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2013 HSC Examination

Mathematics Extension 1
SOLUTIONS
Written by Carrotsticks.
Multiple Choice
1. C 6. B
2. D 7. A
3. C 8. D
4. D 9. B
5. A 10. C

Brief Explanations

Question 1 By the Factor Theorem, P  2   0 .

Question 2 Draw y  x and the answer is clearly (D) by symmetry about y  x .

Question 3 The reflex AOC is double ABC .

Re-arrange the polynomial to get P  x    x  x  1  x  3 .


3 2
Question 4

Question 5 Standard substitution problem.

Question 6 Standard general solution problem.

Question 7 Group the two and arrange in a circle, so 6!, but they swap, so 2!.

Question 8 Construct a 5-12-13 right angled triangle and use sin 2  2 sin  cos  .

Question 9 Standard inverse trigonometry sketching.

Question 10 Work out the cases being x  2 , 2  x  3 and x  3 to find that the
required result is 2  x  3 . Only (C) satisfies this.

–1–
Written Response
Question 11 (a)

7
Standard product of roots, so using that we have 
2

Question 11 (b)

1 1  2 x 
sin    C
2  7 

Question 11 (c)

1 3
Binomial probability scenario, with P  correct   and P  incorrect   .
4 4

10   1   3 
7 3

P  X  7       
 7  4   4 

Question 11 (d) (i)

We differentiate the function first.

4  x2  2x2
f  x 
4  x  2 2

4  x2

4  x 
2 2

Since all terms are squared and f   x   0 , we have f   x   0 .

–2–
Question 11 (d) (ii)

Clearly, there are vertical asymptotes at x  2 .

As x   and x   , we have y  0 and y  0 respectively.

Also note that the function is odd and so it has its x and y intercept at the origin.

Putting the pieces together, along with the fact that it is always increasing, we have
y

x
2

Question 11 (e)

sin 
We make use of the familiar limit lim  1.
x 0 

x  x
sin   sin  
lim  2   lim 21
x 0 3x x 0 x 6
 
2
1

6

–3–
Question 11 (f)

1
u  e3 x  du  3e3 x dx  du  e3 x dx
3

1
x  ue
3
x0  u 1

1  e du
I  2
3 1 u  1
e
1
 tan 1 u
3 1


1
3
 tan 1 e  tan 1 1

1 
  tan 1 e  
3 4

Question 11 (g)

Using the Product Rule, we have

5x2
 x sin 5 x   2 x sin 1 5 x 
d 2 1
dx 1  25 x 2

Question 12 (a) (i)

Comparing the two expressions, we have 2cos x cos   2sin x sin   3 cos x  sin x .

Hence, by equating say cos x and noting that  is acute, we have

2 cos   3
3
cos  
2


6

 
Hence, the required expression is 2 cos  x   .
 6

–4–
Question 12 (a) (ii)

3 cos x  sin x  1
 
2 cos  x    1
 6
  1
cos  x   
 6 2
  5
x  ,
6 3 3
 3
x ,
6 2

Question 12 (b)

We do the usual squaring the function and placing a  in front. As to be expected, we must
1
use the formula sin 2   1  cos 2  to help simplify our integrand.
2
3
2 x
V    9 sin 2   dx
0 2
3
9  2
  1  cos x dx
2 0
3
9   2
  x  sin x 
2  0
9  3 
  1
2  2 
9
  3  2 
4

–5–
Question 12 (c)

As t  , T  A , so A must be the room temperature, which is 22 C .

When t  0, T  80 and when t  10, T  60 .

Subbing in t  0, T  80 , we have

80  22  Be0
B  58

Subbing in t  10, T  60 , we have

60  22  58e 10 k
38  58e 10 k
38
e 10 k 
58
 19 
10k  ln  
 29 
1  19 
k   ln  
10  29 
1  29 
 ln  
10  19 

Now that we have everything, we can work out the time it takes to drop down to 40 C .

 1  29  
40  22  58e  kt ...  where k  ln   
 10  19  
18  58e  kt
9
e  kt 
29
 9 
 kt  ln  
 29 
1  9 
t   ln  
k  29 
 9 
ln  
 10   
29
 29 
ln  
 19 
 28 minutes

–6–
Question 12 (d) (i)

Using the Perpendicular Distance Formula using 2 x  y  1  0 and P  t , t 2  3 we have

2t   t 2  3  1
D t  
5

2t  t 2  4

5
t  2t  4
2

5

Note that the quadratic is positive definite so we can omit the absolute value symbols.

Question 12 (d) (ii)

When P is closest to l, D  t  is minimised, so we find the minimum value using the familiar
b 2 5
expression t   , which yields t   1.
2a 2 5

Question 12 (d) (iii)

We now find the gradient of the tangent when t  1 .

dy dy dt
Using Parametric Differentiation, we have   2t so the gradient is 2 and thus, the
dx dx dt
tangent is parallel to l.

Question 12 (e)

d 1 2
We make use of the familiar formula x   v   n x .
2

dx  2 

v   k  9x2 
1 2 1
2 2
d 1 2
 v   9 x
dx  2 

2 2
Hence we can see that n  3 , from which we deduce that the period is T   .
n 3
–7–
Question 13 (a) (i)

We use the Chain Rule to get

  104 A 
dr dr

dt dV

1
dV dr
 104 A 


1
4 2
 104 A
  104 A 
1
A
 104

And hence it is constant.

Question 13 (a) (ii)

Since the radius reduces at a constant rate of 104 metres per second, all that remains is to
work out the radius of the raindrop, then to find how long it takes for radius to be zero.

4 3
 r  10 6
3
3 6
r3  10
4
3
r  10 2 3
4

So to calculate the time, we place that as a ratio over the rate.

3
10 2 3
T 4
10 4
3
 10 2 3
4
 62 seconds

–8–
Question 13 (b) (i)

Since the division is external, let the ratio be 2 : 1 , so

 2  ap   1 0  2  0    2a  ap 2  
G ,   G  2ap,  2ap  ap 2 
 1 1 
 

Question 13 (b) (ii)

We are now essentially finding the locus of G.

x
x  2ap  p 
2a

y  2a  ap 2
2
 x 
 2 a  a  
 2a 
x2
 2 a 
4a
4ay  8a  x 2
2

x 2  8a 2  4ay
 x 2  4a  2a  y 

And we can see that the focal length is a and its vertex is  0, 2a  .

Since the vertex  0, 2a  , and it is an upside-down parabola, the directrix must be y  a ,
which is the same as the directrix of the original parabola.

Question 13 (c) (i)

For the projectile from A to reach maximum height, we let y  0 .

u sin   gt  0
gt  u sin 
u
t sin 
g

–9–
Question 13 (c) (ii)

Since both particles collide when they reach maximum height, we can equate the times that
they take to reach maximum height.

u w
From (i), we have t A  sin  and similarly, we have t B  sin  , so
g g
u w
sin   sin 
g g
u sin   w sin 

Question 13 (c) (iii)

Since they also collide, we can equate their respective x and y coordinates.

For particle from A:


g 2
x  ut cos  and y  ut sin   t
2

For particle from B:


g 2
x  d  wt cos  , taking the origin to be A, and y  wt sin   t
2

Equating the x coordinates, we have

d  wt cos   ut cos 
d  ut cos   wt cos 
w  u 
 u  sin   cos   w  sin   cos 
g  g 
uw
 sin    
g

We could make the above substitutions since the times are equal, so it does not matter which
one we substitute into which expression.

– 10 –
Question 13 (d)

We construct a common tangent at T and label the tangent XY.

XTQ  QBT ...  Alternate Segment Theorem 


 TAP ...  Alternate angles, QB //PA 
 YTP ...  Alternate Segment Theorem 

Hence, vertically opposite angles are equal and since XY is a straight line, PTQ must also
form a straight line, and the points are thus collinear.

– 11 –
Question 14 (a) (i)

k   k  1  k  k  1
2

LHS 
k  k  1
2

k  k 2  2k  1  k 2  k

k  k  1
2

1

k  k  1
2

0 ...  since k  0 

Question 14 (a) (ii)

Base Case: n  2

1 1 5 1 3
LHS    RHS  2  
12 22 4 2 2

 LHS < RHS

Inductive Hypothesis: n  k , where k  2 .

1 1 1 1 1
2
 2  2  ...  2  2 
1 2 3 k k

Inductive Step: k  k  1 .

1 1 1 1 1 1
Required to prove:  2  2  ...  2   2
 k  1 k 1
2 2
1 2 3 k

1 1
LHS  2   ...  by the Induction Hypothesis 
k  k  1 2
1
 2 ...  from part (i) 
 k  1
2

1
 2 ...  since a larger denominator means a smaller overall value 
k 1
 RHS

Hence, proven by Induction.

– 12 –
Question 14 (b) (i)

 4n 
 
 2n 

Question 14 (b) (ii)

We group terms appropriately, noting that the RHS has  x  2  , which implies we must take
out x.

1  x  2 x   1  x  x  2  
2 2n 2n

n
n
     x  x  2  
2nk

k 0  k 

n
n
    x 2nk  x  2 
2nk

k 0  k 

Question 14 (b) (iii)

First of all, we note that the LHS of (ii) is a perfect square, so it can be expressed as  x  1 .
4n

We must equate the coefficients of x 2n , since the LHS is the coefficient of x 2n from (i).

Firstly, note that there are many ways to acquire x 2n . From the given expression, we can
acquire such a value by letting k  0, 1, 2, ... , n .

 2n 
Also, each term is actually multiplied by   because of the expression in (ii).
 k 

The provided expansion is just for the terms in x.

 2n   2n  2 n 2 n
k 0     2 x
 0  0 

 2n   2n  1  2 n  2 2 n
k 1    2 x
 1  1 

 2n   2n  2  2 n  4 2 n
k 2    2 x
 2  2 

 2n   n  0 2 n
kn     2 x
 n  n
– 13 –
 4n 
From (i), the coefficient of 1  x 
4n
is   and thus we can equate the two coefficients.
 2n 
Doing so, and using sigma notation to express our result, we have the required expression.

 4n  n 2 n  2 k  2n   2n  k 
   2   .
 2n  k  0  k  k 

Question 14 (c) (i)

1 1
Set f  t   et  , so f   t   et  2 .
t t

f  t0 
t1  t0 
f   t0 
1
e 0.5 
 0.5  0.5
1
e 0.5 
0.52
 0.56

Question 14 (c) (ii)

Let the two curves intersect at say x  k .

Since they must share the same y coordinate, we have

ekr  ln k

Since the two curves are tangential, the gradients of their tangents must be equal at their
intersection.

1
re rk 
k
1
e kr 
kr

But note that this looks exactly the same as the expression in (i), so make the substitution
kr  t .

Doing so, we know that t1  0.56 and so kr  t1  0.56 .

t t1
But since ekr  ln k , we have et1  ln k and so k  ee  5.758 . Hence, r   0.097 .
1

k
– 14 –