answer (click here)
38. Precipitation - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
39. Chromatography - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds -
Answer (click here)
40. Issues to Consider in Production And purification of Proteins - Answer
(click here)
41. Microbiological Considerations - Answer (click here)
42. Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer
(click here)
43. Solubility Enhancers - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
44. Anti Adsorption and Anti Aggregation Agents - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
45. Buffer Components - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
46. Preservatives and Antioxidants - Excipients Used in Parenteral
Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
47. Osmotic Agents - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
48. Shelf Life of Protein Based Pharmaceuticals - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
49. Freeze Drying of Proteins - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations
of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
50. Freezing - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
51. Primary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
52. Secondary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
53. Delivery of Proteins: Routes of Administration and Absorption
Enhancement - Answer (click here)
54. Delivery of Proteins: By The Parenteral Route - Answer (click here)
55. Delivery of Proteins: Approaches For Rate Controlled Delivery - Answer
(click here)
56. Delivery of Proteins: Site Specific Delivery (Targeting) of Protein Drugs
- Answer (click here)
57. Anatomical, Physiological, and Pathological Considerations Relevant for
Protein Targeting - Answer (click here)
58. Soluble Carrier Systems for Targeted Delivery of Proteins - Answer (click
here)
59. Potential Pitfalls in Tumor Targeting - Answer (click here)
60. Colloidal Particulate Carrier Systems for TargetedDelivery of Proteins:
Nanotechnology at Work - Answer (click here)
61. Perspectives for Targeted Protein Delivery - Answer (click here)

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Peptide and Protein


Drugs
1. Molecular Biotechnology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. The Cells: Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell - Answer (click here)
3. Gene Expression - Answer (click here)
4. DNA Replication - Answer (click here)
5. Gene Transcription - Answer (click here)
6. Gene Translation - Answer (click here)
7. Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
8. DNA Transfer - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
9. DNA Sources - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
10. Production by Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
11. DNA Sequencing - Answer (click here)
12. Genome Sequencing - Answer (click here)
13. DNA Hybridization - Answer (click here)
14. PCR Technology - Answer (click here)
15. Cell Cultures: Cultivation of Microbes, Animal and Plant Cell Cultures -
Answer (click here)
16. Biophysical and Biochemical Analysis of Recombinant Proteins - Answer
(click here)
17. Protein Structure: Primary Structure - Answer (click here)
18. Protein Structure: Secondary Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Protein Structure: Tertiary Structure - Answer (click here)
20. Protein Structure: Forces - Answer (click here)
21. Protein Structure: Hydration - Answer (click here)
22. Protein Folding - Answer (click here)
23. Protein Stability - Answer (click here)
24. Blotting Techniques - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
25. Immunoassays ELISA - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click
here)
26. Electrophoresis - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
27. Chromatography - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
28. Bioassays - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
29. Mass Spectrometry - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
30. Production and Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
31. Expression Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
32. Cultivation Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
33. Cultivation Medium - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
34. Contaminants - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
35. Cellular DNA - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
36. Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
37. Filtration/Centrifugation - Downstream Processing of Biotech
Compounds - Answer (click here)
38. Precipitation - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
39. Chromatography - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds -
Answer (click here)
40. Issues to Consider in Production And purification of Proteins - Answer
(click here)
41. Microbiological Considerations - Answer (click here)
42. Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer
(click here)
43. Solubility Enhancers - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
44. Anti Adsorption and Anti Aggregation Agents - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
45. Buffer Components - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
46. Preservatives and Antioxidants - Excipients Used in Parenteral
Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
47. Osmotic Agents - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
48. Shelf Life of Protein Based Pharmaceuticals - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
49. Freeze Drying of Proteins - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations
of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
50. Freezing - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
51. Primary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
52. Secondary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
53. Delivery of Proteins: Routes of Administration and Absorption
Enhancement - Answer (click here)
54. Delivery of Proteins: By The Parenteral Route - Answer (click here)
55. Delivery of Proteins: Approaches For Rate Controlled Delivery - Answer
(click here)
56. Delivery of Proteins: Site Specific Delivery (Targeting) of Protein Drugs
- Answer (click here)
57. Anatomical, Physiological, and Pathological Considerations Relevant for
Protein Targeting - Answer (click here)
58. Soluble Carrier Systems for Targeted Delivery of Proteins - Answer (click
here)
59. Potential Pitfalls in Tumor Targeting - Answer (click here)
60. Colloidal Particulate Carrier Systems for TargetedDelivery of Proteins:
Nanotechnology at Work - Answer (click here)
61. Perspectives for Targeted Protein Delivery - Answer (click here)
62. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Peptide and Protein Drugs -
Answer (click here)
63. Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
64. Absorption of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
65. Distribution of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
66. Elimination of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
67. Target Mediated Drug Disposition - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
68. Immunogenicity and Protein Pharmacokinetics - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
69. Species Specificity and Allometric Scaling - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
70. Chemical Modifications for Optimizing the Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
71. Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
72. Direct Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics
- Answer (click here)
73. Indirect Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
74. Indirect Response PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
75. Cell Life Span Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics -
Answer (click here)
76. Complex Response Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)

Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Proteins


1. Molecular Biotechnology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. The Cells: Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell - Answer (click here)
3. Gene Expression - Answer (click here)
4. DNA Replication - Answer (click here)
5. Gene Transcription - Answer (click here)
6. Gene Translation - Answer (click here)
7. Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
8. DNA Transfer - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
9. DNA Sources - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
10. Production by Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
11. DNA Sequencing - Answer (click here)
12. Genome Sequencing - Answer (click here)
13. DNA Hybridization - Answer (click here)
14. PCR Technology - Answer (click here)
15. Cell Cultures: Cultivation of Microbes, Animal and Plant Cell Cultures -
Answer (click here)
16. Biophysical and Biochemical Analysis of Recombinant Proteins - Answer
(click here)
17. Protein Structure: Primary Structure - Answer (click here)
18. Protein Structure: Secondary Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Protein Structure: Tertiary Structure - Answer (click here)
20. Protein Structure: Forces - Answer (click here)
21. Protein Structure: Hydration - Answer (click here)
22. Protein Folding - Answer (click here)
23. Protein Stability - Answer (click here)
24. Blotting Techniques - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
25. Immunoassays ELISA - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click
here)
26. Electrophoresis - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
27. Chromatography - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
28. Bioassays - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
29. Mass Spectrometry - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
30. Production and Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
31. Expression Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
32. Cultivation Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
33. Cultivation Medium - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
34. Contaminants - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
35. Cellular DNA - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
36. Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
37. Filtration/Centrifugation - Downstream Processing of Biotech
Compounds - Answer (click here)
38. Precipitation - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
39. Chromatography - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds -
Answer (click here)
40. Issues to Consider in Production And purification of Proteins - Answer
(click here)
41. Microbiological Considerations - Answer (click here)
42. Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer
(click here)
43. Solubility Enhancers - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
44. Anti Adsorption and Anti Aggregation Agents - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
45. Buffer Components - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
46. Preservatives and Antioxidants - Excipients Used in Parenteral
Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
47. Osmotic Agents - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
48. Shelf Life of Protein Based Pharmaceuticals - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
49. Freeze Drying of Proteins - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations
of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
50. Freezing - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
51. Primary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
52. Secondary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
53. Delivery of Proteins: Routes of Administration and Absorption
Enhancement - Answer (click here)
54. Delivery of Proteins: By The Parenteral Route - Answer (click here)
55. Delivery of Proteins: Approaches For Rate Controlled Delivery - Answer
(click here)
56. Delivery of Proteins: Site Specific Delivery (Targeting) of Protein Drugs
- Answer (click here)
57. Anatomical, Physiological, and Pathological Considerations Relevant for
Protein Targeting - Answer (click here)
58. Soluble Carrier Systems for Targeted Delivery of Proteins - Answer (click
here)
59. Potential Pitfalls in Tumor Targeting - Answer (click here)
60. Colloidal Particulate Carrier Systems for TargetedDelivery of Proteins:
Nanotechnology at Work - Answer (click here)
61. Perspectives for Targeted Protein Delivery - Answer (click here)
62. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Peptide and Protein Drugs -
Answer (click here)
63. Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
64. Absorption of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
65. Distribution of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
66. Elimination of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
67. Target Mediated Drug Disposition - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
68. Immunogenicity and Protein Pharmacokinetics - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
69. Species Specificity and Allometric Scaling - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
70. Chemical Modifications for Optimizing the Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
71. Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
72. Direct Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics
- Answer (click here)
73. Indirect Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
74. Indirect Response PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
75. Cell Life Span Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics -
Answer (click here)
76. Complex Response Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
77. Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Proteins - Answer (click here)
78. The New Paradigm - Answer (click here)
79. The Immunological Response - Answer (click here)
80. Factors Influencing Antibody Formation Totherapeutic Proteins - Answer
(click here)
81. Assays for Antibodies - Answer (click here)
82. Issues Specifically Related Tomonoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
83. Clinical Effects of Induced Antibodies - Answer (click here)
84. Predicting and Reducing Immunogenicity - Answer (click here)

Genomics Other Omics Technologies Personalized Medicine and


Additional Biotechnology Related Techniques
1. Molecular Biotechnology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. The Cells: Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell - Answer (click here)
3. Gene Expression - Answer (click here)
4. DNA Replication - Answer (click here)
5. Gene Transcription - Answer (click here)
6. Gene Translation - Answer (click here)
7. Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
8. DNA Transfer - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
9. DNA Sources - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
10. Production by Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
11. DNA Sequencing - Answer (click here)
12. Genome Sequencing - Answer (click here)
13. DNA Hybridization - Answer (click here)
14. PCR Technology - Answer (click here)
15. Cell Cultures: Cultivation of Microbes, Animal and Plant Cell Cultures -
Answer (click here)
16. Biophysical and Biochemical Analysis of Recombinant Proteins - Answer
(click here)
17. Protein Structure: Primary Structure - Answer (click here)
18. Protein Structure: Secondary Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Protein Structure: Tertiary Structure - Answer (click here)
20. Protein Structure: Forces - Answer (click here)
21. Protein Structure: Hydration - Answer (click here)
22. Protein Folding - Answer (click here)
23. Protein Stability - Answer (click here)
24. Blotting Techniques - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
25. Immunoassays ELISA - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click
here)
26. Electrophoresis - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
27. Chromatography - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
28. Bioassays - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
29. Mass Spectrometry - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
30. Production and Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
31. Expression Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
32. Cultivation Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
33. Cultivation Medium - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
34. Contaminants - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
35. Cellular DNA - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
36. Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
37. Filtration/Centrifugation - Downstream Processing of Biotech
Compounds - Answer (click here)
38. Precipitation - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
39. Chromatography - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds -
Answer (click here)
40. Issues to Consider in Production And purification of Proteins - Answer
(click here)
41. Microbiological Considerations - Answer (click here)
42. Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer
(click here)
43. Solubility Enhancers - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
44. Anti Adsorption and Anti Aggregation Agents - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
45. Buffer Components - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
46. Preservatives and Antioxidants - Excipients Used in Parenteral
Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
47. Osmotic Agents - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
48. Shelf Life of Protein Based Pharmaceuticals - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
49. Freeze Drying of Proteins - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations
of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
50. Freezing - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
51. Primary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
52. Secondary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
53. Delivery of Proteins: Routes of Administration and Absorption
Enhancement - Answer (click here)
54. Delivery of Proteins: By The Parenteral Route - Answer (click here)
55. Delivery of Proteins: Approaches For Rate Controlled Delivery - Answer
(click here)
56. Delivery of Proteins: Site Specific Delivery (Targeting) of Protein Drugs
- Answer (click here)
57. Anatomical, Physiological, and Pathological Considerations Relevant for
Protein Targeting - Answer (click here)
58. Soluble Carrier Systems for Targeted Delivery of Proteins - Answer (click
here)
59. Potential Pitfalls in Tumor Targeting - Answer (click here)
60. Colloidal Particulate Carrier Systems for TargetedDelivery of Proteins:
Nanotechnology at Work - Answer (click here)
61. Perspectives for Targeted Protein Delivery - Answer (click here)
62. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Peptide and Protein Drugs -
Answer (click here)
63. Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
64. Absorption of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
65. Distribution of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
66. Elimination of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
67. Target Mediated Drug Disposition - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
68. Immunogenicity and Protein Pharmacokinetics - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
69. Species Specificity and Allometric Scaling - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
70. Chemical Modifications for Optimizing the Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
71. Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
72. Direct Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics
- Answer (click here)
73. Indirect Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
74. Indirect Response PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
75. Cell Life Span Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics -
Answer (click here)
76. Complex Response Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
77. Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Proteins - Answer (click here)
78. The New Paradigm - Answer (click here)
79. The Immunological Response - Answer (click here)
80. Factors Influencing Antibody Formation Totherapeutic Proteins - Answer
(click here)
81. Assays for Antibodies - Answer (click here)
82. Issues Specifically Related Tomonoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
83. Clinical Effects of Induced Antibodies - Answer (click here)
84. Predicting and Reducing Immunogenicity - Answer (click here)
85. Genomics, “Omics” Technologies, Personalized Medicine - Answer (click
here)
86. An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
87. Genomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
88. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Bioinformatics - Answer (click here)
89. Transcriptomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer
(click here)
90. Proteomics, Structural Proteomics, and Functional Proteomics - “Omics”
Technologies - Answer (click here)
91. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Microarrays - Answer (click here)
92. “Omics” Enabled Technology: BriefIntroduction to Biomarkers - Answer
(click here)
93. Metabonomics and Metabolomics - Answer (click here)
94. Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics - Answer (click here)
95. Toxicogenomics - Answer (click here)
96. Glycomics and Glycobiology - Answer (click here)
97. “Omics” Integrating Technology: Systems Biology - Answer (click here)
98. Transgenic Animals - Answer (click here)
99. Transgenic Plants - Answer (click here)
100. Xenotransplantation: Transplantable Transgenic Animal Organs - Answer
(click here)
101. Knockout Mice - Answer (click here)
102. Protein Engineering - Answer (click here)
103. 3D Structures of Engineered Proteins - Answer (click here)
104. Peptide Chemistry and Peptidomimetics - Answer (click here)
105. Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
106. Stem Cells - Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
107. Tissue Engineering and Some Products of Tissue Engineering - Cell
Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
108. Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click here)
109. Screening and Synthesis - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer
(click here)
110. Chemical Genomics - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click
here)

Gene Therapy
1. Molecular Biotechnology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. The Cells: Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell - Answer (click here)
3. Gene Expression - Answer (click here)
4. DNA Replication - Answer (click here)
5. Gene Transcription - Answer (click here)
6. Gene Translation - Answer (click here)
7. Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
8. DNA Transfer - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
9. DNA Sources - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
10. Production by Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
11. DNA Sequencing - Answer (click here)
12. Genome Sequencing - Answer (click here)
13. DNA Hybridization - Answer (click here)
14. PCR Technology - Answer (click here)
15. Cell Cultures: Cultivation of Microbes, Animal and Plant Cell Cultures -
Answer (click here)
16. Biophysical and Biochemical Analysis of Recombinant Proteins - Answer
(click here)
17. Protein Structure: Primary Structure - Answer (click here)
18. Protein Structure: Secondary Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Protein Structure: Tertiary Structure - Answer (click here)
20. Protein Structure: Forces - Answer (click here)
21. Protein Structure: Hydration - Answer (click here)
22. Protein Folding - Answer (click here)
23. Protein Stability - Answer (click here)
24. Blotting Techniques - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
25. Immunoassays ELISA - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click
here)
26. Electrophoresis - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
27. Chromatography - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
28. Bioassays - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
29. Mass Spectrometry - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
30. Production and Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
31. Expression Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
32. Cultivation Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
33. Cultivation Medium - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
34. Contaminants - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
35. Cellular DNA - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
36. Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
37. Filtration/Centrifugation - Downstream Processing of Biotech
Compounds - Answer (click here)
38. Precipitation - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
39. Chromatography - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds -
Answer (click here)
40. Issues to Consider in Production And purification of Proteins - Answer
(click here)
41. Microbiological Considerations - Answer (click here)
42. Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer
(click here)
43. Solubility Enhancers - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
44. Anti Adsorption and Anti Aggregation Agents - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
45. Buffer Components - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
46. Preservatives and Antioxidants - Excipients Used in Parenteral
Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
47. Osmotic Agents - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
48. Shelf Life of Protein Based Pharmaceuticals - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
49. Freeze Drying of Proteins - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations
of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
50. Freezing - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
51. Primary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
52. Secondary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
53. Delivery of Proteins: Routes of Administration and Absorption
Enhancement - Answer (click here)
54. Delivery of Proteins: By The Parenteral Route - Answer (click here)
55. Delivery of Proteins: Approaches For Rate Controlled Delivery - Answer
(click here)
56. Delivery of Proteins: Site Specific Delivery (Targeting) of Protein Drugs
- Answer (click here)
57. Anatomical, Physiological, and Pathological Considerations Relevant for
Protein Targeting - Answer (click here)
58. Soluble Carrier Systems for Targeted Delivery of Proteins - Answer (click
here)
59. Potential Pitfalls in Tumor Targeting - Answer (click here)
60. Colloidal Particulate Carrier Systems for TargetedDelivery of Proteins:
Nanotechnology at Work - Answer (click here)
61. Perspectives for Targeted Protein Delivery - Answer (click here)
62. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Peptide and Protein Drugs -
Answer (click here)
63. Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
64. Absorption of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
65. Distribution of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
66. Elimination of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
67. Target Mediated Drug Disposition - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
68. Immunogenicity and Protein Pharmacokinetics - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
69. Species Specificity and Allometric Scaling - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
70. Chemical Modifications for Optimizing the Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
71. Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
72. Direct Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics
- Answer (click here)
73. Indirect Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
74. Indirect Response PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
75. Cell Life Span Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics -
Answer (click here)
76. Complex Response Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
77. Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Proteins - Answer (click here)
78. The New Paradigm - Answer (click here)
79. The Immunological Response - Answer (click here)
80. Factors Influencing Antibody Formation Totherapeutic Proteins - Answer
(click here)
81. Assays for Antibodies - Answer (click here)
82. Issues Specifically Related Tomonoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
83. Clinical Effects of Induced Antibodies - Answer (click here)
84. Predicting and Reducing Immunogenicity - Answer (click here)
85. Genomics, “Omics” Technologies, Personalized Medicine - Answer (click
here)
86. An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
87. Genomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
88. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Bioinformatics - Answer (click here)
89. Transcriptomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer
(click here)
90. Proteomics, Structural Proteomics, and Functional Proteomics - “Omics”
Technologies - Answer (click here)
91. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Microarrays - Answer (click here)
92. “Omics” Enabled Technology: BriefIntroduction to Biomarkers - Answer
(click here)
93. Metabonomics and Metabolomics - Answer (click here)
94. Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics - Answer (click here)
95. Toxicogenomics - Answer (click here)
96. Glycomics and Glycobiology - Answer (click here)
97. “Omics” Integrating Technology: Systems Biology - Answer (click here)
98. Transgenic Animals - Answer (click here)
99. Transgenic Plants - Answer (click here)
100. Xenotransplantation: Transplantable Transgenic Animal Organs - Answer
(click here)
101. Knockout Mice - Answer (click here)
102. Protein Engineering - Answer (click here)
103. 3D Structures of Engineered Proteins - Answer (click here)
104. Peptide Chemistry and Peptidomimetics - Answer (click here)
105. Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
106. Stem Cells - Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
107. Tissue Engineering and Some Products of Tissue Engineering - Cell
Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
108. Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click here)
109. Screening and Synthesis - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer
(click here)
110. Chemical Genomics - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click
here)
111. Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
112. Ex Vivo Versus In Vivo Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
113. Gene Therapy in The Clinic: Disease Targets - Answer (click here)
114. General Considerations - Vectors For Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
115. General Anatomy and Production of a Gene Transfer Vector - Answer
(click here)
116. Retroviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
117. Adenoviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
118. Adeno Associated Virus Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer -
Answer (click here)
119. Non-Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
120. Construction of Non Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
121. Delivery Methods for Non-Viral Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
122. The Immune Response Against Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
123. Clinical Use of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
124. Production and Processing of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
125. The Role of Drug Metabolism in Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
126. Gene Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (GDEPT) - Answer (click here)
127. Systems for Pharmacological Regulation of Gene Expression - Answer
(click here)
128. Regulation and Oversight of Gene Therapy Products - Answer (click here)

Oligonucleotides
1. Molecular Biotechnology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. The Cells: Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell - Answer (click here)
3. Gene Expression - Answer (click here)
4. DNA Replication - Answer (click here)
5. Gene Transcription - Answer (click here)
6. Gene Translation - Answer (click here)
7. Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
8. DNA Transfer - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
9. DNA Sources - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
10. Production by Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
11. DNA Sequencing - Answer (click here)
12. Genome Sequencing - Answer (click here)
13. DNA Hybridization - Answer (click here)
14. PCR Technology - Answer (click here)
15. Cell Cultures: Cultivation of Microbes, Animal and Plant Cell Cultures -
Answer (click here)
16. Biophysical and Biochemical Analysis of Recombinant Proteins - Answer
(click here)
17. Protein Structure: Primary Structure - Answer (click here)
18. Protein Structure: Secondary Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Protein Structure: Tertiary Structure - Answer (click here)
20. Protein Structure: Forces - Answer (click here)
21. Protein Structure: Hydration - Answer (click here)
22. Protein Folding - Answer (click here)
23. Protein Stability - Answer (click here)
24. Blotting Techniques - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
25. Immunoassays ELISA - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click
here)
26. Electrophoresis - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
27. Chromatography - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
28. Bioassays - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
29. Mass Spectrometry - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
30. Production and Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
31. Expression Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
32. Cultivation Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
33. Cultivation Medium - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
34. Contaminants - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
35. Cellular DNA - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
36. Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
37. Filtration/Centrifugation - Downstream Processing of Biotech
Compounds - Answer (click here)
38. Precipitation - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
39. Chromatography - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds -
Answer (click here)
40. Issues to Consider in Production And purification of Proteins - Answer
(click here)
41. Microbiological Considerations - Answer (click here)
42. Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer
(click here)
43. Solubility Enhancers - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
44. Anti Adsorption and Anti Aggregation Agents - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
45. Buffer Components - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
46. Preservatives and Antioxidants - Excipients Used in Parenteral
Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
47. Osmotic Agents - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
48. Shelf Life of Protein Based Pharmaceuticals - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
49. Freeze Drying of Proteins - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations
of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
50. Freezing - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
51. Primary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
52. Secondary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
53. Delivery of Proteins: Routes of Administration and Absorption
Enhancement - Answer (click here)
54. Delivery of Proteins: By The Parenteral Route - Answer (click here)
55. Delivery of Proteins: Approaches For Rate Controlled Delivery - Answer
(click here)
56. Delivery of Proteins: Site Specific Delivery (Targeting) of Protein Drugs
- Answer (click here)
57. Anatomical, Physiological, and Pathological Considerations Relevant for
Protein Targeting - Answer (click here)
58. Soluble Carrier Systems for Targeted Delivery of Proteins - Answer (click
here)
59. Potential Pitfalls in Tumor Targeting - Answer (click here)
60. Colloidal Particulate Carrier Systems for TargetedDelivery of Proteins:
Nanotechnology at Work - Answer (click here)
61. Perspectives for Targeted Protein Delivery - Answer (click here)
62. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Peptide and Protein Drugs -
Answer (click here)
63. Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
64. Absorption of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
65. Distribution of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
66. Elimination of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
67. Target Mediated Drug Disposition - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
68. Immunogenicity and Protein Pharmacokinetics - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
69. Species Specificity and Allometric Scaling - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
70. Chemical Modifications for Optimizing the Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
71. Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
72. Direct Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics
- Answer (click here)
73. Indirect Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
74. Indirect Response PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
75. Cell Life Span Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics -
Answer (click here)
76. Complex Response Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
77. Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Proteins - Answer (click here)
78. The New Paradigm - Answer (click here)
79. The Immunological Response - Answer (click here)
80. Factors Influencing Antibody Formation Totherapeutic Proteins - Answer
(click here)
81. Assays for Antibodies - Answer (click here)
82. Issues Specifically Related Tomonoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
83. Clinical Effects of Induced Antibodies - Answer (click here)
84. Predicting and Reducing Immunogenicity - Answer (click here)
85. Genomics, “Omics” Technologies, Personalized Medicine - Answer (click
here)
86. An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
87. Genomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
88. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Bioinformatics - Answer (click here)
89. Transcriptomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer
(click here)
90. Proteomics, Structural Proteomics, and Functional Proteomics - “Omics”
Technologies - Answer (click here)
91. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Microarrays - Answer (click here)
92. “Omics” Enabled Technology: BriefIntroduction to Biomarkers - Answer
(click here)
93. Metabonomics and Metabolomics - Answer (click here)
94. Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics - Answer (click here)
95. Toxicogenomics - Answer (click here)
96. Glycomics and Glycobiology - Answer (click here)
97. “Omics” Integrating Technology: Systems Biology - Answer (click here)
98. Transgenic Animals - Answer (click here)
99. Transgenic Plants - Answer (click here)
100. Xenotransplantation: Transplantable Transgenic Animal Organs - Answer
(click here)
101. Knockout Mice - Answer (click here)
102. Protein Engineering - Answer (click here)
103. 3D Structures of Engineered Proteins - Answer (click here)
104. Peptide Chemistry and Peptidomimetics - Answer (click here)
105. Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
106. Stem Cells - Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
107. Tissue Engineering and Some Products of Tissue Engineering - Cell
Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
108. Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click here)
109. Screening and Synthesis - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer
(click here)
110. Chemical Genomics - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click
here)
111. Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
112. Ex Vivo Versus In Vivo Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
113. Gene Therapy in The Clinic: Disease Targets - Answer (click here)
114. General Considerations - Vectors For Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
115. General Anatomy and Production of a Gene Transfer Vector - Answer
(click here)
116. Retroviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
117. Adenoviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
118. Adeno Associated Virus Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer -
Answer (click here)
119. Non-Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
120. Construction of Non Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
121. Delivery Methods for Non-Viral Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
122. The Immune Response Against Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
123. Clinical Use of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
124. Production and Processing of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
125. The Role of Drug Metabolism in Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
126. Gene Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (GDEPT) - Answer (click here)
127. Systems for Pharmacological Regulation of Gene Expression - Answer
(click here)
128. Regulation and Oversight of Gene Therapy Products - Answer (click here)
129. Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
130. Interfering With Gene Expression - Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
131. Triple Helix-Forming Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
132. Transcription Factor Decoys - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene
Expression - Answer (click here)
133. Antisense/Ribozymes/EGS - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene
Expression - Answer (click here)
134. siRNA/miRNA - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene Expression -
Answer (click here)
135. Direct Binding to Non-Nucleic Acids - Answer (click here)
136. Gene Repair - Answer (click here)
137. Stimulating Immune Responses - Answer (click here)
138. Pharmacokinetics of Oligonucleotide-Based Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
139. Improving Oligonucleotide Stability - Answer (click here)
140. Improving Cellular Uptake - Answer (click here)
141. Diagnostic Applications - Answer (click here)

Hematopoietic Growth Factors


1. Molecular Biotechnology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. The Cells: Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell - Answer (click here)
3. Gene Expression - Answer (click here)
4. DNA Replication - Answer (click here)
5. Gene Transcription - Answer (click here)
6. Gene Translation - Answer (click here)
7. Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
8. DNA Transfer - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
9. DNA Sources - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
10. Production by Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
11. DNA Sequencing - Answer (click here)
12. Genome Sequencing - Answer (click here)
13. DNA Hybridization - Answer (click here)
14. PCR Technology - Answer (click here)
15. Cell Cultures: Cultivation of Microbes, Animal and Plant Cell Cultures -
Answer (click here)
16. Biophysical and Biochemical Analysis of Recombinant Proteins - Answer
(click here)
17. Protein Structure: Primary Structure - Answer (click here)
18. Protein Structure: Secondary Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Protein Structure: Tertiary Structure - Answer (click here)
20. Protein Structure: Forces - Answer (click here)
21. Protein Structure: Hydration - Answer (click here)
22. Protein Folding - Answer (click here)
23. Protein Stability - Answer (click here)
24. Blotting Techniques - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
25. Immunoassays ELISA - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click
here)
26. Electrophoresis - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
27. Chromatography - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
28. Bioassays - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
29. Mass Spectrometry - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
30. Production and Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
31. Expression Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
32. Cultivation Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
33. Cultivation Medium - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
34. Contaminants - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
35. Cellular DNA - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
36. Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
37. Filtration/Centrifugation - Downstream Processing of Biotech
Compounds - Answer (click here)
38. Precipitation - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
39. Chromatography - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds -
Answer (click here)
40. Issues to Consider in Production And purification of Proteins - Answer
(click here)
41. Microbiological Considerations - Answer (click here)
42. Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer
(click here)
43. Solubility Enhancers - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
44. Anti Adsorption and Anti Aggregation Agents - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
45. Buffer Components - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
46. Preservatives and Antioxidants - Excipients Used in Parenteral
Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
47. Osmotic Agents - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
48. Shelf Life of Protein Based Pharmaceuticals - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
49. Freeze Drying of Proteins - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations
of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
50. Freezing - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
51. Primary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
52. Secondary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
53. Delivery of Proteins: Routes of Administration and Absorption
Enhancement - Answer (click here)
54. Delivery of Proteins: By The Parenteral Route - Answer (click here)
55. Delivery of Proteins: Approaches For Rate Controlled Delivery - Answer
(click here)
56. Delivery of Proteins: Site Specific Delivery (Targeting) of Protein Drugs
- Answer (click here)
57. Anatomical, Physiological, and Pathological Considerations Relevant for
Protein Targeting - Answer (click here)
58. Soluble Carrier Systems for Targeted Delivery of Proteins - Answer (click
here)
59. Potential Pitfalls in Tumor Targeting - Answer (click here)
60. Colloidal Particulate Carrier Systems for TargetedDelivery of Proteins:
Nanotechnology at Work - Answer (click here)
61. Perspectives for Targeted Protein Delivery - Answer (click here)
62. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Peptide and Protein Drugs -
Answer (click here)
63. Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
64. Absorption of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
65. Distribution of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
66. Elimination of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
67. Target Mediated Drug Disposition - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
68. Immunogenicity and Protein Pharmacokinetics - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
69. Species Specificity and Allometric Scaling - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
70. Chemical Modifications for Optimizing the Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
71. Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
72. Direct Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics
- Answer (click here)
73. Indirect Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
74. Indirect Response PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
75. Cell Life Span Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics -
Answer (click here)
76. Complex Response Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
77. Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Proteins - Answer (click here)
78. The New Paradigm - Answer (click here)
79. The Immunological Response - Answer (click here)
80. Factors Influencing Antibody Formation Totherapeutic Proteins - Answer
(click here)
81. Assays for Antibodies - Answer (click here)
82. Issues Specifically Related Tomonoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
83. Clinical Effects of Induced Antibodies - Answer (click here)
84. Predicting and Reducing Immunogenicity - Answer (click here)
85. Genomics, “Omics” Technologies, Personalized Medicine - Answer (click
here)
86. An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
87. Genomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
88. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Bioinformatics - Answer (click here)
89. Transcriptomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer
(click here)
90. Proteomics, Structural Proteomics, and Functional Proteomics - “Omics”
Technologies - Answer (click here)
91. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Microarrays - Answer (click here)
92. “Omics” Enabled Technology: BriefIntroduction to Biomarkers - Answer
(click here)
93. Metabonomics and Metabolomics - Answer (click here)
94. Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics - Answer (click here)
95. Toxicogenomics - Answer (click here)
96. Glycomics and Glycobiology - Answer (click here)
97. “Omics” Integrating Technology: Systems Biology - Answer (click here)
98. Transgenic Animals - Answer (click here)
99. Transgenic Plants - Answer (click here)
100. Xenotransplantation: Transplantable Transgenic Animal Organs - Answer
(click here)
101. Knockout Mice - Answer (click here)
102. Protein Engineering - Answer (click here)
103. 3D Structures of Engineered Proteins - Answer (click here)
104. Peptide Chemistry and Peptidomimetics - Answer (click here)
105. Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
106. Stem Cells - Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
107. Tissue Engineering and Some Products of Tissue Engineering - Cell
Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
108. Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click here)
109. Screening and Synthesis - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer
(click here)
110. Chemical Genomics - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click
here)
111. Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
112. Ex Vivo Versus In Vivo Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
113. Gene Therapy in The Clinic: Disease Targets - Answer (click here)
114. General Considerations - Vectors For Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
115. General Anatomy and Production of a Gene Transfer Vector - Answer
(click here)
116. Retroviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
117. Adenoviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
118. Adeno Associated Virus Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer -
Answer (click here)
119. Non-Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
120. Construction of Non Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
121. Delivery Methods for Non-Viral Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
122. The Immune Response Against Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
123. Clinical Use of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
124. Production and Processing of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
125. The Role of Drug Metabolism in Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
126. Gene Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (GDEPT) - Answer (click here)
127. Systems for Pharmacological Regulation of Gene Expression - Answer
(click here)
128. Regulation and Oversight of Gene Therapy Products - Answer (click here)
129. Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
130. Interfering With Gene Expression - Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
131. Triple Helix-Forming Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
132. Transcription Factor Decoys - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene
Expression - Answer (click here)
133. Antisense/Ribozymes/EGS - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene
Expression - Answer (click here)
134. siRNA/miRNA - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene Expression -
Answer (click here)
135. Direct Binding to Non-Nucleic Acids - Answer (click here)
136. Gene Repair - Answer (click here)
137. Stimulating Immune Responses - Answer (click here)
138. Pharmacokinetics of Oligonucleotide-Based Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
139. Improving Oligonucleotide Stability - Answer (click here)
140. Improving Cellular Uptake - Answer (click here)
141. Diagnostic Applications - Answer (click here)
142. Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click here)
143. Hematopoiesis - Answer (click here)
144. Chemical Description of Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click
here)
145. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for the Myeloid Factors,
G-CSF and GM-CSF - Answer (click here)
146. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for SCF - Answer (click
here)
147. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for TPOs - Answer (click
here)
148. Pharmacology - Answer (click here)
149. Pharmaceutical Issues - Answer (click here)
150. Pharmacokinetics - Answer (click here)
151. Pharmacodynamics - Answer (click here)
152. Established Uses - Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click here)
153. AIDS - Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - Answer (click here)
154. Toxicities - Answer (click here)

Interferons and Interleukins


1. Molecular Biotechnology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. The Cells: Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell - Answer (click here)
3. Gene Expression - Answer (click here)
4. DNA Replication - Answer (click here)
5. Gene Transcription - Answer (click here)
6. Gene Translation - Answer (click here)
7. Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
8. DNA Transfer - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
9. DNA Sources - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
10. Production by Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
11. DNA Sequencing - Answer (click here)
12. Genome Sequencing - Answer (click here)
13. DNA Hybridization - Answer (click here)
14. PCR Technology - Answer (click here)
15. Cell Cultures: Cultivation of Microbes, Animal and Plant Cell Cultures -
Answer (click here)
16. Biophysical and Biochemical Analysis of Recombinant Proteins - Answer
(click here)
17. Protein Structure: Primary Structure - Answer (click here)
18. Protein Structure: Secondary Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Protein Structure: Tertiary Structure - Answer (click here)
20. Protein Structure: Forces - Answer (click here)
21. Protein Structure: Hydration - Answer (click here)
22. Protein Folding - Answer (click here)
23. Protein Stability - Answer (click here)
24. Blotting Techniques - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
25. Immunoassays ELISA - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click
here)
26. Electrophoresis - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
27. Chromatography - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
28. Bioassays - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
29. Mass Spectrometry - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
30. Production and Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
31. Expression Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
32. Cultivation Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
33. Cultivation Medium - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
34. Contaminants - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
35. Cellular DNA - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
36. Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
37. Filtration/Centrifugation - Downstream Processing of Biotech
Compounds - Answer (click here)
38. Precipitation - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
39. Chromatography - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds -
Answer (click here)
40. Issues to Consider in Production And purification of Proteins - Answer
(click here)
41. Microbiological Considerations - Answer (click here)
42. Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer
(click here)
43. Solubility Enhancers - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
44. Anti Adsorption and Anti Aggregation Agents - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
45. Buffer Components - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
46. Preservatives and Antioxidants - Excipients Used in Parenteral
Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
47. Osmotic Agents - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
48. Shelf Life of Protein Based Pharmaceuticals - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
49. Freeze Drying of Proteins - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations
of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
50. Freezing - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
51. Primary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
52. Secondary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
53. Delivery of Proteins: Routes of Administration and Absorption
Enhancement - Answer (click here)
54. Delivery of Proteins: By The Parenteral Route - Answer (click here)
55. Delivery of Proteins: Approaches For Rate Controlled Delivery - Answer
(click here)
56. Delivery of Proteins: Site Specific Delivery (Targeting) of Protein Drugs
- Answer (click here)
57. Anatomical, Physiological, and Pathological Considerations Relevant for
Protein Targeting - Answer (click here)
58. Soluble Carrier Systems for Targeted Delivery of Proteins - Answer (click
here)
59. Potential Pitfalls in Tumor Targeting - Answer (click here)
60. Colloidal Particulate Carrier Systems for TargetedDelivery of Proteins:
Nanotechnology at Work - Answer (click here)
61. Perspectives for Targeted Protein Delivery - Answer (click here)
62. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Peptide and Protein Drugs -
Answer (click here)
63. Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
64. Absorption of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
65. Distribution of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
66. Elimination of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
67. Target Mediated Drug Disposition - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
68. Immunogenicity and Protein Pharmacokinetics - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
69. Species Specificity and Allometric Scaling - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
70. Chemical Modifications for Optimizing the Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
71. Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
72. Direct Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics
- Answer (click here)
73. Indirect Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
74. Indirect Response PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
75. Cell Life Span Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics -
Answer (click here)
76. Complex Response Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
77. Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Proteins - Answer (click here)
78. The New Paradigm - Answer (click here)
79. The Immunological Response - Answer (click here)
80. Factors Influencing Antibody Formation Totherapeutic Proteins - Answer
(click here)
81. Assays for Antibodies - Answer (click here)
82. Issues Specifically Related Tomonoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
83. Clinical Effects of Induced Antibodies - Answer (click here)
84. Predicting and Reducing Immunogenicity - Answer (click here)
85. Genomics, “Omics” Technologies, Personalized Medicine - Answer (click
here)
86. An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
87. Genomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
88. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Bioinformatics - Answer (click here)
89. Transcriptomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer
(click here)
90. Proteomics, Structural Proteomics, and Functional Proteomics - “Omics”
Technologies - Answer (click here)
91. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Microarrays - Answer (click here)
92. “Omics” Enabled Technology: BriefIntroduction to Biomarkers - Answer
(click here)
93. Metabonomics and Metabolomics - Answer (click here)
94. Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics - Answer (click here)
95. Toxicogenomics - Answer (click here)
96. Glycomics and Glycobiology - Answer (click here)
97. “Omics” Integrating Technology: Systems Biology - Answer (click here)
98. Transgenic Animals - Answer (click here)
99. Transgenic Plants - Answer (click here)
100. Xenotransplantation: Transplantable Transgenic Animal Organs - Answer
(click here)
101. Knockout Mice - Answer (click here)
102. Protein Engineering - Answer (click here)
103. 3D Structures of Engineered Proteins - Answer (click here)
104. Peptide Chemistry and Peptidomimetics - Answer (click here)
105. Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
106. Stem Cells - Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
107. Tissue Engineering and Some Products of Tissue Engineering - Cell
Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
108. Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click here)
109. Screening and Synthesis - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer
(click here)
110. Chemical Genomics - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click
here)
111. Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
112. Ex Vivo Versus In Vivo Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
113. Gene Therapy in The Clinic: Disease Targets - Answer (click here)
114. General Considerations - Vectors For Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
115. General Anatomy and Production of a Gene Transfer Vector - Answer
(click here)
116. Retroviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
117. Adenoviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
118. Adeno Associated Virus Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer -
Answer (click here)
119. Non-Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
120. Construction of Non Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
121. Delivery Methods for Non-Viral Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
122. The Immune Response Against Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
123. Clinical Use of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
124. Production and Processing of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
125. The Role of Drug Metabolism in Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
126. Gene Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (GDEPT) - Answer (click here)
127. Systems for Pharmacological Regulation of Gene Expression - Answer
(click here)
128. Regulation and Oversight of Gene Therapy Products - Answer (click here)
129. Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
130. Interfering With Gene Expression - Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
131. Triple Helix-Forming Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
132. Transcription Factor Decoys - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene
Expression - Answer (click here)
133. Antisense/Ribozymes/EGS - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene
Expression - Answer (click here)
134. siRNA/miRNA - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene Expression -
Answer (click here)
135. Direct Binding to Non-Nucleic Acids - Answer (click here)
136. Gene Repair - Answer (click here)
137. Stimulating Immune Responses - Answer (click here)
138. Pharmacokinetics of Oligonucleotide-Based Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
139. Improving Oligonucleotide Stability - Answer (click here)
140. Improving Cellular Uptake - Answer (click here)
141. Diagnostic Applications - Answer (click here)
142. Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click here)
143. Hematopoiesis - Answer (click here)
144. Chemical Description of Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click
here)
145. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for the Myeloid Factors,
G-CSF and GM-CSF - Answer (click here)
146. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for SCF - Answer (click
here)
147. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for TPOs - Answer (click
here)
148. Pharmacology - Answer (click here)
149. Pharmaceutical Issues - Answer (click here)
150. Pharmacokinetics - Answer (click here)
151. Pharmacodynamics - Answer (click here)
152. Established Uses - Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click here)
153. AIDS - Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - Answer (click here)
154. Toxicities - Answer (click here)
155. Interferons and Interleukins - Answer (click here)
156. Interferons: Nomenclature and Functions - Answer (click here)
157. Interleukins: Nomenclature and Functions - Answer (click here)
158. Rapeutic Use of Recombinant Interferons - Answer (click here)
159. Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click here)
160. Aldesleukin - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer
(click here)
161. Oprelvekin - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click
here)
162. Anakinra - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click
here)
163. Pegylated Interferons and Interleukins: The Next Generation - Answer
(click here)

Insulin
1. Molecular Biotechnology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. The Cells: Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell - Answer (click here)
3. Gene Expression - Answer (click here)
4. DNA Replication - Answer (click here)
5. Gene Transcription - Answer (click here)
6. Gene Translation - Answer (click here)
7. Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
8. DNA Transfer - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
9. DNA Sources - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
10. Production by Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
11. DNA Sequencing - Answer (click here)
12. Genome Sequencing - Answer (click here)
13. DNA Hybridization - Answer (click here)
14. PCR Technology - Answer (click here)
15. Cell Cultures: Cultivation of Microbes, Animal and Plant Cell Cultures -
Answer (click here)
16. Biophysical and Biochemical Analysis of Recombinant Proteins - Answer
(click here)
17. Protein Structure: Primary Structure - Answer (click here)
18. Protein Structure: Secondary Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Protein Structure: Tertiary Structure - Answer (click here)
20. Protein Structure: Forces - Answer (click here)
21. Protein Structure: Hydration - Answer (click here)
22. Protein Folding - Answer (click here)
23. Protein Stability - Answer (click here)
24. Blotting Techniques - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
25. Immunoassays ELISA - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click
here)
26. Electrophoresis - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
27. Chromatography - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
28. Bioassays - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
29. Mass Spectrometry - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
30. Production and Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
31. Expression Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
32. Cultivation Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
33. Cultivation Medium - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
34. Contaminants - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
35. Cellular DNA - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
36. Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
37. Filtration/Centrifugation - Downstream Processing of Biotech
Compounds - Answer (click here)
38. Precipitation - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
39. Chromatography - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds -
Answer (click here)
40. Issues to Consider in Production And purification of Proteins - Answer
(click here)
41. Microbiological Considerations - Answer (click here)
42. Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer
(click here)
43. Solubility Enhancers - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
44. Anti Adsorption and Anti Aggregation Agents - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
45. Buffer Components - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
46. Preservatives and Antioxidants - Excipients Used in Parenteral
Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
47. Osmotic Agents - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
48. Shelf Life of Protein Based Pharmaceuticals - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
49. Freeze Drying of Proteins - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations
of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
50. Freezing - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
51. Primary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
52. Secondary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
53. Delivery of Proteins: Routes of Administration and Absorption
Enhancement - Answer (click here)
54. Delivery of Proteins: By The Parenteral Route - Answer (click here)
55. Delivery of Proteins: Approaches For Rate Controlled Delivery - Answer
(click here)
56. Delivery of Proteins: Site Specific Delivery (Targeting) of Protein Drugs
- Answer (click here)
57. Anatomical, Physiological, and Pathological Considerations Relevant for
Protein Targeting - Answer (click here)
58. Soluble Carrier Systems for Targeted Delivery of Proteins - Answer (click
here)
59. Potential Pitfalls in Tumor Targeting - Answer (click here)
60. Colloidal Particulate Carrier Systems for TargetedDelivery of Proteins:
Nanotechnology at Work - Answer (click here)
61. Perspectives for Targeted Protein Delivery - Answer (click here)
62. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Peptide and Protein Drugs -
Answer (click here)
63. Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
64. Absorption of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
65. Distribution of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
66. Elimination of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
67. Target Mediated Drug Disposition - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
68. Immunogenicity and Protein Pharmacokinetics - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
69. Species Specificity and Allometric Scaling - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
70. Chemical Modifications for Optimizing the Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
71. Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
72. Direct Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics
- Answer (click here)
73. Indirect Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
74. Indirect Response PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
75. Cell Life Span Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics -
Answer (click here)
76. Complex Response Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
77. Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Proteins - Answer (click here)
78. The New Paradigm - Answer (click here)
79. The Immunological Response - Answer (click here)
80. Factors Influencing Antibody Formation Totherapeutic Proteins - Answer
(click here)
81. Assays for Antibodies - Answer (click here)
82. Issues Specifically Related Tomonoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
83. Clinical Effects of Induced Antibodies - Answer (click here)
84. Predicting and Reducing Immunogenicity - Answer (click here)
85. Genomics, “Omics” Technologies, Personalized Medicine - Answer (click
here)
86. An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
87. Genomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
88. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Bioinformatics - Answer (click here)
89. Transcriptomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer
(click here)
90. Proteomics, Structural Proteomics, and Functional Proteomics - “Omics”
Technologies - Answer (click here)
91. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Microarrays - Answer (click here)
92. “Omics” Enabled Technology: BriefIntroduction to Biomarkers - Answer
(click here)
93. Metabonomics and Metabolomics - Answer (click here)
94. Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics - Answer (click here)
95. Toxicogenomics - Answer (click here)
96. Glycomics and Glycobiology - Answer (click here)
97. “Omics” Integrating Technology: Systems Biology - Answer (click here)
98. Transgenic Animals - Answer (click here)
99. Transgenic Plants - Answer (click here)
100. Xenotransplantation: Transplantable Transgenic Animal Organs - Answer
(click here)
101. Knockout Mice - Answer (click here)
102. Protein Engineering - Answer (click here)
103. 3D Structures of Engineered Proteins - Answer (click here)
104. Peptide Chemistry and Peptidomimetics - Answer (click here)
105. Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
106. Stem Cells - Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
107. Tissue Engineering and Some Products of Tissue Engineering - Cell
Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
108. Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click here)
109. Screening and Synthesis - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer
(click here)
110. Chemical Genomics - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click
here)
111. Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
112. Ex Vivo Versus In Vivo Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
113. Gene Therapy in The Clinic: Disease Targets - Answer (click here)
114. General Considerations - Vectors For Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
115. General Anatomy and Production of a Gene Transfer Vector - Answer
(click here)
116. Retroviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
117. Adenoviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
118. Adeno Associated Virus Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer -
Answer (click here)
119. Non-Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
120. Construction of Non Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
121. Delivery Methods for Non-Viral Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
122. The Immune Response Against Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
123. Clinical Use of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
124. Production and Processing of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
125. The Role of Drug Metabolism in Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
126. Gene Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (GDEPT) - Answer (click here)
127. Systems for Pharmacological Regulation of Gene Expression - Answer
(click here)
128. Regulation and Oversight of Gene Therapy Products - Answer (click here)
129. Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
130. Interfering With Gene Expression - Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
131. Triple Helix-Forming Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
132. Transcription Factor Decoys - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene
Expression - Answer (click here)
133. Antisense/Ribozymes/EGS - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene
Expression - Answer (click here)
134. siRNA/miRNA - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene Expression -
Answer (click here)
135. Direct Binding to Non-Nucleic Acids - Answer (click here)
136. Gene Repair - Answer (click here)
137. Stimulating Immune Responses - Answer (click here)
138. Pharmacokinetics of Oligonucleotide-Based Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
139. Improving Oligonucleotide Stability - Answer (click here)
140. Improving Cellular Uptake - Answer (click here)
141. Diagnostic Applications - Answer (click here)
142. Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click here)
143. Hematopoiesis - Answer (click here)
144. Chemical Description of Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click
here)
145. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for the Myeloid Factors,
G-CSF and GM-CSF - Answer (click here)
146. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for SCF - Answer (click
here)
147. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for TPOs - Answer (click
here)
148. Pharmacology - Answer (click here)
149. Pharmaceutical Issues - Answer (click here)
150. Pharmacokinetics - Answer (click here)
151. Pharmacodynamics - Answer (click here)
152. Established Uses - Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click here)
153. AIDS - Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - Answer (click here)
154. Toxicities - Answer (click here)
155. Interferons and Interleukins - Answer (click here)
156. Interferons: Nomenclature and Functions - Answer (click here)
157. Interleukins: Nomenclature and Functions - Answer (click here)
158. Rapeutic Use of Recombinant Interferons - Answer (click here)
159. Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click here)
160. Aldesleukin - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer
(click here)
161. Oprelvekin - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click
here)
162. Anakinra - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click
here)
163. Pegylated Interferons and Interleukins: The Next Generation - Answer
(click here)
164. Insulin - Answer (click here)
165. Chemical Description of Insulin - Answer (click here)
166. Pharmacology and Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
167. Regular and Rapid Acting Soluble Formulations - Pharmacology and
Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
168. Intermediate Acting Insulin Formulations - Pharmacology and
Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
169. Long Acting Insulin Formulations - Pharmacology and Formulations of
Insulin - Answer (click here)
170. Chemical Stability of Insulin Formulations - Answer (click here)
171. Physical Stability of Insulin Formulations - Answer (click here)
172. Clinical and Practice Aspects of Insulin - Answer (click here)

Growth Hormones
1. Molecular Biotechnology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. The Cells: Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell - Answer (click here)
3. Gene Expression - Answer (click here)
4. DNA Replication - Answer (click here)
5. Gene Transcription - Answer (click here)
6. Gene Translation - Answer (click here)
7. Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
8. DNA Transfer - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
9. DNA Sources - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
10. Production by Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
11. DNA Sequencing - Answer (click here)
12. Genome Sequencing - Answer (click here)
13. DNA Hybridization - Answer (click here)
14. PCR Technology - Answer (click here)
15. Cell Cultures: Cultivation of Microbes, Animal and Plant Cell Cultures -
Answer (click here)
16. Biophysical and Biochemical Analysis of Recombinant Proteins - Answer
(click here)
17. Protein Structure: Primary Structure - Answer (click here)
18. Protein Structure: Secondary Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Protein Structure: Tertiary Structure - Answer (click here)
20. Protein Structure: Forces - Answer (click here)
21. Protein Structure: Hydration - Answer (click here)
22. Protein Folding - Answer (click here)
23. Protein Stability - Answer (click here)
24. Blotting Techniques - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
25. Immunoassays ELISA - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click
here)
26. Electrophoresis - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
27. Chromatography - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
28. Bioassays - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
29. Mass Spectrometry - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
30. Production and Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
31. Expression Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
32. Cultivation Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
33. Cultivation Medium - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
34. Contaminants - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
35. Cellular DNA - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
36. Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
37. Filtration/Centrifugation - Downstream Processing of Biotech
Compounds - Answer (click here)
38. Precipitation - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
39. Chromatography - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds -
Answer (click here)
40. Issues to Consider in Production And purification of Proteins - Answer
(click here)
41. Microbiological Considerations - Answer (click here)
42. Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer
(click here)
43. Solubility Enhancers - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
44. Anti Adsorption and Anti Aggregation Agents - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
45. Buffer Components - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
46. Preservatives and Antioxidants - Excipients Used in Parenteral
Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
47. Osmotic Agents - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
48. Shelf Life of Protein Based Pharmaceuticals - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
49. Freeze Drying of Proteins - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations
of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
50. Freezing - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
51. Primary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
52. Secondary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
53. Delivery of Proteins: Routes of Administration and Absorption
Enhancement - Answer (click here)
54. Delivery of Proteins: By The Parenteral Route - Answer (click here)
55. Delivery of Proteins: Approaches For Rate Controlled Delivery - Answer
(click here)
56. Delivery of Proteins: Site Specific Delivery (Targeting) of Protein Drugs
- Answer (click here)
57. Anatomical, Physiological, and Pathological Considerations Relevant for
Protein Targeting - Answer (click here)
58. Soluble Carrier Systems for Targeted Delivery of Proteins - Answer (click
here)
59. Potential Pitfalls in Tumor Targeting - Answer (click here)
60. Colloidal Particulate Carrier Systems for TargetedDelivery of Proteins:
Nanotechnology at Work - Answer (click here)
61. Perspectives for Targeted Protein Delivery - Answer (click here)
62. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Peptide and Protein Drugs -
Answer (click here)
63. Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
64. Absorption of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
65. Distribution of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
66. Elimination of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
67. Target Mediated Drug Disposition - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
68. Immunogenicity and Protein Pharmacokinetics - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
69. Species Specificity and Allometric Scaling - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
70. Chemical Modifications for Optimizing the Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
71. Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
72. Direct Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics
- Answer (click here)
73. Indirect Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
74. Indirect Response PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
75. Cell Life Span Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics -
Answer (click here)
76. Complex Response Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
77. Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Proteins - Answer (click here)
78. The New Paradigm - Answer (click here)
79. The Immunological Response - Answer (click here)
80. Factors Influencing Antibody Formation Totherapeutic Proteins - Answer
(click here)
81. Assays for Antibodies - Answer (click here)
82. Issues Specifically Related Tomonoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
83. Clinical Effects of Induced Antibodies - Answer (click here)
84. Predicting and Reducing Immunogenicity - Answer (click here)
85. Genomics, “Omics” Technologies, Personalized Medicine - Answer (click
here)
86. An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
87. Genomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
88. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Bioinformatics - Answer (click here)
89. Transcriptomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer
(click here)
90. Proteomics, Structural Proteomics, and Functional Proteomics - “Omics”
Technologies - Answer (click here)
91. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Microarrays - Answer (click here)
92. “Omics” Enabled Technology: BriefIntroduction to Biomarkers - Answer
(click here)
93. Metabonomics and Metabolomics - Answer (click here)
94. Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics - Answer (click here)
95. Toxicogenomics - Answer (click here)
96. Glycomics and Glycobiology - Answer (click here)
97. “Omics” Integrating Technology: Systems Biology - Answer (click here)
98. Transgenic Animals - Answer (click here)
99. Transgenic Plants - Answer (click here)
100. Xenotransplantation: Transplantable Transgenic Animal Organs - Answer
(click here)
101. Knockout Mice - Answer (click here)
102. Protein Engineering - Answer (click here)
103. 3D Structures of Engineered Proteins - Answer (click here)
104. Peptide Chemistry and Peptidomimetics - Answer (click here)
105. Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
106. Stem Cells - Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
107. Tissue Engineering and Some Products of Tissue Engineering - Cell
Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
108. Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click here)
109. Screening and Synthesis - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer
(click here)
110. Chemical Genomics - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click
here)
111. Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
112. Ex Vivo Versus In Vivo Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
113. Gene Therapy in The Clinic: Disease Targets - Answer (click here)
114. General Considerations - Vectors For Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
115. General Anatomy and Production of a Gene Transfer Vector - Answer
(click here)
116. Retroviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
117. Adenoviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
118. Adeno Associated Virus Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer -
Answer (click here)
119. Non-Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
120. Construction of Non Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
121. Delivery Methods for Non-Viral Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
122. The Immune Response Against Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
123. Clinical Use of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
124. Production and Processing of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
125. The Role of Drug Metabolism in Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
126. Gene Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (GDEPT) - Answer (click here)
127. Systems for Pharmacological Regulation of Gene Expression - Answer
(click here)
128. Regulation and Oversight of Gene Therapy Products - Answer (click here)
129. Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
130. Interfering With Gene Expression - Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
131. Triple Helix-Forming Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
132. Transcription Factor Decoys - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene
Expression - Answer (click here)
133. Antisense/Ribozymes/EGS - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene
Expression - Answer (click here)
134. siRNA/miRNA - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene Expression -
Answer (click here)
135. Direct Binding to Non-Nucleic Acids - Answer (click here)
136. Gene Repair - Answer (click here)
137. Stimulating Immune Responses - Answer (click here)
138. Pharmacokinetics of Oligonucleotide-Based Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
139. Improving Oligonucleotide Stability - Answer (click here)
140. Improving Cellular Uptake - Answer (click here)
141. Diagnostic Applications - Answer (click here)
142. Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click here)
143. Hematopoiesis - Answer (click here)
144. Chemical Description of Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click
here)
145. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for the Myeloid Factors,
G-CSF and GM-CSF - Answer (click here)
146. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for SCF - Answer (click
here)
147. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for TPOs - Answer (click
here)
148. Pharmacology - Answer (click here)
149. Pharmaceutical Issues - Answer (click here)
150. Pharmacokinetics - Answer (click here)
151. Pharmacodynamics - Answer (click here)
152. Established Uses - Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click here)
153. AIDS - Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - Answer (click here)
154. Toxicities - Answer (click here)
155. Interferons and Interleukins - Answer (click here)
156. Interferons: Nomenclature and Functions - Answer (click here)
157. Interleukins: Nomenclature and Functions - Answer (click here)
158. Rapeutic Use of Recombinant Interferons - Answer (click here)
159. Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click here)
160. Aldesleukin - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer
(click here)
161. Oprelvekin - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click
here)
162. Anakinra - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click
here)
163. Pegylated Interferons and Interleukins: The Next Generation - Answer
(click here)
164. Insulin - Answer (click here)
165. Chemical Description of Insulin - Answer (click here)
166. Pharmacology and Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
167. Regular and Rapid Acting Soluble Formulations - Pharmacology and
Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
168. Intermediate Acting Insulin Formulations - Pharmacology and
Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
169. Long Acting Insulin Formulations - Pharmacology and Formulations of
Insulin - Answer (click here)
170. Chemical Stability of Insulin Formulations - Answer (click here)
171. Physical Stability of Insulin Formulations - Answer (click here)
172. Clinical and Practice Aspects of Insulin - Answer (click here)
173. Human growth hormone (hGH): Structure and Isohormones - Answer
(click here)
174. Growth Hormone Secretion and Regulation - Answer (click here)
175. Growth Hormone Biologic Actions - Answer (click here)
176. hGH Receptor and Binding Proteins - Answer (click here)
177. Molecular Endocrinology and Signal Transduction - Answer (click here)
178. Dosing Schedules and Routes of Human growth hormone (hGH) -
Answer (click here)
179. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism - Answer (click here)
180. Protein Manufacture, Formulation and Stability- Growth Hormones -
Answer (click here)
181. Clinical Usage of Human growth hormone (hGH) - Answer (click here)

Recombinant Coagulation Factors and Thrombolytic Agents


1. Molecular Biotechnology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. The Cells: Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell - Answer (click here)
3. Gene Expression - Answer (click here)
4. DNA Replication - Answer (click here)
5. Gene Transcription - Answer (click here)
6. Gene Translation - Answer (click here)
7. Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
8. DNA Transfer - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
9. DNA Sources - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
10. Production by Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
11. DNA Sequencing - Answer (click here)
12. Genome Sequencing - Answer (click here)
13. DNA Hybridization - Answer (click here)
14. PCR Technology - Answer (click here)
15. Cell Cultures: Cultivation of Microbes, Animal and Plant Cell Cultures -
Answer (click here)
16. Biophysical and Biochemical Analysis of Recombinant Proteins - Answer
(click here)
17. Protein Structure: Primary Structure - Answer (click here)
18. Protein Structure: Secondary Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Protein Structure: Tertiary Structure - Answer (click here)
20. Protein Structure: Forces - Answer (click here)
21. Protein Structure: Hydration - Answer (click here)
22. Protein Folding - Answer (click here)
23. Protein Stability - Answer (click here)
24. Blotting Techniques - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
25. Immunoassays ELISA - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click
here)
26. Electrophoresis - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
27. Chromatography - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
28. Bioassays - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
29. Mass Spectrometry - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
30. Production and Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
31. Expression Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
32. Cultivation Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
33. Cultivation Medium - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
34. Contaminants - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
35. Cellular DNA - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
36. Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
37. Filtration/Centrifugation - Downstream Processing of Biotech
Compounds - Answer (click here)
38. Precipitation - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
39. Chromatography - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds -
Answer (click here)
40. Issues to Consider in Production And purification of Proteins - Answer
(click here)
41. Microbiological Considerations - Answer (click here)
42. Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer
(click here)
43. Solubility Enhancers - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
44. Anti Adsorption and Anti Aggregation Agents - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
45. Buffer Components - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
46. Preservatives and Antioxidants - Excipients Used in Parenteral
Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
47. Osmotic Agents - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
48. Shelf Life of Protein Based Pharmaceuticals - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
49. Freeze Drying of Proteins - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations
of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
50. Freezing - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
51. Primary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
52. Secondary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
53. Delivery of Proteins: Routes of Administration and Absorption
Enhancement - Answer (click here)
54. Delivery of Proteins: By The Parenteral Route - Answer (click here)
55. Delivery of Proteins: Approaches For Rate Controlled Delivery - Answer
(click here)
56. Delivery of Proteins: Site Specific Delivery (Targeting) of Protein Drugs
- Answer (click here)
57. Anatomical, Physiological, and Pathological Considerations Relevant for
Protein Targeting - Answer (click here)
58. Soluble Carrier Systems for Targeted Delivery of Proteins - Answer (click
here)
59. Potential Pitfalls in Tumor Targeting - Answer (click here)
60. Colloidal Particulate Carrier Systems for TargetedDelivery of Proteins:
Nanotechnology at Work - Answer (click here)
61. Perspectives for Targeted Protein Delivery - Answer (click here)
62. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Peptide and Protein Drugs -
Answer (click here)
63. Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
64. Absorption of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
65. Distribution of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
66. Elimination of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
67. Target Mediated Drug Disposition - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
68. Immunogenicity and Protein Pharmacokinetics - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
69. Species Specificity and Allometric Scaling - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
70. Chemical Modifications for Optimizing the Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
71. Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
72. Direct Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics
- Answer (click here)
73. Indirect Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
74. Indirect Response PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
75. Cell Life Span Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics -
Answer (click here)
76. Complex Response Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
77. Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Proteins - Answer (click here)
78. The New Paradigm - Answer (click here)
79. The Immunological Response - Answer (click here)
80. Factors Influencing Antibody Formation Totherapeutic Proteins - Answer
(click here)
81. Assays for Antibodies - Answer (click here)
82. Issues Specifically Related Tomonoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
83. Clinical Effects of Induced Antibodies - Answer (click here)
84. Predicting and Reducing Immunogenicity - Answer (click here)
85. Genomics, “Omics” Technologies, Personalized Medicine - Answer (click
here)
86. An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
87. Genomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
88. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Bioinformatics - Answer (click here)
89. Transcriptomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer
(click here)
90. Proteomics, Structural Proteomics, and Functional Proteomics - “Omics”
Technologies - Answer (click here)
91. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Microarrays - Answer (click here)
92. “Omics” Enabled Technology: BriefIntroduction to Biomarkers - Answer
(click here)
93. Metabonomics and Metabolomics - Answer (click here)
94. Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics - Answer (click here)
95. Toxicogenomics - Answer (click here)
96. Glycomics and Glycobiology - Answer (click here)
97. “Omics” Integrating Technology: Systems Biology - Answer (click here)
98. Transgenic Animals - Answer (click here)
99. Transgenic Plants - Answer (click here)
100. Xenotransplantation: Transplantable Transgenic Animal Organs - Answer
(click here)
101. Knockout Mice - Answer (click here)
102. Protein Engineering - Answer (click here)
103. 3D Structures of Engineered Proteins - Answer (click here)
104. Peptide Chemistry and Peptidomimetics - Answer (click here)
105. Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
106. Stem Cells - Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
107. Tissue Engineering and Some Products of Tissue Engineering - Cell
Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
108. Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click here)
109. Screening and Synthesis - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer
(click here)
110. Chemical Genomics - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click
here)
111. Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
112. Ex Vivo Versus In Vivo Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
113. Gene Therapy in The Clinic: Disease Targets - Answer (click here)
114. General Considerations - Vectors For Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
115. General Anatomy and Production of a Gene Transfer Vector - Answer
(click here)
116. Retroviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
117. Adenoviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
118. Adeno Associated Virus Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer -
Answer (click here)
119. Non-Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
120. Construction of Non Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
121. Delivery Methods for Non-Viral Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
122. The Immune Response Against Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
123. Clinical Use of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
124. Production and Processing of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
125. The Role of Drug Metabolism in Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
126. Gene Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (GDEPT) - Answer (click here)
127. Systems for Pharmacological Regulation of Gene Expression - Answer
(click here)
128. Regulation and Oversight of Gene Therapy Products - Answer (click here)
129. Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
130. Interfering With Gene Expression - Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
131. Triple Helix-Forming Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
132. Transcription Factor Decoys - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene
Expression - Answer (click here)
133. Antisense/Ribozymes/EGS - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene
Expression - Answer (click here)
134. siRNA/miRNA - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene Expression -
Answer (click here)
135. Direct Binding to Non-Nucleic Acids - Answer (click here)
136. Gene Repair - Answer (click here)
137. Stimulating Immune Responses - Answer (click here)
138. Pharmacokinetics of Oligonucleotide-Based Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
139. Improving Oligonucleotide Stability - Answer (click here)
140. Improving Cellular Uptake - Answer (click here)
141. Diagnostic Applications - Answer (click here)
142. Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click here)
143. Hematopoiesis - Answer (click here)
144. Chemical Description of Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click
here)
145. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for the Myeloid Factors,
G-CSF and GM-CSF - Answer (click here)
146. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for SCF - Answer (click
here)
147. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for TPOs - Answer (click
here)
148. Pharmacology - Answer (click here)
149. Pharmaceutical Issues - Answer (click here)
150. Pharmacokinetics - Answer (click here)
151. Pharmacodynamics - Answer (click here)
152. Established Uses - Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click here)
153. AIDS - Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - Answer (click here)
154. Toxicities - Answer (click here)
155. Interferons and Interleukins - Answer (click here)
156. Interferons: Nomenclature and Functions - Answer (click here)
157. Interleukins: Nomenclature and Functions - Answer (click here)
158. Rapeutic Use of Recombinant Interferons - Answer (click here)
159. Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click here)
160. Aldesleukin - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer
(click here)
161. Oprelvekin - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click
here)
162. Anakinra - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click
here)
163. Pegylated Interferons and Interleukins: The Next Generation - Answer
(click here)
164. Insulin - Answer (click here)
165. Chemical Description of Insulin - Answer (click here)
166. Pharmacology and Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
167. Regular and Rapid Acting Soluble Formulations - Pharmacology and
Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
168. Intermediate Acting Insulin Formulations - Pharmacology and
Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
169. Long Acting Insulin Formulations - Pharmacology and Formulations of
Insulin - Answer (click here)
170. Chemical Stability of Insulin Formulations - Answer (click here)
171. Physical Stability of Insulin Formulations - Answer (click here)
172. Clinical and Practice Aspects of Insulin - Answer (click here)
173. Human growth hormone (hGH): Structure and Isohormones - Answer
(click here)
174. Growth Hormone Secretion and Regulation - Answer (click here)
175. Growth Hormone Biologic Actions - Answer (click here)
176. hGH Receptor and Binding Proteins - Answer (click here)
177. Molecular Endocrinology and Signal Transduction - Answer (click here)
178. Dosing Schedules and Routes of Human growth hormone (hGH) -
Answer (click here)
179. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism - Answer (click here)
180. Protein Manufacture, Formulation and Stability- Growth Hormones -
Answer (click here)
181. Clinical Usage of Human growth hormone (hGH) - Answer (click here)
182. Recombinant Coagulation Factors and Thrombolytic Agents - Answer
(click here)
183. Recombinant Coagulation Factors VIII - Answer (click here)
184. Recombinant Coagulation Factor VIIA - Answer (click here)
185. Recombinant Coagulation Factor IX - Answer (click here)
186. Tissue Type Plasminogen Activator - Recombinant Thrombolytic
Agents - Answer (click here)
187. Recombinant t-PA (rt-PA; Alteplase) - First Generation Recombinant
Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)
188. Second Generation Recombinant Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click
here)
189. Reteplase - Second Generation Recombinant Thrombolytic Agents -
Answer (click here)
190. Tenecteplase - Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)
191. Lanoteplase - Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)

Monoclonal Antibodies From Structure to Therapeutic


Application
1. Molecular Biotechnology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. The Cells: Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell - Answer (click here)
3. Gene Expression - Answer (click here)
4. DNA Replication - Answer (click here)
5. Gene Transcription - Answer (click here)
6. Gene Translation - Answer (click here)
7. Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
8. DNA Transfer - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
9. DNA Sources - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
10. Production by Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
11. DNA Sequencing - Answer (click here)
12. Genome Sequencing - Answer (click here)
13. DNA Hybridization - Answer (click here)
14. PCR Technology - Answer (click here)
15. Cell Cultures: Cultivation of Microbes, Animal and Plant Cell Cultures -
Answer (click here)
16. Biophysical and Biochemical Analysis of Recombinant Proteins - Answer
(click here)
17. Protein Structure: Primary Structure - Answer (click here)
18. Protein Structure: Secondary Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Protein Structure: Tertiary Structure - Answer (click here)
20. Protein Structure: Forces - Answer (click here)
21. Protein Structure: Hydration - Answer (click here)
22. Protein Folding - Answer (click here)
23. Protein Stability - Answer (click here)
24. Blotting Techniques - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
25. Immunoassays ELISA - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click
here)
26. Electrophoresis - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
27. Chromatography - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
28. Bioassays - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
29. Mass Spectrometry - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
30. Production and Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
31. Expression Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
32. Cultivation Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
33. Cultivation Medium - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
34. Contaminants - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
35. Cellular DNA - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
36. Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
37. Filtration/Centrifugation - Downstream Processing of Biotech
Compounds - Answer (click here)
38. Precipitation - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
39. Chromatography - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds -
Answer (click here)
40. Issues to Consider in Production And purification of Proteins - Answer
(click here)
41. Microbiological Considerations - Answer (click here)
42. Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer
(click here)
43. Solubility Enhancers - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
44. Anti Adsorption and Anti Aggregation Agents - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
45. Buffer Components - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
46. Preservatives and Antioxidants - Excipients Used in Parenteral
Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
47. Osmotic Agents - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
48. Shelf Life of Protein Based Pharmaceuticals - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
49. Freeze Drying of Proteins - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations
of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
50. Freezing - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
51. Primary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
52. Secondary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
53. Delivery of Proteins: Routes of Administration and Absorption
Enhancement - Answer (click here)
54. Delivery of Proteins: By The Parenteral Route - Answer (click here)
55. Delivery of Proteins: Approaches For Rate Controlled Delivery - Answer
(click here)
56. Delivery of Proteins: Site Specific Delivery (Targeting) of Protein Drugs
- Answer (click here)
57. Anatomical, Physiological, and Pathological Considerations Relevant for
Protein Targeting - Answer (click here)
58. Soluble Carrier Systems for Targeted Delivery of Proteins - Answer (click
here)
59. Potential Pitfalls in Tumor Targeting - Answer (click here)
60. Colloidal Particulate Carrier Systems for TargetedDelivery of Proteins:
Nanotechnology at Work - Answer (click here)
61. Perspectives for Targeted Protein Delivery - Answer (click here)
62. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Peptide and Protein Drugs -
Answer (click here)
63. Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
64. Absorption of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
65. Distribution of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
66. Elimination of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
67. Target Mediated Drug Disposition - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
68. Immunogenicity and Protein Pharmacokinetics - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
69. Species Specificity and Allometric Scaling - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
70. Chemical Modifications for Optimizing the Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
71. Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
72. Direct Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics
- Answer (click here)
73. Indirect Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
74. Indirect Response PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
75. Cell Life Span Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics -
Answer (click here)
76. Complex Response Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
77. Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Proteins - Answer (click here)
78. The New Paradigm - Answer (click here)
79. The Immunological Response - Answer (click here)
80. Factors Influencing Antibody Formation Totherapeutic Proteins - Answer
(click here)
81. Assays for Antibodies - Answer (click here)
82. Issues Specifically Related Tomonoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
83. Clinical Effects of Induced Antibodies - Answer (click here)
84. Predicting and Reducing Immunogenicity - Answer (click here)
85. Genomics, “Omics” Technologies, Personalized Medicine - Answer (click
here)
86. An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
87. Genomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
88. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Bioinformatics - Answer (click here)
89. Transcriptomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer
(click here)
90. Proteomics, Structural Proteomics, and Functional Proteomics - “Omics”
Technologies - Answer (click here)
91. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Microarrays - Answer (click here)
92. “Omics” Enabled Technology: BriefIntroduction to Biomarkers - Answer
(click here)
93. Metabonomics and Metabolomics - Answer (click here)
94. Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics - Answer (click here)
95. Toxicogenomics - Answer (click here)
96. Glycomics and Glycobiology - Answer (click here)
97. “Omics” Integrating Technology: Systems Biology - Answer (click here)
98. Transgenic Animals - Answer (click here)
99. Transgenic Plants - Answer (click here)
100. Xenotransplantation: Transplantable Transgenic Animal Organs - Answer
(click here)
101. Knockout Mice - Answer (click here)
102. Protein Engineering - Answer (click here)
103. 3D Structures of Engineered Proteins - Answer (click here)
104. Peptide Chemistry and Peptidomimetics - Answer (click here)
105. Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
106. Stem Cells - Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
107. Tissue Engineering and Some Products of Tissue Engineering - Cell
Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
108. Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click here)
109. Screening and Synthesis - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer
(click here)
110. Chemical Genomics - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click
here)
111. Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
112. Ex Vivo Versus In Vivo Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
113. Gene Therapy in The Clinic: Disease Targets - Answer (click here)
114. General Considerations - Vectors For Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
115. General Anatomy and Production of a Gene Transfer Vector - Answer
(click here)
116. Retroviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
117. Adenoviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
118. Adeno Associated Virus Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer -
Answer (click here)
119. Non-Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
120. Construction of Non Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
121. Delivery Methods for Non-Viral Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
122. The Immune Response Against Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
123. Clinical Use of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
124. Production and Processing of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
125. The Role of Drug Metabolism in Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
126. Gene Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (GDEPT) - Answer (click here)
127. Systems for Pharmacological Regulation of Gene Expression - Answer
(click here)
128. Regulation and Oversight of Gene Therapy Products - Answer (click here)
129. Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
130. Interfering With Gene Expression - Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
131. Triple Helix-Forming Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
132. Transcription Factor Decoys - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene
Expression - Answer (click here)
133. Antisense/Ribozymes/EGS - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene
Expression - Answer (click here)
134. siRNA/miRNA - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene Expression -
Answer (click here)
135. Direct Binding to Non-Nucleic Acids - Answer (click here)
136. Gene Repair - Answer (click here)
137. Stimulating Immune Responses - Answer (click here)
138. Pharmacokinetics of Oligonucleotide-Based Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
139. Improving Oligonucleotide Stability - Answer (click here)
140. Improving Cellular Uptake - Answer (click here)
141. Diagnostic Applications - Answer (click here)
142. Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click here)
143. Hematopoiesis - Answer (click here)
144. Chemical Description of Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click
here)
145. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for the Myeloid Factors,
G-CSF and GM-CSF - Answer (click here)
146. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for SCF - Answer (click
here)
147. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for TPOs - Answer (click
here)
148. Pharmacology - Answer (click here)
149. Pharmaceutical Issues - Answer (click here)
150. Pharmacokinetics - Answer (click here)
151. Pharmacodynamics - Answer (click here)
152. Established Uses - Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click here)
153. AIDS - Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - Answer (click here)
154. Toxicities - Answer (click here)
155. Interferons and Interleukins - Answer (click here)
156. Interferons: Nomenclature and Functions - Answer (click here)
157. Interleukins: Nomenclature and Functions - Answer (click here)
158. Rapeutic Use of Recombinant Interferons - Answer (click here)
159. Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click here)
160. Aldesleukin - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer
(click here)
161. Oprelvekin - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click
here)
162. Anakinra - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click
here)
163. Pegylated Interferons and Interleukins: The Next Generation - Answer
(click here)
164. Insulin - Answer (click here)
165. Chemical Description of Insulin - Answer (click here)
166. Pharmacology and Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
167. Regular and Rapid Acting Soluble Formulations - Pharmacology and
Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
168. Intermediate Acting Insulin Formulations - Pharmacology and
Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
169. Long Acting Insulin Formulations - Pharmacology and Formulations of
Insulin - Answer (click here)
170. Chemical Stability of Insulin Formulations - Answer (click here)
171. Physical Stability of Insulin Formulations - Answer (click here)
172. Clinical and Practice Aspects of Insulin - Answer (click here)
173. Human growth hormone (hGH): Structure and Isohormones - Answer
(click here)
174. Growth Hormone Secretion and Regulation - Answer (click here)
175. Growth Hormone Biologic Actions - Answer (click here)
176. hGH Receptor and Binding Proteins - Answer (click here)
177. Molecular Endocrinology and Signal Transduction - Answer (click here)
178. Dosing Schedules and Routes of Human growth hormone (hGH) -
Answer (click here)
179. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism - Answer (click here)
180. Protein Manufacture, Formulation and Stability- Growth Hormones -
Answer (click here)
181. Clinical Usage of Human growth hormone (hGH) - Answer (click here)
182. Recombinant Coagulation Factors and Thrombolytic Agents - Answer
(click here)
183. Recombinant Coagulation Factors VIII - Answer (click here)
184. Recombinant Coagulation Factor VIIA - Answer (click here)
185. Recombinant Coagulation Factor IX - Answer (click here)
186. Tissue Type Plasminogen Activator - Recombinant Thrombolytic
Agents - Answer (click here)
187. Recombinant t-PA (rt-PA; Alteplase) - First Generation Recombinant
Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)
188. Second Generation Recombinant Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click
here)
189. Reteplase - Second Generation Recombinant Thrombolytic Agents -
Answer (click here)
190. Tenecteplase - Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)
191. Lanoteplase - Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)
192. Monoclonal Antibodies: From Structure to Therapeutic Application -
Answer (click here)
193. Antibody Structure and Classes - Answer (click here)
194. Murine, Chimeric, Humanized and Fully Humanized mAbs - Antibody
Structure and Classes - Answer (click here)
195. Antibody Derivatives [F(ab0)2, Fab, Antibody DrugConjugates (ADC)]
and Fusion Proteins - Answer (click here)
196. How Antibodies Function as Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
197. Translational Medicine/Development Process - Answer (click here)
198. Preclinical Safety Assessment of mAbs - Translational
Medicine/Development Process - Answer (click here)
199. Pharmacokinetics - Translational Medicine/Development Process -
Answer (click here)
200. Prediction of Human PK/PD Based on Preclinical Information - Answer
(click here)
201. PK/PD in Clinical Development of Antibody Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
202. Mechanistic Modeling Approaches - Translational
Medicine/Development Process - Answer (click here)
203. Population PK of Monoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)

Monoclonal Antibodies in Cancer


1. Molecular Biotechnology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. The Cells: Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell - Answer (click here)
3. Gene Expression - Answer (click here)
4. DNA Replication - Answer (click here)
5. Gene Transcription - Answer (click here)
6. Gene Translation - Answer (click here)
7. Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
8. DNA Transfer - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
9. DNA Sources - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
10. Production by Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
11. DNA Sequencing - Answer (click here)
12. Genome Sequencing - Answer (click here)
13. DNA Hybridization - Answer (click here)
14. PCR Technology - Answer (click here)
15. Cell Cultures: Cultivation of Microbes, Animal and Plant Cell Cultures -
Answer (click here)
16. Biophysical and Biochemical Analysis of Recombinant Proteins - Answer
(click here)
17. Protein Structure: Primary Structure - Answer (click here)
18. Protein Structure: Secondary Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Protein Structure: Tertiary Structure - Answer (click here)
20. Protein Structure: Forces - Answer (click here)
21. Protein Structure: Hydration - Answer (click here)
22. Protein Folding - Answer (click here)
23. Protein Stability - Answer (click here)
24. Blotting Techniques - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
25. Immunoassays ELISA - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click
here)
26. Electrophoresis - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
27. Chromatography - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
28. Bioassays - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
29. Mass Spectrometry - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
30. Production and Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
31. Expression Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
32. Cultivation Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
33. Cultivation Medium - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
34. Contaminants - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
35. Cellular DNA - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
36. Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
37. Filtration/Centrifugation - Downstream Processing of Biotech
Compounds - Answer (click here)
38. Precipitation - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
39. Chromatography - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds -
Answer (click here)
40. Issues to Consider in Production And purification of Proteins - Answer
(click here)
41. Microbiological Considerations - Answer (click here)
42. Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer
(click here)
43. Solubility Enhancers - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
44. Anti Adsorption and Anti Aggregation Agents - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
45. Buffer Components - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
46. Preservatives and Antioxidants - Excipients Used in Parenteral
Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
47. Osmotic Agents - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
48. Shelf Life of Protein Based Pharmaceuticals - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
49. Freeze Drying of Proteins - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations
of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
50. Freezing - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
51. Primary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
52. Secondary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
53. Delivery of Proteins: Routes of Administration and Absorption
Enhancement - Answer (click here)
54. Delivery of Proteins: By The Parenteral Route - Answer (click here)
55. Delivery of Proteins: Approaches For Rate Controlled Delivery - Answer
(click here)
56. Delivery of Proteins: Site Specific Delivery (Targeting) of Protein Drugs
- Answer (click here)
57. Anatomical, Physiological, and Pathological Considerations Relevant for
Protein Targeting - Answer (click here)
58. Soluble Carrier Systems for Targeted Delivery of Proteins - Answer (click
here)
59. Potential Pitfalls in Tumor Targeting - Answer (click here)
60. Colloidal Particulate Carrier Systems for TargetedDelivery of Proteins:
Nanotechnology at Work - Answer (click here)
61. Perspectives for Targeted Protein Delivery - Answer (click here)
62. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Peptide and Protein Drugs -
Answer (click here)
63. Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
64. Absorption of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
65. Distribution of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
66. Elimination of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
67. Target Mediated Drug Disposition - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
68. Immunogenicity and Protein Pharmacokinetics - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
69. Species Specificity and Allometric Scaling - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
70. Chemical Modifications for Optimizing the Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
71. Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
72. Direct Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics
- Answer (click here)
73. Indirect Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
74. Indirect Response PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
75. Cell Life Span Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics -
Answer (click here)
76. Complex Response Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
77. Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Proteins - Answer (click here)
78. The New Paradigm - Answer (click here)
79. The Immunological Response - Answer (click here)
80. Factors Influencing Antibody Formation Totherapeutic Proteins - Answer
(click here)
81. Assays for Antibodies - Answer (click here)
82. Issues Specifically Related Tomonoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
83. Clinical Effects of Induced Antibodies - Answer (click here)
84. Predicting and Reducing Immunogenicity - Answer (click here)
85. Genomics, “Omics” Technologies, Personalized Medicine - Answer (click
here)
86. An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
87. Genomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
88. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Bioinformatics - Answer (click here)
89. Transcriptomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer
(click here)
90. Proteomics, Structural Proteomics, and Functional Proteomics - “Omics”
Technologies - Answer (click here)
91. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Microarrays - Answer (click here)
92. “Omics” Enabled Technology: BriefIntroduction to Biomarkers - Answer
(click here)
93. Metabonomics and Metabolomics - Answer (click here)
94. Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics - Answer (click here)
95. Toxicogenomics - Answer (click here)
96. Glycomics and Glycobiology - Answer (click here)
97. “Omics” Integrating Technology: Systems Biology - Answer (click here)
98. Transgenic Animals - Answer (click here)
99. Transgenic Plants - Answer (click here)
100. Xenotransplantation: Transplantable Transgenic Animal Organs - Answer
(click here)
101. Knockout Mice - Answer (click here)
102. Protein Engineering - Answer (click here)
103. 3D Structures of Engineered Proteins - Answer (click here)
104. Peptide Chemistry and Peptidomimetics - Answer (click here)
105. Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
106. Stem Cells - Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
107. Tissue Engineering and Some Products of Tissue Engineering - Cell
Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
108. Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click here)
109. Screening and Synthesis - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer
(click here)
110. Chemical Genomics - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click
here)
111. Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
112. Ex Vivo Versus In Vivo Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
113. Gene Therapy in The Clinic: Disease Targets - Answer (click here)
114. General Considerations - Vectors For Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
115. General Anatomy and Production of a Gene Transfer Vector - Answer
(click here)
116. Retroviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
117. Adenoviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
118. Adeno Associated Virus Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer -
Answer (click here)
119. Non-Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
120. Construction of Non Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
121. Delivery Methods for Non-Viral Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
122. The Immune Response Against Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
123. Clinical Use of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
124. Production and Processing of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
125. The Role of Drug Metabolism in Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
126. Gene Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (GDEPT) - Answer (click here)
127. Systems for Pharmacological Regulation of Gene Expression - Answer
(click here)
128. Regulation and Oversight of Gene Therapy Products - Answer (click here)
129. Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
130. Interfering With Gene Expression - Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
131. Triple Helix-Forming Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
132. Transcription Factor Decoys - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene
Expression - Answer (click here)
133. Antisense/Ribozymes/EGS - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene
Expression - Answer (click here)
134. siRNA/miRNA - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene Expression -
Answer (click here)
135. Direct Binding to Non-Nucleic Acids - Answer (click here)
136. Gene Repair - Answer (click here)
137. Stimulating Immune Responses - Answer (click here)
138. Pharmacokinetics of Oligonucleotide-Based Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
139. Improving Oligonucleotide Stability - Answer (click here)
140. Improving Cellular Uptake - Answer (click here)
141. Diagnostic Applications - Answer (click here)
142. Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click here)
143. Hematopoiesis - Answer (click here)
144. Chemical Description of Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click
here)
145. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for the Myeloid Factors,
G-CSF and GM-CSF - Answer (click here)
146. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for SCF - Answer (click
here)
147. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for TPOs - Answer (click
here)
148. Pharmacology - Answer (click here)
149. Pharmaceutical Issues - Answer (click here)
150. Pharmacokinetics - Answer (click here)
151. Pharmacodynamics - Answer (click here)
152. Established Uses - Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click here)
153. AIDS - Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - Answer (click here)
154. Toxicities - Answer (click here)
155. Interferons and Interleukins - Answer (click here)
156. Interferons: Nomenclature and Functions - Answer (click here)
157. Interleukins: Nomenclature and Functions - Answer (click here)
158. Rapeutic Use of Recombinant Interferons - Answer (click here)
159. Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click here)
160. Aldesleukin - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer
(click here)
161. Oprelvekin - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click
here)
162. Anakinra - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click
here)
163. Pegylated Interferons and Interleukins: The Next Generation - Answer
(click here)
164. Insulin - Answer (click here)
165. Chemical Description of Insulin - Answer (click here)
166. Pharmacology and Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
167. Regular and Rapid Acting Soluble Formulations - Pharmacology and
Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
168. Intermediate Acting Insulin Formulations - Pharmacology and
Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
169. Long Acting Insulin Formulations - Pharmacology and Formulations of
Insulin - Answer (click here)
170. Chemical Stability of Insulin Formulations - Answer (click here)
171. Physical Stability of Insulin Formulations - Answer (click here)
172. Clinical and Practice Aspects of Insulin - Answer (click here)
173. Human growth hormone (hGH): Structure and Isohormones - Answer
(click here)
174. Growth Hormone Secretion and Regulation - Answer (click here)
175. Growth Hormone Biologic Actions - Answer (click here)
176. hGH Receptor and Binding Proteins - Answer (click here)
177. Molecular Endocrinology and Signal Transduction - Answer (click here)
178. Dosing Schedules and Routes of Human growth hormone (hGH) -
Answer (click here)
179. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism - Answer (click here)
180. Protein Manufacture, Formulation and Stability- Growth Hormones -
Answer (click here)
181. Clinical Usage of Human growth hormone (hGH) - Answer (click here)
182. Recombinant Coagulation Factors and Thrombolytic Agents - Answer
(click here)
183. Recombinant Coagulation Factors VIII - Answer (click here)
184. Recombinant Coagulation Factor VIIA - Answer (click here)
185. Recombinant Coagulation Factor IX - Answer (click here)
186. Tissue Type Plasminogen Activator - Recombinant Thrombolytic
Agents - Answer (click here)
187. Recombinant t-PA (rt-PA; Alteplase) - First Generation Recombinant
Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)
188. Second Generation Recombinant Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click
here)
189. Reteplase - Second Generation Recombinant Thrombolytic Agents -
Answer (click here)
190. Tenecteplase - Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)
191. Lanoteplase - Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)
192. Monoclonal Antibodies: From Structure to Therapeutic Application -
Answer (click here)
193. Antibody Structure and Classes - Answer (click here)
194. Murine, Chimeric, Humanized and Fully Humanized mAbs - Antibody
Structure and Classes - Answer (click here)
195. Antibody Derivatives [F(ab0)2, Fab, Antibody DrugConjugates (ADC)]
and Fusion Proteins - Answer (click here)
196. How Antibodies Function as Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
197. Translational Medicine/Development Process - Answer (click here)
198. Preclinical Safety Assessment of mAbs - Translational
Medicine/Development Process - Answer (click here)
199. Pharmacokinetics - Translational Medicine/Development Process -
Answer (click here)
200. Prediction of Human PK/PD Based on Preclinical Information - Answer
(click here)
201. PK/PD in Clinical Development of Antibody Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
202. Mechanistic Modeling Approaches - Translational
Medicine/Development Process - Answer (click here)
203. Population PK of Monoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
204. Monoclonal Antibodies in Cancer - Answer (click here)
205. Alemtuzumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: CD Antigens -
Answer (click here)
206. Gemtuzumab - Monoclonal Antibodies in Cancer - Answer (click here)
207. Rituximab, Yttrium-90 (90Y) Ibritumomab Tiuxetan, Iodine-131 (131I)
Tositumomab - Answer (click here)
208. Bevacizumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Vascular Endothelial
Growth Factor Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
209. Trastuzumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Endothelial Growth
Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
210. Cetuximab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Endothelial Growth
Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
211. Panitumumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Endothelial Growth
Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitors - Answer (click here)

Monoclonal Antibodies in Solid Organ Transplantation


1. Molecular Biotechnology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. The Cells: Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell - Answer (click here)
3. Gene Expression - Answer (click here)
4. DNA Replication - Answer (click here)
5. Gene Transcription - Answer (click here)
6. Gene Translation - Answer (click here)
7. Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
8. DNA Transfer - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
9. DNA Sources - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
10. Production by Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
11. DNA Sequencing - Answer (click here)
12. Genome Sequencing - Answer (click here)
13. DNA Hybridization - Answer (click here)
14. PCR Technology - Answer (click here)
15. Cell Cultures: Cultivation of Microbes, Animal and Plant Cell Cultures -
Answer (click here)
16. Biophysical and Biochemical Analysis of Recombinant Proteins - Answer
(click here)
17. Protein Structure: Primary Structure - Answer (click here)
18. Protein Structure: Secondary Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Protein Structure: Tertiary Structure - Answer (click here)
20. Protein Structure: Forces - Answer (click here)
21. Protein Structure: Hydration - Answer (click here)
22. Protein Folding - Answer (click here)
23. Protein Stability - Answer (click here)
24. Blotting Techniques - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
25. Immunoassays ELISA - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click
here)
26. Electrophoresis - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
27. Chromatography - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
28. Bioassays - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
29. Mass Spectrometry - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
30. Production and Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
31. Expression Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
32. Cultivation Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
33. Cultivation Medium - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
34. Contaminants - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
35. Cellular DNA - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
36. Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
37. Filtration/Centrifugation - Downstream Processing of Biotech
Compounds - Answer (click here)
38. Precipitation - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
39. Chromatography - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds -
Answer (click here)
40. Issues to Consider in Production And purification of Proteins - Answer
(click here)
41. Microbiological Considerations - Answer (click here)
42. Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer
(click here)
43. Solubility Enhancers - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
44. Anti Adsorption and Anti Aggregation Agents - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
45. Buffer Components - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
46. Preservatives and Antioxidants - Excipients Used in Parenteral
Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
47. Osmotic Agents - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
48. Shelf Life of Protein Based Pharmaceuticals - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
49. Freeze Drying of Proteins - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations
of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
50. Freezing - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
51. Primary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
52. Secondary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
53. Delivery of Proteins: Routes of Administration and Absorption
Enhancement - Answer (click here)
54. Delivery of Proteins: By The Parenteral Route - Answer (click here)
55. Delivery of Proteins: Approaches For Rate Controlled Delivery - Answer
(click here)
56. Delivery of Proteins: Site Specific Delivery (Targeting) of Protein Drugs
- Answer (click here)
57. Anatomical, Physiological, and Pathological Considerations Relevant for
Protein Targeting - Answer (click here)
58. Soluble Carrier Systems for Targeted Delivery of Proteins - Answer (click
here)
59. Potential Pitfalls in Tumor Targeting - Answer (click here)
60. Colloidal Particulate Carrier Systems for TargetedDelivery of Proteins:
Nanotechnology at Work - Answer (click here)
61. Perspectives for Targeted Protein Delivery - Answer (click here)
62. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Peptide and Protein Drugs -
Answer (click here)
63. Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
64. Absorption of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
65. Distribution of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
66. Elimination of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
67. Target Mediated Drug Disposition - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
68. Immunogenicity and Protein Pharmacokinetics - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
69. Species Specificity and Allometric Scaling - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
70. Chemical Modifications for Optimizing the Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
71. Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
72. Direct Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics
- Answer (click here)
73. Indirect Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
74. Indirect Response PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
75. Cell Life Span Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics -
Answer (click here)
76. Complex Response Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
77. Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Proteins - Answer (click here)
78. The New Paradigm - Answer (click here)
79. The Immunological Response - Answer (click here)
80. Factors Influencing Antibody Formation Totherapeutic Proteins - Answer
(click here)
81. Assays for Antibodies - Answer (click here)
82. Issues Specifically Related Tomonoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
83. Clinical Effects of Induced Antibodies - Answer (click here)
84. Predicting and Reducing Immunogenicity - Answer (click here)
85. Genomics, “Omics” Technologies, Personalized Medicine - Answer (click
here)
86. An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
87. Genomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
88. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Bioinformatics - Answer (click here)
89. Transcriptomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer
(click here)
90. Proteomics, Structural Proteomics, and Functional Proteomics - “Omics”
Technologies - Answer (click here)
91. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Microarrays - Answer (click here)
92. “Omics” Enabled Technology: BriefIntroduction to Biomarkers - Answer
(click here)
93. Metabonomics and Metabolomics - Answer (click here)
94. Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics - Answer (click here)
95. Toxicogenomics - Answer (click here)
96. Glycomics and Glycobiology - Answer (click here)
97. “Omics” Integrating Technology: Systems Biology - Answer (click here)
98. Transgenic Animals - Answer (click here)
99. Transgenic Plants - Answer (click here)
100. Xenotransplantation: Transplantable Transgenic Animal Organs - Answer
(click here)
101. Knockout Mice - Answer (click here)
102. Protein Engineering - Answer (click here)
103. 3D Structures of Engineered Proteins - Answer (click here)
104. Peptide Chemistry and Peptidomimetics - Answer (click here)
105. Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
106. Stem Cells - Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
107. Tissue Engineering and Some Products of Tissue Engineering - Cell
Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
108. Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click here)
109. Screening and Synthesis - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer
(click here)
110. Chemical Genomics - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click
here)
111. Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
112. Ex Vivo Versus In Vivo Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
113. Gene Therapy in The Clinic: Disease Targets - Answer (click here)
114. General Considerations - Vectors For Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
115. General Anatomy and Production of a Gene Transfer Vector - Answer
(click here)
116. Retroviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
117. Adenoviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
118. Adeno Associated Virus Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer -
Answer (click here)
119. Non-Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
120. Construction of Non Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
121. Delivery Methods for Non-Viral Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
122. The Immune Response Against Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
123. Clinical Use of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
124. Production and Processing of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
125. The Role of Drug Metabolism in Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
126. Gene Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (GDEPT) - Answer (click here)
127. Systems for Pharmacological Regulation of Gene Expression - Answer
(click here)
128. Regulation and Oversight of Gene Therapy Products - Answer (click here)
129. Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
130. Interfering With Gene Expression - Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
131. Triple Helix-Forming Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
132. Transcription Factor Decoys - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene
Expression - Answer (click here)
133. Antisense/Ribozymes/EGS - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene
Expression - Answer (click here)
134. siRNA/miRNA - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene Expression -
Answer (click here)
135. Direct Binding to Non-Nucleic Acids - Answer (click here)
136. Gene Repair - Answer (click here)
137. Stimulating Immune Responses - Answer (click here)
138. Pharmacokinetics of Oligonucleotide-Based Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
139. Improving Oligonucleotide Stability - Answer (click here)
140. Improving Cellular Uptake - Answer (click here)
141. Diagnostic Applications - Answer (click here)
142. Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click here)
143. Hematopoiesis - Answer (click here)
144. Chemical Description of Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click
here)
145. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for the Myeloid Factors,
G-CSF and GM-CSF - Answer (click here)
146. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for SCF - Answer (click
here)
147. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for TPOs - Answer (click
here)
148. Pharmacology - Answer (click here)
149. Pharmaceutical Issues - Answer (click here)
150. Pharmacokinetics - Answer (click here)
151. Pharmacodynamics - Answer (click here)
152. Established Uses - Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click here)
153. AIDS - Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - Answer (click here)
154. Toxicities - Answer (click here)
155. Interferons and Interleukins - Answer (click here)
156. Interferons: Nomenclature and Functions - Answer (click here)
157. Interleukins: Nomenclature and Functions - Answer (click here)
158. Rapeutic Use of Recombinant Interferons - Answer (click here)
159. Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click here)
160. Aldesleukin - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer
(click here)
161. Oprelvekin - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click
here)
162. Anakinra - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click
here)
163. Pegylated Interferons and Interleukins: The Next Generation - Answer
(click here)
164. Insulin - Answer (click here)
165. Chemical Description of Insulin - Answer (click here)
166. Pharmacology and Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
167. Regular and Rapid Acting Soluble Formulations - Pharmacology and
Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
168. Intermediate Acting Insulin Formulations - Pharmacology and
Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
169. Long Acting Insulin Formulations - Pharmacology and Formulations of
Insulin - Answer (click here)
170. Chemical Stability of Insulin Formulations - Answer (click here)
171. Physical Stability of Insulin Formulations - Answer (click here)
172. Clinical and Practice Aspects of Insulin - Answer (click here)
173. Human growth hormone (hGH): Structure and Isohormones - Answer
(click here)
174. Growth Hormone Secretion and Regulation - Answer (click here)
175. Growth Hormone Biologic Actions - Answer (click here)
176. hGH Receptor and Binding Proteins - Answer (click here)
177. Molecular Endocrinology and Signal Transduction - Answer (click here)
178. Dosing Schedules and Routes of Human growth hormone (hGH) -
Answer (click here)
179. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism - Answer (click here)
180. Protein Manufacture, Formulation and Stability- Growth Hormones -
Answer (click here)
181. Clinical Usage of Human growth hormone (hGH) - Answer (click here)
182. Recombinant Coagulation Factors and Thrombolytic Agents - Answer
(click here)
183. Recombinant Coagulation Factors VIII - Answer (click here)
184. Recombinant Coagulation Factor VIIA - Answer (click here)
185. Recombinant Coagulation Factor IX - Answer (click here)
186. Tissue Type Plasminogen Activator - Recombinant Thrombolytic
Agents - Answer (click here)
187. Recombinant t-PA (rt-PA; Alteplase) - First Generation Recombinant
Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)
188. Second Generation Recombinant Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click
here)
189. Reteplase - Second Generation Recombinant Thrombolytic Agents -
Answer (click here)
190. Tenecteplase - Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)
191. Lanoteplase - Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)
192. Monoclonal Antibodies: From Structure to Therapeutic Application -
Answer (click here)
193. Antibody Structure and Classes - Answer (click here)
194. Murine, Chimeric, Humanized and Fully Humanized mAbs - Antibody
Structure and Classes - Answer (click here)
195. Antibody Derivatives [F(ab0)2, Fab, Antibody DrugConjugates (ADC)]
and Fusion Proteins - Answer (click here)
196. How Antibodies Function as Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
197. Translational Medicine/Development Process - Answer (click here)
198. Preclinical Safety Assessment of mAbs - Translational
Medicine/Development Process - Answer (click here)
199. Pharmacokinetics - Translational Medicine/Development Process -
Answer (click here)
200. Prediction of Human PK/PD Based on Preclinical Information - Answer
(click here)
201. PK/PD in Clinical Development of Antibody Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
202. Mechanistic Modeling Approaches - Translational
Medicine/Development Process - Answer (click here)
203. Population PK of Monoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
204. Monoclonal Antibodies in Cancer - Answer (click here)
205. Alemtuzumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: CD Antigens -
Answer (click here)
206. Gemtuzumab - Monoclonal Antibodies in Cancer - Answer (click here)
207. Rituximab, Yttrium-90 (90Y) Ibritumomab Tiuxetan, Iodine-131 (131I)
Tositumomab - Answer (click here)
208. Bevacizumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Vascular Endothelial
Growth Factor Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
209. Trastuzumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Endothelial Growth
Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
210. Cetuximab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Endothelial Growth
Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
211. Panitumumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Endothelial Growth
Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
212. Monoclonal Antibodies in Solid Organ Transplantation - Answer (click
here)
213. Immunologic Targets: Rational Development/ Use of Monoclonal
Antibodies in Organ Transplant - Answer (click here)
214. Monoclonal Antibodies Administered Pre-Transplant - Answer (click here)
215. Monoclonal Antibodies Administered at the Time of Transplant - Answer
(click here)
216. Monoclonal Antibodies Administered Following Transplant - Answer
(click here)
217. Muromonab - Specific Agents Used In Solid Organ Transplant - Answer
(click here)
218. Interleukin 2 Receptor Antagonists - Specific Agents Used In Solid
Organ Transplant - Answer (click here)
219. Alemtuzumab - Specific Agents Used In Solid Organ Transplant -
Answer (click here)
220. Rituximab - Specific Agents Used In Solid Organ Transplant - Answer
(click here)

Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory Therapy


1. Molecular Biotechnology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. The Cells: Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell - Answer (click here)
3. Gene Expression - Answer (click here)
4. DNA Replication - Answer (click here)
5. Gene Transcription - Answer (click here)
6. Gene Translation - Answer (click here)
7. Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
8. DNA Transfer - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
9. DNA Sources - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
10. Production by Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
11. DNA Sequencing - Answer (click here)
12. Genome Sequencing - Answer (click here)
13. DNA Hybridization - Answer (click here)
14. PCR Technology - Answer (click here)
15. Cell Cultures: Cultivation of Microbes, Animal and Plant Cell Cultures -
Answer (click here)
16. Biophysical and Biochemical Analysis of Recombinant Proteins - Answer
(click here)
17. Protein Structure: Primary Structure - Answer (click here)
18. Protein Structure: Secondary Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Protein Structure: Tertiary Structure - Answer (click here)
20. Protein Structure: Forces - Answer (click here)
21. Protein Structure: Hydration - Answer (click here)
22. Protein Folding - Answer (click here)
23. Protein Stability - Answer (click here)
24. Blotting Techniques - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
25. Immunoassays ELISA - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click
here)
26. Electrophoresis - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
27. Chromatography - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
28. Bioassays - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
29. Mass Spectrometry - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
30. Production and Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
31. Expression Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
32. Cultivation Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
33. Cultivation Medium - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
34. Contaminants - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
35. Cellular DNA - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
36. Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
37. Filtration/Centrifugation - Downstream Processing of Biotech
Compounds - Answer (click here)
38. Precipitation - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
39. Chromatography - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds -
Answer (click here)
40. Issues to Consider in Production And purification of Proteins - Answer
(click here)
41. Microbiological Considerations - Answer (click here)
42. Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer
(click here)
43. Solubility Enhancers - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
44. Anti Adsorption and Anti Aggregation Agents - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
45. Buffer Components - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
46. Preservatives and Antioxidants - Excipients Used in Parenteral
Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
47. Osmotic Agents - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
48. Shelf Life of Protein Based Pharmaceuticals - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
49. Freeze Drying of Proteins - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations
of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
50. Freezing - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
51. Primary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
52. Secondary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
53. Delivery of Proteins: Routes of Administration and Absorption
Enhancement - Answer (click here)
54. Delivery of Proteins: By The Parenteral Route - Answer (click here)
55. Delivery of Proteins: Approaches For Rate Controlled Delivery - Answer
(click here)
56. Delivery of Proteins: Site Specific Delivery (Targeting) of Protein Drugs
- Answer (click here)
57. Anatomical, Physiological, and Pathological Considerations Relevant for
Protein Targeting - Answer (click here)
58. Soluble Carrier Systems for Targeted Delivery of Proteins - Answer (click
here)
59. Potential Pitfalls in Tumor Targeting - Answer (click here)
60. Colloidal Particulate Carrier Systems for TargetedDelivery of Proteins:
Nanotechnology at Work - Answer (click here)
61. Perspectives for Targeted Protein Delivery - Answer (click here)
62. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Peptide and Protein Drugs -
Answer (click here)
63. Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
64. Absorption of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
65. Distribution of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
66. Elimination of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
67. Target Mediated Drug Disposition - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
68. Immunogenicity and Protein Pharmacokinetics - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
69. Species Specificity and Allometric Scaling - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
70. Chemical Modifications for Optimizing the Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
71. Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
72. Direct Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics
- Answer (click here)
73. Indirect Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
74. Indirect Response PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
75. Cell Life Span Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics -
Answer (click here)
76. Complex Response Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
77. Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Proteins - Answer (click here)
78. The New Paradigm - Answer (click here)
79. The Immunological Response - Answer (click here)
80. Factors Influencing Antibody Formation Totherapeutic Proteins - Answer
(click here)
81. Assays for Antibodies - Answer (click here)
82. Issues Specifically Related Tomonoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
83. Clinical Effects of Induced Antibodies - Answer (click here)
84. Predicting and Reducing Immunogenicity - Answer (click here)
85. Genomics, “Omics” Technologies, Personalized Medicine - Answer (click
here)
86. An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
87. Genomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
88. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Bioinformatics - Answer (click here)
89. Transcriptomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer
(click here)
90. Proteomics, Structural Proteomics, and Functional Proteomics - “Omics”
Technologies - Answer (click here)
91. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Microarrays - Answer (click here)
92. “Omics” Enabled Technology: BriefIntroduction to Biomarkers - Answer
(click here)
93. Metabonomics and Metabolomics - Answer (click here)
94. Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics - Answer (click here)
95. Toxicogenomics - Answer (click here)
96. Glycomics and Glycobiology - Answer (click here)
97. “Omics” Integrating Technology: Systems Biology - Answer (click here)
98. Transgenic Animals - Answer (click here)
99. Transgenic Plants - Answer (click here)
100. Xenotransplantation: Transplantable Transgenic Animal Organs - Answer
(click here)
101. Knockout Mice - Answer (click here)
102. Protein Engineering - Answer (click here)
103. 3D Structures of Engineered Proteins - Answer (click here)
104. Peptide Chemistry and Peptidomimetics - Answer (click here)
105. Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
106. Stem Cells - Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
107. Tissue Engineering and Some Products of Tissue Engineering - Cell
Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
108. Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click here)
109. Screening and Synthesis - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer
(click here)
110. Chemical Genomics - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click
here)
111. Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
112. Ex Vivo Versus In Vivo Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
113. Gene Therapy in The Clinic: Disease Targets - Answer (click here)
114. General Considerations - Vectors For Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
115. General Anatomy and Production of a Gene Transfer Vector - Answer
(click here)
116. Retroviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
117. Adenoviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
118. Adeno Associated Virus Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer -
Answer (click here)
119. Non-Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
120. Construction of Non Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
121. Delivery Methods for Non-Viral Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
122. The Immune Response Against Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
123. Clinical Use of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
124. Production and Processing of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
125. The Role of Drug Metabolism in Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
126. Gene Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (GDEPT) - Answer (click here)
127. Systems for Pharmacological Regulation of Gene Expression - Answer
(click here)
128. Regulation and Oversight of Gene Therapy Products - Answer (click here)
129. Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
130. Interfering With Gene Expression - Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
131. Triple Helix-Forming Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
132. Transcription Factor Decoys - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene
Expression - Answer (click here)
133. Antisense/Ribozymes/EGS - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene
Expression - Answer (click here)
134. siRNA/miRNA - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene Expression -
Answer (click here)
135. Direct Binding to Non-Nucleic Acids - Answer (click here)
136. Gene Repair - Answer (click here)
137. Stimulating Immune Responses - Answer (click here)
138. Pharmacokinetics of Oligonucleotide-Based Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
139. Improving Oligonucleotide Stability - Answer (click here)
140. Improving Cellular Uptake - Answer (click here)
141. Diagnostic Applications - Answer (click here)
142. Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click here)
143. Hematopoiesis - Answer (click here)
144. Chemical Description of Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click
here)
145. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for the Myeloid Factors,
G-CSF and GM-CSF - Answer (click here)
146. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for SCF - Answer (click
here)
147. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for TPOs - Answer (click
here)
148. Pharmacology - Answer (click here)
149. Pharmaceutical Issues - Answer (click here)
150. Pharmacokinetics - Answer (click here)
151. Pharmacodynamics - Answer (click here)
152. Established Uses - Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click here)
153. AIDS - Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - Answer (click here)
154. Toxicities - Answer (click here)
155. Interferons and Interleukins - Answer (click here)
156. Interferons: Nomenclature and Functions - Answer (click here)
157. Interleukins: Nomenclature and Functions - Answer (click here)
158. Rapeutic Use of Recombinant Interferons - Answer (click here)
159. Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click here)
160. Aldesleukin - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer
(click here)
161. Oprelvekin - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click
here)
162. Anakinra - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click
here)
163. Pegylated Interferons and Interleukins: The Next Generation - Answer
(click here)
164. Insulin - Answer (click here)
165. Chemical Description of Insulin - Answer (click here)
166. Pharmacology and Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
167. Regular and Rapid Acting Soluble Formulations - Pharmacology and
Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
168. Intermediate Acting Insulin Formulations - Pharmacology and
Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
169. Long Acting Insulin Formulations - Pharmacology and Formulations of
Insulin - Answer (click here)
170. Chemical Stability of Insulin Formulations - Answer (click here)
171. Physical Stability of Insulin Formulations - Answer (click here)
172. Clinical and Practice Aspects of Insulin - Answer (click here)
173. Human growth hormone (hGH): Structure and Isohormones - Answer
(click here)
174. Growth Hormone Secretion and Regulation - Answer (click here)
175. Growth Hormone Biologic Actions - Answer (click here)
176. hGH Receptor and Binding Proteins - Answer (click here)
177. Molecular Endocrinology and Signal Transduction - Answer (click here)
178. Dosing Schedules and Routes of Human growth hormone (hGH) -
Answer (click here)
179. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism - Answer (click here)
180. Protein Manufacture, Formulation and Stability- Growth Hormones -
Answer (click here)
181. Clinical Usage of Human growth hormone (hGH) - Answer (click here)
182. Recombinant Coagulation Factors and Thrombolytic Agents - Answer
(click here)
183. Recombinant Coagulation Factors VIII - Answer (click here)
184. Recombinant Coagulation Factor VIIA - Answer (click here)
185. Recombinant Coagulation Factor IX - Answer (click here)
186. Tissue Type Plasminogen Activator - Recombinant Thrombolytic
Agents - Answer (click here)
187. Recombinant t-PA (rt-PA; Alteplase) - First Generation Recombinant
Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)
188. Second Generation Recombinant Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click
here)
189. Reteplase - Second Generation Recombinant Thrombolytic Agents -
Answer (click here)
190. Tenecteplase - Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)
191. Lanoteplase - Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)
192. Monoclonal Antibodies: From Structure to Therapeutic Application -
Answer (click here)
193. Antibody Structure and Classes - Answer (click here)
194. Murine, Chimeric, Humanized and Fully Humanized mAbs - Antibody
Structure and Classes - Answer (click here)
195. Antibody Derivatives [F(ab0)2, Fab, Antibody DrugConjugates (ADC)]
and Fusion Proteins - Answer (click here)
196. How Antibodies Function as Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
197. Translational Medicine/Development Process - Answer (click here)
198. Preclinical Safety Assessment of mAbs - Translational
Medicine/Development Process - Answer (click here)
199. Pharmacokinetics - Translational Medicine/Development Process -
Answer (click here)
200. Prediction of Human PK/PD Based on Preclinical Information - Answer
(click here)
201. PK/PD in Clinical Development of Antibody Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
202. Mechanistic Modeling Approaches - Translational
Medicine/Development Process - Answer (click here)
203. Population PK of Monoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
204. Monoclonal Antibodies in Cancer - Answer (click here)
205. Alemtuzumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: CD Antigens -
Answer (click here)
206. Gemtuzumab - Monoclonal Antibodies in Cancer - Answer (click here)
207. Rituximab, Yttrium-90 (90Y) Ibritumomab Tiuxetan, Iodine-131 (131I)
Tositumomab - Answer (click here)
208. Bevacizumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Vascular Endothelial
Growth Factor Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
209. Trastuzumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Endothelial Growth
Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
210. Cetuximab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Endothelial Growth
Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
211. Panitumumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Endothelial Growth
Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
212. Monoclonal Antibodies in Solid Organ Transplantation - Answer (click
here)
213. Immunologic Targets: Rational Development/ Use of Monoclonal
Antibodies in Organ Transplant - Answer (click here)
214. Monoclonal Antibodies Administered Pre-Transplant - Answer (click here)
215. Monoclonal Antibodies Administered at the Time of Transplant - Answer
(click here)
216. Monoclonal Antibodies Administered Following Transplant - Answer
(click here)
217. Muromonab - Specific Agents Used In Solid Organ Transplant - Answer
(click here)
218. Interleukin 2 Receptor Antagonists - Specific Agents Used In Solid
Organ Transplant - Answer (click here)
219. Alemtuzumab - Specific Agents Used In Solid Organ Transplant -
Answer (click here)
220. Rituximab - Specific Agents Used In Solid Organ Transplant - Answer
(click here)
221. Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory Therapy - Answer (click here)
222. Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory Therapy -
Answer (click here)
223. Infliximab - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory
Therapy - Answer (click here)
224. Etanercept - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory
Therapy - Answer (click here)
225. Adalimumab - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti
inflammatory Therapy - Answer (click here)
226. Abatacept - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory
Therapy - Answer (click here)
227. Rituximab - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory
Therapy - Answer (click here)
228. Psoriasis: Efalizumab - Monoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
229. Multiple Sclerosis: Natalizumab - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti
inflammatory Therapy - Answer (click here)
230. Allergic Asthma: Omalizumab - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti
inflammatory Therapy - Answer (click here)

Recombinant Human Deoxyribonuclease I


1. Molecular Biotechnology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. The Cells: Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell - Answer (click here)
3. Gene Expression - Answer (click here)
4. DNA Replication - Answer (click here)
5. Gene Transcription - Answer (click here)
6. Gene Translation - Answer (click here)
7. Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
8. DNA Transfer - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
9. DNA Sources - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
10. Production by Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
11. DNA Sequencing - Answer (click here)
12. Genome Sequencing - Answer (click here)
13. DNA Hybridization - Answer (click here)
14. PCR Technology - Answer (click here)
15. Cell Cultures: Cultivation of Microbes, Animal and Plant Cell Cultures -
Answer (click here)
16. Biophysical and Biochemical Analysis of Recombinant Proteins - Answer
(click here)
17. Protein Structure: Primary Structure - Answer (click here)
18. Protein Structure: Secondary Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Protein Structure: Tertiary Structure - Answer (click here)
20. Protein Structure: Forces - Answer (click here)
21. Protein Structure: Hydration - Answer (click here)
22. Protein Folding - Answer (click here)
23. Protein Stability - Answer (click here)
24. Blotting Techniques - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
25. Immunoassays ELISA - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click
here)
26. Electrophoresis - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
27. Chromatography - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
28. Bioassays - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
29. Mass Spectrometry - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
30. Production and Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
31. Expression Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
32. Cultivation Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
33. Cultivation Medium - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
34. Contaminants - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
35. Cellular DNA - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
36. Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
37. Filtration/Centrifugation - Downstream Processing of Biotech
Compounds - Answer (click here)
38. Precipitation - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
39. Chromatography - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds -
Answer (click here)
40. Issues to Consider in Production And purification of Proteins - Answer
(click here)
41. Microbiological Considerations - Answer (click here)
42. Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer
(click here)
43. Solubility Enhancers - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
44. Anti Adsorption and Anti Aggregation Agents - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
45. Buffer Components - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
46. Preservatives and Antioxidants - Excipients Used in Parenteral
Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
47. Osmotic Agents - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
48. Shelf Life of Protein Based Pharmaceuticals - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
49. Freeze Drying of Proteins - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations
of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
50. Freezing - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
51. Primary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
52. Secondary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
53. Delivery of Proteins: Routes of Administration and Absorption
Enhancement - Answer (click here)
54. Delivery of Proteins: By The Parenteral Route - Answer (click here)
55. Delivery of Proteins: Approaches For Rate Controlled Delivery - Answer
(click here)
56. Delivery of Proteins: Site Specific Delivery (Targeting) of Protein Drugs
- Answer (click here)
57. Anatomical, Physiological, and Pathological Considerations Relevant for
Protein Targeting - Answer (click here)
58. Soluble Carrier Systems for Targeted Delivery of Proteins - Answer (click
here)
59. Potential Pitfalls in Tumor Targeting - Answer (click here)
60. Colloidal Particulate Carrier Systems for TargetedDelivery of Proteins:
Nanotechnology at Work - Answer (click here)
61. Perspectives for Targeted Protein Delivery - Answer (click here)
62. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Peptide and Protein Drugs -
Answer (click here)
63. Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
64. Absorption of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
65. Distribution of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
66. Elimination of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
67. Target Mediated Drug Disposition - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
68. Immunogenicity and Protein Pharmacokinetics - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
69. Species Specificity and Allometric Scaling - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
70. Chemical Modifications for Optimizing the Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
71. Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
72. Direct Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics
- Answer (click here)
73. Indirect Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
74. Indirect Response PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
75. Cell Life Span Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics -
Answer (click here)
76. Complex Response Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
77. Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Proteins - Answer (click here)
78. The New Paradigm - Answer (click here)
79. The Immunological Response - Answer (click here)
80. Factors Influencing Antibody Formation Totherapeutic Proteins - Answer
(click here)
81. Assays for Antibodies - Answer (click here)
82. Issues Specifically Related Tomonoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
83. Clinical Effects of Induced Antibodies - Answer (click here)
84. Predicting and Reducing Immunogenicity - Answer (click here)
85. Genomics, “Omics” Technologies, Personalized Medicine - Answer (click
here)
86. An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
87. Genomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
88. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Bioinformatics - Answer (click here)
89. Transcriptomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer
(click here)
90. Proteomics, Structural Proteomics, and Functional Proteomics - “Omics”
Technologies - Answer (click here)
91. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Microarrays - Answer (click here)
92. “Omics” Enabled Technology: BriefIntroduction to Biomarkers - Answer
(click here)
93. Metabonomics and Metabolomics - Answer (click here)
94. Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics - Answer (click here)
95. Toxicogenomics - Answer (click here)
96. Glycomics and Glycobiology - Answer (click here)
97. “Omics” Integrating Technology: Systems Biology - Answer (click here)
98. Transgenic Animals - Answer (click here)
99. Transgenic Plants - Answer (click here)
100. Xenotransplantation: Transplantable Transgenic Animal Organs - Answer
(click here)
101. Knockout Mice - Answer (click here)
102. Protein Engineering - Answer (click here)
103. 3D Structures of Engineered Proteins - Answer (click here)
104. Peptide Chemistry and Peptidomimetics - Answer (click here)
105. Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
106. Stem Cells - Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
107. Tissue Engineering and Some Products of Tissue Engineering - Cell
Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
108. Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click here)
109. Screening and Synthesis - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer
(click here)
110. Chemical Genomics - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click
here)
111. Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
112. Ex Vivo Versus In Vivo Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
113. Gene Therapy in The Clinic: Disease Targets - Answer (click here)
114. General Considerations - Vectors For Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
115. General Anatomy and Production of a Gene Transfer Vector - Answer
(click here)
116. Retroviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
117. Adenoviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
118. Adeno Associated Virus Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer -
Answer (click here)
119. Non-Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
120. Construction of Non Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
121. Delivery Methods for Non-Viral Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
122. The Immune Response Against Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
123. Clinical Use of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
124. Production and Processing of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
125. The Role of Drug Metabolism in Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
126. Gene Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (GDEPT) - Answer (click here)
127. Systems for Pharmacological Regulation of Gene Expression - Answer
(click here)
128. Regulation and Oversight of Gene Therapy Products - Answer (click here)
129. Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
130. Interfering With Gene Expression - Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
131. Triple Helix-Forming Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
132. Transcription Factor Decoys - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene
Expression - Answer (click here)
133. Antisense/Ribozymes/EGS - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene
Expression - Answer (click here)
134. siRNA/miRNA - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene Expression -
Answer (click here)
135. Direct Binding to Non-Nucleic Acids - Answer (click here)
136. Gene Repair - Answer (click here)
137. Stimulating Immune Responses - Answer (click here)
138. Pharmacokinetics of Oligonucleotide-Based Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
139. Improving Oligonucleotide Stability - Answer (click here)
140. Improving Cellular Uptake - Answer (click here)
141. Diagnostic Applications - Answer (click here)
142. Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click here)
143. Hematopoiesis - Answer (click here)
144. Chemical Description of Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click
here)
145. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for the Myeloid Factors,
G-CSF and GM-CSF - Answer (click here)
146. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for SCF - Answer (click
here)
147. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for TPOs - Answer (click
here)
148. Pharmacology - Answer (click here)
149. Pharmaceutical Issues - Answer (click here)
150. Pharmacokinetics - Answer (click here)
151. Pharmacodynamics - Answer (click here)
152. Established Uses - Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click here)
153. AIDS - Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - Answer (click here)
154. Toxicities - Answer (click here)
155. Interferons and Interleukins - Answer (click here)
156. Interferons: Nomenclature and Functions - Answer (click here)
157. Interleukins: Nomenclature and Functions - Answer (click here)
158. Rapeutic Use of Recombinant Interferons - Answer (click here)
159. Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click here)
160. Aldesleukin - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer
(click here)
161. Oprelvekin - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click
here)
162. Anakinra - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click
here)
163. Pegylated Interferons and Interleukins: The Next Generation - Answer
(click here)
164. Insulin - Answer (click here)
165. Chemical Description of Insulin - Answer (click here)
166. Pharmacology and Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
167. Regular and Rapid Acting Soluble Formulations - Pharmacology and
Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
168. Intermediate Acting Insulin Formulations - Pharmacology and
Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
169. Long Acting Insulin Formulations - Pharmacology and Formulations of
Insulin - Answer (click here)
170. Chemical Stability of Insulin Formulations - Answer (click here)
171. Physical Stability of Insulin Formulations - Answer (click here)
172. Clinical and Practice Aspects of Insulin - Answer (click here)
173. Human growth hormone (hGH): Structure and Isohormones - Answer
(click here)
174. Growth Hormone Secretion and Regulation - Answer (click here)
175. Growth Hormone Biologic Actions - Answer (click here)
176. hGH Receptor and Binding Proteins - Answer (click here)
177. Molecular Endocrinology and Signal Transduction - Answer (click here)
178. Dosing Schedules and Routes of Human growth hormone (hGH) -
Answer (click here)
179. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism - Answer (click here)
180. Protein Manufacture, Formulation and Stability- Growth Hormones -
Answer (click here)
181. Clinical Usage of Human growth hormone (hGH) - Answer (click here)
182. Recombinant Coagulation Factors and Thrombolytic Agents - Answer
(click here)
183. Recombinant Coagulation Factors VIII - Answer (click here)
184. Recombinant Coagulation Factor VIIA - Answer (click here)
185. Recombinant Coagulation Factor IX - Answer (click here)
186. Tissue Type Plasminogen Activator - Recombinant Thrombolytic
Agents - Answer (click here)
187. Recombinant t-PA (rt-PA; Alteplase) - First Generation Recombinant
Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)
188. Second Generation Recombinant Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click
here)
189. Reteplase - Second Generation Recombinant Thrombolytic Agents -
Answer (click here)
190. Tenecteplase - Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)
191. Lanoteplase - Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)
192. Monoclonal Antibodies: From Structure to Therapeutic Application -
Answer (click here)
193. Antibody Structure and Classes - Answer (click here)
194. Murine, Chimeric, Humanized and Fully Humanized mAbs - Antibody
Structure and Classes - Answer (click here)
195. Antibody Derivatives [F(ab0)2, Fab, Antibody DrugConjugates (ADC)]
and Fusion Proteins - Answer (click here)
196. How Antibodies Function as Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
197. Translational Medicine/Development Process - Answer (click here)
198. Preclinical Safety Assessment of mAbs - Translational
Medicine/Development Process - Answer (click here)
199. Pharmacokinetics - Translational Medicine/Development Process -
Answer (click here)
200. Prediction of Human PK/PD Based on Preclinical Information - Answer
(click here)
201. PK/PD in Clinical Development of Antibody Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
202. Mechanistic Modeling Approaches - Translational
Medicine/Development Process - Answer (click here)
203. Population PK of Monoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
204. Monoclonal Antibodies in Cancer - Answer (click here)
205. Alemtuzumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: CD Antigens -
Answer (click here)
206. Gemtuzumab - Monoclonal Antibodies in Cancer - Answer (click here)
207. Rituximab, Yttrium-90 (90Y) Ibritumomab Tiuxetan, Iodine-131 (131I)
Tositumomab - Answer (click here)
208. Bevacizumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Vascular Endothelial
Growth Factor Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
209. Trastuzumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Endothelial Growth
Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
210. Cetuximab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Endothelial Growth
Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
211. Panitumumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Endothelial Growth
Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
212. Monoclonal Antibodies in Solid Organ Transplantation - Answer (click
here)
213. Immunologic Targets: Rational Development/ Use of Monoclonal
Antibodies in Organ Transplant - Answer (click here)
214. Monoclonal Antibodies Administered Pre-Transplant - Answer (click here)
215. Monoclonal Antibodies Administered at the Time of Transplant - Answer
(click here)
216. Monoclonal Antibodies Administered Following Transplant - Answer
(click here)
217. Muromonab - Specific Agents Used In Solid Organ Transplant - Answer
(click here)
218. Interleukin 2 Receptor Antagonists - Specific Agents Used In Solid
Organ Transplant - Answer (click here)
219. Alemtuzumab - Specific Agents Used In Solid Organ Transplant -
Answer (click here)
220. Rituximab - Specific Agents Used In Solid Organ Transplant - Answer
(click here)
221. Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory Therapy - Answer (click here)
222. Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory Therapy -
Answer (click here)
223. Infliximab - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory
Therapy - Answer (click here)
224. Etanercept - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory
Therapy - Answer (click here)
225. Adalimumab - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti
inflammatory Therapy - Answer (click here)
226. Abatacept - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory
Therapy - Answer (click here)
227. Rituximab - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory
Therapy - Answer (click here)
228. Psoriasis: Efalizumab - Monoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
229. Multiple Sclerosis: Natalizumab - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti
inflammatory Therapy - Answer (click here)
230. Allergic Asthma: Omalizumab - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti
inflammatory Therapy - Answer (click here)
231. Recombinant Human Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click here)
232. Protein Chemistry, Enzymology, and Structure - Answer (click here)
233. In Vitro Activity in CF Sputum - Pharmacology - Recombinant Human
Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click here)
234. In Vivo Activity in CF Sputum - Pharmacology - Recombinant Human
Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click here)
235. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism - Pharmacology - Recombinant
Human Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click here)
236. Protein Manufacturing and Formulation - Answer (click here)
237. Drug Delivery- Recombinant Human Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click
here)
238. Clinical Use- Recombinant Human Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click
here)

Follicle
1. Molecular Biotechnology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. The Cells: Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell - Answer (click here)
3. Gene Expression - Answer (click here)
4. DNA Replication - Answer (click here)
5. Gene Transcription - Answer (click here)
6. Gene Translation - Answer (click here)
7. Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
8. DNA Transfer - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
9. DNA Sources - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
10. Production by Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
11. DNA Sequencing - Answer (click here)
12. Genome Sequencing - Answer (click here)
13. DNA Hybridization - Answer (click here)
14. PCR Technology - Answer (click here)
15. Cell Cultures: Cultivation of Microbes, Animal and Plant Cell Cultures -
Answer (click here)
16. Biophysical and Biochemical Analysis of Recombinant Proteins - Answer
(click here)
17. Protein Structure: Primary Structure - Answer (click here)
18. Protein Structure: Secondary Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Protein Structure: Tertiary Structure - Answer (click here)
20. Protein Structure: Forces - Answer (click here)
21. Protein Structure: Hydration - Answer (click here)
22. Protein Folding - Answer (click here)
23. Protein Stability - Answer (click here)
24. Blotting Techniques - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
25. Immunoassays ELISA - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click
here)
26. Electrophoresis - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
27. Chromatography - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
28. Bioassays - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
29. Mass Spectrometry - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
30. Production and Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
31. Expression Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
32. Cultivation Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
33. Cultivation Medium - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
34. Contaminants - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
35. Cellular DNA - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
36. Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
37. Filtration/Centrifugation - Downstream Processing of Biotech
Compounds - Answer (click here)
38. Precipitation - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
39. Chromatography - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds -
Answer (click here)
40. Issues to Consider in Production And purification of Proteins - Answer
(click here)
41. Microbiological Considerations - Answer (click here)
42. Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer
(click here)
43. Solubility Enhancers - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
44. Anti Adsorption and Anti Aggregation Agents - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
45. Buffer Components - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
46. Preservatives and Antioxidants - Excipients Used in Parenteral
Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
47. Osmotic Agents - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
48. Shelf Life of Protein Based Pharmaceuticals - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
49. Freeze Drying of Proteins - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations
of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
50. Freezing - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
51. Primary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
52. Secondary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
53. Delivery of Proteins: Routes of Administration and Absorption
Enhancement - Answer (click here)
54. Delivery of Proteins: By The Parenteral Route - Answer (click here)
55. Delivery of Proteins: Approaches For Rate Controlled Delivery - Answer
(click here)
56. Delivery of Proteins: Site Specific Delivery (Targeting) of Protein Drugs
- Answer (click here)
57. Anatomical, Physiological, and Pathological Considerations Relevant for
Protein Targeting - Answer (click here)
58. Soluble Carrier Systems for Targeted Delivery of Proteins - Answer (click
here)
59. Potential Pitfalls in Tumor Targeting - Answer (click here)
60. Colloidal Particulate Carrier Systems for TargetedDelivery of Proteins:
Nanotechnology at Work - Answer (click here)
61. Perspectives for Targeted Protein Delivery - Answer (click here)
62. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Peptide and Protein Drugs -
Answer (click here)
63. Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
64. Absorption of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
65. Distribution of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
66. Elimination of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
67. Target Mediated Drug Disposition - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
68. Immunogenicity and Protein Pharmacokinetics - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
69. Species Specificity and Allometric Scaling - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
70. Chemical Modifications for Optimizing the Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
71. Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
72. Direct Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics
- Answer (click here)
73. Indirect Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
74. Indirect Response PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
75. Cell Life Span Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics -
Answer (click here)
76. Complex Response Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
77. Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Proteins - Answer (click here)
78. The New Paradigm - Answer (click here)
79. The Immunological Response - Answer (click here)
80. Factors Influencing Antibody Formation Totherapeutic Proteins - Answer
(click here)
81. Assays for Antibodies - Answer (click here)
82. Issues Specifically Related Tomonoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
83. Clinical Effects of Induced Antibodies - Answer (click here)
84. Predicting and Reducing Immunogenicity - Answer (click here)
85. Genomics, “Omics” Technologies, Personalized Medicine - Answer (click
here)
86. An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
87. Genomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
88. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Bioinformatics - Answer (click here)
89. Transcriptomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer
(click here)
90. Proteomics, Structural Proteomics, and Functional Proteomics - “Omics”
Technologies - Answer (click here)
91. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Microarrays - Answer (click here)
92. “Omics” Enabled Technology: BriefIntroduction to Biomarkers - Answer
(click here)
93. Metabonomics and Metabolomics - Answer (click here)
94. Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics - Answer (click here)
95. Toxicogenomics - Answer (click here)
96. Glycomics and Glycobiology - Answer (click here)
97. “Omics” Integrating Technology: Systems Biology - Answer (click here)
98. Transgenic Animals - Answer (click here)
99. Transgenic Plants - Answer (click here)
100. Xenotransplantation: Transplantable Transgenic Animal Organs - Answer
(click here)
101. Knockout Mice - Answer (click here)
102. Protein Engineering - Answer (click here)
103. 3D Structures of Engineered Proteins - Answer (click here)
104. Peptide Chemistry and Peptidomimetics - Answer (click here)
105. Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
106. Stem Cells - Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
107. Tissue Engineering and Some Products of Tissue Engineering - Cell
Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
108. Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click here)
109. Screening and Synthesis - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer
(click here)
110. Chemical Genomics - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click
here)
111. Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
112. Ex Vivo Versus In Vivo Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
113. Gene Therapy in The Clinic: Disease Targets - Answer (click here)
114. General Considerations - Vectors For Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
115. General Anatomy and Production of a Gene Transfer Vector - Answer
(click here)
116. Retroviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
117. Adenoviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
118. Adeno Associated Virus Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer -
Answer (click here)
119. Non-Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
120. Construction of Non Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
121. Delivery Methods for Non-Viral Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
122. The Immune Response Against Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
123. Clinical Use of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
124. Production and Processing of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
125. The Role of Drug Metabolism in Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
126. Gene Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (GDEPT) - Answer (click here)
127. Systems for Pharmacological Regulation of Gene Expression - Answer
(click here)
128. Regulation and Oversight of Gene Therapy Products - Answer (click here)
129. Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
130. Interfering With Gene Expression - Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
131. Triple Helix-Forming Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
132. Transcription Factor Decoys - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene
Expression - Answer (click here)
133. Antisense/Ribozymes/EGS - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene
Expression - Answer (click here)
134. siRNA/miRNA - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene Expression -
Answer (click here)
135. Direct Binding to Non-Nucleic Acids - Answer (click here)
136. Gene Repair - Answer (click here)
137. Stimulating Immune Responses - Answer (click here)
138. Pharmacokinetics of Oligonucleotide-Based Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
139. Improving Oligonucleotide Stability - Answer (click here)
140. Improving Cellular Uptake - Answer (click here)
141. Diagnostic Applications - Answer (click here)
142. Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click here)
143. Hematopoiesis - Answer (click here)
144. Chemical Description of Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click
here)
145. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for the Myeloid Factors,
G-CSF and GM-CSF - Answer (click here)
146. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for SCF - Answer (click
here)
147. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for TPOs - Answer (click
here)
148. Pharmacology - Answer (click here)
149. Pharmaceutical Issues - Answer (click here)
150. Pharmacokinetics - Answer (click here)
151. Pharmacodynamics - Answer (click here)
152. Established Uses - Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click here)
153. AIDS - Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - Answer (click here)
154. Toxicities - Answer (click here)
155. Interferons and Interleukins - Answer (click here)
156. Interferons: Nomenclature and Functions - Answer (click here)
157. Interleukins: Nomenclature and Functions - Answer (click here)
158. Rapeutic Use of Recombinant Interferons - Answer (click here)
159. Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click here)
160. Aldesleukin - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer
(click here)
161. Oprelvekin - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click
here)
162. Anakinra - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click
here)
163. Pegylated Interferons and Interleukins: The Next Generation - Answer
(click here)
164. Insulin - Answer (click here)
165. Chemical Description of Insulin - Answer (click here)
166. Pharmacology and Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
167. Regular and Rapid Acting Soluble Formulations - Pharmacology and
Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
168. Intermediate Acting Insulin Formulations - Pharmacology and
Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
169. Long Acting Insulin Formulations - Pharmacology and Formulations of
Insulin - Answer (click here)
170. Chemical Stability of Insulin Formulations - Answer (click here)
171. Physical Stability of Insulin Formulations - Answer (click here)
172. Clinical and Practice Aspects of Insulin - Answer (click here)
173. Human growth hormone (hGH): Structure and Isohormones - Answer
(click here)
174. Growth Hormone Secretion and Regulation - Answer (click here)
175. Growth Hormone Biologic Actions - Answer (click here)
176. hGH Receptor and Binding Proteins - Answer (click here)
177. Molecular Endocrinology and Signal Transduction - Answer (click here)
178. Dosing Schedules and Routes of Human growth hormone (hGH) -
Answer (click here)
179. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism - Answer (click here)
180. Protein Manufacture, Formulation and Stability- Growth Hormones -
Answer (click here)
181. Clinical Usage of Human growth hormone (hGH) - Answer (click here)
182. Recombinant Coagulation Factors and Thrombolytic Agents - Answer
(click here)
183. Recombinant Coagulation Factors VIII - Answer (click here)
184. Recombinant Coagulation Factor VIIA - Answer (click here)
185. Recombinant Coagulation Factor IX - Answer (click here)
186. Tissue Type Plasminogen Activator - Recombinant Thrombolytic
Agents - Answer (click here)
187. Recombinant t-PA (rt-PA; Alteplase) - First Generation Recombinant
Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)
188. Second Generation Recombinant Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click
here)
189. Reteplase - Second Generation Recombinant Thrombolytic Agents -
Answer (click here)
190. Tenecteplase - Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)
191. Lanoteplase - Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)
192. Monoclonal Antibodies: From Structure to Therapeutic Application -
Answer (click here)
193. Antibody Structure and Classes - Answer (click here)
194. Murine, Chimeric, Humanized and Fully Humanized mAbs - Antibody
Structure and Classes - Answer (click here)
195. Antibody Derivatives [F(ab0)2, Fab, Antibody DrugConjugates (ADC)]
and Fusion Proteins - Answer (click here)
196. How Antibodies Function as Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
197. Translational Medicine/Development Process - Answer (click here)
198. Preclinical Safety Assessment of mAbs - Translational
Medicine/Development Process - Answer (click here)
199. Pharmacokinetics - Translational Medicine/Development Process -
Answer (click here)
200. Prediction of Human PK/PD Based on Preclinical Information - Answer
(click here)
201. PK/PD in Clinical Development of Antibody Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
202. Mechanistic Modeling Approaches - Translational
Medicine/Development Process - Answer (click here)
203. Population PK of Monoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
204. Monoclonal Antibodies in Cancer - Answer (click here)
205. Alemtuzumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: CD Antigens -
Answer (click here)
206. Gemtuzumab - Monoclonal Antibodies in Cancer - Answer (click here)
207. Rituximab, Yttrium-90 (90Y) Ibritumomab Tiuxetan, Iodine-131 (131I)
Tositumomab - Answer (click here)
208. Bevacizumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Vascular Endothelial
Growth Factor Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
209. Trastuzumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Endothelial Growth
Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
210. Cetuximab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Endothelial Growth
Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
211. Panitumumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Endothelial Growth
Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
212. Monoclonal Antibodies in Solid Organ Transplantation - Answer (click
here)
213. Immunologic Targets: Rational Development/ Use of Monoclonal
Antibodies in Organ Transplant - Answer (click here)
214. Monoclonal Antibodies Administered Pre-Transplant - Answer (click here)
215. Monoclonal Antibodies Administered at the Time of Transplant - Answer
(click here)
216. Monoclonal Antibodies Administered Following Transplant - Answer
(click here)
217. Muromonab - Specific Agents Used In Solid Organ Transplant - Answer
(click here)
218. Interleukin 2 Receptor Antagonists - Specific Agents Used In Solid
Organ Transplant - Answer (click here)
219. Alemtuzumab - Specific Agents Used In Solid Organ Transplant -
Answer (click here)
220. Rituximab - Specific Agents Used In Solid Organ Transplant - Answer
(click here)
221. Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory Therapy - Answer (click here)
222. Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory Therapy -
Answer (click here)
223. Infliximab - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory
Therapy - Answer (click here)
224. Etanercept - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory
Therapy - Answer (click here)
225. Adalimumab - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti
inflammatory Therapy - Answer (click here)
226. Abatacept - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory
Therapy - Answer (click here)
227. Rituximab - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory
Therapy - Answer (click here)
228. Psoriasis: Efalizumab - Monoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
229. Multiple Sclerosis: Natalizumab - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti
inflammatory Therapy - Answer (click here)
230. Allergic Asthma: Omalizumab - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti
inflammatory Therapy - Answer (click here)
231. Recombinant Human Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click here)
232. Protein Chemistry, Enzymology, and Structure - Answer (click here)
233. In Vitro Activity in CF Sputum - Pharmacology - Recombinant Human
Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click here)
234. In Vivo Activity in CF Sputum - Pharmacology - Recombinant Human
Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click here)
235. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism - Pharmacology - Recombinant
Human Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click here)
236. Protein Manufacturing and Formulation - Answer (click here)
237. Drug Delivery- Recombinant Human Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click
here)
238. Clinical Use- Recombinant Human Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click
here)
239. Follicle Stimulating Hormone - Answer (click here)
240. Biological Role of Follicle Stimulating Hormone - Answer (click here)
241. Chemical Description of Follicle Stimulating Hormone - Answer (click
here)
242. Production of Recombinant FSH(Follicle Stimulating Hormone) - Answer
(click here)
243. Structural Characteristics of Isohormones - Follicle Stimulating
Hormone - Answer (click here)
244. Biological Properties of Recombinant FSH Isohormones - Answer (click
here)
245. Pharmacokinetic Behavior of Recombinant FSH Isohormones - Answer
(click here)
246. Pharmaceutical Formulations of Follicle Stimulating Hormone(FSH) -
Answer (click here)
247. Clinical Aspects of Follicle Stimulating Hormone(FSH) - Answer (click
here)

Vaccines
1. Molecular Biotechnology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. The Cells: Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell - Answer (click here)
3. Gene Expression - Answer (click here)
4. DNA Replication - Answer (click here)
5. Gene Transcription - Answer (click here)
6. Gene Translation - Answer (click here)
7. Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
8. DNA Transfer - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
9. DNA Sources - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
10. Production by Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
11. DNA Sequencing - Answer (click here)
12. Genome Sequencing - Answer (click here)
13. DNA Hybridization - Answer (click here)
14. PCR Technology - Answer (click here)
15. Cell Cultures: Cultivation of Microbes, Animal and Plant Cell Cultures -
Answer (click here)
16. Biophysical and Biochemical Analysis of Recombinant Proteins - Answer
(click here)
17. Protein Structure: Primary Structure - Answer (click here)
18. Protein Structure: Secondary Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Protein Structure: Tertiary Structure - Answer (click here)
20. Protein Structure: Forces - Answer (click here)
21. Protein Structure: Hydration - Answer (click here)
22. Protein Folding - Answer (click here)
23. Protein Stability - Answer (click here)
24. Blotting Techniques - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
25. Immunoassays ELISA - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click
here)
26. Electrophoresis - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
27. Chromatography - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
28. Bioassays - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
29. Mass Spectrometry - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
30. Production and Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
31. Expression Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
32. Cultivation Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
33. Cultivation Medium - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
34. Contaminants - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
35. Cellular DNA - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
36. Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
37. Filtration/Centrifugation - Downstream Processing of Biotech
Compounds - Answer (click here)
38. Precipitation - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
39. Chromatography - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds -
Answer (click here)
40. Issues to Consider in Production And purification of Proteins - Answer
(click here)
41. Microbiological Considerations - Answer (click here)
42. Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer
(click here)
43. Solubility Enhancers - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
44. Anti Adsorption and Anti Aggregation Agents - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
45. Buffer Components - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
46. Preservatives and Antioxidants - Excipients Used in Parenteral
Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
47. Osmotic Agents - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
48. Shelf Life of Protein Based Pharmaceuticals - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
49. Freeze Drying of Proteins - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations
of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
50. Freezing - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
51. Primary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
52. Secondary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
53. Delivery of Proteins: Routes of Administration and Absorption
Enhancement - Answer (click here)
54. Delivery of Proteins: By The Parenteral Route - Answer (click here)
55. Delivery of Proteins: Approaches For Rate Controlled Delivery - Answer
(click here)
56. Delivery of Proteins: Site Specific Delivery (Targeting) of Protein Drugs
- Answer (click here)
57. Anatomical, Physiological, and Pathological Considerations Relevant for
Protein Targeting - Answer (click here)
58. Soluble Carrier Systems for Targeted Delivery of Proteins - Answer (click
here)
59. Potential Pitfalls in Tumor Targeting - Answer (click here)
60. Colloidal Particulate Carrier Systems for TargetedDelivery of Proteins:
Nanotechnology at Work - Answer (click here)
61. Perspectives for Targeted Protein Delivery - Answer (click here)
62. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Peptide and Protein Drugs -
Answer (click here)
63. Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
64. Absorption of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
65. Distribution of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
66. Elimination of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
67. Target Mediated Drug Disposition - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
68. Immunogenicity and Protein Pharmacokinetics - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
69. Species Specificity and Allometric Scaling - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
70. Chemical Modifications for Optimizing the Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
71. Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
72. Direct Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics
- Answer (click here)
73. Indirect Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
74. Indirect Response PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
75. Cell Life Span Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics -
Answer (click here)
76. Complex Response Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
77. Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Proteins - Answer (click here)
78. The New Paradigm - Answer (click here)
79. The Immunological Response - Answer (click here)
80. Factors Influencing Antibody Formation Totherapeutic Proteins - Answer
(click here)
81. Assays for Antibodies - Answer (click here)
82. Issues Specifically Related Tomonoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
83. Clinical Effects of Induced Antibodies - Answer (click here)
84. Predicting and Reducing Immunogenicity - Answer (click here)
85. Genomics, “Omics” Technologies, Personalized Medicine - Answer (click
here)
86. An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
87. Genomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
88. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Bioinformatics - Answer (click here)
89. Transcriptomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer
(click here)
90. Proteomics, Structural Proteomics, and Functional Proteomics - “Omics”
Technologies - Answer (click here)
91. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Microarrays - Answer (click here)
92. “Omics” Enabled Technology: BriefIntroduction to Biomarkers - Answer
(click here)
93. Metabonomics and Metabolomics - Answer (click here)
94. Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics - Answer (click here)
95. Toxicogenomics - Answer (click here)
96. Glycomics and Glycobiology - Answer (click here)
97. “Omics” Integrating Technology: Systems Biology - Answer (click here)
98. Transgenic Animals - Answer (click here)
99. Transgenic Plants - Answer (click here)
100. Xenotransplantation: Transplantable Transgenic Animal Organs - Answer
(click here)
101. Knockout Mice - Answer (click here)
102. Protein Engineering - Answer (click here)
103. 3D Structures of Engineered Proteins - Answer (click here)
104. Peptide Chemistry and Peptidomimetics - Answer (click here)
105. Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
106. Stem Cells - Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
107. Tissue Engineering and Some Products of Tissue Engineering - Cell
Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
108. Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click here)
109. Screening and Synthesis - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer
(click here)
110. Chemical Genomics - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click
here)
111. Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
112. Ex Vivo Versus In Vivo Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
113. Gene Therapy in The Clinic: Disease Targets - Answer (click here)
114. General Considerations - Vectors For Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
115. General Anatomy and Production of a Gene Transfer Vector - Answer
(click here)
116. Retroviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
117. Adenoviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
118. Adeno Associated Virus Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer -
Answer (click here)
119. Non-Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
120. Construction of Non Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
121. Delivery Methods for Non-Viral Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
122. The Immune Response Against Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
123. Clinical Use of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
124. Production and Processing of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
125. The Role of Drug Metabolism in Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
126. Gene Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (GDEPT) - Answer (click here)
127. Systems for Pharmacological Regulation of Gene Expression - Answer
(click here)
128. Regulation and Oversight of Gene Therapy Products - Answer (click here)
129. Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
130. Interfering With Gene Expression - Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
131. Triple Helix-Forming Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
132. Transcription Factor Decoys - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene
Expression - Answer (click here)
133. Antisense/Ribozymes/EGS - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene
Expression - Answer (click here)
134. siRNA/miRNA - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene Expression -
Answer (click here)
135. Direct Binding to Non-Nucleic Acids - Answer (click here)
136. Gene Repair - Answer (click here)
137. Stimulating Immune Responses - Answer (click here)
138. Pharmacokinetics of Oligonucleotide-Based Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
139. Improving Oligonucleotide Stability - Answer (click here)
140. Improving Cellular Uptake - Answer (click here)
141. Diagnostic Applications - Answer (click here)
142. Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click here)
143. Hematopoiesis - Answer (click here)
144. Chemical Description of Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click
here)
145. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for the Myeloid Factors,
G-CSF and GM-CSF - Answer (click here)
146. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for SCF - Answer (click
here)
147. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for TPOs - Answer (click
here)
148. Pharmacology - Answer (click here)
149. Pharmaceutical Issues - Answer (click here)
150. Pharmacokinetics - Answer (click here)
151. Pharmacodynamics - Answer (click here)
152. Established Uses - Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click here)
153. AIDS - Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - Answer (click here)
154. Toxicities - Answer (click here)
155. Interferons and Interleukins - Answer (click here)
156. Interferons: Nomenclature and Functions - Answer (click here)
157. Interleukins: Nomenclature and Functions - Answer (click here)
158. Rapeutic Use of Recombinant Interferons - Answer (click here)
159. Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click here)
160. Aldesleukin - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer
(click here)
161. Oprelvekin - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click
here)
162. Anakinra - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click
here)
163. Pegylated Interferons and Interleukins: The Next Generation - Answer
(click here)
164. Insulin - Answer (click here)
165. Chemical Description of Insulin - Answer (click here)
166. Pharmacology and Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
167. Regular and Rapid Acting Soluble Formulations - Pharmacology and
Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
168. Intermediate Acting Insulin Formulations - Pharmacology and
Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
169. Long Acting Insulin Formulations - Pharmacology and Formulations of
Insulin - Answer (click here)
170. Chemical Stability of Insulin Formulations - Answer (click here)
171. Physical Stability of Insulin Formulations - Answer (click here)
172. Clinical and Practice Aspects of Insulin - Answer (click here)
173. Human growth hormone (hGH): Structure and Isohormones - Answer
(click here)
174. Growth Hormone Secretion and Regulation - Answer (click here)
175. Growth Hormone Biologic Actions - Answer (click here)
176. hGH Receptor and Binding Proteins - Answer (click here)
177. Molecular Endocrinology and Signal Transduction - Answer (click here)
178. Dosing Schedules and Routes of Human growth hormone (hGH) -
Answer (click here)
179. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism - Answer (click here)
180. Protein Manufacture, Formulation and Stability- Growth Hormones -
Answer (click here)
181. Clinical Usage of Human growth hormone (hGH) - Answer (click here)
182. Recombinant Coagulation Factors and Thrombolytic Agents - Answer
(click here)
183. Recombinant Coagulation Factors VIII - Answer (click here)
184. Recombinant Coagulation Factor VIIA - Answer (click here)
185. Recombinant Coagulation Factor IX - Answer (click here)
186. Tissue Type Plasminogen Activator - Recombinant Thrombolytic
Agents - Answer (click here)
187. Recombinant t-PA (rt-PA; Alteplase) - First Generation Recombinant
Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)
188. Second Generation Recombinant Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click
here)
189. Reteplase - Second Generation Recombinant Thrombolytic Agents -
Answer (click here)
190. Tenecteplase - Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)
191. Lanoteplase - Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)
192. Monoclonal Antibodies: From Structure to Therapeutic Application -
Answer (click here)
193. Antibody Structure and Classes - Answer (click here)
194. Murine, Chimeric, Humanized and Fully Humanized mAbs - Antibody
Structure and Classes - Answer (click here)
195. Antibody Derivatives [F(ab0)2, Fab, Antibody DrugConjugates (ADC)]
and Fusion Proteins - Answer (click here)
196. How Antibodies Function as Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
197. Translational Medicine/Development Process - Answer (click here)
198. Preclinical Safety Assessment of mAbs - Translational
Medicine/Development Process - Answer (click here)
199. Pharmacokinetics - Translational Medicine/Development Process -
Answer (click here)
200. Prediction of Human PK/PD Based on Preclinical Information - Answer
(click here)
201. PK/PD in Clinical Development of Antibody Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
202. Mechanistic Modeling Approaches - Translational
Medicine/Development Process - Answer (click here)
203. Population PK of Monoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
204. Monoclonal Antibodies in Cancer - Answer (click here)
205. Alemtuzumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: CD Antigens -
Answer (click here)
206. Gemtuzumab - Monoclonal Antibodies in Cancer - Answer (click here)
207. Rituximab, Yttrium-90 (90Y) Ibritumomab Tiuxetan, Iodine-131 (131I)
Tositumomab - Answer (click here)
208. Bevacizumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Vascular Endothelial
Growth Factor Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
209. Trastuzumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Endothelial Growth
Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
210. Cetuximab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Endothelial Growth
Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
211. Panitumumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Endothelial Growth
Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
212. Monoclonal Antibodies in Solid Organ Transplantation - Answer (click
here)
213. Immunologic Targets: Rational Development/ Use of Monoclonal
Antibodies in Organ Transplant - Answer (click here)
214. Monoclonal Antibodies Administered Pre-Transplant - Answer (click here)
215. Monoclonal Antibodies Administered at the Time of Transplant - Answer
(click here)
216. Monoclonal Antibodies Administered Following Transplant - Answer
(click here)
217. Muromonab - Specific Agents Used In Solid Organ Transplant - Answer
(click here)
218. Interleukin 2 Receptor Antagonists - Specific Agents Used In Solid
Organ Transplant - Answer (click here)
219. Alemtuzumab - Specific Agents Used In Solid Organ Transplant -
Answer (click here)
220. Rituximab - Specific Agents Used In Solid Organ Transplant - Answer
(click here)
221. Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory Therapy - Answer (click here)
222. Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory Therapy -
Answer (click here)
223. Infliximab - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory
Therapy - Answer (click here)
224. Etanercept - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory
Therapy - Answer (click here)
225. Adalimumab - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti
inflammatory Therapy - Answer (click here)
226. Abatacept - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory
Therapy - Answer (click here)
227. Rituximab - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory
Therapy - Answer (click here)
228. Psoriasis: Efalizumab - Monoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
229. Multiple Sclerosis: Natalizumab - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti
inflammatory Therapy - Answer (click here)
230. Allergic Asthma: Omalizumab - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti
inflammatory Therapy - Answer (click here)
231. Recombinant Human Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click here)
232. Protein Chemistry, Enzymology, and Structure - Answer (click here)
233. In Vitro Activity in CF Sputum - Pharmacology - Recombinant Human
Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click here)
234. In Vivo Activity in CF Sputum - Pharmacology - Recombinant Human
Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click here)
235. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism - Pharmacology - Recombinant
Human Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click here)
236. Protein Manufacturing and Formulation - Answer (click here)
237. Drug Delivery- Recombinant Human Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click
here)
238. Clinical Use- Recombinant Human Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click
here)
239. Follicle Stimulating Hormone - Answer (click here)
240. Biological Role of Follicle Stimulating Hormone - Answer (click here)
241. Chemical Description of Follicle Stimulating Hormone - Answer (click
here)
242. Production of Recombinant FSH(Follicle Stimulating Hormone) - Answer
(click here)
243. Structural Characteristics of Isohormones - Follicle Stimulating
Hormone - Answer (click here)
244. Biological Properties of Recombinant FSH Isohormones - Answer (click
here)
245. Pharmacokinetic Behavior of Recombinant FSH Isohormones - Answer
(click here)
246. Pharmaceutical Formulations of Follicle Stimulating Hormone(FSH) -
Answer (click here)
247. Clinical Aspects of Follicle Stimulating Hormone(FSH) - Answer (click
here)
248. Vaccines - Answer (click here)
249. Immunological Principles of Vaccines - Answer (click here)
250. Active Immunization: Generation of an Immune Response - Answer (click
here)
251. Uptake - Immunological Principles of Vaccines - Answer (click here)
252. Activation and Migration - Immunological Principles of Vaccines -
Answer (click here)
253. Antigen Presentation and Lymphocyte Activation - Answer (click here)
254. Adaptive Immune System - Immunological Principles of Vaccines -
Answer (click here)
255. Vaccine Design in Relation with the Immune Response - Answer (click
here)
256. Route of Administration - Immunological Principles of Vaccines -
Answer (click here)
257. Conventional Vaccines: Classification - Answer (click here)
258. Live Attenuated Vaccines - Answer (click here)
259. Non-Living Vaccines: Whole Organisms, Subunit Vaccines - Answer
(click here)
260. Genetically Improved Live Vaccines - Answer (click here)
261. Genetically Improved Subunit Vaccines - Answer (click here)
262. Reverse Vaccinology - Answer (click here)
263. Therapeutic Vaccines - Answer (click here)
264. Pharmaceutical Aspects of Vaccines - Answer (click here)

Dispensing Biotechnology Products Handling Professional


Education and Product Information
1. Molecular Biotechnology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. The Cells: Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell - Answer (click here)
3. Gene Expression - Answer (click here)
4. DNA Replication - Answer (click here)
5. Gene Transcription - Answer (click here)
6. Gene Translation - Answer (click here)
7. Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
8. DNA Transfer - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
9. DNA Sources - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
10. Production by Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
11. DNA Sequencing - Answer (click here)
12. Genome Sequencing - Answer (click here)
13. DNA Hybridization - Answer (click here)
14. PCR Technology - Answer (click here)
15. Cell Cultures: Cultivation of Microbes, Animal and Plant Cell Cultures -
Answer (click here)
16. Biophysical and Biochemical Analysis of Recombinant Proteins - Answer
(click here)
17. Protein Structure: Primary Structure - Answer (click here)
18. Protein Structure: Secondary Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Protein Structure: Tertiary Structure - Answer (click here)
20. Protein Structure: Forces - Answer (click here)
21. Protein Structure: Hydration - Answer (click here)
22. Protein Folding - Answer (click here)
23. Protein Stability - Answer (click here)
24. Blotting Techniques - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
25. Immunoassays ELISA - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click
here)
26. Electrophoresis - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
27. Chromatography - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
28. Bioassays - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
29. Mass Spectrometry - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
30. Production and Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
31. Expression Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
32. Cultivation Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
33. Cultivation Medium - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
34. Contaminants - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
35. Cellular DNA - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
36. Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
37. Filtration/Centrifugation - Downstream Processing of Biotech
Compounds - Answer (click here)
38. Precipitation - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
39. Chromatography - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds -
Answer (click here)
40. Issues to Consider in Production And purification of Proteins - Answer
(click here)
41. Microbiological Considerations - Answer (click here)
42. Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer
(click here)
43. Solubility Enhancers - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
44. Anti Adsorption and Anti Aggregation Agents - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
45. Buffer Components - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
46. Preservatives and Antioxidants - Excipients Used in Parenteral
Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
47. Osmotic Agents - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
48. Shelf Life of Protein Based Pharmaceuticals - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
49. Freeze Drying of Proteins - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations
of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
50. Freezing - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
51. Primary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
52. Secondary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
53. Delivery of Proteins: Routes of Administration and Absorption
Enhancement - Answer (click here)
54. Delivery of Proteins: By The Parenteral Route - Answer (click here)
55. Delivery of Proteins: Approaches For Rate Controlled Delivery - Answer
(click here)
56. Delivery of Proteins: Site Specific Delivery (Targeting) of Protein Drugs
- Answer (click here)
57. Anatomical, Physiological, and Pathological Considerations Relevant for
Protein Targeting - Answer (click here)
58. Soluble Carrier Systems for Targeted Delivery of Proteins - Answer (click
here)
59. Potential Pitfalls in Tumor Targeting - Answer (click here)
60. Colloidal Particulate Carrier Systems for TargetedDelivery of Proteins:
Nanotechnology at Work - Answer (click here)
61. Perspectives for Targeted Protein Delivery - Answer (click here)
62. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Peptide and Protein Drugs -
Answer (click here)
63. Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
64. Absorption of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
65. Distribution of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
66. Elimination of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
67. Target Mediated Drug Disposition - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
68. Immunogenicity and Protein Pharmacokinetics - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
69. Species Specificity and Allometric Scaling - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
70. Chemical Modifications for Optimizing the Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
71. Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
72. Direct Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics
- Answer (click here)
73. Indirect Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
74. Indirect Response PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
75. Cell Life Span Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics -
Answer (click here)
76. Complex Response Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
77. Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Proteins - Answer (click here)
78. The New Paradigm - Answer (click here)
79. The Immunological Response - Answer (click here)
80. Factors Influencing Antibody Formation Totherapeutic Proteins - Answer
(click here)
81. Assays for Antibodies - Answer (click here)
82. Issues Specifically Related Tomonoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
83. Clinical Effects of Induced Antibodies - Answer (click here)
84. Predicting and Reducing Immunogenicity - Answer (click here)
85. Genomics, “Omics” Technologies, Personalized Medicine - Answer (click
here)
86. An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
87. Genomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
88. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Bioinformatics - Answer (click here)
89. Transcriptomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer
(click here)
90. Proteomics, Structural Proteomics, and Functional Proteomics - “Omics”
Technologies - Answer (click here)
91. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Microarrays - Answer (click here)
92. “Omics” Enabled Technology: BriefIntroduction to Biomarkers - Answer
(click here)
93. Metabonomics and Metabolomics - Answer (click here)
94. Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics - Answer (click here)
95. Toxicogenomics - Answer (click here)
96. Glycomics and Glycobiology - Answer (click here)
97. “Omics” Integrating Technology: Systems Biology - Answer (click here)
98. Transgenic Animals - Answer (click here)
99. Transgenic Plants - Answer (click here)
100. Xenotransplantation: Transplantable Transgenic Animal Organs - Answer
(click here)
101. Knockout Mice - Answer (click here)
102. Protein Engineering - Answer (click here)
103. 3D Structures of Engineered Proteins - Answer (click here)
104. Peptide Chemistry and Peptidomimetics - Answer (click here)
105. Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
106. Stem Cells - Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
107. Tissue Engineering and Some Products of Tissue Engineering - Cell
Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
108. Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click here)
109. Screening and Synthesis - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer
(click here)
110. Chemical Genomics - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click
here)
111. Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
112. Ex Vivo Versus In Vivo Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
113. Gene Therapy in The Clinic: Disease Targets - Answer (click here)
114. General Considerations - Vectors For Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
115. General Anatomy and Production of a Gene Transfer Vector - Answer
(click here)
116. Retroviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
117. Adenoviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
118. Adeno Associated Virus Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer -
Answer (click here)
119. Non-Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
120. Construction of Non Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
121. Delivery Methods for Non-Viral Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
122. The Immune Response Against Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
123. Clinical Use of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
124. Production and Processing of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
125. The Role of Drug Metabolism in Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
126. Gene Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (GDEPT) - Answer (click here)
127. Systems for Pharmacological Regulation of Gene Expression - Answer
(click here)
128. Regulation and Oversight of Gene Therapy Products - Answer (click here)
129. Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
130. Interfering With Gene Expression - Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
131. Triple Helix-Forming Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
132. Transcription Factor Decoys - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene
Expression - Answer (click here)
133. Antisense/Ribozymes/EGS - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene
Expression - Answer (click here)
134. siRNA/miRNA - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene Expression -
Answer (click here)
135. Direct Binding to Non-Nucleic Acids - Answer (click here)
136. Gene Repair - Answer (click here)
137. Stimulating Immune Responses - Answer (click here)
138. Pharmacokinetics of Oligonucleotide-Based Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
139. Improving Oligonucleotide Stability - Answer (click here)
140. Improving Cellular Uptake - Answer (click here)
141. Diagnostic Applications - Answer (click here)
142. Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click here)
143. Hematopoiesis - Answer (click here)
144. Chemical Description of Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click
here)
145. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for the Myeloid Factors,
G-CSF and GM-CSF - Answer (click here)
146. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for SCF - Answer (click
here)
147. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for TPOs - Answer (click
here)
148. Pharmacology - Answer (click here)
149. Pharmaceutical Issues - Answer (click here)
150. Pharmacokinetics - Answer (click here)
151. Pharmacodynamics - Answer (click here)
152. Established Uses - Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click here)
153. AIDS - Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - Answer (click here)
154. Toxicities - Answer (click here)
155. Interferons and Interleukins - Answer (click here)
156. Interferons: Nomenclature and Functions - Answer (click here)
157. Interleukins: Nomenclature and Functions - Answer (click here)
158. Rapeutic Use of Recombinant Interferons - Answer (click here)
159. Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click here)
160. Aldesleukin - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer
(click here)
161. Oprelvekin - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click
here)
162. Anakinra - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click
here)
163. Pegylated Interferons and Interleukins: The Next Generation - Answer
(click here)
164. Insulin - Answer (click here)
165. Chemical Description of Insulin - Answer (click here)
166. Pharmacology and Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
167. Regular and Rapid Acting Soluble Formulations - Pharmacology and
Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
168. Intermediate Acting Insulin Formulations - Pharmacology and
Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
169. Long Acting Insulin Formulations - Pharmacology and Formulations of
Insulin - Answer (click here)
170. Chemical Stability of Insulin Formulations - Answer (click here)
171. Physical Stability of Insulin Formulations - Answer (click here)
172. Clinical and Practice Aspects of Insulin - Answer (click here)
173. Human growth hormone (hGH): Structure and Isohormones - Answer
(click here)
174. Growth Hormone Secretion and Regulation - Answer (click here)
175. Growth Hormone Biologic Actions - Answer (click here)
176. hGH Receptor and Binding Proteins - Answer (click here)
177. Molecular Endocrinology and Signal Transduction - Answer (click here)
178. Dosing Schedules and Routes of Human growth hormone (hGH) -
Answer (click here)
179. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism - Answer (click here)
180. Protein Manufacture, Formulation and Stability- Growth Hormones -
Answer (click here)
181. Clinical Usage of Human growth hormone (hGH) - Answer (click here)
182. Recombinant Coagulation Factors and Thrombolytic Agents - Answer
(click here)
183. Recombinant Coagulation Factors VIII - Answer (click here)
184. Recombinant Coagulation Factor VIIA - Answer (click here)
185. Recombinant Coagulation Factor IX - Answer (click here)
186. Tissue Type Plasminogen Activator - Recombinant Thrombolytic
Agents - Answer (click here)
187. Recombinant t-PA (rt-PA; Alteplase) - First Generation Recombinant
Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)
188. Second Generation Recombinant Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click
here)
189. Reteplase - Second Generation Recombinant Thrombolytic Agents -
Answer (click here)
190. Tenecteplase - Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)
191. Lanoteplase - Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)
192. Monoclonal Antibodies: From Structure to Therapeutic Application -
Answer (click here)
193. Antibody Structure and Classes - Answer (click here)
194. Murine, Chimeric, Humanized and Fully Humanized mAbs - Antibody
Structure and Classes - Answer (click here)
195. Antibody Derivatives [F(ab0)2, Fab, Antibody DrugConjugates (ADC)]
and Fusion Proteins - Answer (click here)
196. How Antibodies Function as Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
197. Translational Medicine/Development Process - Answer (click here)
198. Preclinical Safety Assessment of mAbs - Translational
Medicine/Development Process - Answer (click here)
199. Pharmacokinetics - Translational Medicine/Development Process -
Answer (click here)
200. Prediction of Human PK/PD Based on Preclinical Information - Answer
(click here)
201. PK/PD in Clinical Development of Antibody Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
202. Mechanistic Modeling Approaches - Translational
Medicine/Development Process - Answer (click here)
203. Population PK of Monoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
204. Monoclonal Antibodies in Cancer - Answer (click here)
205. Alemtuzumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: CD Antigens -
Answer (click here)
206. Gemtuzumab - Monoclonal Antibodies in Cancer - Answer (click here)
207. Rituximab, Yttrium-90 (90Y) Ibritumomab Tiuxetan, Iodine-131 (131I)
Tositumomab - Answer (click here)
208. Bevacizumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Vascular Endothelial
Growth Factor Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
209. Trastuzumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Endothelial Growth
Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
210. Cetuximab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Endothelial Growth
Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
211. Panitumumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Endothelial Growth
Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
212. Monoclonal Antibodies in Solid Organ Transplantation - Answer (click
here)
213. Immunologic Targets: Rational Development/ Use of Monoclonal
Antibodies in Organ Transplant - Answer (click here)
214. Monoclonal Antibodies Administered Pre-Transplant - Answer (click here)
215. Monoclonal Antibodies Administered at the Time of Transplant - Answer
(click here)
216. Monoclonal Antibodies Administered Following Transplant - Answer
(click here)
217. Muromonab - Specific Agents Used In Solid Organ Transplant - Answer
(click here)
218. Interleukin 2 Receptor Antagonists - Specific Agents Used In Solid
Organ Transplant - Answer (click here)
219. Alemtuzumab - Specific Agents Used In Solid Organ Transplant -
Answer (click here)
220. Rituximab - Specific Agents Used In Solid Organ Transplant - Answer
(click here)
221. Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory Therapy - Answer (click here)
222. Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory Therapy -
Answer (click here)
223. Infliximab - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory
Therapy - Answer (click here)
224. Etanercept - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory
Therapy - Answer (click here)
225. Adalimumab - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti
inflammatory Therapy - Answer (click here)
226. Abatacept - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory
Therapy - Answer (click here)
227. Rituximab - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory
Therapy - Answer (click here)
228. Psoriasis: Efalizumab - Monoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
229. Multiple Sclerosis: Natalizumab - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti
inflammatory Therapy - Answer (click here)
230. Allergic Asthma: Omalizumab - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti
inflammatory Therapy - Answer (click here)
231. Recombinant Human Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click here)
232. Protein Chemistry, Enzymology, and Structure - Answer (click here)
233. In Vitro Activity in CF Sputum - Pharmacology - Recombinant Human
Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click here)
234. In Vivo Activity in CF Sputum - Pharmacology - Recombinant Human
Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click here)
235. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism - Pharmacology - Recombinant
Human Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click here)
236. Protein Manufacturing and Formulation - Answer (click here)
237. Drug Delivery- Recombinant Human Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click
here)
238. Clinical Use- Recombinant Human Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click
here)
239. Follicle Stimulating Hormone - Answer (click here)
240. Biological Role of Follicle Stimulating Hormone - Answer (click here)
241. Chemical Description of Follicle Stimulating Hormone - Answer (click
here)
242. Production of Recombinant FSH(Follicle Stimulating Hormone) - Answer
(click here)
243. Structural Characteristics of Isohormones - Follicle Stimulating
Hormone - Answer (click here)
244. Biological Properties of Recombinant FSH Isohormones - Answer (click
here)
245. Pharmacokinetic Behavior of Recombinant FSH Isohormones - Answer
(click here)
246. Pharmaceutical Formulations of Follicle Stimulating Hormone(FSH) -
Answer (click here)
247. Clinical Aspects of Follicle Stimulating Hormone(FSH) - Answer (click
here)
248. Vaccines - Answer (click here)
249. Immunological Principles of Vaccines - Answer (click here)
250. Active Immunization: Generation of an Immune Response - Answer (click
here)
251. Uptake - Immunological Principles of Vaccines - Answer (click here)
252. Activation and Migration - Immunological Principles of Vaccines -
Answer (click here)
253. Antigen Presentation and Lymphocyte Activation - Answer (click here)
254. Adaptive Immune System - Immunological Principles of Vaccines -
Answer (click here)
255. Vaccine Design in Relation with the Immune Response - Answer (click
here)
256. Route of Administration - Immunological Principles of Vaccines -
Answer (click here)
257. Conventional Vaccines: Classification - Answer (click here)
258. Live Attenuated Vaccines - Answer (click here)
259. Non-Living Vaccines: Whole Organisms, Subunit Vaccines - Answer
(click here)
260. Genetically Improved Live Vaccines - Answer (click here)
261. Genetically Improved Subunit Vaccines - Answer (click here)
262. Reverse Vaccinology - Answer (click here)
263. Therapeutic Vaccines - Answer (click here)
264. Pharmaceutical Aspects of Vaccines - Answer (click here)
265. Dispensing Biotechnology Products: Handling, Professional Education,
and Product Information - Answer (click here)
266. Pharmacist Reluctance - Answer (click here)
267. Types of Information Needed by Pharmacists - Pharmacist Reluctance -
Answer (click here)
268. Sources of Information for Pharmacists - Answer (click here)
269. The Pharmacist and Handling of Biotech Drugs - Answer (click here)
270. Temperature Requirements - Pharmacist Reluctance - Answer (click here)
271. Storage in Dosing and Administration Devices - Pharmacist Reluctance -
Answer (click here)
272. Storage in IV Solutions and Light Protection - Pharmacist Reluctance -
Answer (click here)
273. Mixing and Shaking - Pharmacist Reluctance - Answer (click here)
274. Travel Requirements - Pharmacist Reluctance - Answer (click here)
275. Preparation of Biotechnology Products - Answer (click here)
276. Administration of Biotechnology Products - Answer (click here)
277. Biogenerics - A Future Consideration? - Answer (click here)
278. Outpatient/Home Care Issues of Biotechnology Products - Answer (click
here)

Economic Considerations in Medical Biotechnology


1. Molecular Biotechnology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. The Cells: Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell - Answer (click here)
3. Gene Expression - Answer (click here)
4. DNA Replication - Answer (click here)
5. Gene Transcription - Answer (click here)
6. Gene Translation - Answer (click here)
7. Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
8. DNA Transfer - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
9. DNA Sources - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
10. Production by Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
11. DNA Sequencing - Answer (click here)
12. Genome Sequencing - Answer (click here)
13. DNA Hybridization - Answer (click here)
14. PCR Technology - Answer (click here)
15. Cell Cultures: Cultivation of Microbes, Animal and Plant Cell Cultures -
Answer (click here)
16. Biophysical and Biochemical Analysis of Recombinant Proteins - Answer
(click here)
17. Protein Structure: Primary Structure - Answer (click here)
18. Protein Structure: Secondary Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Protein Structure: Tertiary Structure - Answer (click here)
20. Protein Structure: Forces - Answer (click here)
21. Protein Structure: Hydration - Answer (click here)
22. Protein Folding - Answer (click here)
23. Protein Stability - Answer (click here)
24. Blotting Techniques - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
25. Immunoassays ELISA - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click
here)
26. Electrophoresis - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
27. Chromatography - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
28. Bioassays - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
29. Mass Spectrometry - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
30. Production and Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
31. Expression Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
32. Cultivation Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
33. Cultivation Medium - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
34. Contaminants - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
35. Cellular DNA - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
36. Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
37. Filtration/Centrifugation - Downstream Processing of Biotech
Compounds - Answer (click here)
38. Precipitation - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
39. Chromatography - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds -
Answer (click here)
40. Issues to Consider in Production And purification of Proteins - Answer
(click here)
41. Microbiological Considerations - Answer (click here)
42. Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer
(click here)
43. Solubility Enhancers - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
44. Anti Adsorption and Anti Aggregation Agents - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
45. Buffer Components - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
46. Preservatives and Antioxidants - Excipients Used in Parenteral
Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
47. Osmotic Agents - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
48. Shelf Life of Protein Based Pharmaceuticals - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
49. Freeze Drying of Proteins - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations
of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
50. Freezing - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
51. Primary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
52. Secondary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
53. Delivery of Proteins: Routes of Administration and Absorption
Enhancement - Answer (click here)
54. Delivery of Proteins: By The Parenteral Route - Answer (click here)
55. Delivery of Proteins: Approaches For Rate Controlled Delivery - Answer
(click here)
56. Delivery of Proteins: Site Specific Delivery (Targeting) of Protein Drugs
- Answer (click here)
57. Anatomical, Physiological, and Pathological Considerations Relevant for
Protein Targeting - Answer (click here)
58. Soluble Carrier Systems for Targeted Delivery of Proteins - Answer (click
here)
59. Potential Pitfalls in Tumor Targeting - Answer (click here)
60. Colloidal Particulate Carrier Systems for TargetedDelivery of Proteins:
Nanotechnology at Work - Answer (click here)
61. Perspectives for Targeted Protein Delivery - Answer (click here)
62. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Peptide and Protein Drugs -
Answer (click here)
63. Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
64. Absorption of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
65. Distribution of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
66. Elimination of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
67. Target Mediated Drug Disposition - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
68. Immunogenicity and Protein Pharmacokinetics - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
69. Species Specificity and Allometric Scaling - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
70. Chemical Modifications for Optimizing the Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
71. Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
72. Direct Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics
- Answer (click here)
73. Indirect Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
74. Indirect Response PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
75. Cell Life Span Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics -
Answer (click here)
76. Complex Response Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
77. Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Proteins - Answer (click here)
78. The New Paradigm - Answer (click here)
79. The Immunological Response - Answer (click here)
80. Factors Influencing Antibody Formation Totherapeutic Proteins - Answer
(click here)
81. Assays for Antibodies - Answer (click here)
82. Issues Specifically Related Tomonoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
83. Clinical Effects of Induced Antibodies - Answer (click here)
84. Predicting and Reducing Immunogenicity - Answer (click here)
85. Genomics, “Omics” Technologies, Personalized Medicine - Answer (click
here)
86. An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
87. Genomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
88. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Bioinformatics - Answer (click here)
89. Transcriptomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer
(click here)
90. Proteomics, Structural Proteomics, and Functional Proteomics - “Omics”
Technologies - Answer (click here)
91. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Microarrays - Answer (click here)
92. “Omics” Enabled Technology: BriefIntroduction to Biomarkers - Answer
(click here)
93. Metabonomics and Metabolomics - Answer (click here)
94. Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics - Answer (click here)
95. Toxicogenomics - Answer (click here)
96. Glycomics and Glycobiology - Answer (click here)
97. “Omics” Integrating Technology: Systems Biology - Answer (click here)
98. Transgenic Animals - Answer (click here)
99. Transgenic Plants - Answer (click here)
100. Xenotransplantation: Transplantable Transgenic Animal Organs - Answer
(click here)
101. Knockout Mice - Answer (click here)
102. Protein Engineering - Answer (click here)
103. 3D Structures of Engineered Proteins - Answer (click here)
104. Peptide Chemistry and Peptidomimetics - Answer (click here)
105. Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
106. Stem Cells - Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
107. Tissue Engineering and Some Products of Tissue Engineering - Cell
Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
108. Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click here)
109. Screening and Synthesis - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer
(click here)
110. Chemical Genomics - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click
here)
111. Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
112. Ex Vivo Versus In Vivo Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
113. Gene Therapy in The Clinic: Disease Targets - Answer (click here)
114. General Considerations - Vectors For Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
115. General Anatomy and Production of a Gene Transfer Vector - Answer
(click here)
116. Retroviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
117. Adenoviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
118. Adeno Associated Virus Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer -
Answer (click here)
119. Non-Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
120. Construction of Non Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
121. Delivery Methods for Non-Viral Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
122. The Immune Response Against Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
123. Clinical Use of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
124. Production and Processing of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
125. The Role of Drug Metabolism in Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
126. Gene Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (GDEPT) - Answer (click here)
127. Systems for Pharmacological Regulation of Gene Expression - Answer
(click here)
128. Regulation and Oversight of Gene Therapy Products - Answer (click here)
129. Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
130. Interfering With Gene Expression - Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
131. Triple Helix-Forming Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
132. Transcription Factor Decoys - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene
Expression - Answer (click here)
133. Antisense/Ribozymes/EGS - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene
Expression - Answer (click here)
134. siRNA/miRNA - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene Expression -
Answer (click here)
135. Direct Binding to Non-Nucleic Acids - Answer (click here)
136. Gene Repair - Answer (click here)
137. Stimulating Immune Responses - Answer (click here)
138. Pharmacokinetics of Oligonucleotide-Based Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
139. Improving Oligonucleotide Stability - Answer (click here)
140. Improving Cellular Uptake - Answer (click here)
141. Diagnostic Applications - Answer (click here)
142. Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click here)
143. Hematopoiesis - Answer (click here)
144. Chemical Description of Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click
here)
145. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for the Myeloid Factors,
G-CSF and GM-CSF - Answer (click here)
146. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for SCF - Answer (click
here)
147. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for TPOs - Answer (click
here)
148. Pharmacology - Answer (click here)
149. Pharmaceutical Issues - Answer (click here)
150. Pharmacokinetics - Answer (click here)
151. Pharmacodynamics - Answer (click here)
152. Established Uses - Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click here)
153. AIDS - Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - Answer (click here)
154. Toxicities - Answer (click here)
155. Interferons and Interleukins - Answer (click here)
156. Interferons: Nomenclature and Functions - Answer (click here)
157. Interleukins: Nomenclature and Functions - Answer (click here)
158. Rapeutic Use of Recombinant Interferons - Answer (click here)
159. Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click here)
160. Aldesleukin - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer
(click here)
161. Oprelvekin - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click
here)
162. Anakinra - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click
here)
163. Pegylated Interferons and Interleukins: The Next Generation - Answer
(click here)
164. Insulin - Answer (click here)
165. Chemical Description of Insulin - Answer (click here)
166. Pharmacology and Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
167. Regular and Rapid Acting Soluble Formulations - Pharmacology and
Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
168. Intermediate Acting Insulin Formulations - Pharmacology and
Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
169. Long Acting Insulin Formulations - Pharmacology and Formulations of
Insulin - Answer (click here)
170. Chemical Stability of Insulin Formulations - Answer (click here)
171. Physical Stability of Insulin Formulations - Answer (click here)
172. Clinical and Practice Aspects of Insulin - Answer (click here)
173. Human growth hormone (hGH): Structure and Isohormones - Answer
(click here)
174. Growth Hormone Secretion and Regulation - Answer (click here)
175. Growth Hormone Biologic Actions - Answer (click here)
176. hGH Receptor and Binding Proteins - Answer (click here)
177. Molecular Endocrinology and Signal Transduction - Answer (click here)
178. Dosing Schedules and Routes of Human growth hormone (hGH) -
Answer (click here)
179. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism - Answer (click here)
180. Protein Manufacture, Formulation and Stability- Growth Hormones -
Answer (click here)
181. Clinical Usage of Human growth hormone (hGH) - Answer (click here)
182. Recombinant Coagulation Factors and Thrombolytic Agents - Answer
(click here)
183. Recombinant Coagulation Factors VIII - Answer (click here)
184. Recombinant Coagulation Factor VIIA - Answer (click here)
185. Recombinant Coagulation Factor IX - Answer (click here)
186. Tissue Type Plasminogen Activator - Recombinant Thrombolytic
Agents - Answer (click here)
187. Recombinant t-PA (rt-PA; Alteplase) - First Generation Recombinant
Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)
188. Second Generation Recombinant Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click
here)
189. Reteplase - Second Generation Recombinant Thrombolytic Agents -
Answer (click here)
190. Tenecteplase - Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)
191. Lanoteplase - Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)
192. Monoclonal Antibodies: From Structure to Therapeutic Application -
Answer (click here)
193. Antibody Structure and Classes - Answer (click here)
194. Murine, Chimeric, Humanized and Fully Humanized mAbs - Antibody
Structure and Classes - Answer (click here)
195. Antibody Derivatives [F(ab0)2, Fab, Antibody DrugConjugates (ADC)]
and Fusion Proteins - Answer (click here)
196. How Antibodies Function as Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
197. Translational Medicine/Development Process - Answer (click here)
198. Preclinical Safety Assessment of mAbs - Translational
Medicine/Development Process - Answer (click here)
199. Pharmacokinetics - Translational Medicine/Development Process -
Answer (click here)
200. Prediction of Human PK/PD Based on Preclinical Information - Answer
(click here)
201. PK/PD in Clinical Development of Antibody Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
202. Mechanistic Modeling Approaches - Translational
Medicine/Development Process - Answer (click here)
203. Population PK of Monoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
204. Monoclonal Antibodies in Cancer - Answer (click here)
205. Alemtuzumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: CD Antigens -
Answer (click here)
206. Gemtuzumab - Monoclonal Antibodies in Cancer - Answer (click here)
207. Rituximab, Yttrium-90 (90Y) Ibritumomab Tiuxetan, Iodine-131 (131I)
Tositumomab - Answer (click here)
208. Bevacizumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Vascular Endothelial
Growth Factor Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
209. Trastuzumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Endothelial Growth
Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
210. Cetuximab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Endothelial Growth
Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
211. Panitumumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Endothelial Growth
Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
212. Monoclonal Antibodies in Solid Organ Transplantation - Answer (click
here)
213. Immunologic Targets: Rational Development/ Use of Monoclonal
Antibodies in Organ Transplant - Answer (click here)
214. Monoclonal Antibodies Administered Pre-Transplant - Answer (click here)
215. Monoclonal Antibodies Administered at the Time of Transplant - Answer
(click here)
216. Monoclonal Antibodies Administered Following Transplant - Answer
(click here)
217. Muromonab - Specific Agents Used In Solid Organ Transplant - Answer
(click here)
218. Interleukin 2 Receptor Antagonists - Specific Agents Used In Solid
Organ Transplant - Answer (click here)
219. Alemtuzumab - Specific Agents Used In Solid Organ Transplant -
Answer (click here)
220. Rituximab - Specific Agents Used In Solid Organ Transplant - Answer
(click here)
221. Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory Therapy - Answer (click here)
222. Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory Therapy -
Answer (click here)
223. Infliximab - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory
Therapy - Answer (click here)
224. Etanercept - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory
Therapy - Answer (click here)
225. Adalimumab - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti
inflammatory Therapy - Answer (click here)
226. Abatacept - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory
Therapy - Answer (click here)
227. Rituximab - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory
Therapy - Answer (click here)
228. Psoriasis: Efalizumab - Monoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
229. Multiple Sclerosis: Natalizumab - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti
inflammatory Therapy - Answer (click here)
230. Allergic Asthma: Omalizumab - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti
inflammatory Therapy - Answer (click here)
231. Recombinant Human Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click here)
232. Protein Chemistry, Enzymology, and Structure - Answer (click here)
233. In Vitro Activity in CF Sputum - Pharmacology - Recombinant Human
Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click here)
234. In Vivo Activity in CF Sputum - Pharmacology - Recombinant Human
Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click here)
235. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism - Pharmacology - Recombinant
Human Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click here)
236. Protein Manufacturing and Formulation - Answer (click here)
237. Drug Delivery- Recombinant Human Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click
here)
238. Clinical Use- Recombinant Human Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click
here)
239. Follicle Stimulating Hormone - Answer (click here)
240. Biological Role of Follicle Stimulating Hormone - Answer (click here)
241. Chemical Description of Follicle Stimulating Hormone - Answer (click
here)
242. Production of Recombinant FSH(Follicle Stimulating Hormone) - Answer
(click here)
243. Structural Characteristics of Isohormones - Follicle Stimulating
Hormone - Answer (click here)
244. Biological Properties of Recombinant FSH Isohormones - Answer (click
here)
245. Pharmacokinetic Behavior of Recombinant FSH Isohormones - Answer
(click here)
246. Pharmaceutical Formulations of Follicle Stimulating Hormone(FSH) -
Answer (click here)
247. Clinical Aspects of Follicle Stimulating Hormone(FSH) - Answer (click
here)
248. Vaccines - Answer (click here)
249. Immunological Principles of Vaccines - Answer (click here)
250. Active Immunization: Generation of an Immune Response - Answer (click
here)
251. Uptake - Immunological Principles of Vaccines - Answer (click here)
252. Activation and Migration - Immunological Principles of Vaccines -
Answer (click here)
253. Antigen Presentation and Lymphocyte Activation - Answer (click here)
254. Adaptive Immune System - Immunological Principles of Vaccines -
Answer (click here)
255. Vaccine Design in Relation with the Immune Response - Answer (click
here)
256. Route of Administration - Immunological Principles of Vaccines -
Answer (click here)
257. Conventional Vaccines: Classification - Answer (click here)
258. Live Attenuated Vaccines - Answer (click here)
259. Non-Living Vaccines: Whole Organisms, Subunit Vaccines - Answer
(click here)
260. Genetically Improved Live Vaccines - Answer (click here)
261. Genetically Improved Subunit Vaccines - Answer (click here)
262. Reverse Vaccinology - Answer (click here)
263. Therapeutic Vaccines - Answer (click here)
264. Pharmaceutical Aspects of Vaccines - Answer (click here)
265. Dispensing Biotechnology Products: Handling, Professional Education,
and Product Information - Answer (click here)
266. Pharmacist Reluctance - Answer (click here)
267. Types of Information Needed by Pharmacists - Pharmacist Reluctance -
Answer (click here)
268. Sources of Information for Pharmacists - Answer (click here)
269. The Pharmacist and Handling of Biotech Drugs - Answer (click here)
270. Temperature Requirements - Pharmacist Reluctance - Answer (click here)
271. Storage in Dosing and Administration Devices - Pharmacist Reluctance -
Answer (click here)
272. Storage in IV Solutions and Light Protection - Pharmacist Reluctance -
Answer (click here)
273. Mixing and Shaking - Pharmacist Reluctance - Answer (click here)
274. Travel Requirements - Pharmacist Reluctance - Answer (click here)
275. Preparation of Biotechnology Products - Answer (click here)
276. Administration of Biotechnology Products - Answer (click here)
277. Biogenerics - A Future Consideration? - Answer (click here)
278. Outpatient/Home Care Issues of Biotechnology Products - Answer (click
here)
279. Economic Considerations in Medical Biotechnology - Answer (click here)
280. The Value of a New Medical Technology - Answer (click here)
281. An Overview of Economic Analysis for New Technologies - Answer (click
here)

Regulatory Issues and Drug Product Approval for


Biopharmaceuticals
1. Molecular Biotechnology: Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. The Cells: Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell - Answer (click here)
3. Gene Expression - Answer (click here)
4. DNA Replication - Answer (click here)
5. Gene Transcription - Answer (click here)
6. Gene Translation - Answer (click here)
7. Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
8. DNA Transfer - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
9. DNA Sources - Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
10. Production by Recombinant DNA Technology - Answer (click here)
11. DNA Sequencing - Answer (click here)
12. Genome Sequencing - Answer (click here)
13. DNA Hybridization - Answer (click here)
14. PCR Technology - Answer (click here)
15. Cell Cultures: Cultivation of Microbes, Animal and Plant Cell Cultures -
Answer (click here)
16. Biophysical and Biochemical Analysis of Recombinant Proteins - Answer
(click here)
17. Protein Structure: Primary Structure - Answer (click here)
18. Protein Structure: Secondary Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Protein Structure: Tertiary Structure - Answer (click here)
20. Protein Structure: Forces - Answer (click here)
21. Protein Structure: Hydration - Answer (click here)
22. Protein Folding - Answer (click here)
23. Protein Stability - Answer (click here)
24. Blotting Techniques - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
25. Immunoassays ELISA - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click
here)
26. Electrophoresis - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
27. Chromatography - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
28. Bioassays - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
29. Mass Spectrometry - Proteins Analytical Techniques - Answer (click here)
30. Production and Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
31. Expression Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
32. Cultivation Systems - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
33. Cultivation Medium - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click
here)
34. Contaminants - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
35. Cellular DNA - Production of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
36. Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer (click here)
37. Filtration/Centrifugation - Downstream Processing of Biotech
Compounds - Answer (click here)
38. Precipitation - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds - Answer
(click here)
39. Chromatography - Downstream Processing of Biotech Compounds -
Answer (click here)
40. Issues to Consider in Production And purification of Proteins - Answer
(click here)
41. Microbiological Considerations - Answer (click here)
42. Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer
(click here)
43. Solubility Enhancers - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
44. Anti Adsorption and Anti Aggregation Agents - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
45. Buffer Components - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
46. Preservatives and Antioxidants - Excipients Used in Parenteral
Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
47. Osmotic Agents - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
48. Shelf Life of Protein Based Pharmaceuticals - Excipients Used in
Parenteral Formulations of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
49. Freeze Drying of Proteins - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations
of biotech Products - Answer (click here)
50. Freezing - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
51. Primary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of biotech
Products - Answer (click here)
52. Secondary Drying - Excipients Used in Parenteral Formulations of
biotech Products - Answer (click here)
53. Delivery of Proteins: Routes of Administration and Absorption
Enhancement - Answer (click here)
54. Delivery of Proteins: By The Parenteral Route - Answer (click here)
55. Delivery of Proteins: Approaches For Rate Controlled Delivery - Answer
(click here)
56. Delivery of Proteins: Site Specific Delivery (Targeting) of Protein Drugs
- Answer (click here)
57. Anatomical, Physiological, and Pathological Considerations Relevant for
Protein Targeting - Answer (click here)
58. Soluble Carrier Systems for Targeted Delivery of Proteins - Answer (click
here)
59. Potential Pitfalls in Tumor Targeting - Answer (click here)
60. Colloidal Particulate Carrier Systems for TargetedDelivery of Proteins:
Nanotechnology at Work - Answer (click here)
61. Perspectives for Targeted Protein Delivery - Answer (click here)
62. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Peptide and Protein Drugs -
Answer (click here)
63. Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
64. Absorption of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
65. Distribution of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
66. Elimination of Protein Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
67. Target Mediated Drug Disposition - Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
68. Immunogenicity and Protein Pharmacokinetics - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
69. Species Specificity and Allometric Scaling - Pharmacokinetics of
Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
70. Chemical Modifications for Optimizing the Pharmacokinetics of Protein
Therapeutics - Pharmacokinetics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
71. Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
72. Direct Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics
- Answer (click here)
73. Indirect Link PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
74. Indirect Response PK/PD Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
75. Cell Life Span Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein Therapeutics -
Answer (click here)
76. Complex Response Models - Pharmacodynamics of Protein
Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
77. Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Proteins - Answer (click here)
78. The New Paradigm - Answer (click here)
79. The Immunological Response - Answer (click here)
80. Factors Influencing Antibody Formation Totherapeutic Proteins - Answer
(click here)
81. Assays for Antibodies - Answer (click here)
82. Issues Specifically Related Tomonoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
83. Clinical Effects of Induced Antibodies - Answer (click here)
84. Predicting and Reducing Immunogenicity - Answer (click here)
85. Genomics, “Omics” Technologies, Personalized Medicine - Answer (click
here)
86. An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
87. Genomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer (click here)
88. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Bioinformatics - Answer (click here)
89. Transcriptomics - An Introduction to “Omics” Technologies - Answer
(click here)
90. Proteomics, Structural Proteomics, and Functional Proteomics - “Omics”
Technologies - Answer (click here)
91. “Omics” Enabling Technology: Microarrays - Answer (click here)
92. “Omics” Enabled Technology: BriefIntroduction to Biomarkers - Answer
(click here)
93. Metabonomics and Metabolomics - Answer (click here)
94. Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics - Answer (click here)
95. Toxicogenomics - Answer (click here)
96. Glycomics and Glycobiology - Answer (click here)
97. “Omics” Integrating Technology: Systems Biology - Answer (click here)
98. Transgenic Animals - Answer (click here)
99. Transgenic Plants - Answer (click here)
100. Xenotransplantation: Transplantable Transgenic Animal Organs - Answer
(click here)
101. Knockout Mice - Answer (click here)
102. Protein Engineering - Answer (click here)
103. 3D Structures of Engineered Proteins - Answer (click here)
104. Peptide Chemistry and Peptidomimetics - Answer (click here)
105. Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
106. Stem Cells - Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
107. Tissue Engineering and Some Products of Tissue Engineering - Cell
Therapy and Regenerative Medicine - Answer (click here)
108. Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click here)
109. Screening and Synthesis - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer
(click here)
110. Chemical Genomics - Biotechnology and Drug Discovery - Answer (click
here)
111. Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
112. Ex Vivo Versus In Vivo Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
113. Gene Therapy in The Clinic: Disease Targets - Answer (click here)
114. General Considerations - Vectors For Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
115. General Anatomy and Production of a Gene Transfer Vector - Answer
(click here)
116. Retroviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
117. Adenoviral Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
118. Adeno Associated Virus Vectors - Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer -
Answer (click here)
119. Non-Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
120. Construction of Non Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
121. Delivery Methods for Non-Viral Gene Transfer - Answer (click here)
122. The Immune Response Against Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
123. Clinical Use of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
124. Production and Processing of Non-Viral Vectors - Answer (click here)
125. The Role of Drug Metabolism in Gene Therapy - Answer (click here)
126. Gene Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (GDEPT) - Answer (click here)
127. Systems for Pharmacological Regulation of Gene Expression - Answer
(click here)
128. Regulation and Oversight of Gene Therapy Products - Answer (click here)
129. Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
130. Interfering With Gene Expression - Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
131. Triple Helix-Forming Oligonucleotides - Answer (click here)
132. Transcription Factor Decoys - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene
Expression - Answer (click here)
133. Antisense/Ribozymes/EGS - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene
Expression - Answer (click here)
134. siRNA/miRNA - Oligonucleotides Interfering With Gene Expression -
Answer (click here)
135. Direct Binding to Non-Nucleic Acids - Answer (click here)
136. Gene Repair - Answer (click here)
137. Stimulating Immune Responses - Answer (click here)
138. Pharmacokinetics of Oligonucleotide-Based Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
139. Improving Oligonucleotide Stability - Answer (click here)
140. Improving Cellular Uptake - Answer (click here)
141. Diagnostic Applications - Answer (click here)
142. Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click here)
143. Hematopoiesis - Answer (click here)
144. Chemical Description of Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click
here)
145. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for the Myeloid Factors,
G-CSF and GM-CSF - Answer (click here)
146. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for SCF - Answer (click
here)
147. Chemical Properties and Marketing Information for TPOs - Answer (click
here)
148. Pharmacology - Answer (click here)
149. Pharmaceutical Issues - Answer (click here)
150. Pharmacokinetics - Answer (click here)
151. Pharmacodynamics - Answer (click here)
152. Established Uses - Hematopoietic Growth Factors - Answer (click here)
153. AIDS - Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - Answer (click here)
154. Toxicities - Answer (click here)
155. Interferons and Interleukins - Answer (click here)
156. Interferons: Nomenclature and Functions - Answer (click here)
157. Interleukins: Nomenclature and Functions - Answer (click here)
158. Rapeutic Use of Recombinant Interferons - Answer (click here)
159. Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click here)
160. Aldesleukin - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer
(click here)
161. Oprelvekin - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click
here)
162. Anakinra - Therapeutic Use of Recombinant Interleukins - Answer (click
here)
163. Pegylated Interferons and Interleukins: The Next Generation - Answer
(click here)
164. Insulin - Answer (click here)
165. Chemical Description of Insulin - Answer (click here)
166. Pharmacology and Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
167. Regular and Rapid Acting Soluble Formulations - Pharmacology and
Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
168. Intermediate Acting Insulin Formulations - Pharmacology and
Formulations of Insulin - Answer (click here)
169. Long Acting Insulin Formulations - Pharmacology and Formulations of
Insulin - Answer (click here)
170. Chemical Stability of Insulin Formulations - Answer (click here)
171. Physical Stability of Insulin Formulations - Answer (click here)
172. Clinical and Practice Aspects of Insulin - Answer (click here)
173. Human growth hormone (hGH): Structure and Isohormones - Answer
(click here)
174. Growth Hormone Secretion and Regulation - Answer (click here)
175. Growth Hormone Biologic Actions - Answer (click here)
176. hGH Receptor and Binding Proteins - Answer (click here)
177. Molecular Endocrinology and Signal Transduction - Answer (click here)
178. Dosing Schedules and Routes of Human growth hormone (hGH) -
Answer (click here)
179. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism - Answer (click here)
180. Protein Manufacture, Formulation and Stability- Growth Hormones -
Answer (click here)
181. Clinical Usage of Human growth hormone (hGH) - Answer (click here)
182. Recombinant Coagulation Factors and Thrombolytic Agents - Answer
(click here)
183. Recombinant Coagulation Factors VIII - Answer (click here)
184. Recombinant Coagulation Factor VIIA - Answer (click here)
185. Recombinant Coagulation Factor IX - Answer (click here)
186. Tissue Type Plasminogen Activator - Recombinant Thrombolytic
Agents - Answer (click here)
187. Recombinant t-PA (rt-PA; Alteplase) - First Generation Recombinant
Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)
188. Second Generation Recombinant Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click
here)
189. Reteplase - Second Generation Recombinant Thrombolytic Agents -
Answer (click here)
190. Tenecteplase - Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)
191. Lanoteplase - Thrombolytic Agents - Answer (click here)
192. Monoclonal Antibodies: From Structure to Therapeutic Application -
Answer (click here)
193. Antibody Structure and Classes - Answer (click here)
194. Murine, Chimeric, Humanized and Fully Humanized mAbs - Antibody
Structure and Classes - Answer (click here)
195. Antibody Derivatives [F(ab0)2, Fab, Antibody DrugConjugates (ADC)]
and Fusion Proteins - Answer (click here)
196. How Antibodies Function as Therapeutics - Answer (click here)
197. Translational Medicine/Development Process - Answer (click here)
198. Preclinical Safety Assessment of mAbs - Translational
Medicine/Development Process - Answer (click here)
199. Pharmacokinetics - Translational Medicine/Development Process -
Answer (click here)
200. Prediction of Human PK/PD Based on Preclinical Information - Answer
(click here)
201. PK/PD in Clinical Development of Antibody Therapeutics - Answer (click
here)
202. Mechanistic Modeling Approaches - Translational
Medicine/Development Process - Answer (click here)
203. Population PK of Monoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
204. Monoclonal Antibodies in Cancer - Answer (click here)
205. Alemtuzumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: CD Antigens -
Answer (click here)
206. Gemtuzumab - Monoclonal Antibodies in Cancer - Answer (click here)
207. Rituximab, Yttrium-90 (90Y) Ibritumomab Tiuxetan, Iodine-131 (131I)
Tositumomab - Answer (click here)
208. Bevacizumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Vascular Endothelial
Growth Factor Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
209. Trastuzumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Endothelial Growth
Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
210. Cetuximab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Endothelial Growth
Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
211. Panitumumab - Classes of Monoclonal Antibodies: Endothelial Growth
Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitors - Answer (click here)
212. Monoclonal Antibodies in Solid Organ Transplantation - Answer (click
here)
213. Immunologic Targets: Rational Development/ Use of Monoclonal
Antibodies in Organ Transplant - Answer (click here)
214. Monoclonal Antibodies Administered Pre-Transplant - Answer (click here)
215. Monoclonal Antibodies Administered at the Time of Transplant - Answer
(click here)
216. Monoclonal Antibodies Administered Following Transplant - Answer
(click here)
217. Muromonab - Specific Agents Used In Solid Organ Transplant - Answer
(click here)
218. Interleukin 2 Receptor Antagonists - Specific Agents Used In Solid
Organ Transplant - Answer (click here)
219. Alemtuzumab - Specific Agents Used In Solid Organ Transplant -
Answer (click here)
220. Rituximab - Specific Agents Used In Solid Organ Transplant - Answer
(click here)
221. Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory Therapy - Answer (click here)
222. Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory Therapy -
Answer (click here)
223. Infliximab - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory
Therapy - Answer (click here)
224. Etanercept - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory
Therapy - Answer (click here)
225. Adalimumab - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti
inflammatory Therapy - Answer (click here)
226. Abatacept - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory
Therapy - Answer (click here)
227. Rituximab - Arthritides - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti inflammatory
Therapy - Answer (click here)
228. Psoriasis: Efalizumab - Monoclonal Antibodies - Answer (click here)
229. Multiple Sclerosis: Natalizumab - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti
inflammatory Therapy - Answer (click here)
230. Allergic Asthma: Omalizumab - Monoclonal Antibodies in Anti
inflammatory Therapy - Answer (click here)
231. Recombinant Human Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click here)
232. Protein Chemistry, Enzymology, and Structure - Answer (click here)
233. In Vitro Activity in CF Sputum - Pharmacology - Recombinant Human
Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click here)
234. In Vivo Activity in CF Sputum - Pharmacology - Recombinant Human
Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click here)
235. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism - Pharmacology - Recombinant
Human Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click here)
236. Protein Manufacturing and Formulation - Answer (click here)
237. Drug Delivery- Recombinant Human Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click
here)
238. Clinical Use- Recombinant Human Deoxyribonuclease I - Answer (click
here)
239. Follicle Stimulating Hormone - Answer (click here)
240. Biological Role of Follicle Stimulating Hormone - Answer (click here)
241. Chemical Description of Follicle Stimulating Hormone - Answer (click
here)
242. Production of Recombinant FSH(Follicle Stimulating Hormone) - Answer
(click here)
243. Structural Characteristics of Isohormones - Follicle Stimulating
Hormone - Answer (click here)
244. Biological Properties of Recombinant FSH Isohormones - Answer (click
here)
245. Pharmacokinetic Behavior of Recombinant FSH Isohormones - Answer
(click here)
246. Pharmaceutical Formulations of Follicle Stimulating Hormone(FSH) -
Answer (click here)
247. Clinical Aspects of Follicle Stimulating Hormone(FSH) - Answer (click
here)
248. Vaccines - Answer (click here)
249. Immunological Principles of Vaccines - Answer (click here)
250. Active Immunization: Generation of an Immune Response - Answer (click
here)
251. Uptake - Immunological Principles of Vaccines - Answer (click here)
252. Activation and Migration - Immunological Principles of Vaccines -
Answer (click here)
253. Antigen Presentation and Lymphocyte Activation - Answer (click here)
254. Adaptive Immune System - Immunological Principles of Vaccines -
Answer (click here)
255. Vaccine Design in Relation with the Immune Response - Answer (click
here)
256. Route of Administration - Immunological Principles of Vaccines -
Answer (click here)
257. Conventional Vaccines: Classification - Answer (click here)
258. Live Attenuated Vaccines - Answer (click here)
259. Non-Living Vaccines: Whole Organisms, Subunit Vaccines - Answer
(click here)
260. Genetically Improved Live Vaccines - Answer (click here)
261. Genetically Improved Subunit Vaccines - Answer (click here)
262. Reverse Vaccinology - Answer (click here)
263. Therapeutic Vaccines - Answer (click here)
264. Pharmaceutical Aspects of Vaccines - Answer (click here)
265. Dispensing Biotechnology Products: Handling, Professional Education,
and Product Information - Answer (click here)
266. Pharmacist Reluctance - Answer (click here)
267. Types of Information Needed by Pharmacists - Pharmacist Reluctance -
Answer (click here)
268. Sources of Information for Pharmacists - Answer (click here)
269. The Pharmacist and Handling of Biotech Drugs - Answer (click here)
270. Temperature Requirements - Pharmacist Reluctance - Answer (click here)
271. Storage in Dosing and Administration Devices - Pharmacist Reluctance -
Answer (click here)
272. Storage in IV Solutions and Light Protection - Pharmacist Reluctance -
Answer (click here)
273. Mixing and Shaking - Pharmacist Reluctance - Answer (click here)
274. Travel Requirements - Pharmacist Reluctance - Answer (click here)
275. Preparation of Biotechnology Products - Answer (click here)
276. Administration of Biotechnology Products - Answer (click here)
277. Biogenerics - A Future Consideration? - Answer (click here)
278. Outpatient/Home Care Issues of Biotechnology Products - Answer (click
here)
279. Economic Considerations in Medical Biotechnology - Answer (click here)
280. The Value of a New Medical Technology - Answer (click here)
281. An Overview of Economic Analysis for New Technologies - Answer (click
here)
282. Regulatory Issues and Drug Product Approval for Biopharmaceuticals -
Answer (click here)
283. Background Regulatory Issues for Biopharmaceuticals - Answer (click here)
284. Biosimilar and Follow-On Biologics - Answer (click here)
285. Regulatory Routes - Biopharmaceuticals - Answer (click here)