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Z. Goranova, M. Baeva, S. Stankov, G.

Zsivanovits
Sensory characteristics and textural changes during storage of sponge cake

Sensory Characteristics and Textural Changes


during Storage of Sponge Cake with Functional Ingredients
Z. Goranova1, M. Baeva1, S. Stankov1, G. Zsivanovits2

Abstract. Sensory and textural characteristics of sponge


1
University of Food cake prepared with different functional ingredients
Technologies, Plovdiv, (einkorn wholemeal flour, Jerusalem artichoke powder,
2
Food Research and cocoa husk powder) in replacement of the part of the wheat
Development Institute, flour were investigated during 6 days storage (on the 1st,
Plovdiv the 3rd and the 6th day). Descriptive sensory analysis was
zsivig@yahoo.co.uk used to compare the new and the control sponge cakes. The
functional ingredients did not produce significant changes
in the sensory characteristics of the sponge cakes, except
of crumb’s texture. The texture changes are characterised
Keywords: by elastic modulus, hardness and cutting force. These
sponge cake, parameters of sponge cakes changed differently during the
functional ingredients, storage period. During the 6 days storage period the
textural characteristics, samples with functional ingredients preserved in better
storage, way the elastic modulus in comparison with the control
sensory analysis sample, because they are more reach in fibre. The sponge
cake, containing 20% Jerusalem artichoke powder, keeps
their freshness longer time.

INTRODUCTION The storage stability or the shelf life of


the baked products could be defined as
The texture is one of the main
maintenance the sensory and physical
characteristics of the sponge cakes that can
characteristics associated with the
be affected by the addition of functional
freshness such as crumb tenderness,
ingredients. It can be determined by
compressibility and moistness by
instrumental or sensory methods.
preventing alteration associated with
Instrumental methods offer some
staling during the storage (Baixauli, R.,
advantages over sensory analysis because
Salvador, A., & Fiszman, S. M., 2008).
they are rapid and objective. Sahi & Alava
However, sensory methods are the only
(2003) studied the crumb structure of
ones that make it possible to assess
sponge cakes to evaluate the effect of
consumer acceptance. Consumers expect a
different emulsifiers. Texture profile
product with a soft, spongy, tender crumb,
analysis of cake crumb was performed by
but also a certain degree of resistance, not
Singh, Rosell, Sharma, & Singh, (2003) to
crumbling easily; these characteristics
study the effect of sodium lauryl sulphate.
worsen during the storage and, in general,
Kamel & Rasper (1988) investigated the
consumer rejection of the product occurs
effect on cake crumb firmness of preparing
before any microbiological spoilage makes
reduced-calorie cakes with sorbitol or
it unsuitable for human consumption
polydextrose to replace sugar.

J. Food Physics, 2015/2016, Vol.28-29, pp.70-79.

Copyright© Public Utility Foundation of Food Physics, Hungary


Z. Goranova, M. Baeva, S. Stankov, G. Zsivanovits
Sensory characteristics and textural changes during storage of sponge cake

(Hough, G., Langohr, K., Gomez, G., & network. Instrumental and sensory
Curia, A., 2003). Different methods maybe evaluations on sponge cake textures have
used to determine the sensory been widely performed, but it is important
characteristics of a food product using to establish which tests and probes are
consumer data. more appropriate for describing the
Different flour types have been sensory attributes of texture, thereby
investigated for developing cakes of lower ascertaining which objective test correlates
cost and better quality in terms of in best way with the sensory perception of
consumer acceptance (Karaoglu, M.M. & the texture.
Kotancilar, H.G., 2009). The baking time The objectives of this study are to
and temperature have an impact on the compare the influence of replacing 20%,
morphology and the texture of bread and 35% and 50% of wheat flour with different
on its quality (specific volume, crust functional ingredients on the textural
colour, crust/crumb ratio, crumb firmness characteristics of the sponge cake, freshly
and moisture content). This morphology baked and stored for 6 days, and to assess
affects the kinetics of moisture transfer the sensory characteristics of the fresh
during the aging and, consequently, the sponge cakes.
mechanical properties. Among the
different physical properties, which can be MATERIAL AND METHODS
considered as characterizing the cakes, the
porosity is important not only for the Cake batters preparation
mechanical properties of the crumb but Standard raw materials such as wheat
also for moisture transfer within the flour of type 500 – ash 0.5% (GoodMills,
product. B1aszczak, Sadowska, Fornal, Bulgaria EAD), granulated sugar (Zaharni
and Rosell (2004) found that during the zavodi AD), eggs (local market) used in
staling, the porosity decreased and the the current study are authorized by the
crumb pores became smaller and rounder. Ministry of Health as manufactured in
A static compression mode, such as Bulgaria. The control cake was prepared,
texture profile analysis (Carson & Sun, following a traditional technology and
2001) (determined using a texture formulation (Angelov et al., 1974).
analyzer), firmness (based on force- The batter formulation of the control
deformation), stress relaxation, cake was as follows (based on flour
penetration, and compression tests have weight): egg yolk 43.23%, egg white
provided data about bread crumb 96.77%, refined granulated sugar 83.87%,
mechanical changes associated with the and wheat flour 100%. In particular, a
staling process (Angioloni & Collar, double mixing procedure was applied by
2009). Other aspects related to staling may partitioning whipping of whites and egg
also be considered such as the loss of yolks. Jerusalem artichoke powder (JAP),
resilience. Goasaert, Slade, Levine, and cocoa husk powder (CHP) and einkorn
Delcour (2009) measured the firmness and wholemeal flour (EWF) were added into
resilience of bakery products after 6 days sponge cake flour at different levels 20, 35
of storage using a texturometer and and 50%, by replacing wheat flour,
concluded that an increase in crumb respectively (Table 1, Figure 1).
firmness led to a decrease in crumb Each sponge cakes batter of 95 g was
resilience due to a less flexible gluten poured out into metallic forms and baked

J. Food Physics, 2015/2016, Vol.28-29, pp.70-79.

Copyright© Public Utility Foundation of Food Physics, Hungary


Z. Goranova, M. Baeva, S. Stankov, G. Zsivanovits
Sensory characteristics and textural changes during storage of sponge cake

in an electric oven (Rahovetz - 02, requirements (BSS, 1982). The humidity


Bulgaria) at 180°C for 30 min. The sponge and the temperature were kept constant by
cakes were stored at standard conditions means of a desiccator supplied with
(at temperature of 18°C and 75 % relative psychrometer, and put in a thermostat with
humidity) up to the sixth day from accuracy of ± 0.5°C.
production date according to standard

Table 1: Sponge cake batters formulations

Amount based on:


flour flour mix
weight, /wheat flour and functional
[%] ingredient / weight, [%]
Ingredients
with 20 % with 35 % with 50 %
control Jerusalem cocoa einkorn
sample artichoke husks wholemea
powder powder l flour
Yolk of egg 43.23 43.23 43.23 43.23
White of egg 96.77 96.77 96.77 96.77
Refined granulated
83.87 83.87 83.87 83.87
sugar
Wheat flour type 500 100.00 80.00 65.00 50.00
Functional ingredient - 20.00 35.00 50.00

Figure 1
Technology flowsheet of the sponge cake preparing with functional ingredient

J. Food Physics, 2015/2016, Vol.28-29, pp.70-79.

Copyright© Public Utility Foundation of Food Physics, Hungary


Z. Goranova, M. Baeva, S. Stankov, G. Zsivanovits
Sensory characteristics and textural changes during storage of sponge cake

Sensory characteristics panelists were selected to guarantee the


The descriptive test for a quantitative evaluation accuracy. The intensity of each
sensory profiling was used to establish the sensory characteristic was recorded on a
sensory characteristics (shape, colour, cell ten-point linear scale after 1 h orientation
size and uniformity, odour, sweetness, sessions of the panelists, where they
aftertaste, crumb tenderness) of the sponge specified terminology and anchor points
cakes, 6 h after baking, following the ISO on the scale. The coded samples were
8586:2014 and ISO 13299:2011 methods. shown simultaneously and evaluated in
The sponge cakes samples were ready 1 h random order among the panelists. The
before the evaluation. Samples of different sensory characteristics are shown in Table
cakes were kept in coded plates covered 2.
with aluminium foil. Twelve trained

Table 2: Sensory characteristics and their definitions

Sensory
Sca
characteristic Definition Evaluation method
le
s
Presence of large cracks on the surface 0-3
Visual assessment of surface and
Shape Numerous smaller cracks 3-6
preserved form of sponge cake.
Without cracks, smooth upper surface 6-9

A significant discolouration 0-3


Visual assessment of the colour of
the crust and crumb of sponge
Colour cake (to control crust the colour of Unevenly colour of surface and in the
3-6
the crust is golden brown and the crumb of the cakes
crumb has a light yellow colour) Characteristic colouring of crumb and
6-9
crust
Visible differences in the size and
0-3
distribution of pores
Visual assessment of the size and
Cell size and A small difference in the size and
even distribution of pores in 3-6
uniformity distribution of pores in the crumb
crumb crust sponge cake
Evenly distributed small and uniform in
6-9
size pores
Presence of strong, unusual odour –
0-3
Rating odour during consumption pushy
Odour
of sponge cake Slight uncharacteristic odour 3-6
Characteristic pleasant odour 6-9
Insufficient pronounced sweet taste 0-3
Evaluation of the sweet taste of
Sweetness Moderate sweetness 3-6
sponge cake
Strong sweet taste 6-9
Missing aftertaste or unpleasant taste
0-3
sensation (palatability)
Evaluation of the aftertaste after
Aftertaste Presence of slightly discernible side
consumption of sponge cake 3-6
aftertaste
Strong, unpleasant after taste 6-9
The need to apply more force to
0-3
Evaluation of the applied deformation
Crumb
compressive force required for Applying moderate compression force to
tenderness 3-6
deformation of the crumb deformation
Use less force to deformation 6-9

J. Food Physics, 2015/2016, Vol.28-29, pp.70-79.

Copyright© Public Utility Foundation of Food Physics, Hungary


Z. Goranova, M. Baeva, S. Stankov, G. Zsivanovits
Sensory characteristics and textural changes during storage of sponge cake

Textural characteristics Physico-chemical characteristics


The textural parameters of the sponge For the determination of the sponge
cakes were investigated by texture cake structure, optical photographs were
analyzer Stable Micro Systems XT2Ai taken of the top surface and of the cross
equipped with loading cell 50 kg and sections of the half-cut cake.
specialized software „Texture Exponent“. Determination of dietary fibre
The software allows force calibration and The total, soluble and insoluble dietary
sample height calibration before the fibre content was determined by the
measurements. The instrument works in enzymatic-gravimetric method AOAC
the deformation range 0 - 500 mm (with 985.29, using the total dietary fibre assay
resolution 0.001 mm) and the force range kit TDF 100A (Sigma-Aldrich) and the
0 - 500 N (resolution: 0.001 N, minimal instructions provided by the manufacturer.
measured force: 1 N). Determination of total fat
The sample preparation includes The total fat content was determined
measurement of the sample sizes (length, by the Randall extraction method (ISO
width and height) by digital calliper, 11085:2008).
measurement of the sample weight by
laboratory scales. Data analysis
1. Investigation of the sponge cake Depending on the type of the studied
elasticity: The test was done at low characteristic from 3 to 12 repetitions of
deformation rate 1mm/s till 20% each measurement were done. For the
strain was achieved using a cylinder assessment of the measured results
probe with diameter 50 mm. The accuracy a statistical method with level of
elastic modulus (ε, kPa), defined as significance p ≤ 0.05 was used. The data
the slope of the linear part in the were analyzed and presented as average
stress/strain curve was determined values ± standard deviation.
from this measurement.
2. Determination of the sponge cake RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
hardness by rupture test (imitation of
the biting process). The test was Sensory analysis
done at high deformation rate 5 The results of the sensory analysis
mm/s using a thin cylinder probe suggested that the addition of functional
with diameter 5 mm till 40 mm ingredients in the cake formula interfere
deformation. The stress (σ, kPa) of positively on the product acceptability, in
the rupture point was determined fact the samples with the 50% einkorn
from this test. wholemeal flour showed the highest value
3. Cutting of the sponge cakes. The test of “overall acceptability”. It was observed
was done with a “knife” probe, that the higher crumb tenderness scores for
which is wider and higher than the control resulted an increase in the overall
sizes of the cake. The cutting was liking values. The cakes had similar shape
done till 100% of the sponge cake with an exception for the cake with 35%
height with cutting rate 2 mm/s. The cocoa husks powder (Figure 2). This cake
maximum cutting force (F, N) was had the smallest height, and its surface had
determined. visible cracks (Figure 3).

J. Food Physics, 2015/2016, Vol.28-29, pp.70-79.

Copyright© Public Utility Foundation of Food Physics, Hungary


Z. Goranova, M. Baeva, S. Stankov, G. Zsivanovits
Sensory characteristics and textural changes during storage of sponge cake

Figure 2
Sensory profiles of sucrose-sweetened sponge cakes*
*A scale from 0 to 9 was used to evaluate sensory characteristics. Nine is ideal for the
third sensory characteristic when the cells are small and equal in size.

b) With an
a) Without an c) With an additive d) With an additive
additive of 20 %
additive control of 35 % of cacao of 50 % einkorn
Jerusalem
cake-sample husks powder; wholemeal flour.
artichoke powder;
Figure 3
Photographs of top surface and of cross sections of the fresh

J. Food Physics, 2015/2016, Vol.28-29, pp.70-79.

Copyright© Public Utility Foundation of Food Physics, Hungary


Z. Goranova, M. Baeva, S. Stankov, G. Zsivanovits
Sensory characteristics and textural changes during storage of sponge cake

sucrose-sweetened sponge cakes

The crumb pore cells of the cakes with but when the adding of the functional
35% cocoa husks powder had thicker ingredients is greater and aftertaste was
walls, and they were larger and equal in read.
size (Figure 2 and Figure 3). The cells of
the sponge cake-sample were smaller and Instrumental texture
almost uniformly distributed in the crumb, The elastic modulus (Figure 4) for all
with thinner walls. The cake-samples had the investigated cakes was very similar on
a crust and crumb with more pronounced the first day and increased during the
light-yellow colour due to the presence of storage. The increasing was the smallest
the color components in the yolks of the for the control cake and the highest for the
egg (carotenoids). The colour of the crust sample with 50% einkorn wholemeal
and crumb of the cakes with 35% cocoa flour.
husks powder was brown, of cakes with The hardness (puncture stress) of the
50% einkorn wholemeal flour is light- cakes is shown on Figure 5. The hardness
yellow - light-brown, cakes with 20% of the control cake had a very small
Jerusalem artichoke powder – gray brown decreasing. For sponge cakes containing
(Figure 3). The odour of the cakes with functional ingredients, the hardness
20% Jerusalem artichoke powder was increased during the sixth day storage. The
more strongly expressed and more specific increasing was the highest for the sponge
towards the control sample odour, and was cakes with 20% Jerusalem artichoke
not perceived by the sensory panelists as powder and 50% einkorn wholemeal flour
unpleasant. The intensity of the sweetness and the smallest for cake with 35% cocoa
for all investigated sponge cakes is close, husks powder.

Figure 4
Elastic modulus of sponge cakes during the storage

J. Food Physics, 2015/2016, Vol.28-29, pp.70-79.

Copyright© Public Utility Foundation of Food Physics, Hungary


Z. Goranova, M. Baeva, S. Stankov, G. Zsivanovits
Sensory characteristics and textural changes during storage of sponge cake

Figure 5
Puncture test (hardness) of sponge cakes during the storage

The changes of the cutting force is smaller like on the first day, because they
shown on Figure 6. The cutting force of became to crackly texture.
the control sample showed an increasing The observed differences in the
during the storage. The samples with 35% textural properties of sponge cakes with
cocoa husk powder and 20% Jerusalem functional ingredients are due to their
artichoke powder showed the highest different composition.
cutting force on the 3rd day, and after that

Figure 6
Cutting force pf sponge cakes during the storage

J. Food Physics, 2015/2016, Vol.28-29, pp.70-79.

Copyright© Public Utility Foundation of Food Physics, Hungary


Z. Goranova, M. Baeva, S. Stankov, G. Zsivanovits
Sensory characteristics and textural changes during storage of sponge cake

The sponge cake with 50% einkorn 35% cocoa husk powder causes less
wholemeal flour contains large amounts of elasticity and hardness of the cake crumb
fiber, most of which are insoluble (Table in comparison to the sponge cake with
3). As a result, the cake is characterized by 50% einkorn wholemeal flour.
the highest elasticity and hardness. During The sponge cake with 20% Jerusalem
the storage the elasticity and the hardness artichoke powder contains large amounts
grow fastest. of soluble fibre (Table 3). As a result, the
The sponge cake with 35% cocoa husk elasticity of the cake is retained to the
powder contains the greatest amount of greatest extent during the storage (i.e., the
insoluble fiber and fat (Table 3). Perhaps changes are minimal).
the larger amounts of fat in the cake with

Table 3: Average values of the dietary fiber and of the total fat of the sponge sucrose-
sweetened cake samples without and with functional ingredient (per 100 g product)
Dietary fiber, [%] Total fat, [%]
Type of sponge sucrose-sweetened cake
insoluble soluble total
Control 1.56±0.07 0.45±0.51 2.01±0.58 6.32±0.03
With 20 % Jerusalem artichoke powder 2.24±0.05 1.43±0.58 3.67±0.63 4.06±0.27
With 35 % cacao husks powder 3.97±0.03 0.34±0.39 4.31±0.42 7.03±0.12
With 50 % einkorn wholemeal flour 2.73±0.06 0.48±0.27 3.21±0.33 6.79±0.11

CONCLUSIONS with 35% cocoa husks powder. During the


storage, the smallest change was recorded
The texture is the most important in the cakes containing more dietary fiber
parameter in the product design because – with 35% cocoa husks powder and with
the texture and food matrix are linked to 50% einkorn wholemeal flour.
the micro- and macrostructural The addition of 50% einkorn
composition of foods, which determines wholemeal flour in sponge cake produced
the sensory perception. Any change in the a harder texture: the samples were harder
formulation or processing directly than the others and showed higher elastic
influence the structural composition of the modulus. During the 6 days storage period
foods. The biggest challenge in the food the samples with functional ingredients
manufacturing is to produce food products remained stable elastic modulus not like
with a consistent high quality. The the control sample.
influence of the ingredients on slowing
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J. Food Physics, 2015/2016, Vol.28-29, pp.70-79.

Copyright© Public Utility Foundation of Food Physics, Hungary


Z. Goranova, M. Baeva, S. Stankov, G. Zsivanovits
Sensory characteristics and textural changes during storage of sponge cake

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