1 visualizações

Enviado por Claudio Masjid Maktub

estruturas

- 145757294 Flexural or Bending Test Lab Report
- elib gof
- watretank4
- GB1( Simple Beam)
- Prediction of Ultimate Shear Strength of Moderate Deep Concrete Beam Including Size Effect
- HACON_TM
- Industrial Slabs
- DNV OS-C107
- Crack Width Analysis
- Shear Strength Steel Fibre 2016
- Westergaard Solutions
- Pipers Row Pt2
- Ashour, 2000 - Efeitos Do Comprensão... Experimento de Comparação de Vanalli
- Lab 7Bend Eng
- 1 - Anisotropic dynamic damage and fragmentation of rock materials under explosive loading.pdf
- 10136
- Cap 3
- Gaspar 2013
- Crane runways – Fatigue evaluation of crane rail welds using local concepts
- 1-s2.0-S0141029613002897-main.pdf

Você está na página 1de 9

, 45-53

strength of concrete

A. Carp interi *, B. Chiaia" and G. Ferro"

Politecnico di Torino

The size dependence oJ the flexural strength oJ concrete beams is discussed. It is shown that existing approaches

fail to predict the strength oJ real-sized structures. The scaling oJ the modulus of rupture Oli can be consistently

modelled by means of a multifractal scaling law, the influence of microstructural disorder being predominant for

the shallowest beams. At larger scales, homogenization comes into play, leading to the definition of an asymptotic

constant strength JI. This transition occurs more rapidly in the case oJ high-strength concrete, where a more

brittle behaviour is observed, accompanied by the rapid vanishing of size effects. Validation of the law is pursued

by means oJ best-fitting of relevant experimental data, which allows Jor determination oJ the asymptotic value of

o.; valid for real-sized members.

Introduction: size-dependence of tbe the size dependence of [, has been verified in direct'

3

modulus of rupture and indirect tensile tests, as shown in Fig. 1. There-

fore, the size dependence of (nominai) strength seems

It is widely believed that the true fracture properties to be a peculiar property of concrete structures,

of concrete structures can be unequivocally detennined regardless of the specimen geometry and Ioading

only by means of uniaxial tensile tests.' Unfortunately, conditions. It follows that a consistent explanation of

tensile tests are difficult to carry out in standard these effects has to be sought based on more generaI

laboratories, either with fixed or rotating boundary considerations, that is, inserting the phenomenon of

conditions. Therefore, the modulus of rupture ou, concrete fracture into the framework of criticaI

measured for beams in either three or four-point phenomena.

bending, turns out to be an experimentally convenient The heterogeneous and disordered microstructure of

measure of strength owing to the relative simplicity of concrete is mainly responsible for the scaling proper-

these tests. On the other hand, the strong size ties of strength and toughness, together with the

dependence of the bending properties (not only of competition between energy release due to macro-

the nominai strength, but al so of the rotational cracking and stress redistribution due to progressive

capacity and ductility) has been detected earlier in damage. A multifractal scaling law has been pro-

several experimental investigations carri ed out on 4

posee!, which describes the whole range of scaling,

plain and reinforced concrete members.' capturing the peculiar transition from a disordered

When dealing with the size dependence of the regime characterized by strong size effect, to the

bending strength ou, it is customary to reiate Ou to Jt, homogeneous regime, hoIding for the larger structures,

this last parameter being the so-called tensile strength. where the size dependence vanishes and an asymptotic

It is usually assumed that I. is an (ideaI) materia I value of nominaI strength can be determined.

constant, which shouId be measured by means of Indeed, correct determination of bending strength Ou

tensile tests. Unfortunately, this is not the case, since is crucial from engineering viewpoints, due 10 the

large number of concrete members subjected to flex-

ure, and 10 the wide diffusion of bending tests

* Politecnico di Torino, Department of Structural Engineering, Corso

throughout the various laboratories. This explains the

Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy.

theoretical and experimental efforts maintained by the

(MCR 540) Paper received 2 January 1996; last revised 17 March scientific and engineering community in order to

1996; accepted 22 ApriI 1996 interpret the phenomenon of size dependence of the

45

Carpinteri et al.

0·75 0·6

0·70 o 0·5

o o

8 o

@ o

....,.

0·65 @

~ ..: OA o

Cl o o Cl

.Q o

.Q o

o o o

0·60 0·3

o

o

O o

o o o

0·55 0·2 o

o 8

o o

0·50 0·1

1·2 1-4 1·6 1·8 2·0 2·2 2A 2·6 2·8 1·5 2·0 2·5 3·0 3·5 4·0

(a) log b (b) log b

l 3

Fig. l. Size effects on uniaxial tensile strength. (a) Direct , and (b) indirect tensile tests

modulus of rupture au, whereas only in the last ten uniaxial tests on large-sized specimens, and we shall

years has attention been drawn also to the other relate the (nominaI) bending strength au to this

structural geometries. constant quantity. According to the elastic bending

lt is important to point out that uncertainties in the theory, if M u is the ultimate bending moment in the

determination of the bending strength affect both centraI cross-section of the beam (subjected to either

allowable stresses design and limi! state design, in the three or four-point bending), and t and bare, re-

former case by lowering the reliability of the safety spectively, the thickness and depth of the beam, the

factor, and in the latter case by providing unacceptable nominaI bending strength (modulus of rupture) is

stress-strain conditions under service loads. In both given by:

cases, excessive prudence due to uncertainty may lead

to coarse oversizing or to the overestimation of the (1)

reinforcement percentage. Problems ari se not only in

the case of plain concrete structures (large foundation If we assume that ft is the limit stress that the

beams or massive walls) but also in reinforced mem- material can locally undergo, it follows that the

bers, where cracking of the most stressed concrete bending strength au coincides with ft in the case of

layers leads to corrosion of the steel bars and an elastic, perfectly brittle materia!. No size effect is

dramatically reduces durability. Moreover, the mini- therefore provided: in this case, in fact, catastrophic

mum reinforcement requirements for beams subjected failure is supposed to occur as soon as ft is reached

to bending are strongly related to the modulus of in any point of the beam (Fig. 2). Nevertheless, this

rupture au, since it has become c1ear that, especially would be true in the (ideaI) case of pure bending

for deep beams, the correct minimum reinforcement while, in the case of three-point bending, the modulus

ratio can be computed only by means of a fracture of rupture au exceeds ft by almost 5% due to the

mechanics approach.' asymmetrical stress field.

A trivial relation between the modulus of rupture au

and ft is provided by the ACI Building Code," which

Classical interpretations of the bending merely assumes, on the average:

strength size-dependence au = 1·25ft (2)

In the following, we shall refer to ft as the The size dependence of the bending strength is

asymptotic value of tensile strength, obtained from therefore not taken into account by equation (2),

which only states that au is larger than f(, as had

been reported much earlier.' An analogous approach

is maintained by the Eurocode No. 2,8 where the

concrete tensile strength, if measured by means of

flexural tests, has to be drastically reduced by 50%:

l If plasticity is

au = 2·0ft

(3)

stressed layers of the beam, the nominaI flexural

Fig. 2. (a) Elastic perfectly brittle model; (b) catastrophic strength, computed according to equation (1), is found

failure; and (c) absence 01 size-effects to depend upon the strain gradient (Fig. 3(a)).

46 Magazine 01 Concrete Research, 1997, 49, No. 178

Size e./fects on the flexural strength 01 concrete

I + 2·0( b/ bo)07]

(5)

~.~.\l.lr?-' . °u = Il [ 2.0(b/bo)0'7

axis

....~~!-!Ir?ll equal to 100 mm. Equation (5) is applicable to un-

.......... 'la" a 2 axis

notched beams with b ?: 50 mm. Note that equation

1 ................ (5) comes from experimental observations and no

consideration is given to the role of the microstruc-

:w. ture, whereas aggregate interlocking is explicitly taken

. E ::s. jE °u 3l into account in the Codes when dealing with the

(al (bl (cl .

U Itimate sh ear strengt h .8 ' lO

Fig. 3. Effect of the variable strain gradient (a) on the The earliest attempts to explain the bending strength

determination of nominal bending strength. Shallow (b) and decrease with size were related to a perfectly brittle

deep (c) beam weakest-link concept (statistical size effed l). The

Weibull approach, however, turns out to be poor in the

case of concrete, owing to the progressive chaotic

Shallower beams (Fig. 3(b» will therefore yield higher damage occurring before the peak load, and to the

moduli of rupture, according to the larger strain de- stable crack growth that takes piace before failure.

crease with respect to the depth (steep gradient). On If the elastic, perfectly brittle constitutive model is

the basis of this theory and of early experimental abandoned, and the cohesive crack model'f is assumed

results, an empirical expression was proposed by the to represent the mesoscopic mechanical behaviour of

Deutscher Ausschuss fìir Stahlbeton.Ì relating the concrete, the size dependence of the modulus of rup-

nominai flexural strength 0u to the depth a of the ture can be more adequately described. lndeed, a

tensile zone (which can be considered approximately unique relationship cannot be deduced, since solutions

proportional to the total beam depth b): may appreciably differ from one another, depending

on the shape of the softening curve.' Different failure

0u = (0·8 + 0·26a-06)/t (4)

mechanisms may take piace, depending on the rate of

where a has to be measured in metres. Note that, consumption of the fracture energy .cç'F. Nevertheless,

according to equation (4), the bending strength of very the asymptotic behaviour predicted by the cohesive

deep beams (a> 1500 mm) becomes smaller than I. approach is ~F-indepel1dent, and yields the following

(Fig. 4). Note also that these arguments would imply relations:

that the nominai flexural strength increases if applied

compressive loads act upon the beam, thus reducing 0u ~ 3/t for b ~ O (6a)

the size of the tensile zone. 0u ~ Il for b ~ 00 (6b)

Based on a similar strain-gradient approach, a size

dependent empirical relationship between the modulus where the limit (6a) for structural sizes tending to

of rupture and the tensile strength has been specified zero represents a plastic limit solution, as has been

in the CEB-FIP Model Code 1990,10 and is given by: shown.13

The interplay between plastic collapse, govemed

by limit analysis, and brittle failure, govemed by

linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) represents

1·0

the basis of the size effect law (SEL) by Bazant. 14

-- Uchida et al . The originai formulation of the law applies only to

0·8 notched beams, with the size of the notch scaling

.......•..

::::...... ::..: - ~i~ ~~/.

0·6

~

"'.~

Deulscher Auss. proportionally to the structural size (Fig. 5(b On the».

~

!!

Cl

0-4

.......

:.~.:~:>:>,.

.Q 0·2

0·0

-0,2 o'

Perfect1y britlle model O>

.Q

-0,4

Limit

1~ 1·6 20 2·4 2·8 ~2 3·6 40 analysis

dependence oJ bending strength with some existing Code Fig. 5. Bazant s size effect law 14: (a) bilogarithmic diagram;

Jormulations and (b) proportionally increasing notch size

Carpinteri et al.

basis of an energy-release failure criterion, the by Bazant and Li 17 and of the two-parameter model

18

following expression is derived: by Jenq and Shah. The former model gives an

interpretation of size effect which is alternative to

Blt SEL, and is supposed to hold when macrocracking

(7)

°u = [ b] 1/2 does not occur and energy release is not primarily

1 +- involved in the definition of the peak load. In the

bo

case of Jenq and Shah's model," astonishingly, the

where B and bo are two empirical constants to be modulus of rupture seems to increase with the depth

determined by best-fitting of the experimental data. In of the beam in the smaller sizes range, which repre-

the bilogarithmic diagram, a continuous transition is sents an evident absurdity.'

provided from limit analysis to LEFM as the depth b

of the beam increases (Fig. 5(a», yielding the un-

realistic complete vanishing of strength for very large Multifractal scaling law for the size effect

structures.

on bending strength

Various attempts to apply equation (7) to different

loading conditions and specimen geometries have been It is now well established that scaling phenomena in

reported in the literature: nevertheless, it is now c1ear disordered media are mainly due to the heterogeneity

19

that the range of applicability of equation (7) is of the considered domains. Moreover, the failure

strict1y limited by the two unrealistic assumptions of behaviour of concrete structures incontrovertibly pos-

proportionally scaling notch size and pure\y energy- sesses most of the features of criticaI phenomena,

release controlled failure. By considering a constant ranging from the microscopi c scale, where self-organ-

maximum flaw size, as is likely to occur in real ization of microcracks occurs prior to their coales-

materials, a modified size effect law has been de- cence and percolation, to the macroscopic one, where

duced by Kim et al.,15 where a constant term alt is cusp instabilities are detected in the load-displace-

19

added to equation (7): ment characteristics.

These self-similar and hierarchical damage pro-

Blt cesses occurring in the resisting section frior to the

°u = + alt (8)

[I + :J

1/2

peak load have been extensively detected.2 The multi-

scale accumulation of damage reflects the hierarchical

character of the concrete microstructure, which ranges

Note that equation (8) is a three-parameter equation from the microscopic level of the cement clinker up to

(Fig. 4). Moreover, the value obtained for a, by best- the macroscopic level of the coarse aggregates em-

fitting of the experimental data, is close to 0·15, bedded in the paste.

which implies that the asymptotic value of the bend- Fractal geometry'f permits one to abandon the

ing strength predicted by equation (8), as 0u = 0·15 Il> integer topological dimensions of Euc1idean sets, and

2

is too low. to move to the anomalous non-integer dimensions of

Primary importance has been given by the Japan- fractal domains. In this way, it is possible to quantify

ese scientific community to the proper understanding the degree 01 disorder possessed by the material

of the size effect on bending strength. Among the microstructure, and to investigate the structural effects

various proposed solutions, it is worth mentioning the of the microscopic complexity. Due to the chaotic

16

empirical equation put forward by Uchida et al.: damage accumulation and to the heterogeneous distri-

bution of internai stresses, it is consistent to model the

°u = Il [I + 0.85 + :.5(b/ IH)] (9) resisting section of a concrete beam by means of a

lacunar fractal set (Fig. 6). Thus, we have to abandon

where IH = E:9'F! I~ is Hillerborg's characteristic

length 12 and b / IH ~ 0·1. For a typical concrete

IH ~ 300 mm, whereas, in the case of high-strength

mixtures, this value can eventually be halved.

The aforementioned empirical models fit the

experimental results only in a narrow size range, due

to the lack of theoretical bases. Moreover, appreciable

differences arise between the curves, either in the case

of the smaller or, which is more important, in the case

of the larger beam sizes (Fig. 4). Other non-Iinear

fracture mechanics models have recent\y been devel-

oped to explain the size dependence of the modulus of

4

rupture, but they seem to work only in a limited Fig. 6. Topological hypothesis of rarefied fractal ligament

range. This is the case of the boundary layer model at the peak load

Size ejJects on the flexural strength of concrete

the classical dimension ([Lf) of a resisting area and scaling law, yielding the strongest size-effect rate, in

to consider a dimension smaller than 2·0 ([Lf-da), the limi t of the smallest beams, equal to 1/2. In the

where da is the topological decrement due to disorder. bilogarithmic diagram (Fig. 7(b)), the MFSL is there-

An elegant and synthetic description of the microstress fore characterized by an upward concavity, whereas a

field in the reacting section can be obtained, 19 where downward concavity is shown by the SEL (Fig. 5(a)).

the fractal stress 0* ([F][L]-(2-da») turns out to be the From an engineering point of view, the MFSL

only scale-independent parameter. From this invariant allows for the determination of the flexural strength of

quantity, the size dependence of the nominaI stress 0u very large concrete beams, whereas the SEL predicts

(defined on the ideaI ligament according to equation zero strength in that case. Thus, it is possible to

(1)) is obtained'I as a function of the fractal dimen- compute the reliable minimum reinforcement ratio

sional decrement da. also for very deep beams or massive sustaining ele-

Extrapolating to the structural level, the nominai ments. In addition, the internaI length lch marks the

bending strength decreases as the beam depth in- transition between a range of sizes (usually coincident

creases, with a rate controlled by the fractal dimension with the laboratory-testing sizes) where the scaling

of the rarefied ligament. On the other hand, as the effect is pronounced, and the larger sizes where

depth of the beam increases, the progressive homo- scaling can be neglected and a constant value of

genization of the random fields comes into play. In bending strength can be defined.

the limit of the microscopic scales, fractal dimension A wide number of experimental tests confirm the

cannot be smaller than 1·5, which represents the MFSL hypotheses: the size dependence is found to be

maximum (Brownian) degree of disorder in dissipative stronger in the smaller sizes range, as well as the

processes." In the limit of the largest sizes," fractality scatter of the strength values corresponding to a

disappears at the structural level and the classical certain size, thus clearly indicating that heterogeneity

Euclidean description of the material can be adopted. plays a fundamental role. Recent experimental results

According to this hypothesis, the size dependence by Adachi et al?1 demonstrate that the same transition

turns out to be very strong for small beams, the is present also in the scaIing of the deformability

influence of disorder being predominant, while size characteristics of concrete beams subjected to bending.

effect pro§ressively vanishes as the depth of the beams The negative size effect on the maximum rotational

increases. This transition is controlled by the inter- angle turns out to be, in fact, more pronounced as the

play between microstructural heterogeneity (quantified depth of the beams becomes shallower.

by the internaI length lch) and external size.

Note that the multifractal approach is in agreement

with the cohesive model, where the ratio between the Application of the MFSL to relevant

characteristic size of the fracture process zone (where

experimental results

ali the non-Iinear phenomena take piace) and the

beam depth can be considered as an indicator of the The multifractal scaling law described in the

variable influence of disorder on strength. On the previous section can be applied to relevant experi-

other hand, it represents a drastic conceptual revolu- mental data reported in the Iiterature. This statistica l

tion with respect to Bazant's size effect law, since the analysis allows for the extrapolation of a reliable value

size-dependence rate follows an opposite trend. of the bending strength, valid for real-sized structures,

Based on these arguments, a simple equation can be starting from laboratory-sized specimens (subjected to

derived to model this scaling behaviour. By applying three or four-point bending).

the renormalization procedure (which is an extension An extensive application of the MFSL to various

of dimensional analysis to chaotic processes) to the loading geometries (bending, direct and indirect ten-

disordered stress field, the analytical expression of the sion, shear, torsion and their combination) has been

multifractal scaling law can be obtained:

l] 1/2

0u = fl [ 1+ ~h (lO) Fraclal

regime log 0u

0·5

where lch represents the characteristic length acting as Ou=tt[1+~r

tt~--=====log (ttr·········

a threshold between the fractal regime, where disorder

plays a pre-eminent role and a strong size effect is -.J'Ch)

present, and the homogeneous regime, where the log tt

influence of disorder vanishes and an asymptotic b log 'eh log b

(a) (b)

constant bending strength is reached, equal to f.. Note

that the rate of size dependence is governed by the Fig. 7. (a) Multifractal scaling law for the bending strength.

interplay between lch and the beam depth b, and that (b) Bilogarithmic diagram and transition from order to

the Brownian hypothesis provides the exponent of the disorder

Carpinteri et al.

used throughout. Comparison between the correlation R=0'944

1·0

coefficients (R) provided by the MFSL and the SELI4

reveals that the multifractal approach prevails in most SEL

ci'

cases when unnotched beams are considered, whereas

~ 0·5

the two approaches are almost equivalent in the case R= 0·860

appears to be statistically significant only if (at least) 0·0

!P -,

one arder of magnitude is considered in the size

range. l lIb

In the following, data are presented in bilogarithmic -0,5

0·0 0·5 1·0 1·5 2·0 2'5 3·0 3·5 4·0

scale to highlight the fundamental difference (con-

cavity and asymptotics) between the energy-release

log b

based approach (SEL) and the multifractal theory. This Fig. 8. ApJ?lication of the MFSL to the TPB data by

should be clearly in mind when evaluating the amount Alexander. 3 Comparison witn the SEL

of the strength reduction in real-sized beams. The

actual decrement of the asymptotic bending strength

4

with respect to the mean value and to the maximum and Mirzi on unnotched concrete specimens in the

value obtained in the tests is reported in Table l. Note size range l: 17. The span-to-depth ratio was set equal

the strong size effect arising in all the considered to 4 for all the beams. The nominal bending strength

situations. can be defined, according to equation (1), as the

Three-point bending tests on notched normal elastic stress acting upon the extreme fibre under the

strength concrete beams were performed by Alexan- failure load. Best-fitting of the experimental data is

der.23 Beams of sizes 100, 200, 300, 500 and 800 mm shown in Fig. 9. The asymptotic bending strength It.

were used, thus resulting in a size range 1:8. The valid for the largest bearns, is found to be equal to

nominai stress at failure can be set, applying the 3·83 MPa, whereas the characteristic length is [eh =

elastic bending theory to the initially uncracked 42.02 lllt1l. The correlation coefficient R is equal to

Iigament, equal to: 0·999 in the case of MFSL and to 0·952 in the case of

6Mu SEL, the concavity of the data being clearly upwards

Oli = t(b _ ao)2 (11) in the bilogarithmic diagram.

Another series of four-point bending tests was car-

25

where ao is the initial notch length. The experimental ried out by Bazant and Kazemi on unnotched beams

data are reported in the bilogarithmic diagram, where with longitudinal steel reinforcement. The size range

fitting by the MFSL and by the SEL is also shown examined was 1:16 (b = 20·64 --:-- 330.2 mm), and a

(Fig. 8). Note that, even if notched specimens are two-dimensional similitude was ensured, the thickness

considered, an upward concavity of the data seems to t being the same for all the beams (t = 38·1 mm). A

come into play, indicating that the disorder ----> order micro-concrete was used, with maximum aggregate

transition prevails over the energy-release effects. size equal to 4·8 mm and average compressive

Extrapolating to very large beams, an intrinsic flexural strength I~ = 46·2 MPa. The spanjdepth ratio was

strength (ft) would be present, while SEL would

predict the absolute vanishing of the load-carrying

capacity. Best-fitting of the data yields the two MFSL 1·5...------------------,

parameters as It = 1·67 MPa and [eh = 288·6 mm, and 1 Scale range = 1:171

the correlation coefficient R equal to 0'944, whereas

fitting by SEL provides R = 0·860. 1·0

Four-point bending tests were carri ed out by Sabnis

MFSL

~ 0.5 ....

-;:

...

-....

----------1

o . R= 0·999

Table l. Decrement of the nominai bending strengtli pre-

dicted by the MFSL for large structures - 2=S12 P/2 -. ..... SEL

0·0 ~ Ib ~= 0·952

L=4b ~ .....

Max. experimental HO 8·90 2·90 10·11 I- 01 0'6b ....

strength: MPa -0,5 '.

Mean experimental 2·70 6·07 1·68 6·80 O 2 3 4 5

log b

strength: MPa

lnfinite-size strength, 1·67 3·83 0·57 4·10

Fig. 9. Application of the MFSL to the FPB data by Sabnis

ft: MPa 24

and Mirza. Comparison with the SEL

Size ejJects on the flexural strength 01 concrete

failure was forced by the presence of the bars, flexural I Scale range = 1:8 I

effects cannot be excluded a priori. The steel bars, 1·5

anchored with right-angled hooks at their ends to SEL

prevent bond slip and pull-out, provided a reinforce- 1·0

o' R=0'914

ment ratio p = Asteel/ bt = 1·62%. Cl

MFSL

..Q

The nominaI strength, in this case, was set equal to

0·5

<.

..... R= 0·981

the nominaI shear strength, that is, Cu = Pu/2bt, where

",

P; is the failure load. Best-fitting of the data by ~p <,

Il= 0·571 MPa and leh = 485·9 mm, with a correla-

0'0

l lIb <.

0·0 0·5 1·0 1·5 2·0 2·5 3·0 3·5 4·0

SEL, the value R = 0·980 is obtained (Fig. lO). If the

log b

hypothesis is made that the internai length is directly

related to drnax, a dimensionless quantity a can be Fig. Il. Application o/ the MFSL lo the TPB data by Gettu

deduced as a = leh/ drnax = 101·23. et al. 26 Comparison with the SEL

Three-point bending tests were performed by Gettu

et al.26 on notched high-strength concrete beams, with

average compressive strength equal to 96 MPa. This equal to b/3, while the net span between the supports

kind of material is characterized by relatively small was L = 2·5b. Note that only a two-dimensional

aggregates and by a strong interface bond between similitude is present, the thickness t of the beams

matrix and aggregates. The strength of the matrix is being constant at 38·1 mm. The nominaI bending

comparable with that of the aggregates, thus resulting strength can be computed according to equation (11).

in a more homogeneous cracking process with respect Best-fitting of the data by means of the MFSL is

to ordinary concrete: the width of the fracture process directly plotted in the bilogarithmic diagram (Fig. Il),

zone, according to the cohesive model, decreases by where fitting by SEL is also shown for comparison.

60%. Consequently, while the compressive strength The computed best-fit values are: Il = 4·1 MPa and

increases by almost 160%, the material's fracture [eh = 156·9 mm. From the internaI length value, the

energy increases by only 250/0, providing a definitely non-dimensional parameter a = leh/ drnax equals 16·51.

more brittle behaviour with respect to ordinary con- The MFSL correlation coefficient turns out to be

crete. This implies, in the multifractal scaling law, a R = 0·981, whereas the application of SEL yields

rapid transition towards the ordered regime, character- R = 0·914, The authors'" affirm that the strength

ized by the absence (or, better, by the homogenization) values obtained from the largest specimens are anoma-

of the beneficial contribution of microstructural dis- lously large, being in clear disagreement with the SEL

order. predictions. In contrast, these values show perfect

Four beam sizes have been tested: the reference size agreement with the MFSL, as they are placed in the

b was chosen equal to the total beam depth, in the asymptotic homogeneous scaling regime, which, in the

size range 1:8 (b = 38·1 -;- 304·8 mm). The maximum case of high-strength concrete, comes into play much

aggregate size was drnax = 9·5 mm. The notch depth earlier. Recent results by Eo et al.27 confirm that size

aQ, scaled in a proportional manner with b, was set effects on flexural strength attain their limiting values

more rapidly for high-strength concrete than for

normal-strength mixtures. Note also that the asympto-

1·5 r-------------------, tic strength Il is equa 1 to 60% of the average

1 Scale range = 1:161 specimen strength (6,8 MPa), and to only 43% of

1·0 the lowest specimen strength.

0·5

.s Conclusions

Cl

..Q 0·0

MFSL R = 0·986

-0,5

-1,0 2=S

I_ L=7b 01

········ SEL

.........":

.....

0·980

.........

On the basis of theoretical and experimental

dence, the following conclusions may be drawn:

be revised if consistent and reliable predictions are

evi-

2 3 4 5

to be made for the bending strength of real-sized

log b

concrete beams. Poor extrapolations from laboratory-

Fig. lO. Application rt the MFSL to the FPB data by sized specimens are provided if the size-dependence of

Bazant and Kazemi.2 Comparison with the SEL the modulus of rupture is not properly taken into

Magazine o/ Concrete Research, 1997, 49, No. 178 51

Carpinteri et al.

account (Table 1). Moreover, existmg formulas (CEB, fractality of concrete microstructure. Materials and Struetures,

1994, 27, 563-571.

ACI, Eurocode 2) are based on an empirical approach

2. PLANAS 1. et al. Rupture modulus and fracture properties of

which cannot be considered suitable for the huge concrete. Proc. 2nd Int. Con! on Fraeture Mechanies of

variety of material properties and structural typologies Concrete Structures (FRA MCOS-2), Zurich, 1995, pp. 95-110.

that are encountered. Aedificatio Publishers, Freiburg, 1995.

(2) The necessity for the correct prediction of the 3. HASEGAWAT. et al. Size effect on splitting tensile strength of

concrete. Proc. 7th Conference of the Japan Concrete Institute,

bending strength of concrete beams is neither

Tokyo, 1985, pp. 309-312.

restricted to unreinforced elements nor confined to 4. CARPINTERIA. et al. Size effects on nominaI tensile strength of

the durability requirements of reinforced ones, but concrete structures: multifractality of materia l ligaments and

rather plays a fundamental role in the definition of the dimensional transition from order to disorder. Materia/s and

rmrnmum reinforcement ratio and of the fai 1ure Structures, 1995,28,311-317.

5. Bosco C. and CARPINTERIA. Fracture mechanics evaluation of

characteristics of the largest members. The determina-

minimum reinforcement in concrete structures. In Application

tion of reliable values of modulus of rupture seems to of Jracture mechanics to reinforced concrete, Torino, 1992, pp.

be even more important in the case of high-strength 347-377. Elsevier Applied Science, London, 1992.

concrete, where a more brittle behaviour is expected 6. AMERICANCONCRETE INSTITUTEACI-Building Code 318R-89,

and bending failure may be catastrophic. Detroit, 1992.

7. NEVILLE A. M. Properties oJ concrete. Pitrnan, London, 1981.

(3) The heterogeneity of the concrete microstructure

8. COMMISSIONOF THE EUROPEANCOMMUNITIESEurocode No. 2

is mainly responsible for the size dependence of the - Design oJ Concrete Structures. 1994.

modulus of rupture. Therefore, mechanical arguments 9. HEILMANNH. G. Zugspannung und Dehung in unbewehrten

have to be supported by an adequate topological Betonquerschnitte bei exzentrischen Belastung. Deutscher

description of the failure process, for which fractal Ausschuss fùr Stahlbeton, Heft 269, 1976.

geometry seems to represent a powerful and successful IO. COMITE' EURO-INTERNATIONALDu BETON CEB-FIP Model

Code-90 for Concrete, Lausanne, 1991.

tool. The interplay between a microstructural char- 1I. WEIBULLW. A statistica/ theory for the slrength oJ materials.

acteristic length and the external size of the beam Swedish Royal Institute for Engineering Research, Stockholm,

implies the progressive vanishing of the disorder 1939.

effects on strength characteristics, which can be ade- 12. HILLERBORGA. el al. Analysis of crack formation and crack

growth in concrete by means of fracture mechanics and finite

quately modelled by means of a multifractal scaling

elements. Cem. Concr. Res., 1976, 6, 773-782.

transition. The same transition also seems to affect the 13. CARPINTERI A. Mechanical damage and crack growth in

deformability properties, namely the maximum rota- concrete: plastic col/apse to brittle fracture. Martinus Nijhoff,

tional angle. Dordrecht, 1986.

(4) A multifractal scaling law has been put forward 14. BAZANT Z. P. Size effect in blunt fracture: concrete, rock,

metal. 1. Engng Mech., ASCE, 1984, llO, 518-535.

by the authors, which allows for the extrapolation of a

15. KIM 1. K. et al. Size effect in concrete structures without

reliable value of bending strength, holding for real- initial crack. Fracture meehanics: application to concrete (ACI

sized structural members. The validity of the MFSL SP- 118), Detroit, 1989, pp. 179- 196.

has been confirmed by statistical investigation over a 16. UCHIDA Y. et al. Application of fracture mechanics to size

multitude of experimental data reported in the effect on flexural strength of concrete. Concrete Library oJ

JSCE, 1992, 20.

literature. On the other hand, wider ranges of sizes

17. BAZANTZ. P. and LI Z. Modulus of rupture: size effect due to

should be tested in order to get better statistical fracture initiation in boundary layer. 1. Struct. Engng, ASCE,

reliability. 1995, 121, 739-746.

(5) The very generai physical arguments underlying 18. JENQ Y. and SHAH S. P. Two parameter fracture model for

the aforementioned approach make a c1aim for its concrete. 1. Engng Mech., ASCE, 1985, 111, 1227-1241.

applicability not only in the case of pure1y tensile and 19. CARPINTERIA. Scaling laws and renormalization groups for

strength and toughness of disordered materials. Int. 1. Solids

bending failures, but also in the case of shear failures, Struct., 1994,31,291-302.

where aggregate interlock and mixed mode cracking 20. SCHLANGENE. and VAN MIER 1. G. M. Experimental and

are c1early affected by the microstructural hetero- numerical analysis of micromechanisms of fracture of cernent-

geneity. based composites. Cem. Concr Composites, 1992, 14, 105-

118.

21. ADACHI et al. Size effect on strength and deformation of RC

Acknowledgements beams failing in flexure. Proc. 2nd Int. COli! on Fracture

Mechanics oJ Concrete Structures (FRAMCOS-2), Zurich,

The present research was carri ed out with the 1995, pp. 685-692. Aedificatio Publishers, Freiburg, 1995.

22. CARPINTERIA. et al. Multifractal sca/ing law: an extensive

financial support of the Ministry of University and

applicalion lo nominai strength size e./fect oJ concrete struc-

Scientific Research (MURST) and of the National tures. Report No. 51 of the Dept, of Structural Engineering,

Research Council (CNR). Politecnico di Torino, 1995.

23. TANG T. et al. Fracture mechanics and size effect of concrete

References in tension. J Struct. Engng. ASCE, 1992, 118, 3169-3185.

24. SABNISG. M. and MIRZA S. M. Size effect in model concretes?

I. CARPINTERIA. and FERRO G. Size effects on tensile fracture 1. Struct. Division, ASCE, 1979, 105, 1007-1020.

properties: a unified explanation based on disorder and 25. BAZANTZ. P and KAZEMI M. T. Size effect on diagonal shear

Size effects on the flexural strength o/ concrete

failure of beams without stirrups. ACI Struct. J., 1991, 88, Zurich, 1995, pp. 685-692. Aedificatio Pub1ishers, Freiburg,

268-276. 1995.

26. GETTU R. e/ al. Fracture properties and. brittleness of high-

strength concrete. ACI Mater: J., 1990, 87, 608-618.

27. Eo S. H. et al. Fracture characteristics and size effect in

normal and hign-strength concrete beam. Proc. 2nd Int. Con! Discussion contributions on this paper should reach the editor by

on Fracture Mechanics of Concrete Structures (FRAMCOS-2), 26 September 1997

- 145757294 Flexural or Bending Test Lab ReportEnviado porJake Polo Santiago
- elib gofEnviado porAmmar A. Ali
- watretank4Enviado porapi-297121029
- GB1( Simple Beam)Enviado pormishu_cojo
- Prediction of Ultimate Shear Strength of Moderate Deep Concrete Beam Including Size EffectEnviado porAnonymous CUPykm6DZ
- HACON_TMEnviado porTiago Couto
- Industrial SlabsEnviado porjlcheefei9258
- DNV OS-C107Enviado porsantasatana
- Crack Width AnalysisEnviado porAhmed Ben Hmida
- Shear Strength Steel Fibre 2016Enviado porCurioso
- Westergaard SolutionsEnviado porsupperpainintheneck
- Pipers Row Pt2Enviado porlhz
- Ashour, 2000 - Efeitos Do Comprensão... Experimento de Comparação de VanalliEnviado porWanessa
- Lab 7Bend EngEnviado porsfilopou
- 1 - Anisotropic dynamic damage and fragmentation of rock materials under explosive loading.pdfEnviado porpaulocouceiro
- 10136Enviado porPragya Roy
- Cap 3Enviado porRicardo Rincon Vega
- Gaspar 2013Enviado porw1000000
- Crane runways – Fatigue evaluation of crane rail welds using local conceptsEnviado porflasnicug
- 1-s2.0-S0141029613002897-main.pdfEnviado porpaulkohan
- Advanced Design ColumnsEnviado porAnno Al
- FATIGUE IEnviado poramdeva
- ssttEnviado porAbdullah Amjad
- 11 - Concrete Flexural Design.pptEnviado porHaymanAHMED
- 18452195 WK2 Failure TheoriesEnviado porLUISORCE4307
- A Finite Element Parametric Study on Block Shear Failure of Steel Tension MembersEnviado porNAUTILUS87
- Rapid Affordable Mass Housing Using Glass Fibre Reinforced Gypsum GFRG PanelsEnviado porrakshith Gowda
- 13 Seismic Behavior of Reinforced Concrete BuildingsEnviado porAngel Rejas Ponce
- materialsEnviado porImaad Motan
- Kisssoft Tut 005 E ShaftanalysisEnviado porHaseeb Bokhari

- Aula 9 - Solos e FundaçõesEnviado porClaudio Masjid Maktub
- 215-062_Paper Proof_HI0001 (1)Enviado porClaudio Masjid Maktub
- 23_09_14 ProjetoTCC - PósIFRJEnviado porThiago Sá
- B7-Probabilistic Mechanics of Quasibrittle StructuresEnviado porClaudio Masjid Maktub
- Apostila AutoCad 1 Prof MiltonEnviado porClaudio Masjid Maktub
- Aula 3 - Materiais de Construção 2Enviado porClaudio Masjid Maktub
- Construção de Edificios i - ApresentacaoEnviado porClaudio Masjid Maktub
- 09_Sistemas_de_contenção.pdfEnviado porRonald Macazana
- Apostila Mat. Construção 1Enviado porClaudio Masjid Maktub
- Agregados_2018.pdfEnviado porDenisson Braun
- Stress Intensity Factors and Weight Functions for Special Crack ProblemsEnviado porVũ Kiên
- engenharia civilEnviado porClaudio Masjid Maktub
- C72Enviado porClaudio Masjid Maktub
- Funções de Forma_KEnviado porClaudio Masjid Maktub
- B7-Probabilistic Mechanics of Quasibrittle Structures.pdfEnviado porClaudio Masjid Maktub
- B7-Probabilistic Mechanics of Quasibrittle StructuresEnviado porClaudio Masjid Maktub
- Livro_Estática Das Estruturas- Humberto Lima SorianoEnviado porJames Wilson
- B4 Fracture and Size EffectEnviado porClaudio Masjid Maktub
- UFF_ICM 2017 v2 - Aula2 - Estrutura Atômica.pdfEnviado porClaudio Masjid Maktub
- UFF_ICM 2017 v2 - Aula1 - IntroduçãoEnviado porClaudio Masjid Maktub
- Exercicio 1 - TC030 - Quimica e Propriedades Da Agua - Marcelo MedeirosEnviado porClaudio Masjid Maktub
- Livro Fundamentos Ensaios Mecânicos de Materiais Metálicos - Autor Souza Editora Edgar Blucher 5 edicaoEnviado porRenato Carvalho
- 2007 Ortigao J a R Mecanica Dos Solos Dos Estados CritEnviado porjaironavegantes
- AprovacaodeprojetosEnviado porClaudio Masjid Maktub
- UFF_ICM 2017_Apresentação.pdfEnviado porClaudio Masjid Maktub
- UFF_ICM 2017_Apresentação.pdfEnviado porClaudio Masjid Maktub
- ENSAIOS -Ensaio de DurezaEnviado porClaudio Masjid Maktub
- UFF_ICM 2017 v2 - Aula3 - Estrutura dos Sólidos Cristalinos.pdfEnviado porClaudio Masjid Maktub
- 4_Apostila_ReologiaEnviado porClaudio Masjid Maktub

- Asme p NumberEnviado porSandesh Honrao
- 000000003002007375Enviado porek9925
- Applications 2007 en (1)Enviado porFaycel Ouerdien
- ArcGIS 107 Prerelease Quick Start GuidesEnviado porIdo Fong
- projectEnviado porLaleye Olumide
- Computer Shopper - July 2016 UKEnviado porcarlossp22
- 9781783553495_Lego_Mindstorms_EV3_Essentials_Sample_ChapterEnviado porPackt Publishing
- 1-s2.0-S030626191401160X-mainEnviado porAhda Dapong Rizqy Maulana
- Introduction to AntennaEnviado porAchriz
- Nagara JuEnviado porsansure
- Viewse In003 en eEnviado porWilliam Pacheco
- netapp-data-ontap-simulator-cookbookEnviado porjaycyborg
- Aadhaar Based Biometrick Phase-ii_of_basEnviado porkumar
- Thermodynamic Rocket EngineEnviado pordavidvanee
- SICATEnviado porBenjaporn Auttagang
- Vorad2 diagnosticoEnviado porJavier Amadeus De La Cruz Salazar
- Kohler Command CV680_CV23 Service ManualEnviado porJames Porter
- Career Opportunities for Engineers After IES Exam - Career NEWS n Free GovtEnviado porNishant Singh
- MOM - U3 TorsionEnviado porMuhammad Firdaus Zarmani
- ENVI Reference GuideEnviado porPablo Vasquez
- Attribute Management White Paper 11-5-10 PlusEnviado porkhalidsn
- Team6 Button BounceEnviado porjose moreno
- Fundamental Considerations of Three-Level DC–DC ConvertersEnviado porEric Morisset
- Geotechnical Engineering- A Practical Problem Solving ApproachEnviado porTapu mojumder
- MLCPEnviado porSavitha Pradeep
- Ventilador Zoll 731Enviado porhabib
- _02 Abb Pm Inst Book-tank Density MtrEnviado porDean Bartlett
- Pond ConstructionEnviado pormike_pilar
- P 3Y Vector Assignment-3Enviado porSudhir Kumar
- gt0916Enviado porDavide Marano