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Língua Estrangeira Instrumental I: Inglês – Profa.

Sueli Cavendish

>> DISCIPLINA
A Disciplina

Ementa

Atividades

Referências bibliográficas

>> SUMÁRIO
Introduction

1. Lesson one

1.1. Verb “to be”

1.2. Examples of usage

1.3. Exercises

2. Basic patterns of sentence structures

3. Building sentences

3.1. Learning about prepositions and prepositional phrases

3.2. Prepositions and prepositional phrases

4. Simple past tense

5. Subject and object pronouns

6. Texts

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A Disciplina

Dear class,

we are beginning our first Distance Learning


English Course - Instrumental English One - and
we are all excited about what we are going to
learn. For this course I have prepared 10
sessions dealing with several issues in introductory - elementary - and
intermediate English. The course should enable you to give your first
steps in the direction of acquiring some knowledge of the language. As
we say, to get around situations in which you might need to use English,
such as in preparing specific material for your classroom. At this stage
what you will be doing is mostly preparatory work for further, more
advanced learning. Still, important, basic elements, without which you
can't move forward, are in store. Thus, you will do some reading and
interpretation of texts. We provide you with the basic structures and
skills to do it well. You will learn many new words, I guess, since
learning a new language is like visiting an yet unchartered territory.
Vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation are all part of this course. I
hope this voyage is exciting to you. I plan to have a lot of fun while we
do it together.

My best wishes.

Sueli Cavendish

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Cara turma,

estamos começando nosso primeiro Curso de Inglês à Distância - Inglês

Instrumental 1 - e ansiosos com respeito ao que vamos aprender. Para este


curso preparei 10 sessões que endereçam questões diversas em Inglês

elementar e intermediário. O curso deve permitir que dêem os primeiros passos

em direção à aquisição de conhecimentos nessa língua. Como dizemos


simplesmente, para que possam lidar com situações nas quais o uso do Inglês

venha a ser necessário, tais como a preparação de material específico para as

suas próprias aulas. Nesse estágio o que vocês farão é, sobretudo, um trabalho
preparatório para um aprendizado em nível posterior mais elevado. Mesmo assim

elementos básicos importantes, sem os quais não se pode avançar, serão

contemplados. Desse modo, você fará leitura e interpretação de textos.


Fornecemos as estruturas básicas e as habilidades para que os façam bem.

Aprenderão muitas palavras novas, creio, uma vez que o aprendizado de uma

nova língua se compara à visita de um território ainda não mapeado. Vocabulário,


gramática e pronúncia fazem parte dessa trajetória. Espero que a viagem seja

interessante. Planejo divertir-me bastante enquanto os acompanho.

Bem-vindos a bordo.

Sueli Cavendish

Ementa

Desenvolvimento de estratégias de leitura e dos aspectos lingüístico-textuais


através de textos autênticos em língua inglesa de complexidade elementar e
intermediária.

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OBJETIVO GERAL: Fornecer, aos Discentes do "Curso de Graduação


(Licenciatura) em Letras na Modalidade à Distância" os elementos necessários à
compreensão e a utilização de fontes, materiais e textos em Língua Inglesa, que
permitam amplificar a gama de recursos disponíveis para as atividades
acadêmicas e garantir a contemporaneidade da formação oferecida.

OBJETIVOS ESPECÍFICOS:

• O alcance de patamares elementares e intermediários de leitura e


compreensão textual em Língua Inglesa, utilizando estratégias específicas;

• Utilização de estruturas e funções de nível elementar e intermediário


relacionados à interpretação textual;

• Revisão e consolidação das estruturas gramaticais fundamentais, quanto à


forma e ao significado;

• Fornecimento de técnicas e estratégias para a construção de vocabulário.


Ampliação do vocabulário geral e estudo de áreas lexicais específicas;

• Oferecer uma breve introdução a elementos da pronúncia em Inglês,


relevantes no contexto acadêmico e em outros contextos.

Referências bibliográficas

The American Heritage® Book of English Usage. A Practical and Authoritative


Guide to Contemporary English. A Grammar Toolkit. 1996.
http://www.bartleby.com/64/10.html

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Língua Estrangeira Instrumental I: Inglês – Profa. Sueli Cavendish

The American Heritage Book of English Usage - A Practical and Authoritative


Guide to Modern English(1996). http://www.bartleby.com/64/

Aske, John. Online Language Exercises. Salem State College -- SSC


http://lrc.salemstate.edu/aske/webexercises.htm

CAVENDISH, Sueli. Questions, translation and texts.

Grammar In Use: Reference and Practice for Intermediate Students of English.


New York: Cambridge UP, 1989.

Holden, Susan & Rogers, Mickey. O Ensino da Língua Inglesa. São Paulo, Special
Book Services, 2001.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English Online. 4th ed. (2003) Pearson


Education Limited. www.longman.com/ldoce/
MACLIN, Alice. Reference Guide to English: A Handbook of English as a Second
Language. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Wisnton, 1981.

MUNHOZ, Rosângela. Inglês instrumental: Estratégias de leitura. São Paulo:


Textonovo, 2000.

ROCHA, Analuiza; BARBOSA, M. Benta de Lima, FERRARI, Zuleica Águeda. Get


Ready. São Paulo: Moderna, 2002.

Oxford University Press. Landmark. S. Haines and B. Stewart. 2000.

SCHUMACHER, Cristina. Inglês urgente para brasileiros: Soluções simples e


práticas para aprender de vez. São Paulo: Campus, 1999.

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estritamente pessoal. Para outra utilização, solicitar autorização prévia do titular dos direitos autorais.
Língua Estrangeira Instrumental I: Inglês – Profa. Sueli Cavendish

SEDYCIAS, João. Gramática Instrumental da Língua Inglesa.


http://home.yawl.com.br/hp/sedycias/projeto_03.htm

SWAN, M. Practical English Usage. Oxford University Press, 1982.

TORRES, Nelson. Gramática prática da língua inglesa. São Paulo: Editora


Saraiva, 2000.

The Writing Lab at Purdue. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/

Introduction

Hi,

I want to greet you warmly into this new experience in Distance Learning
Instrumental English. This course has been prepared specially for you, who
might know a little English already or you, who might have never been in close
contact with it.

We will be seeing the basics to the learning of the language, in either writing or
reading, listening or speaking. A distance learner can bring much to the
improvement of his/her own skills. Knowledge is a constructive process, which
can be shared by both student and teacher. Let’s work together and build a
strong bond among us all involved. I am confident that our joint effort will
succeed.

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Olá,

quero saudá-lo/a calorosamente no momento em que iniciamos essa experiência


de aprendizado em Inglês Instrumental a distância. Este curso foi preparado

especialmente para você, que já sabe um pouco de inglês e também para você,

que ainda não teve contato com a língua.

Vamos nos concentar nos aspectos básicos da língua inglesa - leitura e escrita,

compreensão oral e fala. O aluno/a de um sistema de educação a distância pode


contribuir em muito para o desenvolvimento de suas habilidades. O aprendizado

é um processo construtivo, que pode ser compartilhado por estudantes e

professores. Vamos trabalhar juntos e construir um laço sólido entre todos nós
que estamos envolvidos. Tenho certeza de que o nosso esforço terá êxito.

1. Lesson One

Read the text bellow and notice the forms of verb to be in the present and in the
past. Look up in the glossary and then in the dictionary for unknown words.

Leia o texto abaixo e observe as formas do verbo “to be”, no presente e no


passado. Consulte o glossário e em seguida o dicionário, para as palavras que

não conhece.

Hi, I am an ESL student in a Distance Learning Program. Last night I


was talking to a friend who knows a lot of English. She is a student
at the Federal University of Pernambuco and so far she is very happy with

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her course. The teachers, she says, are very competent. I am not very good
at English right now, but my friend is positive that I am going to learn very
fast. I hope she is right and I am going to do my best. Were you satisfied
with our first class? I suppose most of our classmates were.

Glossary Glossário

ESL English as a second Language

Distance Learning Programa de Educação à


Program Distância

A lot of muito, bastante

So far até o momento

Do one’s best esforçar-se

Most a maior parte

Classmates colegas

Are são/é

Am sou

Were estavam, ficaram, foram

ATENÇÃO
Ao ler os textos em inglês procure memorizar as palavras do glossário e
do dicionário. Do mesmo modo, quando houver traduções em português
para instruções dadas em inglês, procure a relação entre uma e outra.
Assim você poderá melhorar a sua capacidade de compreensão
progressivamente, à medida que passamos dos textos mais simples
para os mais complexos. Nem todas as frases serão traduzidas. Assim,

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você deverá memorizar o que já aprendeu das traduções anteriores,


usar o glossário ou procurar no dicionário.

1.1 Verb “to be”


O verbo “ser/estar”

PRESENTE E INFINITIVO: “BE”


PASSADO: “WAS”
PARTICÍPIO PASSADO: “BEEN”

The verb be takes on different forms in the present and past.

O verbo “to be” assume formas diferentes no presente e no passado.

Presente Contração Passado

I am ‘m was

He is ‘s was

She is ‘s was

It is ‘s was

We are ‘re were

You are ‘re were

They are ‘re were

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>> It can indicate existence, temporary condition or permanent status.

Pode indicar existência, condição temporária ou situação permanente.

• I am a woman. Sou uma mulher.

• Susan and Nancy are nurses. Susan e Nancy são enfermeiras.

• Julie was happy yesterday. Julie estava feliz ontem.

• Brazil is in South America. O Brasil fica na América do Sul.

>> The future is build with be.

O futuro se constrói com o verbo ser.

• I’ll (I + will) be back tomorrow. Voltarei amanhã.

• He will be working as a dentist soon. Ele logo trabalhará como destista.

• They’ll (they + will) be traveling to Paris in the Summer. Eles vão viajar para
Paris no verão.

>> Be is also used in progressive tenses.

• I am going to the grocery store. Vou ao supermercado.

• He’s (he + is) trying to unlock the car. Ele está tentando destravar o carro.

>> In passive tenses.

• We were all surprised by the news. Fomos todos surpreendidos pelas

notícias.

• The car is being washed by Tom. O carro está sendo lavado por Tom.

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>> And with preposional phrases.

• Beth is very fond of her sister. Beth é louca pela irmã.

• Benny is not afraid of storms.

• I’m (I + am) interested in old movies.

ATIVIDADE 1
1) Click here to do the exercise http://a4esl.org/q/j/jb/mc-be.html.

1.2 Examples of usage


Exemplos de uso

>> Use be after modals like "may, might, will, can"

• Sandra will be at school in the morning. Sandra estará na escola de manhã.

• It might be late when you get to the station. Pode ser tarde quando você

chegar à estação.

>> Use be with "to" in the infinitive

• He wants to be a fireman when he grows up. Ele quer ser bombeiro quando

crescer.

• To be or not to be, that is the question. Ser ou não ser, eis a questão.

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>> Use be in the imperative

• Be quiet, the teacher is speaking now. Fique quieto, a professora está

falando agora.

• Be a good boy and drink your milk. Seja um bom menino e beba seu leite.

>> Be used in the present: singular am/is/are and contractions

• Bob is very nice until someone picks on him. Bob é muito bom até que

alguém mexa com ele.

• I am a stewardess working in the North Pole route. Sou uma aeromoça


trabalhando na rota do Polo Norte.

• It (the cat) is drinking its Milk. Está (o gato) bebendo o seu leite.

• You aren't (are + not) my favorite husband. Você não é meu marido favorito.

• You're (you + are) not supposed to say such a thing. Você não deve dizer tal

coisa (não se espera isso de você).

• She's (she + is) not in her bedroom / She isn't (is + not) in her bedroom.
Ela não está no quarto dela.

>> Be used in the plural: are and contractions

• They are going to Philadelphia in the summer. Eles vão à Filadélfia no verão.

• They're starting a fight in the corner. Eles estão começando uma briga na

esquina.

• They're (they + are) not coming next week. Eles não virão na semana que

vem.

• We are not accepting his excuses. / We aren't (are + not) accepting his
excuses. Não vamos aceitar as suas (dele) desculpas.

• We're (we + are) on our way to Mexico. Estamos a caminho do México.

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• We're (we + are) not interested in golf. Não estamos interessados em golfe.

• You are all invited for lunch. / You're (you + are) all invited for lunch. Todos

vocês estão convidados para o almoço.

• We aren't (are + not) paying for the extra drink. / We're (we + are) not
paying for the extra drink. Não vamos pagar pelo drink extra.

>> Be in the simple past: was/were

Be no passado simples

>> Use was with I, she, he, it

• She was just kidding you. Ela só estava brincando com você.

• He wasn't (was + not) aware of the fine for parking there. Ele não sabia da
multa por estacionar ali.

• She wasn't ready for New York City. Ela não estava pronta para Nova Iorque.

• It wasn't his fault, he was just trying to help. Não foi culpa dele, ele só
estava tentando ajudar.

• It was late when the burglars broke into her house. Era tarde quando os

ladrões assaltaram a casa dela.

• I was walking down the street when I saw the comet. Eu estava andando na

rua quando vi o cometa.

>> Use were with you, we/they

• We were tired of being misunderstood. Estávamos cansados de ser

incompreendidos.

• We weren't (were + not) tired of walking in the park. Não estávamos

cansados de andar no parque.

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• You were all invited, where are all the others? Vocês foram todos

convidados, onde estão os outros?

• You weren't at work yesterday, where were you? Você não esteve no
trabalho ontem, onde você estava?

>> Be in question form

Be em perguntas

• Is Lucy the best in her class? Lucy é a melhor da turma?

• Are the Joneses the richest people in town? Os Joneses são os mais ricos da
cidade?

• Were they absent of the classroom when you arrived? Eles estavam ausentes

da sala de aula quando você chegou?

• Was your mother a native American? Sua mãe era uma americana nativa?

• Is it your first visit to London? É a sua primeira visita a Londres?

• Is he misjudging the whole situation? Ele está julgando mal toda a situação?

• Are we forgetting anything? Estamos esquecendo alguma coisa?

• Am I a fool or what? Seu sou um tolo ou o que?

• Were they paying in cash? Eles estavam pagando em dinheiro vivo?

>> Be in negative questions

Watch what we do to the questions above to make them


negative:

Veja o que fazemos com as perguntas acima para torná-las negativas:

• Isn’t (is + not) Lucy the best in her class? Lucy não é a melhor da sua

turma?

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• Aren’t (are + not) the Joneses the richest people in town? Os Joneses não

são as pessoas mais ricas da cidade?

• Weren’t (were + not) they absent of the classroom when you arrived?

• Wasn’t (was + not) your mother a native American?

• Isn’t (is + not) it your first visit to London?

• Isn’t (is + not) he misjudging the whole situation? Ele não estaria julgando
mal a situação inteira?

• Aren’t (are + not) we forgetting something? Não estamos esquecendo

alguma coisa? Observe que como em português a pergunta negativa é quase


uma afirmação. Assim, usamos something em vez de anything.

• Aren’t (are + not) I a fool or what? Seu sou um tolo ou o que? Observe que

na primeira pessoa do singular a forma interrogativa negativa é absolutamente


excepcional.

• Were they paying in cash?

>> Use Being when the gerund of be is necessary

• Being a good sport is important. Ser bem-humorado é importante.

• Being on time is essential. Ser pontual é essencial.

>> Be in the present/past continuous

• She is going to the mall. Ela está indo para o shopping.

• I was going to Havana just to buy Cuban cigars. Eu estava indo para Havana

só para comprar charutos cubanos.

• They aren't spending all that much money on their daughter’s


wedding. Eles não estão gastando todo esse dinheiro no casamento da filha

deles.

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• You aren't skipping that appointment with the dentist, are you? Você não vai

faltar a consulta do dentista, vai?

• We were moving along the corridor when that wild cat


jumped on his shoulders. Estávamos nos movendo pelo corredor quando aquele

gato selvagem pulou nas costas dele.

>> Use been with has/have/had to form the present perfect and the
past perfect

• I have never been to Maine. Eu nunca estive no Maine. Notice the adverb
between have and been.

• He has never been a saint. Ele nunca foi santo. Adverb never between verbs.

• We have been living in this awful city since 1987.

1.3 Exercises

Reading and Comprehension

My father has always promised to take us on a trip around the world. Last year,
while we were sitting around the table having supper, he said he had made
definite arrangements for us to travel to Europe, and the first place to visit
would be France. We were all very excited. I had always wanted to see the Eiffel
Tower. I had always wanted to walk inside Versailles. He even guaranteed us
that he had just bought the plane tickets and made hotel reservations with a
very good travel agent. So we all started getting ready to leave. My mother took
us around town shopping for a few items we might need while we were away,
specially the cough medicines and headache pills we are used to and might not

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be able to get abroad. The trip was to take place in 15 days. In ten days we
were all packed. Our neighbor offered to take care of Bugs, our dog. My aunt
promised she would come over to feed the birds. It was all settled. Nothing
could get in our way. We were all sitting in the living room on a quiet afternoon,
making plans on what to do first once we were in Paris. Then a very rough wind
started to blow. We could see the trees swinging violently in several directions.
We turned the TV set on and got the information of a severe tornado coming in
our direction. Since we had an underground shelter, we decided to hide in there
and wait. We waited, and waited and waited, but there were no signs of the
weather getting any better. Finally we all fell asleep. When we woke up the next
morning and went out in the open, we were very surprised to see the most
beautiful day, with a mild breeze and blue skies above. The only problem was
that all the houses in the neighborhood, including ours, were gone. That was the
first tornado that ever struck Millville. And this is still the only town I have
known in my whole life.

ATIVIDADE 2

Answer the following:

1. Many tornadoes have struck Millville along the years


( ) Yes ( ) No

2. An underground shelter is built . . .


( ) above the house
( ) under the house

3. Bugs is the name of


( ) a cat ( ) a dog ( ) a bird

4. The birds would be fed by

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( ) a neighbor ( ) an aunt ( ) a maid

5. The tornado which struck Millville caused minor problems


( ) Yes ( ) No

6. A fever kept the narrator from travelling to France


( ) Yes ( ) No

7. The father announced the trip to France


( ) at lunchtime ( ) during breakfast ( ) at supper

8. What did the narrator most want to see in Paris


( ) Montmartre ( ) Champs Élisée ( ) Eiffel tower

9. Does the text make it clear how many people are there in the family?

10. Can you say from the text whether the narrator is male or female?

ATIVIDADE 3

Fill in with the correct form of verb be: / Preencha com a forma correta de
be:

It _____ my first day of classes at the Open University of Brazil. I _____ going
to start with the English Lessons. Right after eating breakfast, I _____ going to
access the site of the course at the Internet. All my classmates _____ doing the
same. At least this is what they _____ telling me last night, over the phone.
Half of them _____ women and half _____ men. Most of them _____ my
classmates last year, in High School. Just a few of them _____ (are not) very
nice. But they _____ all going to study hard, this _____ what I heard. _____ a
good student is important to guarantee our future.

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ATIVIDADE 4

Rewrite the following sentences in the negative form. Use contractions:


/ Em seguida escreva as seguintes frases na forma negativa, usando contrações:

1. I am ready to take the English test on Monday.


2. John is moving to California next year.
3. Susan and Bob were married for 26 years before they divorced.
4. She was the best student in class.
5. You are very happy about getting married.
6. Linda and Terry were the first students to get a scholarship.
7. The cat is running out of the house.
8. My mother is retiring as soon as the procedures are over.
9. They are working very hard on that project.
10. We are taking care of his small children until the end of the month.
11. The house was the best we could find in the neighborhood.

ATIVIDADE 5

Now rewrite the above sentences in the question form.

ATIVIDADE 6

Now, fill in the blanks:

1. Lisa said to her daughter: _____ quiet!


2. The dogs have _____ taken to the vet.
3. The boss warned Tim with these words: _____ on time is essential.
4. We have _____ together for many years.
5. The driver _____ waiting at the front door.

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6. Nothing is better than _____ alive!


7. I have _____ working hard on this math problem.
8. He wants _____ a movie star.
9. _____ rich is not enough to make you happy.
10. She expects _____ able to go to Europe.
11. Susan and Tom _____ at the movies last night.
12. They _____ going to Panama next summer.
13. _____ careful nurse is essential.
14. _____ they still in love with one another?
15. John went to school and Jill _____ here either.
16. I think Lucy _____ aware of the fact that he had lied.
17. The cat _____ afraid of the storm and it _____ hiding under the sofa.
18. Bob _____ still fixing the roof when we arrived.
19. _____ you going to school next semester?
20. They _____ busy most of the day yesterday.

ATIVIDADE 7

Click http://perso.wanadoo.es/autoenglish/gr.tobe.i.htm to do the


exercise.

ATIVIDADE 8

Click http://www.english-zone.com/verbs/be-01.html to do the


exercise.

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ATIVIDADE 9

Click http://www.eslpartyland.com/quiz%20center/bepresent.htm to do the


exercise.

ATIVIDADE 10

Click http://esl.about.com/library/beginner/blbe_quiz.htm to do the


exercise.

ATIVIDADE 11

Click http://english-zone.com/verbs/past-be02.html to do the exercise.

2. Basic patterns of sentence structure

A language, as a live organism, possesses a structure whose patterns govern


the way sentences are built. In this class we are going to deal with some of
them. Let's begin from the simplest to the most complex ones:

Uma língua, como organismo vivo que é, possui uma estrutura cujos

padrões governam a maneira pela qual se constroem as sentenças. Nessa aula

vamos lhe dar com alguns deles. Vamos começar pelas mais simples até as mais

complexas:

Most English sentences follow these five basic patterns:

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Patterns Examples

Lilly walks.
1. Subject - Verb Ann rests.
James is reading.

She likes beans.


2. Subject – Verb - Object Ann loves her friend.
He is chewing his meat.

Laura is angry.
3. Subject – Verb - Adjective Samantha is pretty.
The teens are lazy.

Aunt Lucy is here.


4. Subject – Verb - Adverb Flowers are everywhere.
The car is parked over there.

That is my sister.
5. Subject – Verb - Noun Mr. Smith is the cook.
These are the boxes.

For the words you can’t find in the glossary you must look up in the dictionary.

>> 1. The subject-verb couple is at the core of every English sentence. But
you can add other elements to this basic pattern in order to make it more
interesting or in order to convey an added or different meaning. Let’s pick up an
example of a core sentence: She eats.

Examples Notes

She eats Core sentence: She is the subject, eats is


the verb.

She eats slowly Core sentence: She is the subject , eats is


the verb.

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She eats at the table A prepositional phrase is added to describe


where she eats. /
Uma frase preposicional é acrescentada para
descrever onde ela come.

She eats at the table A time expression is added to describe when


every day she eats. /
Expressão verbal descreve quando ela
come.

She is eating at the Verb tense is changed. /


table right now Tempo verbal muda.

Suzy will eat later Subject is named and another verb is used.

The cat is eating in A new subject appears and the verb changes
the yard according to the new sentence. /
Aparece um novo sujeito e o tempo verbal
muda também de acordo com a nova
sentença.

>> 2. Let’s now work some more with the subject-verb-object pattern:

Vamos trabalhar um pouco mais com o padrão sujeito-verbo-objeto.

Examples Notes

They like meat. Core sentence with meat as object.

The guests like meat. Specific subject.

The friendly guests like Subject modified by an adjective.


meat.

The friendly guests like Object modified by an adjective.


raw meat.

The friendly guests like Object modified by more than one


salty, raw meat. object.

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Glossary Glossário

Meat carne

Guest convidado

Friendly amigáveis

Raw cru/crua

Salty salgado/a

Everyday todos os dias

Slowly devagar

Couple casal, dupla

Chew, Chewing mastigar, mastigando

Cook cozinheiro

Lazy preguiçoso

Yard quintal, pátio

This time desta vez

All over the place em todo lugar, em toda parte

Core núcleo, centro, base

>> 3. And now with the Subject-Verb-Adjective pattern:

Examples Notes

She is well. Core sentence with be verb.

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She seems to be well. Core sentence with another linking


verb.

Martha is short, fair and Series of adjectives and specified


pretty. subject.

Martha seems to be very quiet. Intensifier very added to adverb


quiet.

Martha was sick last night. Different tense of be.

>> 4. This time with the Subject-Verb-Adverb pattern:

Examples Notes

We are all here. Core sentence.

We were all over there. Adverb phrase used.

My friends are all over the place. Adverb phrase or idiom.

>> 5. And finally, with the Subject-Verb-Noun pattern:

Examples Notes

The woman is a nurse. Core sentence.

The women are nurses. Plural subject, verb and noun.

Your brother is a nice man. Modified subject and object.

His grandparents are senior Modified plural subject and object.


citizens.

Maria is a nice girl. New subject and modified object.

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Now we are going to learn a few facts about Noun Phrases, words or groups of
words that work as subjects or objects in sentences like:

Examples Notes

Oxygen is essential for life. Single words.

Mrs. Smith talked to Jenny. Proper names.

The girl caught a fish. Nouns and articles.

My father plays football with Nouns and possessives.


her uncle.

The mad woman dressed a Nouns, adjectives and articles.


long robe.

A few of the boys drank the Nouns and quantifiers.


whole milk.

>> And also about pronouns and similar words which work as subjects and
objects:

Our father gave the house to us.


Somebody kicked that.
Send me two of each kind.

LEITURA COMPLEMENTAR

Click http://www.pharmavision.hu/a3/xgr/etprs1.htm for more


information on basic sentence structure.

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ATIVIDADE 12

Build 5 sentences in each line:

1) Subject-Verb-Object.
2) Subject-Verb- Adjective.
3) Subject-Verb-Adverb.
4) Subject-Verb-Noum.
5) Pronouns and similiar words as subjects and objects.

ATIVIDADE 13

Enhance the core sentence Kim rides…

1) Adding an adverb.
2) Adding a time expression.
3) Adding a prepositional phrase.
4) Changing the verb tense.
5) Using a new subject.
6) Adding an object.

ATIVIDADE 14

Change the subject - verb-object sentence - She hates pineapples.

1) Use a specific subject.


2) Subject modified by an adjective.
3) Object modified with an adjective.
4) Object modified with more than one adjective.
5) Subject modified with an adverb.

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ATIVIDADE 15

Enhance the subject-verb-noun sentence -The man is a pilot.

1) Plural noun and verb.


2) Modified subject.
3) Modified plural subject, verb and complement.

ATIVIDADE 16

Identify the sentence patterns. Example: Susan eats bananas= s-v-o

1) Lisa hates her job.


2) The Smiths are happy.
3) Susan is here.
4) She is my sister.
5) Jim runs fast.
6) John runs on the road.
7) Theresa and Jennifer are secretaries.

ATIVIDADE 17

Now listen to this “Voice of America Radio Program” All About Eyes: Once He
Caught My Eye, It Was Love Everlasting at
http://www.voanews.com/specialenglish/2007-07-09-voa3.cfm.

ATIVIDADE 18

Write down the words that you understand. Look up for the words you
don’t know. Be sure to read and listen as often as you can. Then you will be
asked questions about it.

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(http://www.voanews.com/specialenglish/words_and_their_stories.cf
m).

ATIVIDADE 19

How about trying these online games about sentences structures??


HAVE FUN!!

English Egg (http://englishegg.com/)

Describing Actions (http://www.english-


online.org.uk/beginners/beg1fun2n.htm)

Grammar Blast (http://www.english-


online.org.uk/beginners/beg1fun2n.htm)

Other Grammar Blast (http://www.eduplace.com/cgi-bin/hme-quiz-


start.cgi?Grade=3&Unit=1&Topic=The+Sentence&x=23&y=7)

Other Grammar Blast (http://www.eduplace.com/cgi-bin/hme-quiz-


start.cgi?Grade=4&Unit=1&Topic=The+Sentence&x=39&y=14)

3. Building Sentences
Construindo Sentenças

3.1 Learning about Prepositions and


Prepositional phrases
Aprendendo sobre Preposições e Frases
preposicionais

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Do you recall when we said that the couple subject-verb is at the core of every
sentence? Around this core we can build a lot, thus enhancing the sentence, i.e.,
giving it more complexity and substantiality. This is what we are learning to do
next.

• First let’s see the ways in which the verb can be enhanced.

>> 1. We can change the verb in tense or form or a combination of the two. For
example:

Examples Verb Tenses

He studies. Simple present.

He will study. Future/Modal.

He is studying. Present continuous.

He has studied. Present perfect.

He has been studying. Present perfect continuous.

He would have studied. Conditional.

>> 2. We can enhance these simple sentences by adding an adverb, an


adverbial phrase or a prepositional phrase. For example:

Examples Verb Tenses

He was eating in the kitchen. Prepositional phrase.

He will study when Stella arrives. Adverbial clause.

He is studying in spite of his Prepositional phrase.


headache.

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He has studied by the window all Prepositional phrase with


day. adverbial clause.

He has been studying harder than Adverbial phrase.


last year.

He would have studied if he hadn’t Prepositional phrase.


gone out with his friends.

He listened to the radio in Prepositional phrase.


addition to studying.

LEITURA COMPLEMENTAR

For more on prepositions and prepositional phrases click


http://www.shsu.edu/~wctr/handouts/prepositions_and_prepositiona
l_phrases.pdf.

Or, you can add meaning in the following way:

Examples Verb Tenses

I honestly don’t think he should run. Adverb.

We went for a walk in the park later. Adverbial clause.

He studied hard so he passed the test. Adverbial clause.

He received the news that he had passed Adverbial phrase.


very gladly.

He studied so hard to catch up with his Adverbial phrase.


class.

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LEITURA COMPLEMENTAR

For more on adverbs and adverbial phrases click


http://www.learningmatters.co.uk/education/a_to_z/english/a.html
or http://www.bartleby.com/68/75/175.html.

• Second, let’s see some ways in which the subject can be enhanced:

Examples Verb Tenses

Steve studies. Specifying the subject.

Claire is chewing gum. Adding an object.

The tall man is running down Adding an article, an adjective, an


the street. adverbial clause.

The man in the terrace is Adding a prepositional phrase.


studying.

The man who lives next door Adding a relative clause and an
studies all day long. adverbial clause.

The tall, white man studies all Adding more than one adjective.
the time.

The white man in the car is Adding a prepositional phrase.


shouting.

Some of the men she knows Adding quantifiers and adjectives.


aren’t tall or handsome.

As well as the object:

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Examples Verb Tenses

The girl likes the cat. Specifying the subject.

The girl likes the black, wild cat. Adding one or more adjectives.

The girl likes the cat that her Adding a relative clause.
mother gave her.

The girl likes the black, wild cat in Adding a prepositional phrase.
the zoo.

ATIVIDADE 20

Change the verb in tense or form in three different ways in the


following:

1) Anthony loved Cleopatra.


2) John is watching the games.
3) Melissa is playing basketball.
4) Anthony is walking in the park.

ATIVIDADE 21

Enhance both the subject and the verb to make the sentences more
interesting:

1) The man who lives in the pink house is cutting down the trees.
2) The women from the gym go to the mall every Tuesday after they work out.
3) The cute boy next door keeps peeping through my window.
4) Some of the girls ate the ice cream that I left in the fridge.
5) Whenever she feels sad, she listens to the radio.

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ATIVIDADE 22

Enhance the subject - He sleeps:

1) Add an adjective.
2) Add a prepositional phrase.
3) Add quantifiers.
4) Add a relative clause.
5) Change the noun to a pronoun or vice versa.
6) Add an article, demonstrative, or possessive.

ATIVIDADE 23

Enhance the object - He sleeps on the couch:

1) Add an adjective.
2) Add a prepositional phrase.
3) Add quantifiers.
4) Add a relative clause.
5) Change the noun to a pronoun or vice versa.
6) Add an article, demonstrative, or possessive.

3.2 Prepositions and Prepositional


Phrases

Prepositions
Prepositions are words that link words – nouns, pronouns and phrases – to other
words in a sentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called

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the object of the preposition. What the preposition indicates is mainly the
temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence.

Preposições são palavras que ligam palavras – substantivos, pronomes e


frases – a outras palavras numa sentença. A palavra ou frase que a preposição

introduz é chamada de objeto da preposição. O que uma preposição indica é

principalmente a relação temporal, especial ou lógica de seu objeto com o resto


da sentença.

Ex: Emily recalled events of her life, writing all that happened to her in her
journal.

Emily recordava eventos da sua vida, escrevendo tudo o que lhe acontecia

em seu diário.

In this sentence, of is a preposition and in is a preposition.

Now watch closely the words in bold in the following sentences. They are the
object of the preposition, that is, they are the words introduced by the
preposition:

• The bowl is on the table. O vaso está na mesa.

• The bowl is beneath the table. O vaso está embaixo da mesa.

• The surf board is leaning against the chair. A prancha de surfe está encostada

na mesa.

• The chair is beside the table. A cadeira está ao lado da mesa.

• She held the bowl over the table. Ela segurou o vaso sobre a mesa.

• The car rode into the garage.

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Prepositional phrases

Just as adjectives and adverbs add meaning to nouns and verbs, so do


prepositional phrases. They can take two forms:

Assim como adjetivos e advérbios acrescentam significados a substantivos

e verbos, o mesmo ocorre com frases preposicionais. Elas podem se apresentar

de duas formas:

• a preposition plus a noun: a dish of peas (of introduces


peas).

• a preposition plus a pronoun that functions as the object of


the preposition: I stood in front of him.
Build your own glossary and post it in the library: Food, Needy, Gather, Workers.

ATIVIDADE 24

Find the object of the preposition in the following sentences:

1) John was leaning against the wall.


2) John was standing beside Mary.
3) John was sitting on the couch.
4) John was running along the road.
5) John was hiding beneath the bridge.
6) The scholars were talking in the conference room.
7) The boys were working on the field.
8) The cat jumped onto the table.
9) The dog went into his house.
10) The bird flew toward its nest.
11) Mary is reading beneath the lamps.
12) Susan is knitting on the couch.
13) The little boys are jumping on the bed.

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14) Mary is walking across the lawn.


15) Andrew just passed by my house.

Glossary

Build your own glossary, using the dictionary. Then post it in the library: / Construa o seu

próprio glossário, usando o dicionário. Em seguida, ponha na biblioteca: Enhancing,


Leaning, Wall, Couch, Hill, Bridge, Hiding, Sitting, Standing, Bowl, Lawn, Across, Nest,

Beneath.

ATIVIDADE 25

Extract the prepositional phrase from the sentences and write them in
the blanks.

1) Ana and John were kissing behind the house.


___________ behind the house _________________.
2) Susan is going to the grocery store.
___________ to the grocery store _________________.
3) Emily is fond of gardening in the yard.
4) Her sister jogs around the block a couple of time every week.
5) Lizzie, can you carry the groceries up the stairs?
6) I walked to the park.
7) The two dogs ran toward the trees.
8) “Today, we will have a test over your homework assignment,” their teacher
announced.
9) We went to the store to buy a new computer.
10) The mouse fell into the pot of beans.
11) We can go to the movie in the evening.
12) Cassie never went to the party with Paul.
13) Take your books to your room.

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14) Bob watched the plane flying in the skies.


15) If I receive good news in the mail, we can go to the movie.
16) I had to get new lamps for my terrace.
17) The fish were feeding inside the aquarium.
18) You must stop by Johnny’s house before going to the ball.
19) She is so happy about her new dress.
20) Terence looked forward to the beginning of the games.

ATIVIDADE 26

Click http://www.englishpage.com/minitutorials/adverbexercisec.htm to do the


exercise.

4. Simple Past Tense

How we build the simple past tense of a verb depends on whether that verb is
regular or irregular. If it is regular we just add ed. Look, Hurry, Wait, Return,
Want, Seem, Turn, Try, Decide, Look, Store, Finish, Worry are all regular verbs.
When a regular verb ends in “y”, you erase the “y” and add “ied”, as in “try tried
tried”.

• Mary looked back at him in awe.

• Henry tried to save the books but they were damaged by


the storm.

• Stella waited for him as long as she could.

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• They wanted to be the first to congratulate the couple


at the wedding.

• Lisa seemed less worried last night after the lights returned.

• They finally decided to adopt the child.

• They stored those canned tomatoes for four years.

• She finished school last year and soon decided to go back to it as a teacher.

• John returned the books to the library just in time not to be


fined.

• I hurried back home as soon as the baby sitter called


saying the baby was crying.

Usage: Before we speak about irregular verbs, let’s spend some time
observing the usage of simple past. We use it:

• When referring to an action which occurred at a specific time in the past.

• When referring to a completed action.

• When indicating past status.

Examples:

Specific past action Completed action Past status

I went to school at June finished her Susan was still


seven. thesis at last. unmarried when I
met her in 1987.

She came to visit in the We were out of Bob hadn’t


afternoon. cookies when he graduated yet
arrived. when he met Jill.

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Now I want you read the story that I have written, especially to make it easy for
you to understand the simple past.

Melissa wanted to give a birthday present to her boyfriend, although she


didn’t have the money to buy it. She tried to ask her mother for the money
but her mother was very busy in the kitchen and seemed to be in a terrible mood.
She then turned to her father, but he was watching his favorite soccer game on TV
and paid no attention to her. She was distressed. Some friends were throwing a
party for Ted that night, which was to begin at eight. It was now fifteen past five.
Soon all the shops would be closed. To make things worse, a snowstorm had just
started, with the big snowflakes visible through the window while they fell. Melissa
decided to rely on her own resources. She was good at writing, especially at writing
poems. Therefore, she went up to her room and looked for the finest sheet of paper
among those she had stored and sat down on her desk. Her feelings for Ted were
so deep and amorous that thoughts began immediately to flow from her mind and
heart thorough her hand and onto the paper. When she finished she read the poem
and was quite content that she had been able to express her feelings for Ted so
thoroughly. He would certainly admire her gesture and appreciate her gift. While she
was having those thoughts, the phone rang. ‘Jennifer’, called her mother, ‘it is for
you’. On the other side of the line was her friend Theresa. ‘I have a message for
you, it is from Ted’. ‘What is it’? -- Asked Jennifer. ‘I am afraid I don’t have good
news, Jennifer. Ted won’t be at the party tonight’.— ‘Why, is he sick?’ – Jennifer
asked, in deep concern. ‘No’, said Theresa, ‘he just flew out of town, and he took
Janet with him. He said he was really sorry, but you were too smart for
him’.

You will notice that the “simple past” is the main narrative verb tense. In the
story we have:

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Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle

Finish Finished Finished

Hurry Hurried Hurried

Look Looked Looked

Try Tried Tried

Seem Seemed Seemed

Turn Turned Turned

Wait Waited Waited

Want Wanted Wanted

Search for the meaning of the verbs in the dictionary.

LEITURA COMPLEMENTAR

For more on adverbs and adverbials phrases


http://www.learningmatters.co.uk/education/a_to_z/english/a.html
or http://www.bartleby.com/68/75/175.html.

Now, irregular verbs are what they say they are; completely irregular. Their
simple past and past participle are quite different from the infinitive form.
Moreover, there are no rules to tell you what the past and the past participle will
look like. Thus, there is no way you can learn them other than memorizing.
Watch:

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Irregular Verbs (in the story above)

Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle

Be Was/Were Being

Begin Began Begun

Buy Bought Bought

Fly Flew Flown

Go Went Gone

Pay Paid Paid

Read Read Read

Say Said Said

Sit Sat Sat

Take Took Taken

Search for the meaning of the verbs in the dictionary.

Since there are innumerous irregular verbs, you might as well try to memorize
the following also:

Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle

Beat Beat Beaten

Become Became Become

Bite Bit Bitten

Blow Blew Blown

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Break Broke Broken

Bring Brought Brought

Build Built Built

Catch Caught Caught

Choose Chose Chosen

Cost Cost Cost

Cut Cut Cut

Do Did Done

Draw Drew Drawn

Drink Drank Drunk

Drive Drove Driven

Eat Ate Eaten

Feel Felt Felt

Fight Fought Fought

Find Found Found

Search for the meaning of the verbs in the dictionary.

Now read the examples:

• The plane ticket cost a thousand dollars last year.

• She chose not to be at the picnic this morning.

• They found the suitcase in the attic just yesterday.

• The dog bit the mailman’s leg.

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• He drank as much as he could last night.

• They fought a good cause back in the 60’s.

• She brought a Vietnamese to live with them.

• John Smith built the hugest house in town in the beginning of the century.

• Elsa became known when she acted as a stunt in Godfather 1.

• He drew a lot of money from his bank account in order to pay for the bills.

• Susan blew the candles right after midnight.

• Jessica beat another world record in the last swimming competition.

• He tried his best but couldn’t convince her.

• Lisa broke her leg while skiing last summer.

• Angela never took her mother’s advice seriously.

ATIVIDADE 27

Click on this link


http://www.eslgold.com/speaking/talking_past_actions.html.

ATIVIDADE 28

And read a sample text with the past tense


http://www.eslgold.com/writing/sample_past.html.

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ATIVIDADE 29

Click on this link to do another exercise on the simple past:


http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/simple-
past/exercises?04.

ATIVIDADE 30

Click on this link for one more: http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-


up/grammar/simple-past/exercises.

ATIVIDADE 31

And here also: http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/simple-


past/exercises?05.

ATIVIDADE 32

Now the last one: http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-


up/grammar/simple-past/exercises?02.

5. Subject and Object Pronouns

You are already familiar with the personal subject pronouns. But can you use the
personal object pronouns as well?

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Você já conhece os pronomes pessoais no caso do sujeito. Mas sabe usar os

pronomes no caso do objeto?

• I am sitting on my bed. Bring that book to me.

• You are being too fussy. Calm down, I will write you a letter.

• She is feeling lonely. Can you keep her company?

• He is already at home. Go tell him the news.

• It is scratching the sofa. Take it outside.

• We are tired of sitting here. Can you read to us?

• You all look very tired. I will accommodate you.

• She is not kidding you. You’d better believe her.

• I put my money on real state as an investment. Several of the buildings in this


city are mine.

Glossary Glossário

Fussy caprichoso, mal comportado,


confuso.

News novidades

Drove dirigiram, viajaram de carro

Lonely solitário(a)

Scratch arranhar

Calm down acalma-se

Tired cansado(a)

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Sitting estar sentado(a)

Drive dirigir

Barge irromper, invadir, entrar a


força

Keep someone company fazer companhia a alguém

Kid someone brincar

You had better (you’d é melhor


better)

Take a good look at the following table:

Observe bem o seguinte quadro:

Personal Pronoun Possessives Possessive


Pronouns Determiner
TABLE 1
Subject Object Reflexive / Adjective

I Me Myself Mine My

You You Yourself Yours Your


Singular
He Him Himself His His

She Her Herself Hers Her

It It Itself Its (not Its


frequentely)

We Us Ourselves Ours Our


Plural
You You Yourselves Yours Your

They Them Themselves Theirs Their

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Go back to table 1 and take another look:

Possessives

>> Possessives take many forms in English as in other languages. No wonder


we are so possessive ourselves. They can be used as adjectives to modify nouns
or stand alone as subjects, objects or complements.

For example:

• My girlfriend is standing outside - modifying a noun.

• John and Bob’s girlfriends are standing in my living room - as a complement


modifying a noun.

• So these girlfriends standing in my own living room are theirs (John and
Bob’s) – as a complement.

• Mine will have to stay outside until I get rid of these inside here. Or what will
she think? – used as a subject.

• Yes, yes, this is just what I said, the blond one, standing outside is mine – as
an object.

• Theirs are right here, and they won’t leave, oh my God! – as a subject.

• Mine has rung the bell 5 times, I guess she is beginning to get mad! Oh no, it
has started to rain. I don’t want mine to get soaked up – as a subject and as an
object.

• So tell them to come back here this minute to take their girlfriends away
through the back door! – as a complement and as a noun modifier.

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• Wow, my girlfriend is gone now. I will just leave theirs behind and go catch
mine before she reaches the bus stop and gets on the bus – as a modifier and
as objects.

>> Examples of possessives in different collocations:

• My car is bigger than her car. It is indeed much bigger than hers. Mine is
the car much bigger than hers.

• Your friend is coming to dinner. The friend who is coming to dinner is yours.
Yours is the friend who is coming to dinner.

• His house has been put for sale. The house which has been put for sale is his.
His is the house which has been put for sale.

• Her dress has been soiled with ketchup. The dress which has been soiled with
ketchup is hers. Hers is the dress which has been soiled with ketchup.

• Our uncle lives in California. The uncle who lives in California is ours. Ours is
the uncle who lives in California.

• Your relatives are coming from Rio. The relatives which are coming from Rio
are yours. Yours are the relatives coming from Rio.

• Their teachers have taught at Yale. The teachers who have taught at Yale are
theirs. Theirs are the teachers who have taught at Yale.

>> In these examples the first sentence uses either a possessive adjective or a
genitive case with’s. The second sentence uses a possessive pronoun.
Remember that a Possessive Pronoun is used instead of a ‘possessive adjective
+ a noun’:

• Julie's car is red. Mine is blue. (my car)

• My pencil is not sharpened. Can I borrow yours? (your pencil)

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• Susan and her dog have been playing outside for a long time. The cat inside
the house is also hers. (her cat)

•Jim should get off the bus on 52nd street. So I think the next stop is his. (his
stop)

• We haven't moved all the furniture yet. That wooden rocking chair is also
ours. (our rocking chair)

• You and Mary forgot something in the back of the car. Isn't that package
yours? (your package)

• The Simpsons bought several houses in this street. Soon the whole
neighborhood will be theirs. (their neighborhood)

Reflexive Pronouns

>> Reflexive Pronouns are generally used:

• When the subject and the object coincide as in - I gave myself a break.

• When it is the object of a preposition which refers to the subject - I decided to


go to the mall, what the heck, and spend some money on myself.

• And when you just want to emphasize the subject - I’ll carry that heavy fridge
myself, no worry. The man shot the deer himself.

Genitive

>> The possessive is also formed by adding “’s” to singular nouns and plural
nouns not ending in s. Such possessives can be used as modifiers, or they can
stand alone.

• It is Tina's shirt - modifying shirt.

• Those are the nuns’ rosaries – modifying rosaries.

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• Jason’s is the purple one – standing alone, meaning that something belonging
to Jason is being spoken of.

• I'm going to Rafaela’s – In this case it means to Rafaela’s house.

>> With plural nouns ending in’s, only an apostrophe (‘) is used to form the
possessive.

• The nuns' rosaries are inside the drawer.

• All the guest’s coats were kept in the cloakroom.

>> The genitive (‘s) is also frequently used:

In a family relationship

• John's mother.

• The Queen's daughter.

With qualities

Jake’s good humor.

The firemen’s courage.

>> The possessive is also used to refer to shops, restaurants, churches and
colleges, using the name or job title of the owner.

Examples:

the grocer's the doctor's the vet's

the newsagent's the chemist's Smith's

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the dentist's McDonald’s Hudson Belk’s

Luigi's Saint Mary's Saint Jessica's

• Shall we go to McDonald’s for a snack?

• I've got an appointment at the dentist's at eleven o'clock.

• Is Saint Mary's an all-girls school?

ATIVIDADE 33

Click http://a4esl.org/q/h/9901/jd-pronouns.html to answer it.

ATIVIDADE 34

Possessive Pronouns and Adjectives. Follow the link to answer:


http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/330/grammar/poss1.htm.

ATIVIDADE 35

Replace the personal pronouns with possessive adjectives.

1) Where are (you) [ ] friends now?


2) Here is a postcard from (I) [ ] friend Peggy.
3) She lives in Australia now with (she) [ ] family.
4) (She) [ ] husband works in Newcastle.
5) (He) [ ] company builds ships.
6) (They) [ ] children go to school in Newcastle.
7) (I) [ ] husband and I want to go to Australia, too.

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8) We want to see Peggy and (she) [ ] family next winter.


9) (We) [ ] winter will be great!
10) Because it is (they) [ ] summer.

ATIVIDADE 36

Replace the personal pronouns with possessive pronouns.

1) This book is (you) [ ].


2) The ball is (I) [ ].
3) The blue car is (we) [ ].
4) The ring is (she) [ ].
5) We met Paul and Jane last night. This house is (they) [ ].
6) The luggage is (he) [ ].
7) The pictures are (she) [ ].
8) This cat is [ ] (we).
9) This was not my fault. It was [ ] (you).
10) That is not the Joneses’ house. It is [ ] (I).

ATIVIDADE 37

Follow the link http://a4esl.org/q/h/vc-pronouns-lb.html to answer


the quizz.

ATIVIDADE 38

Fill in with the correct reflexive pronoun:

1) Bob hurt [ ] while he was fixing the roof.


2) At 12.30, Serena and Bill went to the store next door to buy [ ] some

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ice cream.
3) When I looked at [ ] in the mirror, I didn’t feel proud of my hair style.
4) Luisa can do her homework all by [ ] but I am always having to help Sandra
to do hers. She never does it by [ ].
5) Susan and her sister are the owners of Wreck and Co., so they can give [ ]
free time when they feel like travelling somewhere.
6) Did you teach your daughter [ ]? She is showing so much improvement!
7) We’ve got plenty of food. Just come to the table and help [ ].
8) Look! There's a little bird washing [ ] in the pond.
9) John won’t need any help with that bike. He can fix it [ ].
10) Anna bought [ ] a beautiful new house.

It is absolutely important that you click here for more information about reflexive
pronouns: http://www.learnenglish.org.uk/grammar_home_frame.htm.

ATIVIDADE 39

Click here for an exercise:


http://www.learnenglish.org.uk/grammar_home_frame.html

ATIVIDADE 40

Make possessives with ‘s or just ‘:

1) The umbrella belongs to Louisa. It is [ ].


2) We are eating at [ ] (Carter restaurant).
3) The dress belonging to Kate. It is [ ][ ].
4) The house belonging to the Smiths. It is [ ].
5) John possesses the quality of being careful. The trip that John is taking [ ].
6) The doctor I am going to (doctor +office) [ ].
7) They were wedded at (St. Mary + church) [ ].

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8) Brazil+ income per capita [ ].


9) She is having dinner at the (Joneses+ house) [ ].

6. Texts

>> Text 1

Hi, I am an ESL student in a Distance Learning Program. Last night I was talking
to a friend who knows a lot of English. She is a student at the Federal University
of Pernambuco and so far she is very happy with her course. The teachers, she
says, are very competent. I am not very good at English right now, but my
friend is positive that I am going to learn very fast. I hope she is right and I am
going to do my best. Were you satisfied with our first class? I suppose most of
our classmates were.

>> Text 2

My father has always promised to take us on a trip around the world. Last year,
while we were sitting around the table having supper, he said he had made
definite arrangements for us to travel to Europe, and the first place to visit
would be France. We were all very excited. I had always wanted to see the Eiffel
Tower. I had always wanted to walk inside Versailles. He even guaranteed us
that he had just bought the plane tickets and made hotel reservations with a
very good travel agent. So we all started getting ready to leave. My mother took
us around town shopping for a few items we might need while we were away,
specially the cough medicines and headache pills we are used to and might not
be able to get abroad. The trip was to take place in 15 days. In ten days we
were all packed. Our neighbor offered to take care of Bugs, our dog. My aunt
promised she would come over to feed the birds. It was all settled. Nothing
could get in our way. We were all sitting in the living room on a quiet afternoon,

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making plans on what to do first once we were in Paris. Then a very rough wind
started to blow. We could see the trees swinging violently in several directions.
We turned the TV set on and got the information of a severe tornado coming in
our direction. Since we had an underground shelter, we decided to hide in there
and wait. We waited, and waited and waited, but there were no signs of the
weather getting any better. Finally we all fell asleep. When we woke up the next
morning and went out in the open, we were very surprised to see the most
beautiful day, with a mild breeze and blue skies above. The only problem was
that all the houses in the neighborhood, including ours, were gone. That was the
first tornado that ever struck Millville. And this is still the only town I have
known in my whole life.

>> Text 3

I had a bad dream last night. In the dream, my best friend and I were in a car.
We were tired and hungry, so we stopped at a drive-in restaurant. The
restaurant was dark and empty, but we could see a waiter in front of it. He said
that the restaurant was closed. However, he took our order. We asked for two
hamburgers and two glasses of juice. He went back into the restaurant and got
our order. Soon, he was out and knocked on the window of our car. He gave us
the hamburgers and the juice. The hamburgers were green and the juice was
blue. However, we were very hungry, so we stayed in the car and ate the
hamburger and drank the juice.

Suddenly, there was a loud noise. The sky became red and the restaurant
disappeared. We drove away quickly. Then our car started to shake. Then, we
were in a small boat on the ocean. At that point, I woke up and realized that it
was only a dream.

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>> Text 4

Melissa wanted to give a birthday present to her boyfriend, although she didn’t
have the money to buy it. She tried to ask her mother for the money but her
mother was very busy in the kitchen and seemed to be in a terrible mood. She
then turned to her father, but he was watching his favorite soccer game on TV
and paid no attention to her. She was distressed. Some friends were throwing
a party for Ted that night, which was to begin at eight. It was now fifteen past
five. Soon all the shops would be closed. To make things worse, a snowstorm
had just started, with the big snowflakes visible through the window while they
fell. Melissa decided to rely on her own resources. She was good at writing,
especially at writing poems. Therefore, she went up to her room and looked for
the finest sheet of paper among those she had stored and sat down on her
desk. Her feelings for Ted were so deep and amorous that thoughts began
immediately to flow from her mind and heart thorough her hand and onto the
paper. When she finished she read the poem and was quite content that she
had been able to express her feelings for Ted so thoroughly. He would certainly
admire her gesture and appreciate her gift. While she was having those
thoughts, the phone rang. “Jennifer”, called her mother, “it is for you.” On the
other side of the line was her friend Theresa. “I have a message for you, it is
from Ted”. “What is it”? -- Asked Jennifer. “I am afraid I don’t have good news,
Jennifer. Ted won’t be at the party tonight.”—“ Why, is he sick?” – Jennifer
asked, in deep concern. “No”, said Theresa, “he just flew out of town, and he
took Janet with him. He said he was really sorry, but you were too smart for
him.”

>> Text 5

Computers and Modern Life

All the major countries of the world have computers, and the developing
countries are increasingly aware that computers play a big part in their
economical advancement.

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Most experts agree that computers are essential to solving the problems of
increasing population, city living, and public welfare. Without computers, the job
of solving these problems would require millions of workers to do tons of
paperwork. Before any computer can work on any problem, however, it must be
told what to do. Someone must program the computer, step by step. At first this
was done by having the programmer write out his instructions in the form of
numbers which could be "understood" by the machine. Within a short time,
attempts were made to perfect a system that would enable humans to
communicate more easily with machines. Various "languages" were developed
by means of which the programmer could use words that had meaning for him,
and another program in the machine would translate the words into the
computer's number system.

Without special training, it is impossible to understand exactly how a computer


does its work. Nevertheless, many people without scientific training use
computers in their daily lives.
Texto extraído de uma questão de vestibular da ESAN-SP contida no livro Get
Ready de Analuiza Machado Rocha, M. Benta de Lima Barbosa e Zuleica Águeda
Ferrari.

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