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• Earth science is the name for all the sciences that

collectively seek to understand Earth and its


neighbors in space. It includes geology,
oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy.
Geology is traditionally divided into two broad
areas—physical and historical.
Resources are an important environmental concern.
The two broad categories of resources are (1) renewable, which means that they can be
replenished over relatively short time spans, and
(2) nonrenewable. As population grows, the demand for resources expands as well
Resources are an important environmental concern.
The two broad categories of resources are (1) renewable, which means that they can be
replenished over relatively short time spans, and
(2) nonrenewable. As population grows, the demand for resources expands as well.
• All science is based on the assumption that the natural world behaves in a
consistent and predictable manner.

• The process by which scientists gather facts through observation and careful
measurement and formulate scientific hypotheses and theories is called the
scientific method.
• To determine what is occurring in the natural world, scientists often (1)
collect facts, (2) develop a scientific hypothesis, (3) construct experiments
to validate the hypothesis, and (4) accept, modify, or reject the hypothesis
on the basis of extensive testing.
• Other discoveries represent purely theoretical ideas that have stood up to
extensive examination. Still other scientific advancements have been made
when a totally unexpected happening occurred during an experiment.
One of the challenges for those who study Earth is the great variety of space and time
scales. The geologic time scale subdivides the 4.5 billion years of Earth history into
various units.
The nebular hypothesis describes the formation of the solar system. The planets and Sun
began forming about 5 billion years ago from a large cloud of dust and gases.

As the cloud contracted, it began to rotate and assume a disk shape. Material that was
gravitationally pulled toward the center became the protosun.

Within the rotating disk, small centers, called protoplanets, swept up more and more of
the cloud's debris.

Because of their high temperatures and weak gravitational fields, the inner planets were
unable to accumulate and retain many of the lighter components.

Because of the very cold temperatures existing far from the Sun, the large outer planets
consist of huge amounts of lighter materials.
• These gaseous substances account for the comparatively large sizes and low
densities of the outer planets. Earth's physical environment is traditionally divided
into three major parts: the solid Earth or geosphere; the water portion of our
planet, the hydrosphere; and Earth's gaseous envelope, the atmosphere.

• In addition, the biosphere, the totality of life on Earth, interacts with each
of the three physical realms and is an equally integral part of Earth.

• Earth's internal structure is divided into layers based on differences in


chemical composition and on the basis of changes in physical properties.

• Compositionally, Earth is divided into a thin outer crust, a solid rocky mantle,
and a dense core.

• Based on physical properties, the layers of Earth are


• (1) the lithosphere—the cool, rigid outermost layer that averages about 100
kilometers thick,
• (2) the asthenosphere, a relatively weak layer located in the mantle beneath the
lithosphere,
• (3) the more rigid lower mantle, where rocks are very hot and capable of very
gradual flow,
• (4) the liquid outer core, where Earth's magnetic field is generated, and (5) the
solid inner core.
• Two principal divisions of Earth's surface are the continents and ocean
basins.
• A significant difference is their relative levels.
• The elevation differences between continents and ocean basins is
primarily the result of differences in their respective densities and
thicknesses.

The largest features of the continents can be divided


into two categories: mountain belts and the stable
interior.

The ocean floor is divided into three major topographic units: continental
margins, deep-ocean basins, and oceanic ridges
Although each of Earth's four spheres can be studied separately, they are all related in a
complex and continuously interacting whole that we call the Earth system.

Earth system science uses an interdisciplinary approach to integrate the knowledge of


several academic fields in the study of our planet and its global environmental problems.
A system is a group of interacting parts that form a complex whole.

Closed systems are those in which energy moves freely in and out, but matter does not
enter or leave the system.

In an open system, both energy and matter flow into and out of the system.
A system is a group of interacting parts that form a complex whole.
Closed systems are those in which energy moves freely in and out, but matter does not
enter or leave the system.

In an open system, both energy and matter flow into and out of the system.
A mineral is a naturally occurring inorganic solid possessing a definite chemical
structure that gives it a unique set of physical properties.

Most rocks are aggregates composed of two or more minerals.


The building blocks of minerals are elements.

An atom is the smallest particle of matter that still retains the characteristics of an
element.

Each atom has a nucleus containing protons and neutrons. Orbiting the nucleus of an
atom are electrons.

The number of protons in an atom's nucleus determines its atomic number and the name
of the element.

Atoms bond together to form a compound by either gaining, losing, or sharing electrons
with another atom.
Isotopes are variants of the same element but with a different mass number (the total
number of neutrons plus protons found in an atom's nucleus).

Some isotopes are unstable and disintegrate naturally through a process called
radioactive decay.
The properties of minerals include crystal form, luster, color, streak, hardness,
cleavage, fracture, and specific gravity.

In addition, a number of special physical and chemical properties (taste, smell, elasticity,
malleability, feel, magnetism, double refraction, and chemical reaction to hydrochloric
acid) are useful in identifying certain minerals.

Each mineral has a unique set of properties that can be used for identification.
The eight most abundant elements found in Earth's continental crust (oxygen, silicon,
aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium) also make up the majority
of minerals.
• The most common mineral group is the silicates.
• All silicate minerals have the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron as their fundamental
building block.
• In some silicate minerals the tetrahedra are joined in chains; in others the
tetrahedra are arranged into sheets, or three-dimensional networks.
• Each silicate mineral has a structure and a chemical composition that indicates the
conditions under which it was formed.
The nonsilicate mineral groups include the oxides (e.g., magnetite, mined for iron),
sulfides (e.g., sphalerite, mined for zinc), sulfates (e.g., gypsum, used in plaster and
frequently found in sedimentary rocks), native elements (e.g., graphite, a dry lubricant),
halides (e.g., halite, common salt and frequently found in sedimentary rocks), and
carbonates (e.g., calcite, used in portland cement and is a major constituent in two well-
known rocks: limestone and marble).
The term ore is used to denote useful metallic minerals, like hematite (mined for iron)
and galena (mined for lead), that can be mined for a profit, as well as some nonmetallic
minerals, such as fluorite and sulfur, that contain useful substances.
States of Matter
A. The Kinetic Theory
1. All matter is composed of small particles (atoms, molecules, or ions).
2. They are in constant, random motion.
They constantly collide with each other and with the walls of their container.
C. Other States
1. Solids with particles in repeating geometric patterns are crystals. Those with particles
arranged randomly are amorphous.
Plasma
a. Hot, ionized gas particles.
b. Electrically charged.
c. Most common state in universe.
4. Mercury and alcohol are liquids that expand in thermometers
Water reaches maximum density at about 4 C.
Ice particles are farther apart than liquid water (so it floats).
Ecosystem Components
• An ecosystem includes the physical environment or factors, the biological
components and the interactions between them.
• The components of habitat are classified in to
• 1. Biotic (biological)
• 2. Abiotic (non-biological I.e.physical) types.
• Biotic ComponentsBiotic components include all living organisms and their
products.
• This group includes all animals, plants, bacteria, fungi and their waste products
like fallen leaves, branches, faeces and urine.
• Biotic Component – 4 categories
• A. Producers
• B. Consumers
• C. Transformers
• D. Decomposers

ROCKS

• Igneous rock forms from magma that cools and solidifies in a process
called crystallization. Sedimentary rock forms from the lithification
of sediment. Metamorphic rock forms from rock that has been
subjected to great pressure and heat in a process called
metamorphism.
• The rate of cooling of magma greatly influences the size of mineral
crystals in igneous rock. The four basic igneous rock textures are (1)
fine-grained, (2) coarse-grained, (3) porphyritic, and (4) glassy.
• Igneous rocks are classified by their texture and mineral composition.
Igneous rocks are divided into broad compositional groups based on
the percentage of dark and light silicate minerals they contain. Felsic
rocks (e.g., granite and rhyolite) are composed mostly of the light-
colored silicate minerals potassium feldspar and quartz. Rocks of
intermediate composition (e.g., andesite) contain plagioclase feldspar
and amphibole. Mafic rocks (e.g., basalt) contain abundant olivine,
pyroxene, and calcium feldspar.
• The mineral makeup of an igneous rock is ultimately determined by
the chemical composition of the magma from which it crystallized. N.
L. Bowen showed that as magma cools, minerals crystallize in an
orderly fashion. Magmatic differentiation changes the composition of
magma and causes more than one rock type to form from a common
parent magma.
• Detrital sediments are materials that originate and are transported as
solid particles derived from weathering. Chemical sediments are
soluble materials produced largely by chemical weathering that are
precipitated by either inorganic or organic processes. Detrital
sedimentary rocks, which are classified by particle size, contain a
variety of mineral and rock fragments, with clay minerals and quartz
the chief constituents. Chemical sedimentary rocks often contain the
products of biological processes such as shells or mineral crystals that
form as water evaporates and minerals precipitate. Lithification refers
to the processes by which sediments are transformed into solid
sedimentary rocks.
• Common detrital sedimentary rocks include shale (the most common
sedimentary rock), sandstone, and conglomerate. The most abundant
chemical sedimentary rock is limestone, composed chiefly of the
mineral calcite. Rock gypsum and rock salt are chemical rocks that
form as water evaporates and triggers the deposition of chemical
precipitates.
• Some of the features of sedimentary rocks that are often used in the
interpretation of Earth history and past environments include strata, or
beds (the single most characteristic feature), fossils, ripple marks, and
mud cracks.
• Two types of metamorphism are (1) regional metamorphism and (2)
contact or thermal metamorphism. The agents of metamorphism
include heat, pressure (stress), and chemically active fluids. Heat is
perhaps the most important because it provides the energy to drive the
reactions that result in the recrystallization of minerals. Metamorphic
processes cause many changes in rocks, including increased density,
growth of larger mineral crystals, reorientation of the mineral
grains into a layered or banded appearance known as foliation, and
the formation of new minerals.
• Some common metamorphic rocks with a foliated texture include
slate, schist, and gneiss. Metamorphic rocks with a nonfoliated
texture include marble and quartzite.
• Some of the most important accumulations of metallic mineral
resources are produced by igneous and metamorphic processes. Vein
deposits (deposits in fractures or bedding planes) and disseminated
deposits (deposits distributed throughout the entire rock mass) are
produced from hydrothermal solutions—hot metal-rich fluids
associated with cooling magma bodies.
• Nonmetallic mineral resources are mined for the nonmetallic
elements they contain or for the physical and chemical properties they
possess. The two groups of nonmetallic mineral resources are (1)
building materials (e.g., limestone and gypsum) and (2) industrial
minerals (e.g., fluorite and corundum).

MINERALS

• A mineral is a naturally occurring inorganic solid possessing a definite


chemical structure that gives it a unique set of physical properties. Most
rocks are aggregates composed of two or more minerals.
• The building blocks of minerals are elements. An atom is the smallest
particle of matter that still retains the characteristics of an element. Each
atom has a nucleus containing protons and neutrons. Orbiting the nucleus
of an atom are electrons. The number of protons in an atom's nucleus
determines its atomic number and the name of the element. Atoms bond
together to form a compound by either gaining, losing, or sharing electrons
with another atom.
• Isotopes are variants of the same element but with a different mass number
(the total number of neutrons plus protons found in an atom's nucleus).
Some isotopes are unstable and disintegrate naturally through a process
called radioactive decay.
• The properties of minerals include crystal form, luster, color, streak,
hardness, cleavage, fracture, and specific gravity. In addition, a number of
special physical and chemical properties (taste, smell, elasticity,
malleability, feel, magnetism, double refraction, and chemical reaction to
hydrochloric acid) are useful in identifying certain minerals. Each mineral
has a unique set of properties that can be used for identification.
• The eight most abundant elements found in Earth's continental crust
(oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, and
magnesium) also make up the majority of minerals.
• The most common mineral group is the silicates. All silicate minerals have
the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron as their fundamental building block. In
some silicate minerals the tetrahedra are joined in chains; in others the
tetrahedra are arranged into sheets, or three-dimensional networks. Each
silicate mineral has a structure and a chemical composition that indicates
the conditions under which it was formed.
• The nonsilicate mineral groups include the oxides (e.g., magnetite, mined
for iron), sulfides (e.g., sphalerite, mined for zinc), sulfates (e.g., gypsum,
used in plaster and frequently found in sedimentary rocks), native elements
(e.g., graphite, a dry lubricant), halides (e.g., halite, common salt and
frequently found in sedimentary rocks), and carbonates (e.g., calcite, used
in portland cement and is a major constituent in two well-known rocks:
limestone and marble).
• The term ore is used to denote useful metallic minerals, like hematite
(mined for iron) and galena (mined for lead), that can be mined for a profit,
as well as some nonmetallic minerals, such as fluorite and sulfur, that
contain useful substances.