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Desisnation : A123tAr 23M - oe

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Standard Specification for
Tinc (Hot-Dip Galvanized) Coatings on lron and Steel
Productsl
This stnndard is i.ssuctl tlndcr tlte lixccl designution All-l/Al23lr'l: the number imntediately following the dcsignation indicates the year
of original adoption or. in thc- casc' of rcvisiott. thc -r'c'ar of last rcvision. A nurnbcr in parcntheses indicates the year of last reappro\.a1.
A superscript epsilon (et indicates arr editorial change since tlre last revision or reappror.al.

Tlris standurtl lras beatr qtprttvcd .irtr rl.sc Dr' oet'trr:ic.s oJ' the Depurtnrcnt o.f De.fense.

1. Scope* inspection method as appropriate. In the case of orders in SI


l.l This specification covers the requirements for zinc units, such shall be stated to the galvanizer when the order is
coating (galvanizing) by the hot-dip process on iron and steel placed.
products made from rolled pressed and fbrged shapes, castings,
plates, bars, and strips.
2. Referenced Documents
1.2 This specification covers both unfabricated products and 2.1 ASTM Standards:2
fabricated products, fbr example, assernbled steel products, A47lA17M Speci{icittion t<rr Ferritic Malleable lron Cast-
structural steel fabrications, large tubes already bent or welded ings
before galvanizing, and wire work fabricated from uncoated A90/A90M Test Method for Weight [Mass] of Coating on
steel wire. This specification also covers steel forgings and iron Iron and Steel Articles with Zinc or Zinc-Alloy Coatings
castings incorporated into pieces fabricated before galvanizing Al43/ Al43M Practice fbr Sat'eguarding Against Ernbrittle-
or which are too large to be centrifuged (or otherwise handled rnent o1'Hot-Dip Calvanizecl Structural Steel Products and
to remove excess galvanizing bath rnetal). Procedure for Detecting Enrbrittlement
Al53/Al53M Specilication tbr Zinc Coaring (Hor-Dip) on
Nore l-This specilication covers those products previously addressed
lron and Steel Hardware
in Specifications Al23-78 and 4386-78.
A'384/A384M Practice for Safeguarding Againsr War-page
1.3 This specification does not apply to wire, pipe, tube, or and Distortion During HorDip Galvanizing of Steel As-
steel sheet which is galvanized on specialized or continuous sernblies
lines, or to steel less than 22 gage (0.0299 in.) [0.76 mm] thick. A385 Practice tbr Providing High-Quality Zinc Coatings
1.4 The galvanizing of hardrvare items that are to be (Hot-Dip)
centrifuged or otherwise handled to remove excess zinc (such 4767/A767M Speci{ication fbr Zinc-Coatecl (Galvanized)
as bolts and similar threaded fasteners. castings and rolled, Stcel Bars tor Concrete Reinlorcement
pressed and forged items) shall be in accordance with Speci- 4'780 Practice for Repair of Damaged and Uncoated Areas
fication Al53/Al53M. of Hot-Dip Galvanized Coatings
1.5 Fabricated reinforcing steel bar assemblies are covered 4902 Tenninology Relating to Metallic Coated Steel Prod-
by the present specification. The galvanizing of separate ucts
reinforcing steel bars shall be in accordance with Specification 86 Specification for Zinc
A^767 /A767M. 8487 Test Method fbr Measurement of Metal and Oxide
1.6 This specification is applicable to orders in either Coating Thickness by Microscopical Examination of Cross
inch-pound units (as Al23) or SI units (as Al23M). Inch- Section
pound units and SI units are not necessarily exact equivalents. 8602 Test Method for Attribute Sampling of Metallic and
Within the text of this specification and where appropriate, SI Inorganic Coatings
units are shown in parentheses. Each system shall be used 8960 Specification for Prirne Western Grade-Recycled
independently of the other without combining values in any (PWG-R) Zinc
way. In the case of orders in SI units, all testing and inspection F376 Practice for Measuring Coating Thickness by
shall be done using the metric equivalent of the test or Magnetic-Field or Eddy-Cuffent (Electromagnetic) Exanri-
nation Methods
I
This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A05 on
Metallic-coated Iron and Steel Products and is the direct responsibility of
Subcommittee A0-5.13 on Structural Shapes and Hardware Specifications. 2
For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or
Current edition approved May l, 2009. Published May 2009. Originally contact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTM
approved in 1928. Last previous edition approved in 2008 as Al23lAl23M - 08. Standards volume information, refer to the standard's Document Summary page on
DOI: I 0. I 5201 AOl23 _A0 I 23M-09. the ASTM website.

*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard.


Copyright @ ASTM lnternational, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

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{[lP A12stA123M - oe
3. TerminologY (See F ig. I) "black" does not ret-er to the ccllor or condil.ion clf surface. or to
a sud-ace deposit or contamination.
3.I DeJiltititttts:
.l The follorving terms and clefinitions are specific to this 3.2.3 c'oating rhir:krtess gratle. rr-the numerical value trorti
3.1
specification. Terminology A902 contains other ternrs and T:rblc I at the intersection of a material category ancl a
thickness range.
definitions relatin-e to nrctallic-coated steel products.
3.2 De.ftnitiott:; ofTenns Specific to This Stundanl: 3.2.4 s inc I u.ri on s, rr-the iron/zi nc interllletallics
gr?.,.r.r dros

3.2.1 arerage t:otttittg tltickness, rl-the average of three present in a galvanized coating in a tbrm other than linely
specimen coating thicknesses. dispersed pirnples.
3.2.2 black. crlj-denotes the condition of not galvanized or 3.2.4.1 Discassion-These inclusions would create an ex-
otherwise coated. For purposes of this specification the word if they were removed frortt the coating. These
posed steel spot

Multisoecimen Articles
Articles whose Surface Area is greater than 160 sq.in. (100,000 sq. mm)

3 Test Articles
each composed of
3 Specimens

""ffi Each Specimen (5 or more measurements widely


dispersed) must have Minimum Average Coating
Thickness of (Table 1) -1 grade
EachTest Article in the Sample (3 Specimens each) must
Specimen have Minimum Average Coating Thickness of (Table 1)

Single-specimen Articles
Articles whose Surface Area is equalto or less than 160 sq.in. (100,000 sq. mm)

3 Test Articles
)samnre 3 Specimens

Each Specimen (5 or more measurements widely dispersed) must


have Minimum Average Coating Thickness of (Table 1) -1 grade
All Test Articles (Specimens) Together must have Minumum
Average Coating Thickness of (Table 1)
FlG. I Single- and Multi-Specimen Articles

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TABLE 1 Minimum Average Coating Thickness Grade by Material Category
All Specimens Tested
Material Category Steel Thickness Range (Measured), in. (mm)
<1,i0 (<1.6) l/'ra lo <1/e (1.6 to <3.2) 1/a lo 3/ta (3.2 to 4.8) >3zio to <1/t (>4.8 to <6.4) -\/a (-6.4)
Structural Shapes and Plate 45 65 75 85 100
Strip and Bar 45 65 75 85 100
Pipe and Tubing 45 45 75 75 75
Wire 35 50 60 65 80
Reinforcing Bar 100

inclusions are raised surf:tces and are easily knocked oll containing more than one material category or steel thickness
through contact with litiing straps or chaitrs, tools, fixtures, or range as delineated in 'lhble l, that article will contain more
other galvanized parts. than one specimen, as appropriate (see Fig. l).
3.2.5 ntcueriul r:ategor)', 11-1hs general class or type of 3.2.10 specimen coatirtg thickness, rr-the average thick-
material or process of ntaurutitcture. or both, that nominally ness from no less than five test measurements on a specirnen,
describes a unit of product, or fiom rvhich a unit of product is when each measurelnent location is selected to provide the
rnade. For example, bar grating belongs to the category "strip," widest dispersion (in all applicable directions) of locations for
handrail belongs to the category "pipe," etc. the steel category of the test article within the confines of the
3.2.6 rnulti-specinrcn urticle, rt-ir unit of product whose specimen volume.
surface area is greater than 160 in.21100000 mrn2l. For 3.2.11 test article, tt-an individual unit of product that is a
thickness testing puryoses, articles rvhose surface area is member of the sample and that is examined for confomrance to
greater than 160 in.2 are subdivided into three continuous local a part of this specification.
sections, nominally equal in surfuce ilrea, each of which
constitutes a specimen. In the case of any such local section 4. Ordering Information
containing more than one material category or steel thickness 4.1 Orders for coatings provided under this specification
range as delineated in ?rble l, that section will contain more shall include the fbllowing:
than one specimen (see Fig. l). 4.1.1 Quantity (number of pieces to be galvanized) and total
3.2.7 .sample, n-a collection of individual units of product weight.
from a single lot selected in accordance with Section 7, and 4.1.2 Description (type and size of products) and weight.
intended to represent that lot for acceptance. If a sample is 4.1.3 ASTM specilication designation and year of issue.
taken as representing the lot for acceptance, the sarnple shall be 4.1.4 Material identification (see 5.1) and surface condition
taken at random from the lot without regard to the perceived or contamination.
quality or appearance of any individual unit in the lot being 4.1.5 Sampling plan, if different from 7.3.
sampled. The sample consists of one or more test articles. 4.1.6 Special test requirements (see 8.1).
3.2.8 single-specinten qrticle, n-tr unit of product whose 4.1.7 Special requirements (special stacking, heavier coat-
surface area is equal to or less than 160 in.2 tl00 000 mm2] or ing weight, etc.).
that is centrifuged or otherwise similarly handled in the 4.1.8 Tagging or piece identification method.
galvanizing process to remove excess galvanizing bath metal
(free zinc). For thickness testing purposes, the entire surface 5. Materials and Manufacture
area of each unit of product constitutes a specimen. In the case
5.1 Steel or lron---The specification, grade, or designation
of any such article containing more than one material category and type and degree of surface contamination of the iron or
or steel thickness range as delineated in Table l, that article steel in articles to be galvanized shall be supplied by the
will contain more than one specimen (see Fig. l). purchaser to the hordip gahanizer prior to galvanizing.
3.2.9 specimen, n-the surface of an individual test article
or a portion of a test article, upon which thickness measure- Nore 2-The presence in steels and weld metal, in certain percentages,
ments are to be performed, which is a member of a lot, or a of some elements such as silicon, carbon, and phosphorus tends to
accelerate the growth of the zinc-iron alloy layer so that the coating may
member of a sample representing that lot. For magnetic have a matte finish with little or no outer zinc layer. The galvanizer has
thickness measurements, specimen excludes any area of the only limited control over this condition. The mass, shape, and amount of
surface which is subject to processes (such as flame cutting, cold working of the product being galvanized may also affect this
machining, threading, etc.) that can be expected to result in condition. Practice A3E-5 provides guidance on steel selection and dis-
surface conditions not representative of the general surface cusses the effects of various elements in steel compositions (for example,
condition of the test article, or is disqualified by the measure- silicon), that influence coating weight and appearance.
ment method. The minimum average coating thickness grade 5.2 Fabrication---The design and fabrication of the product
for any specimen shall be one coating grade below that to be galvanized are the responsibilities of the designer and the
required for the appropriate material category and thickness in fabricator. Practices Al43lAl43M, A384/A384M, and ,4385
Table l. For a unit of product whose surface area is equal to or provide guidance for steel fabrication for optimum hot dip
less than 160 in.2
tl00 000 **'1, the entire surface area of galvanizing and shall be complied with in both design and
each test article constitutes a specimen. In the case of an article fabrication. Consultation between the designer, fabricator, and

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galvarrizer at appropriate stages in the design and fabrication


processrvill recluce future problerns.
5.3 Custirtgs-The cornposition and heat treatment of iron
and stecl castings shall confonn to specifications designated by
the purchaser. Sorne types of castings have been known to
show potential problems with predisposition to being em-
brittled during the normal thermal cycle of hot-clip _ualvanizing.
It is the responsibility of the purchaser to heat treat or
otherwise allorv for the possibility of such ernbrittling phenorn-
ena. The requirements for malleable iron castings to be
galvaniz.ed shall be as stated in Specification A47/A47M.
5.4 Zinc-The zinc used in the galvanizing bath shall N<r'rr, l-Each specirnen colnprises nonrinall\' ()ne thircl ol the total
conform to Specification 86, or Specification 8960, or both. If surfhce area of the article. A rninirtturn of five nreasrrrcnlents should be
a zirrc alloy is used as the primary feed to the galvanizing bath, rnacle u'ithin the volurne of each spccinren. as rvidely clispcrsed u'ithin that
then the base material used to make that alloy shall confonn to volunte as is practical. so as to reprcsent as much as possible. the general
Specification 86, or Specification 8960, or both. coating thickncss within that specirnen volunte.
5.5 Bath Contposition-The molten metal in the working FlG. 2 Articles Made of Many Components
volume of the galvanizing bath shall contain not less than an
average value of 98.0 7o zinc by weight. spccinren delineation steps. and [:ig. -1 is a graphic representa-
Nore 3-The galvanizer may choose to add trace amounts of certain tion of the coating thickrress inspection steps.)
elenrents (fbr example, alunrinum, nickel, and tin) to the zinc bath to help 6.1.1 For articles whose surfirce area is greater than 160
in the processing of certain reactive steels or to enhance the cosmetic in.2 Jl00 000 mnr21 (rnulti-specimen articlcs), each test article
appcarance of the tinished product. The use of these trace elements is in the sample must rneet the appropriate minimum average
permitted provided that the bulk chemistry of the galvanizing bath is at
coating thickness grade requirenrents of Table l. and each
least 98.0 7c zinc by weight. The elements can be added to the galvanizing
bath as parr of a pre-alloyed zinc feed, or they can be added to the bath by
specimen coating thickness grade comprising that overall
the galvanizer using a nlaster feed alloy. average tbr each test article shall average not less than one
coating grade bclow that reqlrired in ?rblc l.
6. Coating Properties 6.1.2 Forarticles whose surface area is equal to or less than
6.1 Coating Thickness-The average thickness of coating 160 in.2 [00 000 mnr21 (single-specimen articles), the average
for all specirnens tested shall conform to the requirements of of all test articles in the sample rnust meet the appropriate
Tirble I for the categories and thicknesses of the material being minimum average coating thickness grade requirements of
gah,anized. Minimum average thickness of coating for any Tirble I, and for each test article. its specirnen coating thickness
individual specimen is one coating grade less than that required shall be not less than one coating grade belorv that required in
in Table l. Where products consisting of various material ?rble l.
thicknesses or categories are galvanized, the coating thickness 6.1.3 No individual measurernent, or cluster of measure-
grades for each thickness range and material category of ments at the same general location, on a test specimen shall be
material shall be as shown in Table t. In the case of orders in cause for rejection under the coating thickness requirements of
SI units, the values in Table l, shall be applicable as metric this specification provided that when those measurements are
units in micrometres. In the case of orders in inch-pound units, averaged with the other dispersed measurements to determine
the measured value shall be converted to coating grade units by the specimen coating thickness grade for that specimen, the
the use of Table 2. The specification of coating thicknesses requirements of 6.1. I or 6.1.2, as appropriate are met.
heavier than those required by Table I shall be subject to NorE 4-The coating thickness grades in Table I represent the mini-
mutual agreement between the galvanizer and the purchaser. mum value obtainable with a high level of confidence for the ranges
(FiS. 2 is a graphic representation of the sampling and typically found in each material category. While most coating thicknesses

TABLE 2 Goating Thickness GradeA


Coating glm"
ozltl2 pm
Grade
35 1.4 0.8 35 245
45 1.8 1.0 45 320
50 2.0 1.2 50 355
55 2.2 1.3 55 390
60 2.4 1.4 60 425
65 2.6 1.5 65 460
75 3.0 1.7 75 530
80 3.1 1.9 80 s6s
85 3.3 2.O 85 600
100 3.9 2.3 100 705

'The valu€s in mlcromelr€s (Im) ar€ bas€d on lhe Coallng Grade. The olher values are based on conversions using lhe lollowing formulas: mils - Um x 0,03937;
ozft2 = ym x 0.023'16; g/m 2 =pm x 7.067.

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Select Test Articles
at the galvanizing kettle rvill perrnit. Except for local excess
According to Sampling coatin-e thickness which rvould intedere with the use of the
Plan product, or make it dangerous to handle (edge tears or spikes),
rejection for nonuniform coating shall be made only for plainly
visible excess coating not related to design factors such as
holes, joints, or special drainage problerns (see Note 6). Since
surface srnoothness is a relative term, minor roughness that
does not interf'ere with the intended use of the product, or
Single Material roughness that is related to the as-received (un-galvanized)
surface condition, steel chemistry, or steel reactivity to zinc
shall not be grounds for rejection (see Note 7). Surface
conditions related to deficiencies related to design, detailing, or
fabrication as addressed by Practice A385 shall not be grounds
for rejection. The zinc coating on threaded components of
articles galvanized under this specification shall conform to
Article Surlace that required in Specification A 153/,4. 153M. Surfaces that
Area > 160 in2 or remain uncoated after galvanizing shall be renovated in accor-
100,000 mm2 dance with the methods in Practice A7tt0 unless directed by the
purchaser to leave the uncoated areas untreated for subsequent
renovation by the purchaser.
6.2.1 Each area subject to renovation shall be I in. [25 mm]
or less in its narowest dimension.
Subdivide Each Test Test Each Specimen
6.2.2 The total area subject to renovation on each article
Article into Three for Compliance with
Specimen Section 6.1 shall be no more than Vz of I % of the accessible surface area
to be coated on that article, or 36 in.2 per short ton [256 cm2 per
metric tonl of piece weight, whichever is less.
NorE 5-lnaccessible surface areas are those which cannot be reached
for appropriate surface preparation and application of repair materials as
Avg. ol All described in Practice A780. Such inaccessible areas, for example, would
Each Specimen
Specimen be the internal surfaces of certain tanks, poles, pipes, tubes, and so forth.
Avg. Complies
Complies with
with Section 6.1
Section 6.1 6.2.3 The thickness of renovation shall be that required by
the thickness grade for the appropriate material category and
thickness range in Table I in accordance with the requirements
of 6.1, except that for renovation using zinc paints, the
thickness of renovation shall be 50 Vo higher than that required
by Table l, but not greater than 4.0 mils.
6.2.4 When areas requiring renovation exceed the criteria
previously provided, or are inaccessible for repair, the coating
FlG. 3 Coating Thickness lnspection Steps shall be rejected.
Nore 6-The requirements for the finish of a galvanized product
address themselves to a visual type of inspection. They do not address the
will be in excess of those values, some materials in each category may be
(for example, because of chemistry or surface condition) than
matter of measured coating thickness variations that can be encountered
less reactive
because of different steels or different thicknesses of a given steel being
other materials of the steel category spectrum. Therefore, some articles
used in an assembly.
may have a coating grade at or close to the minimum requirement shown
in Table l. [n such cases, the precision and accuracy of the coating Nore 7-[tems which are prepared for galvanizing by abrasive clean-
thickness measuring technique should be taken into consideration when ing will generally develop a thicker coating with a moderately rougher
rcjecting such articles for coating thickness below that required by this surface.
specification. Purchasers desiring a guarantee ofheavier coatings than the
minimum thicknesses shown herein should use the special requirements
6.3 Threaded Components in Assemblies- The zinc coating
(see 4.1.6) to specify coating thickness grades higher than those shown in on external threads shall not be subjected to a cutting, rolling,
Table l. In addition, the purchaser should anticipate the need for test or finishing tool operation, unless specifically authorized by the
batches or extra preparation steps, or both, such as blasting before purchaser. Internal threads are not prohibited from being
galvanizing or other methods, to attempt to reach the higher requirements tapped or retapped after galvanizing. Coatings shall conform to
with consistency. Some higher-than-standard thicknesses may be imprac- the requirements of Specification Al53/A153M.
tical or unattainable.
6.4 Appearance-Upon shipment from the galvanizing fa-
6.2 Finisft-The coating shall be continuous (except as cility, galvanized articles shall be free from uncoated areas,
provided below), and as reasonably smooth and uniform in blisters, flux deposits, and gross dross inclusions. Lumps,
thickness as the weight, size, shape of the item, and necessary projections, globules, or heavy deposits of zinc which will
handling of the item during the dipping and draining operations interfere with the intended use of the material will not be

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perrnitted. Plain holes of t/z-in. [ 2.5-mm] diarrreter or ltlore 8. Test Nlethods
shall be clean and reasonably ftee fiom excess zinc. Marks in 8.1 Test Requirentetts-The fbllowing tests shlll be con-
the zinc coatin_e caused by tongs or other items used in ducted to ensure that the zinc coating is being l'urnished in
handling the article during the galvanizing operation shall not accordance u,ith this specilicution. The specifying ol'tests f'or
be cause for rejection unless such marks have exposed the base adhesion ancl ernbrittlenrent shall be sLrbject to nrutuul asrL'e-
tnetal and tlre bare ruetal areas excced allowable ntaximums lttent bctrvecn the galvanizcr and purchaser. Visual inspection
ftorn (r.2.1 and 6.'2.2. The pieces shall be handled so that afier of the coating shall be rnude filr cornpliance rvith the' require-
galvanizing they will not freeze together on cooling. mettts.

8*Depending upon product design or material thickncss. or


Nt-rrr,
tt.l Tlicktte.ss tt'Coutirtg Test-The thickness of coatin_u is
both, lilniing or excess zinc buildup in plain holes of less than lz!-in. cleterminecl by one ()r nlore ol'the three nrethods describecl as
[2.5-rnm] dianreter ntay occur that requires additional work to nrakc the firllows.
holes usable as intended. 8.2. I Mugnelit' Tltickrrc.ss Meusurerrrcnts-The thickness ol'
the coating shall be deterrnined by rnagnetic thickness gage
6.5 Adherss;s-lfie zinc coating shall withstand handling
rneasLlrernents in accordance 'uvith Practice F376 unless the
consistent with the nature and thickness of the coating and the
mel.hods describecl in li.l.l. S.2.,1, or |i.2.4 are used. For each
nonnal use of the afticle, without peeling or flaking.
specimen (as described in 3.2.9) live or more lneasurenrents
Norn 9-Although some nraterial nray be forrned after galvaniz.ing, in shall be made at points widely dispersed throushout the
general the zinc coating on the articles covered by this specification is tocr t,olume occupied by the specinren so as to represent as much as
heavy to permit severe bending without dantaging the coating. practical. the entire surllce area of the test specinren. The
average of thc- five or nlore nleasurernents thus rnade fbr cach
7. Sampling specirnen is the specinren coatin-e thickness.
7.1 Sampling of each lot shall be performed for conform- 8.2.1.1 For articles rvhosc surface arca is greater than 160
ance with the requirements of this specification. in.2 [100000 rnm2] (multi-specinren articles as clescribecl in
7 .2 A lot is a unit of production or shipment from which a
3.2.6), the avcrage of the three specinlen coating thickness
grades comprising each tcst article is the average coating
sample is taken for testing. Unless otherwise agreed upon
thickness tor that test articlc. A specimen must be evaluated tbr
between the galvanizer and the purchaser, or established within
each steel category and material thickness within the require-
this specification, the lot shall be as follows: For testing at a
nrents for each specimen of the test article.
galvanizer's facility, a lot is one or more articles of the same
type and size comprising a single order or a single delivery 8.2.1.2 For articles whose surf'ace area is equal to or less
load, whichever is the smaller, or any number of articles than 160 in.2 [ 100 000 rnm21 (single-specirnen articles AS
identified as a lot by the galvanizer, when these have been described in 3.2.8). the avera-qe of all specimen coating
galvanized within a single production shift and in the same thickness grades is the average coating thickness for the
sample.
bath. For test by the purchaser after delivery, the lot consists of
the single order or the single delivery load, whichever is the 8.2.1.3 In the case of threaded colnponents, the thickness of
smaller, unless the lot identity, established in accordance with coating shall be made on a portion of the article that does not
include any threads.
the above, is maintained and clearly indicated in the shipment
by the galvanizer. 8.2.1.4 The use of magnetic measurcment methods is np-
propriate for larger articles, and is appropriate for smaller
7.3 The method of selection and number of test specimens
articles when there is suflicient flat surface area for the probe
shall be agreed upon between the galvanizer and the purchaser.
tip to sit flat on the surface using Practice 8316.
Otherwise, the test specimens shall be selected at random from
8.2.2 Stripping Method-The average weight of coating
each lot. In this case, the minimum number of specimens from
shall be determined by stripping a test article, a specimen
each lot shall be as follows:
removed from a test article, or group of test articles in the case
Number of Pieces in Lot Number of Specimens
of very small items such as nails, etc., in accordance with Test
3 or less all Method A90/A90M unless the methods described in 8.2.1,
4 to 500 3 8.2.3, or 8.2.4 are used. The weight of coating per unit area
501 to 1 200 5
1 201 to 3 200 I thus determined is converted to equivalent coating thickness
3201 to 10 000 13 values in accordance with Table 2 (rounding up or down as
10 001 and over 20 appropriate). The thickness of coating thus obtained is the test
Nore l0-Where a number of identical items are to be galvanized, a article coating thickness, or in the case of a specimen removed
statistical sampling plan may be desired. Such a plan is contained in Test from a test article, is the specimen average coating thickness.
Method 8602 which addresses sampling procedures for the inspection of 8.2.2.1 The stripping method is a destructive test and is
electrodeposited metallic coatings and related finishes. If Test Method appropriate for single specimen articles, but is not practical for
8602 is used, the level of sampling shall be agreed upon between the multi-specimen articles.
galvanizer and the purchaser at the time the coating order is placed.
8.2.3 Weighing Before and After Galvanizing-The average
7.4 A test specimen which fails to conform to a requirement weight of coating shall be determined by weighing articles
of this specification shall not be used to determine the before and after galvanizing, subtracting the first weight from
conformance to other requirements. the second and dividing the result by the surface area unless the

24
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ntethc;cls describecl in ti.l 1.8,1.1. or ii.2.-l are used. The first tending to ren'ro\re a portiorl of the coating. The adhesion shall
rveight sltall be dL'terlninecl atier pickling and drying and the be considered inadequate if the coating flakes off in the fbnn of
second after cooling to arnbient temperature. The rveight of a layer of the coating so as to expose the base metal in advance
coating per unit area thus determined is converted to equivalent of the knife point. Do not use testing carried out at edges or
coating thickness vitlues according to Table 2 (rounding up or corners (points of lowest coating adhesion) to determine
dorvn as appropriate). The thickness of coating thus obtained is aclhesion of the coating. Likewise, do not use removal of small
the test article coating thickness. particles ol' the coating by paring or whittling to determine
8.2.3.1 The rveighing befbre and after method is appropriate failure.
for single-specirnen articles, but is not practical for multi- 8.4 Enfut'i771g171s177-Test for embrittlement shall be made in
specimen articles. accordance with Practice Al43/Al43M. These tests shall nor
be required unless strong evidence of embrittlement is present.
Nore I l-Both the stripping method and the weighing beftrre and after
rnethod do not take into account the rveight of iron reacted from the article
that is incorporated into the coating. Thus, the methods may underestimate
9. Inspection, Rejection, and Retest
coating weight (and therefbrc the calculated thickness) by up to l0 c/c.The 9.1 Inspectiott by the Gult,trnizer'-It is the responsibility of
accuracy of both lnethods rvill be influenced by the accuracy to which the the galvanizer to ensure compliance with this specification.
surface area of the articles tested can be determined.
This shall be achieved by an in-plant inspection program
8.2.4 Microscopt-The thickness of coating shall be deter- designed to maintain the coating thickness, finish, and appear-
mined by cross-sectional and optical measurement in accor- ance within the requirements of this specification unless the
dance rvith Test Method B4tt7 unless the methods described in inspection is perfbrmed in accordance with 9.2.
tt.2.l. ti.2.2, or [t.2.3 are used. The thickness thus determined is 9.2 Inspection Bv the Purclmset'-The purchaser shall ac-
a point value. No less than five such measurements shall be cept or reject material by inspection either through the galva-
made at locations on the test article which are as widely nizer's inspector, the purchaser's inspector, or an independent
dispersed as practical, so as to be representative of the whole inspector. The inspector representing the purchaser shall have
surface of the test article. The average of no less than five such access at all tirnes to those areas of the galvanizer's facility
measurements is the specimen coating thickness. which concern the application of the zinc coating to the
8.2.4.1 The microscopy method is a destructive test and is material ordered while work on the contract of the purchaser is
appropriate for single-specimen articles, but is not practical for being performed. The galvanizer shall afford the inspector all
multi-specimen articles. reasonable facilities to satisfy him that the zinc coating is being
8.2.5 Referce Method-In the event of a dispute over furnished in accordance with this specification.
thickness of coating measurements, the dispute shall be re- 9.3 Location-The material shall be inspected at the galva-
solved as tbllows: nizer's plant prior to shipment. However, by agreement the
8.2.5.1 For multi-specimen articles, a new sample shall be purchaser is not prohibited from making tests which govern the
taken randomly from the lot of material, which has twice the acceptance or rejection of the materials in his own laboratory
number of test articles as the sample which failed to conform or elsewhere.
to this specification. If the lot size is such that the sample size 9.4 Reinspectio,l-When inspection of materials to deter-
cannot be doubled, then the sample size shall be as previous, mine conformity with the visual requirements of 6.2 warrants
but the number of widely dispersed sites at which measure- rejection of a lot, the galvanizer is not prohibited from sorting
ments were made shall be doubled, and these sites will the lot and submit it once again for acceptance after he has
constitute the new sample. This new sample shall be measured removed any nonconforming articles and replaced them with
using magnetic thickness gages which have been calibrated for conforming articles.
accuracy against reference material thickness standards. If the 9.5 The sampling plan that was used when the lot was first
lot is found to be nonconforming by the new sample, the inspected shall be used for resampling of a sorted lot. By
galvanizer has the right to sort the lot for conforming articles mutual agreement, the galvanizer is not prohibited from
by individual test, to re-galv anize non-conforming articles, or submitting the lot remaining after sorting and removing non-
to renovate the nonconforming articles in accordance with 6.2. conforming articles without replacement of the nonconforming
8.2.5.2 For single-specimen articles, a new sample shall be articles. In such case, the now-smaller lot shall be treated as a
taken randomly from the lot of material, which has twice the new lot for purposes of inspection and acceptance.
number of test articles as the sample which failed to conform 9.6 Materials that have been rejected for reasons other than
to this specification. The test method for the new sample shall embrittlement are not prohibited from being stripped and
be selected by mutual agreement between the purchaser and regalvanized and again submitted for inspection and test at
galvanizer. If the lot is found to be nonconforming by the new which time they shall conform to the requirements of this
sample, the galvanizer has the right to sort the lot for specification.
conforming articles by individual test, to re-galvanize non-
conforming articles, or to renovate the nonconforming articles 10. Certification
tn accordance with 6.2. 10.1 When specified in the purchase order or contract, the
8.3 Adhesion-Determine adhesion of the zinc coating to purchaser shall be furnished certification that samples repre-
the surface of the base metal by cutting or prying with the point senting each lot have been either tested or inspected as directed
of a stout knife, applied with considerable prrtru.. in a manner by this specification and the requirements have been met.
.4flP ll.2stA12sM - oe
when specified in the purchase order or contract, a report of
the test results shall be furnished.

11. Keywords
I l.l coatings-zinc; galvanized coatings; steel products-
metallic coated; zinc coatings-steel products

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

Committee A05 has identified the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issue
(AL23lAl23M - 08) thar may impact the use of this standard. (May l, 2009)

(/) Revised 5.4 to add new zinc standard 8960.

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in this standard' Users of this standard are expressty advised that determination
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