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Students:

 Andrés Ugaz.
 Leonardo Cahuana.
 Paolo Espinoza.
 Christian Castro.

Teacher: Lie Zheng.

Cycle: 5

Date of realization: 25 de March.


Deadline: 1 de Abril.

Year: 2017

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1. - List the utilization of different machines and their characteristics.

Electric machines:

1. Static Machines

 Transformers……(Distributes electrical energy to all homes,


industries, etc)
o 1-phase
o 3-phase
o On the basis of construction
 Core type…..(elevators, auxiliary transformer,
voltage regulator, induction furnace)
 Shell type….(power plants, electric arc furnace, etc)
o On the basis on the field of power systems
 Distribution transformer……...Supply of energy to
farms, residences, buildings, shopping centers, etc.
 Power transformer………(Capacitor bank,
Reactors, Station service transformer)

2. Linear Machines

 Synchronous…...Synchronous motors are used on large


machines that have a variable load and need a constant speed.

 Induction…….(It is used in industries)


 Homopolar…….(It is used to generate very high currents with
low voltage)
 Piezoelectric……(It is used to drive small linear motors)

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3. Rotating Machines

a. DC Machines…..It is a machine that converts electrical energy


into mechanical; it can be used in linear motors.

 Brush DC motor…….(it is used in cars, cheaper, it needs more


maintenance)
o Inrunner
o Outrunner
 Brushless DC motor…..(it is used in cars, more expensive, it
reaches much faster speeds than a brushed)
o Permanent magnet field
o Wound field
 Self excited
 Series field
 Shunt field
 Compound field
o Cumulative compound
o Differential compound
 Separately excited

 DC generator……(it can works like a exciter machine, or in


galvanics treatment plants)

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b. AC Machines….(They are generators that convert the
mechanical energy into electrical)

 Synchronous machine…..(it is used in the power plants,


because this process needs a constant speed)
o On the basis of construction
 Rotating armature type
 Rotating field type
o On the basis of rotor construction
 Salient pole
 Smooth cylindrical type
o Alternator
 1-phase
 3-phase
o Synchronous motor
 1-phase
 3-phase
o Synchronous compensator

 Asynchronous machine….(It is used in industries because of its


efficiency and simplicity)
o Induction generator
 1-phase
 3-phase
o Induction motor
 1-phase
 3-phase

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Transformer

The transformer is an electrical machine in which its components are


mechanically static independently. These only work with alternating
current. In order to better explain the operation of a transformer and
because it only works with alternating current we need to think of two
separate circuits but at the same time winding in the form of a coil to
a ferromagnetic material as shown in figure 1.

Figure 1 - Transformer

For the first circuit we must clink a voltage source or AC current so


that it can generate a magnetic field in the first winding and thanks to
Faraday's law that explains that the magnetic flux generates an
electromagnetic induction that finally generates an alternating current
in the second winding.

The transformer is very useful because with this way of passing


electricity from one circuit to another with the ability to change the
voltages of these if we change the amount of coils in the coils. This
changes the voltage and current without changing the power and
frequency

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Single Phase Transformer

A single-phase transformer is used to change the voltage required in


electronic or electrical machines where the voltage delivered in the
area is not the same as the one required. Also according to the
construction of single-phase transformers there are two types:
Core-type transformers: these are made up of a piece of some
ferromagnetic material in which the conductor at the ends are coiled
in the form of a coil.

Figure 2 – Core type transformers

Armored type transformers:

These unlike the former are wound in the middle of the ferromagnetic
material in such a way that it generates less loss of magnetic flux.

Figure 3 – Armored type transformers

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Three-phase transformer

This is normally used to change the voltage in the transmission line


of the current, increasing the voltage so that losses are reduced by
delivering the same power and with the same frequency. There are
three types of transformers in this transmission line:
Unit transformers: this is the transform that is used to increase the
voltage in the power generation plants.

Figure 4 - Three-phase transformer.

Substation Transformer:

This transformer lowers the voltage at distribution voltage levels.

Figure 5 – Substation Transformer

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Linear motor:
A linear motor is an electric motor that has 2 parts: stator and rotor
distributed in such a way that it produces a linear force in the direction
of its length. Several designs of this engine have been created, which
are categorized into 2: linear motors of high and low acceleration

Induction motor:
In this type of motor, the force is produced by displacing the magnetic
field on conductors in the field. In any conductor that is placed to an
electric field they will be induced Foucault currents creating an
opposite magnetic field. According to Lenz's law, the 2 magnetic fields
repel, creating movement.

Synchronous motor:
In this design the speed of the magnetic field is usually controlled by
devices that regulate the movement of the rotor. This type of motor
has electromagnets that create a magnetic field that rotates at the
speed of synchronism.

Homopolar:
It is an electric generator of direct current that rotates perpendicularly
to the magnetic field.

Piezoelectric:
An electric piece system is often used for small linear motors.

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The DC machine can be used either as a generator or as a motor,
although it is currently used as a motor, since the generation of direct
current energy is achieved by equipment, with better efficiency and
lower cost. As for its use as an engine, it is of great importance in the
automotive industry since the vehicles have a large number of small
power engines (windshield wipers, starter, window lifts, heater, etc.).

Continuous current generator:

This machine is made up of two parts, one of which is a fixed or stator


on which coils are fed with direct current, which produce the magnetic
field of excitation. The stator is constructed of solid material, as it does
not produce magnetic losses. In the figure two coils are observed,
which are connected in series and produce the necessary magnetic
field. The energy consumption of the same is small compared to the
one that will produce as a generator.

Figure 6

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Within the stator is located the rotor or armature, which mounted on
an axis, make a rotation movement. This part of the machine is
constructed with magnetic plates, since the current that circulates in
the same one is alternating and appear the losses in the iron analyzed
before. For the analysis of the machine, separate the stator from the
rotor, replacing the stator by the magnetic flux that originates in the
coils of the same, taking into account that it has a value that depends
on the direct current that we circulate in said Coils. Place a loop in the
rotor, whose sides are housed in slots parallel to the axis and whose
terminals are attached to what will be called "delgas". These degas
are electrically isolated from the rotor shaft and from each other.

Figure 7

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Brush DC Motors

A brushed DC motor is an internally commutated electric


motor designed to be run from a direct current power source. Brushed
motors were the first commercially important application of electric
power to driving mechanical energy, and DC distribution systems
were used for more than 100 years to operate motors in commercial
and industrial buildings. Brushed DC motors can be varied in speed
by changing the operating voltage or the strength of the magnetic
field. Depending on the connections of the field to the power supply,
the speed and torque characteristics of a brushed motor can be
altered to provide steady speed or speed inversely proportional to the
mechanical load. Brushed motors continue to be used for electrical
propulsion, cranes, paper machines and steel rolling mills. Since the
brushes wear down and require replacement, brushless DC
motors using power electronic devices have displaced brushed
motors from many applications

Figure 8

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The motor’s properties are determined by the material it’s made of,
the number of coils wound around it, and the density of the coils. The
armature or rotor is an electromagnet, and the field magnet is a
permanent magnet. The commutator is a split-ring device wrapped
around the axel that physically contacts the brushes, which are
connected to opposite poles of the power source.

The brushes charge the commutator inversely in polarity to the


permanent magnet, in turn causing the armature to rotate. The
rotation’s direction, clockwise and/or counterclockwise, can be
reversed easily by reversing the polarity of the brushes, i.e., reversing
the leads on the battery.

Figure 9

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Brushless DC Motors

In terms of differences; the name is a dead giveaway. BLDC motors


lack brushes. But their design differences are bit more
sophisticated (see “Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor Fundamentals”). A
BLDC motor mounts its permanent magnets, usually four or more,
around the perimeter of the rotor in a cross pattern

Figure 10

Efficiency is a primary selling feature for BLDC motors. Because the


rotor is the sole bearer of the magnets, it requires no power, i.e., no
connections, no commutator, and no brushes. In place of these, the
motor employs control circuitry. To detect where the rotor is at certain
times, BLDC motors employ, along with controllers, rotary encoders
or a Hall sensor

BLDC motors are synchronous motors, which means their rotors and
stators turn at the same frequency. They come in single-, dual-, and
tri-phase configurations

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There are two types of AC machines which operate mainly through
Faraday's law. In addition these have two main parts: the rotor and
the stator. So these types of machines are.

Synchronous machine

The synchronous machine transforms the mechanical power into


electric or vice versa, is called like this because the speed of the rotor
is proportional to the frequency of the alternating current.

Alternator:

The alternator or synchronous generator has the capacity to generate


electrical energy by means of the mechanical energy produced in it.
In this way the mechanical energy rotates the rotor which is
surrounded by several pairs of windings and in the stator there is a
winding in order to generate three-phase AC current. While the rotor
rotates with direct current and mechanical energy an electromotive
force is generated, which can be seen with the law of Faraday and
finally this generates an alternating current.

Figure 11

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Winding of a three-phase alternator with 6 pole pairs.

Synchronous motor:

A synchronous motor is an alternator that works upside down, so


instead of transforming from mechanical energy to electrical energy,
it transforms electrical energy into mechanical energy. A synchronous
motor generates mechanical energy thanks to the fact that by
delivering electric power from alternating current to the stator, it
generates a variable magnetic flux which generates, by Faraday's
law, an electromotive force in the part of the rotor of this motor

Figure 12

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Synchronous Compensator:

Asynchronous machine: the asynchronous machine in the same way


as the synchronous transform mechanical energy into electric and
vice versa. The speed of rotation of the rotor is never equal to that of
the frequency.

Induction generator:

An induction generator generates electrical energy by means of


mechanical energy generated in it. This is formed by a moving part
which is the rotor, and a part which is held static which is the stator.
The rotor and the stator are formed by a winding and a ferromagnetic
material which can be seen with better pressure in figure 10

Figure 13

The operation of an induction motor is a bit more complicated. When


there is movement in the motor, a force is generated that causes the
motor to rotate and if this motor is connected to electric power, a
magnetic field is generated. Thus with the law of Lenz if you have a
magnetic field and a force, the result will induce a current which can
be calculated the direction with the rule of the right hand.

Induction motor:

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An induction motor is an induction generator but it works backwards,
instead of generating electrical energy it will generate mechanical
energy by transforming the electric energy given to it. The Lenz`s law
in the same way as in the generator induces a force that causes the
motor to move because it delivers electric energy, alternating current
and generates a magnetic field that induces a current in the rotor and
therefore generates a force that makes the rotor move and generate
mechanical energy.

Figure 14

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Bibliography:

 Alvarez, J. (2009). Máquina de corriente continua. Obtenido


de
https://www4.frba.utn.edu.ar/html/Electrica/archivos/electrotec
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 Classification of electrical machines - Part 1. (2016). [video]
OATS institute.

 Classification of electrical machines - Part 2. (2016). [video]


OATS institute.

 Classification of electrical machines - Part 3. (2016). [video]


OATS institute.

 Máquinas eléctricas - El alternador. (2015). [video]¨


Javier Mederos.

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http://www.monografias.com/trabajos91/maquinas-de-
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energy.com/eolica/generador_sincrono_y_asincrono.html
 Turmero, P. (s.f.). Monografías. Obtenido de
http://www.monografias.com/trabajos104/sistema-
trifasico/sistema-trifasico.shtml
 Universidad de Cantabria. (2010). Constitución de las
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