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72 4. Series active power filters 4.4.

Series active filter controller 73

 1 1 1  of the maximal cut-off frequency. From (2.47) and (2.49), it is possible to see
 is 0   2 2 2  i sa  that a second harmonic current of positive sequence component ( I&+2 ) and the
  2  −1

−1  i sb 
i sα  =  1 2 2   . (4.3) voltage V& generate ~
+1 p and q~ at 50 Hz, that are not fully passed through
h h
i  3   i 
− 3 2   sc 
 sβ   0 3 the high-pass filters. Similar choice is also carried out for the zero sequence
 2  current is0 .

Then, the instantaneous real and imaginary powers are calculated as: Once the powers ~ ph and q~h and the current ih0 are separated, the in-
verse transformation is performed, that is,
 ph   vα′ vβ′  isα 
 q  = − v ′ vα′   isβ 
. (4.4)
ihα  vα′ −vβ′  − ~ph 
 h  β 1
i  = 2 v ′ 
v α′   − qh 
 ~ ; (4.5)
 
hβ v ′
α + vβ′ 2  β

v'α
i ha v ha  1 1 
0
1 p h 50 Hz ~p ihα
Kr iha   2  −ih 0 
2  1 3 
h
 
_~
v'β α−β−0 ~ α−β−0   −1
ihb  =
~ (4.6)
Transf. α−β i hb v hb  2 2   ih α  .
3  2 
(Fig. 3.7) q h 50 Hz ~
q h Current Inverse
Kr ihc  i 
i sa & _~
~ Refer. i hβ Transf.  1 −1 − 32  hβ 
Power
~
i hc vhc  2 2 
i sb
Calcul. Kr
i sc i so _
~ i ho Then, the harmonic currents are multiplied by a fictitious series har-
~
~ monic resistance Kr, to produce the voltage references v ha , v hb and v hc , i.e.,

Fig. 4.4: Block diagram of the control algorithm for damping oscillations due to v ha  iha 
resonance phenomena v  = i  (4.7)
 hb  K r  hb  .
 v hc  ihc 
As explained in Chapter 3, vα′ and vβ′ comprise only the fundamental The above control algorithm generates the voltage references v ha , v hb
positive sequence component V&+1 . With the help of the general equations for ′ , v cb
and v hc that can be added to the voltage signals v ca ′ and v cc
′ from (4.2),
the real ( (2.46) and (2.47) ) and imaginary power ( (2.48) and (2.49) ), in *
to compose new compensating voltage references v ca *
, v cb *
and v cc . Thus,
terms of symmetrical components, it is possible to choose an appropriated cut-
off frequency for the high-pass filters in Fig. 4.4. Ideally, the cut-off frequency vca* 
′  v ha 
vca
should be set as low as possible, in order to separate better the dc level ( p h  *     
=
 cb   cb
v v ′  + v hb  . (4.8)
and qh ) from p h and qh . In this case, ~ ph and q~h should contain all har-  v *   v ′  v 
monics, as well as the current unbalance due to the fundamental negative se-  cc   cc   hc 
quence component ( I&−1 ), that generates oscillating powers ~ ph and q~h at The new voltage references in (4.8) make the series active filter to com-
double frequency (100 Hz). However, high-pass filters with very low cut-off pensate all harmonics and voltage unbalance, present in the voltages v a , v b
frequency have long settling time, which degenerates the dynamic response of and v c , and additionally enhance the system stability, providing harmonic
the series active filter. Therefore, 5th order Butterworth high-pass filters with current isolation between source and load.
cut-off frequency at 50 Hz were used. Note that this choice stays "in the limit"
70 4. Series active power filters 4.5. General considerations 75

ii ) the common dc bus has no power supply, but only a energy storage scaled prototype and a non-prohibitive value of resistance (R) has been found
component (e.g. dc capacitors); to damp satisfactorily eventual resonance effects.

iii ) the shunt active power filter should regulate the dc bus voltage; Alternatively, an interesting approach that includes one more minor
feedback control loop in Fig. 4.3, as proposed in [74], has been also investi-
iv ) an integrated active filter controller should be developed to provide the gated. This approach is advantageous for minimizing losses, since the resis-
* * * tance R can be eliminated. However, additional current measurement circuit
compensating current references ( ica , icb , icc ) for the shunt active fil-
* * * should be provided to sense the currents i fa , i fb and i fc (Fig. 4.3) flowing to
ter, as well as the compensating voltage references ( v ca , v cb , v cc ) for
the capacitors C. Nevertheless, this approach has proved to provide high per-
the series active filter.
formance, comparable with the other one, using resistors (R).
The above general system specifications lead to a very simple control cir-
Simulations of the proposed series active filter have been carried out, but
cuit for the series active filter. For instance, it does not have to regulate the dc
already combined with the shunt active filter as proposed in Chapter 3. A
bus voltage, and control signals (e.g., the fundamental positive sequence volt-
laboratory prototype has been built to confirm the simulation results. The dy-
age signals v a′ , v b′ and v c′ in (Fig. 3.7) ) can be commonly used in both se-
namics of the combined series and shunt active filter prototype has been ex-
ries and shunt active filter controllers. tensively analyzed. All these results are presented and discussed in the next
chapter.
4.4.1. Control algorithm for voltage compensation
As mentioned before, the compensation of the voltage harmonics and the
voltage unbalances are the main goal of the series active filter. The voltage
convention adopted in Fig. 4.2 leads to the following relation:

v sa  v a  vca 
     
v sb  = v b  + vcb  . (4.1)
 v sc   v c   vcc 

On the other hand, all portions of the voltages v a , v b and v c that do not
correspond to the fundamental positive sequence voltage, which should be
compensated, can be calculated as:
vca′  v a′  v a 
v ′  = v  − v 
 cb   b′   b  , (4.2)
 vcc
′   vc′   vc 

where v a′ , v b′ and v c′ are the instantaneous values of the fundamental posi-


tive sequence component of voltages v a , v b and v c . The control block dia-
gram of Fig. 3.7 presents a solution for extracting v a′ , v b′ and v c′ from v a ,
v b and v c . In the design of an integrated series and shunt active filter con-
troller, these signals can be directly obtained from the main control circuit of
68 4. Series active power filters 5.1. General description of the unified power quality conditioner 77

should be provided in Fig. 4.2. One solution can be found using the "split- In a real implementation, the UPQC of Fig. 5.1 can be realized using two
capacitor" inverter topology, presented in Fig. 3.3a, and illustrated in light PWM converters, coupled with a common dc link, and an integrated control
lines in Fig. 4.2. circuit to provide both voltage and current references for the series and shunt
PWM converters.
v ca
i sa
In this Chapter, a new approach of UPQC is developed and discussed by
va v sa simulations. A laboratory prototype of UPQC has been built and experimental
results obtained to validate the approach. The shunt active filter presented in
Chapter 3 and the series active filter presented in Chapter 4 are adapted to be
joined into a single device.

L
S1 S3 S5
+ C1 5.1. General description of
C the unified power quality conditioner
S4 S6 S2
C - C2
Unified power quality conditioners have two distinct parts:
R

1) power circuit (series and shunt PWM converters);


v fa v *ca
PWM
v fb
VOLTAGE v *cb 2) UPQC controller (integrated series and shunt active
v fc CONTROL filter controller).
v *cc

Fig. 4.2: PWM converter for series active power filter


Fig. 5.2 shows the basic configuration of a unified power quality conditioner.
The compensating voltages v ca , v cb and v cc are related to the PWM
converter voltages v fa , v fb and v fc according to the turn ratio of the single- vc
is i
phase transformers. A PWM voltage control has to be implemented to force
the VSI to behave as a controlled voltage source.
ic
v vs
L L
4.3. An improved Sine-PWM voltage control C

The PWM voltage control should allow the series active filter to generate
* * * vf if
non-sinusoidal voltages, according to their references v ca , v cb and v cc ,
PWM v c* i c* PWM
which can vary widely in frequency and amplitude. Also, conventional Sine voltage current
control control
PWM techniques (SPWM) may not fit due to its inherent amplitude attenua-
tion [79]. Further, the LRC circuit at the ac output of the PWM converter v
is UPQC i
(Fig. 4.2) causes phase displacements in the compensating voltages v fa , v fb Controller
and v fc . Therefore, minor feedback control-loops using the actual values of
v fa , v fb and v fc were implemented to minimize the deviation between ref- Fig. 5.2: Basic configuration of the unified power quality conditioner
5.2. Power circuit of the UPQC 79

CHAPTER sented by Akagi et al. [3][82]. It uses a small kVA rating PWM converter as a
shunt active filter, connected in series with a shunt passive filter. This ap-

4. proach will not be covered in this work, since the UPQC controller described
in section 5.3, page 80, considers that the power circuit of the UPQC is able to
compensate reactive power of the load and zero sequence components as well.

4. Series active power filters 5.2. Power circuit of the UPQC


The combined series and shunt 3-phase 4-wire active filter, also known
as unified power quality conditioner for three-phase four-wire systems, that
will be evaluated in this chapter is presented in Fig. 5.3. An UPQC for appli-
cation in three-phase systems without neutral conductor can be easily derived
from the following approach. The changes consist of eliminating the neutral
wire in the power circuit and canceling all variables related with zero se-
quence components like v0 , i0 , etc., in the control circuit.
ERIES Active Power Filters for voltage compensation can be generally
S considered as a dual circuit of the shunt active power filter for current
compensation. The basic principle of voltage compensation is illustrated in vca
linear load

Fig. 1.1. Although this kind of series active filter was proposed, at first time, isa ia
together with the shunt active filter [1], its development is still incomplete unbalanced isb ib non-
network
[78]. On the other hand, series active filters with small power ratings have va vsa isc ic linear
with
been successfully applied for isolating harmonic currents, but not for compen- load
harmonics iso io
sating voltage. In that case, the small series active filter is combined with
typical shunt passive filters to perform harmonic current isolation [71][74] v fa ica ico
v fb
[75][76][77]. v fc

This chapter treats the series active filter alone (not combined with a Ls Cs Rs
shunt passive filter), to compensate voltage harmonics and voltage unbalances 10 7
+ 5 3 1
as well. Moreover, it has been developed taking into account the possibility of 12 9
C1
joining it together with the shunt active filter described in the last chapter, Lf i fa
8 11
into a combined device, also known as Unified Power Quality Conditioner +
(UPQC) [3]. This combined device, described in Chapter 5, works under non- C2 2 6 4 Cf
sinusoidal conditions, where there are non-linear loads and already distorted, Rf
unbalanced supply voltages.
vca
* i *ca
PWM vcb
* * PWM
UPQC i cb
4.1.General description of the series active filter Voltage
vcc
* Controller
Current
Control i *cc Control

As a duality from Fig. 3.1, Fig. 4.1 describes the basic configuration of
the series active filter for voltage compensation. Here, the PWM converter Fig. 5.3: Combined series and shunt active filter to compensate voltages and
(power circuit of series active filter) is inserted in series with two electric sub- currents in 3-phase 4-wire systems

66
64 3. Shunt active power filters 5.3. Integrated UPQC controller 81

The load is connected at t = 0 ms and the source currents reach their are fed back to the PWM controls through the minor control loops, as indi-
steady state values at t = 30 ms. During this period, the shunt active filter is cated in Fig. 5.4.
supplying energy to the load, discharging its dc capacitors. This is the time
interval that the 5th order Butterworth high-pass filter needs to separate cor- No changes are necessary in the control circuit of the shunt active filter,
rectly the new value of the constant real power ( p ) of the load. Simultane- if the sinusoidal source current control strategy as given in Fig. 3.10 is consid-
ously, the dc capacitor voltage regulator are changing the value of the signal ered. On the other hand, the series active filter described in Chapter 4 was
ploss to conform it to the new situation of losses in the PWM converter and to also developed taking into account its application in an UPQC approach.
Therefore, a UPQC controller can be developed combining Fig. 3.10 with
correct the dc voltage variation caused by above compensation error induced Fig. 4.4. This is illustrated in Fig. 5.5. The symbols for currents, voltages and
by the Butterworth high-pass filter. powers used here agree with those adopted in Chapter 3 and 4.
An oscillation in the amplitude of the source currents is verified, before
the steady state is reached at t = 50 ms. The average value of the dc capacitor
voltages before and after the connection of the load are not the same, as can be i sa,b,c v a,b,c i a,b,c VC1,C2
seen in Fig. 3.29. A PI-controller, instead of the proportional gain K, should
be implemented in the dc voltage regulator (Fig. 3.5), if zero error in steady
state is required. Fig. 3.29 shows that the neutral current flowing into the
UPQC
source remains almost the same before and after the connection of the load. Its O positive-sequence
shape is similar to the a-phase current of Fig. 3.28, before t = 0 ms, which N voltage detector
means that the saturation phenomenon in the active filter transformer pro- T _
duces mainly zero sequence components, and is not compensated by the shunt R p loss
O
active filter due the reasons given in page no. 31. L series shunt dc-link
L
E APF APF voltage
(V) 305 R controller v a,b,c
' controller regulator
VC1
VC2
295
(A)
+15 285
*
v ca,b,c *
i ca,b,c
io i so
+5 275 v fa,b,c PWM
dynamic ε
hysterese
voltage current
-5 control control i fa,b,c
-15
-20 0 20 40 60 80 t(ms)
V ic
C1
Fig. 3.29: Experimental results. Dynamic behavior due to the connection of
the load. Neutral currents and the dc capacitor voltages V
vc C2

Fig. 5.4: Functional block diagram of the UPQC controller


62 3. Shunt active power filters 5.3. Integrated UPQC controller 83

+40 * *
In Fig. 5.5, it is possible to see how the voltage references v ca , v cb and
(A) *
io v cc are composed, according to (4.2) and (4.8), that comprise all voltage un-
-20 balances and harmonics to be compensated. All equations of each control box
-40
+40 in this figure can be found in Chapter 3 and 4.
i co (A) The source currents isa , isb and isc should not contain any zero se-
-20 quence components, since the shunt active filter compensates the neutral cur-
-40 rent of the load. Consequently, is0 should be zero. However, to control the dc
+40
(A) voltage difference (VC2 – VC1), the shunt active filter produces a neutral cur-
i so
rent at very low frequency, equal to the frequency of the signal ε (Fig. 5.5).
-20 This low frequency component in is0 may be cut out applying low pass-filter.
-40
-40 -20 0 20 40 60 t(ms) In this way, only zero sequence components at higher frequencies that even-
tually persists in the source currents are considered by calculating the har-
Fig. 3.25: Experimental results. Dynamic behavior due to the connection of monic currents iha , ihb and ihc . Otherwise, the voltage references v ha , v hb ,
the shunt active power filter (neutral wire currents)
v hc would induce a very slow amplitude modulation on the phase voltages at
The regulation od the dc capacitor voltages caused no wide modulation the load side of the UPQC. A high-pass filter, whose cut-off frequency has
in the source currents, because the controller of the active filter was already in been set at 5 Hz, is applied for separating the signal ih0 from is0 .
operation (steady state) at the starting of firing the PWM converter. In other
Since the shunt active filter compensates the load harmonics, the values
words, the high-pass filter in the control was already correctly separating ~ p of iha , ihb and ihc are expected be very small in steady state. The propor-
from p and no compensation errors have arisen. Another point that should be
tional gain K r, applied to obtain v ha , v hb and v hc , makes the series active
investigated is the behavior of the shunt active filter by unbalanced supply
voltages. These two points are covered in the next set of experimental curves, filter to behave as an additional series resistance K r (Ω), connected between
which involves a load connection transient. source and load, but effective only for harmonic currents, including ih0 . The
Now, the supply voltage is increased to 380/220 V and an unbalance series active filter does not generate any fundamental voltage, except that re-
around 14% of fundamental negative sequence component is superposed, us- quired to compensate the unbalances in supply voltage, caused by negative
ing series transformers as shown in Fig. 3.21. The new phase voltages at load and zero sequence components at fundamental frequency. In this case, the
terminals are given in Fig. 3.26. The Y-∆ three-phase transformer to connect ′ , vcb
control signals v ca ′ and v cc′ given by (4.2) provide the compensation.
the six-pulse thyristor rectifier was by-passed and the new load currents can be
Unfortunately, compensation errors can appear during a transient re-
seen in Fig. 3.27. The firing angle of the thyristor bridge was set to 40°. The
sponse of the UPQC. They are caused almost only by the dynamics of the
shunt active filter was already in operation when the load was connected.
Butterworth filters in the control circuit. While the source currents isa , isb
Fig. 3.28 shows the compensated line currents of the source. The higher volt-
ages, particularly the a-phase ( v a ), caused saturation in the three-phase and isc are changing, the Butterworth filters cannot determine correctly the
transformer (2:1) of the shunt active filter. As a consequence, the source cur- actual values of powers ~ ph and q~h . While the new operating point is not
rents are distorted, even when the load stays disconnected (-20 ms ≤ t ≤ 0 ms). reached, wrong values – most cases are greater – for iha , ihb and ihc appear.
The shunt active filter does not compensate the harmonics of the power sup- This feature is better detailed in the next section. Therefore, in order to avoid
ply, but only the harmonics of the load. If the currents of Fig. 3.27 and hard voltage sags at load terminals ( v sa , v sb , v sc ), the signals v ha , v hb and
Fig. 3.28 are put over the phase voltages (Fig. 3.26), it is possible to see that
v hc are limited at 10% of the rated ac system voltage, using the "voltage lim-
the inductive reactive power of the load is well compensated by the shunt ac-
tive power filter. iters" as indicated in Fig. 5.5.
60 3. Shunt active power filters 5.4. Parameter optimization through simulation 85

Before the connection of the shunt active filter – while the IGBT's are turn ratio
blocked – the currents of the source are almost the same as the load. They are primary sidea : secondary sideb
not only strongly distorted, but also unbalanced. The currents flowing in the series single-phase transformers 1 : 2
neutral wire are shown in Fig. 3.25. This figure shows that the shunt active
filter can quickly compensate the neutral current. Compared with the simula- shunt three-phase transformer 2 : 1
tion result presented in Fig. 3.16, the sub-harmonic induced by the signal ε in a
primary side = network side (380 V)
the dynamic hysteresis band current control was strongly reduced. This was b
secondary side = PWM converter side
possible mainly due to a better adjustment in the hysteresis bandwidth
( constant ∆ in (3.1) ). The firing angle of the three-phase thyristor rectifier Once the turn ratios of the transformers are fixed, and a value for the
was set to 60°, to generate a relatively high inductive fundamental reactive equivalent network impedance is estimated, iterative calculation can be used
power. The c-phase of the load (Fig. 3.24) comprises currents only from this to optimize the commutation reactances (Lf and Ls) and the high-pass filters
rectifier. After the start of the active filter, the source currents turn in phase (Cf, Rf, Cs and Rs). The equivalent circuit that has been considered is pre-
with the phase voltages, which means that the active filter compensates well sented in Fig. 5.6. The series PWM converter is modeled as voltage source,
the reactive power of the load. Some spikes are present in the source currents. while the shunt PWM converter as current source. Harmonic generating load
They are caused by a very high di/dt in the load current, that cannot be fully is modeled as generic current source. The equivalent impedance of the power
compensated by the shunt active filter. To eliminate the spikes in the source supply is reduced to a discrete reactance (Ln).
currents, higher di/dt should be allowed for the compensating currents ( ica ,
icb , icc ). One way to do that is to reduce the inductance of the commutation
UPQC
reactors L in Fig. 3.11. However, this change should be carefully carried out, Ln vc
since it implies other changes in the active filter characteristics, as described i
s i

in Table 3.2. 1:2 i


c
Ls Lf I1
+360
(V) Cs Cf
va V1 V2 I2 2:1
-180 Rs Rf
-360
+40
(A)
i sa
-20 Fig. 5.6: Equivalent circuit for optimizing main parameters of the UPQC
-40
+40
(A) Functions of frequency, F(jω), relating the voltages V1 and V2 and cur-
ia
rents I1 and I2 can be written combining the impedances in Fig. 5.6. The turn
-20
-40 ratios of transformers should be taken into account by reflecting impedances at
+40 secondary side to the primary, and vice-versa. Furthermore, voltage sources
i ca (A) represent short-circuits, and current sources are open-circuits by reducing the
-20 system impedances. The following relations can be found:
-40
-40 -20 0 20 40 60 t(ms) • high-pass filter of the shunt PWM converter reflected to the primary:
2 2 1 
Fig. 3.22: Experimental results. Dynamic behavior due to the connection of Z f′ =    R f +  ; (5.1)
the shunt active power filter (a–phase curves)  1  jωC f 
58 3. Shunt active power filters 5.4. Parameter optimization through simulation 87

32% in the rated power of the shunt active power filter. UPQC, has to be checked all together, in a iterative way, to reach optimal val-
ues for the parameters in the power circuit simultaneously with those in the
The imaginary power compensation increases the ac currents of shunt
control. Hence, changes in parameters were continuously verified in a digital
active filter, but does not influence the size of the dc capacitors. Theoretically,
simulator running the complete model of the UPQC prototype.
no energy storage elements are necessary in the active filter to compensate the
reactive power [57]. In steady state, the size of the dc capacitors is determined Several sets of impedances was analyzed for the same set of parameters
by the amount of energy stored/released when the active filter is compensating in the control. Four sets of impedances which may be used in the UPQC proto-
the powers ~ p and p0 . On the other hand, a non-zero average energy flux type are listed below:
arises between the active filter and the ac network, during transient responses.
These compensation errors are mainly induced by the high-pass filter in the Table 5.2
control circuit due the time needed to separate correctly ~ p from p, after a load Sets of parameters selected for the power circuit of the UPQC
step change.
case #1: Rf = 1Ω; Lf = 2mH; Cf = 140µF; Rs = 30Ω; Ls = 2mH; Cs = 10µF;
If the voltages at load terminal have no zero sequence components, p0 is
case #2: Rf = 3Ω; Lf = 0.5mH; Cf = 60µF; Rs = 10Ω; Ls = 0.5mH; Cs = 60µF;
zero. Consequently, oscillating energy flux related to the power ~p0 , that in- case #3: Rf = 3Ω; Lf = 0.5mH; Cf = 60µF; Rs = 3Ω; Ls = 0.2mH; Cs = 60µF;
fluences the total dc voltage (VC1+VC2), is not present. However, the neutral case #4: Rf = 2.5Ω; Lf = 0.5mH; Cf = 30µF; Rs = 5Ω; Ls = 0.5mH; Cs = 6µF;
current compensation produces anyway dc voltage deviations at the corre-
sponding frequency of i0 , in the "split-capacitor" inverter topology, as ex-
plained in Fig. 3.4 and Table 3.1. The curves of amplitude of the complex functions given by (5.4) and
(5.7) are presented in Fig. 5.7 and Fig. 5.8, respectively, for the four sets of
Therefore, the lowest frequency of ~ p and i to be compensated should
0 parameters given by Table 5.2, and an equivalent network inductance (Ln)
be carefully taken into account during the specification of the dc capacitors. equal to 0.8 mH. An ideal curve for V1 V2 and I 1 I 2 , considering the
Some details about the influence of ~
p compensation on the dc capacitors can constraints for the power components used in the UPQC prototype, could be
be found in [68] and [69]. drawn as a unity gain up to 1 kHz, decaying to zero at 10 kHz. However, this
is impossible. The curves that better approximate to the ideal are (2) and (3),
In a real implementation, additional costs may arise to include an inter-
which correspond to the case #2 and #3 of Table 5.2, respectively.
face transformer between the active filter and the ac network in order to match
the ac voltage at the PWM converter to its dc bus voltage (see Fig. 3.11).
Moreover, the size of the commutation reactors ( L in Fig. 3.11) also influ- 1.6
ences the compensating currents of the shunt active filter. All these parame- 1.4 (1) (4)
ters should be optimized together to achieve a desired compensation character- V1 1.2 (3)
istic for the shunt active filter. A useful approach can be found in [70].
V2 1
(2)
0.8

3.7. Experimental results 0.6


0.4
A down-scaled prototype of shunt active filter was built to validate the 0.2
"split-capacitor" inverter topology and the sinusoidal source current control 0
strategy, considered as a better alternative to realize a three-phase four-wire 2 3 4 5
10 10 10 f [Hz] 10
shunt active filter. Six IGBT's (100 A - 1200 V) were used in the PWM con-
verter. Several experimental results were recorded and some of them can be Fig. 5.7: Amplitude ratio between the compensating voltage of the series active
found in [14][15] and [16]. filter and the voltage generated by the series PWM converter
56 3. Shunt active power filters 5.4. Parameter optimization through simulation 89

Fig. 3.18 compares the instantaneous active three-phase power 40 40


case #1 case #2
( p3φ = p + p0 ) of the load with the powers from the compensated line cur- (A) ia (A) ia
20 20
rents of Fig. 3.17a and Fig. 3.17b. The "Constant Source Power" control strat-
egy ("pconst" curve) should present a perfectly smoothed instantaneous power.
Unfortunately, its performance is deteriorated due the presence of 800 Hz cut- 0 0

off frequency low-pass filters in Fig. 3.9 (5th order Butterworth filters have
been used). Moreover, both control strategies do not compensate the harmonic -20
i ca i sa
-20
i ca i sa
currents that are flowing from the source to the high-pass filter (C = 30 µF,
R = 1 Ω) due to the presence of harmonic voltages in the power supply, which -40
40 50 60 70 80 t(ms)
-40
40 50 60 70 80 t(ms)
also worsen the current compensation characteristics. In the next chapter, a 40 40
series active filter is proposed to provide this kind of harmonic compensation. (A)
case #3
(A)
case #4
ia ia
Also, for the system voltages considered, both control strategies ("pconst" and 20 20
"isinus" curves) presented a small alternating part at same order of magnitude.
The imaginary powers in Fig. 3.19 were calculated from the same cur- 0 0
rents and voltages as used in Fig. 3.18. The "pconst" curve contains a small
negative average value (inductive reactive power). This occurs because the -20 -20
800 Hz cut-off frequency filters delay the measured voltages, which introduces i ca i sa i ca i sa
errors in the calculated power q of the load, such that the actual value of q is -40 -40
not fully compensated. On the other hand, the "Constant Source Power" con- 40 50 60 70 80 t(ms) 40 50 60 70 80 t(ms)
trol strategy compensates better the oscillating imaginary power of the load. Fig. 5.10: Simulated currents using parameters given by Table 5.2

( kW ) 380 380
6 v sc case #1 v sc case #2
pconst (V) (V)

4 190 190
isinus
2 0 0

0 load
-190 -190
10 30 50 70 90 110 130 t(ms) vc vc
-380 -380
Fig. 3.18: Instantaneous active three-phase power 50 60 70 80 t(ms) 50 60 70 80 t(ms)
380 380
v sc case #3 v sc case #4
( kvai ) (V) (V)
1 isinus 190 190
0
-1 0 0
-2
load pconst
-3 -190 -190
-4 vc vc
10 30 50 70 90 110 130 t(ms) -380 -380
50 60 70 80 t(ms) 50 60 70 80 t(ms)
Fig. 3.19: Imaginary power
Fig. 5.11: Simulated voltages using parameters given by Table 5.2
54 3. Shunt active power filters 5.4. Parameter optimization through simulation 91

(A) Three high-pass filters are used in the control circuit of the series active
20 filter. Two of then separate higher frequencies of powers ( ~ ph and q~h ) and the
10
i ca
third one separates harmonic currents ( ih0 ), but all these filters are employed
0
for the same purpose: to determine the harmonic currents flowing to the
-10
source ( iha , ihb , ihc ). Ideally, no harmonic currents should flow to the source,
-20
since the shunt active filter compensates harmonic currents of the load. Fur-
20 thermore, the voltage references v ca ′ , v cb
′ and v cc
′ given by (4.2) make the
10 i cb
series active filter to compensate all harmonics and unbalances present in the
0 supply voltages v a , v b and v c . Therefore, the compensated voltages v sa ,
-10
v sb and v sc should not excite any harmonic current to flow between source
-20
and load. However, there is at least one kind of harmonic current that is not
20 compensated, neither by the shunt active filter, nor by v ca ′ , v cb
′ and v cc′ . It
10 i cc
consists of harmonic current excited by the active filters themselves. For in-
0 stance, this current can cause resonance at frequencies where the total imped-
-10 ance Z res present low values (Fig. 5.9 ).
-20
10 30 50 70 90 110 130 t(ms) In most simulation cases, the high-pass filter for separating ih0 from is0
was omitted. For these cases, is0 was directly passed to the next control box:
Fig. 3.14: Active filter currents ("Sinusoidal Source Current" control strategy)
the α-β-0 inverse transformation. This solution should be always adopted
when i0 is well compensated and the signal ε does not induce high zero se-
(A)
20 quence currents to the source. For the same simulation cases, the cut-off fre-
10 i ca quency for the other two high-pass filters was set at 50 Hz, although final re-
0 sults, which are presented in the next section, have successfully used 150 Hz.
-10
-20 ′ , v cb
The voltage references v ha , v hb and v hc , which are added to v ca ′
20 and v cc′ to form vca , v cb and v cc (Fig. 5.5), provides harmonic isolation
* * *

10 i cb between load and source by inserting a fictitious resistance in series with the
0 system. The proportional gain Kr corresponds to the value of this constant,
-10 fictitious resistance, effective only by the harmonic currents iha , ihb and ihc .
-20
Most simulation cases used Kr between 8 ∼ 10 Ω. The voltages signals v ha ,
20
i cc v hb and v hc were limited in ± 30 V.
10
0
-10
Using
-20
Rf = 1Ω, Lf = 0.8mH, Cf = 100µF, Rs = 3Ω, Ls = 0.4mH, Cs = 60µF, Ln = 0.6mH,
10 30 50 70 90 110 130 t(ms)
in the power circuit and the above parameters in the control better compensat-
Fig. 3.15: Active filter currents ("Constant Source Power" control strategy)
ing voltages and currents than those presented in Fig. 5.10 and Fig. 5.11 were
obtained. An example is presented in Fig. 5.12.
52 3. Shunt active power filters 5.5. Analysis of the dynamics of the UPQC 93

380 40
3.6.2. Dynamic response of the shunt active filter v sa i sa
(V) (A)
190 20
A comparison between the control strategies given before has been car-
ried out by digital simulation. Both control strategies presented almost the
0 0
same dynamic response. The fundamental frequency of the system is 50 Hz.
The source voltages were composed from arbitrarily chosen phasors in terms -190 -20
of symmetrical components. Initially, the amplitude of the ac voltages was
adjusted taking into account the dc capacitor voltage references (2x300 V), -380 -40
380 v sb 40
such that no coupling transformer was required. The rms amplitude and phase (V) i sb (A)
angle of voltage phasors are: 190 20

V& +1 = 110∠0° ; V& 01 = 11∠90° V;


0 0
V& +3 = 5∠90° ; V&
−3 = 5∠180° ; V&03 = 5∠270° V.
-190 -20
Most main system parameters, based on Fig. 3.11, are summarized in
Table 3.3. -380 -40
380 40
(V) v sc i sc (A)
Table 3.3 190 20
Main Parameters of the Simulated System 0 0
source
R = 0.1 Ω; L = 0.6 mH -20
impedance -190

active filter C = 30 µF; R = 1 Ω -380 -40


L = 2.5 mH 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 t(ms)
C1 = C2 = 3.0 mF

F
Vref = Vdc = 600 V shunt active filter series active filter

load one 6-pulse current-source thyristor converter; firing Fig. 5.13: Successive connection of the shunt and series active filters

F
angle = 30°; Idc = 8 A; commutation inductance = 3 mH.
one 2-pulse current-source thyristor converter connected
between a-phase and neutral wire; firing angle = 15°; 400
i sa i sb i sc v sa v sb v sc 40

F
Idc = 10 A; commutation inductance = 3 mH. (V) (A)
one single phase diode bridge connected between b-phase 200 20
and neutral; Ldc = 300 mH ; Rdc = 20 Ω ;
commutation inductance = 3 mH. 0 0

-200 -20
Two simulations with a same optimized set of parameters were prepared
for comparisons, where only the control strategy for the active filter was ex- -400 -40
changed (Fig. 3.9 or Fig. 3.10). Both simulations have resulted in quite simi- 120 130 140 150 t(ms)
lar phase voltages at load terminal. Fig. 3.12 shows the phase voltages only
without series compensation with series compensation
for the "Constant Source Power" simulation case. The load current was also
the same for both simulations (Fig. 3.13). The diode bridge was connected at Fig. 5.14: Connection of the series active filter
t = 30 ms and the controlled converters were connected after t = 40 ms, ac-
50 3. Shunt active power filters 5.5. Analysis of the dynamics of the UPQC 95

3.6. Performance of the shunt active filter 400 va vb vc ia ib ic 40


(V) (A)
This section presents the base for specifying a three-phase four-wire 200 20
shunt active filter, although most considerations are also valid for specifying a
three-phase shunt active filter without neutral conductor. Furthermore, the 0 0
approach given here can be easily simplified to be used in a three-phase sys-
-200 -20
tem without neutral conductor.
-400 -40
Fig. 3.11 shows the basic configuration of shunt active filter that will be 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 t(ms)
considered in the analysis of performance. As the system is not linear, an
electromagnetic digital simulator that allows the modeling of power semicon- Fig. 5.15: Supply voltages and load currents
ductor devices and electric elements, as well as the control circuit, has been
used to optimize the system parameters. The influence of each parameter in
400 v sc v sa v sb i sb i sc i sa 40
the whole system is explained in the next section. Afterwards, an optimized
(V) (A)
set of parameters is used to perform the analysis dynamic responce. Some
200 20
economical considerations are summarized and finally, experimental results
from a laboratory prototype are presented.
0 0

-200 -20
i sa ia
i sb va ib
i sc vb ic -400 -40
SOURCE LOAD 40 60 80 100 120 t(ms) 140
i so vc io
i cc i cb i ca i co Fig. 5.16: Compensated voltages and currents

After the transient period presented in Fig. 5.16, another event occurs at
VC1
S1 S3 S5
t = 140 ms: the connection of the series active filter. This event was already
C1 L presented in Fig. 5.14. Then, the six-pulse thyristor bridge rectifier is discon-
Voltage
Regulator
nected, as shown in Fig. 5.17. At the disconnecting of load, the dc capacitors
VC2 C2 S4 S6 S2
C tend to charge, increasing the voltage at the dc link, due to error in ~p calcu-
_ R lation, caused by the dynamics of the 5th order Butterworth high-pass filter
p loss ε (see Fig. 5.5). This makes the source currents to decrease slowly, as shown in
Fig. 5.18. While the source currents are decreasing, the series active filter
ia i *ca i fc controller is also inducing compensation errors, increasing the amplitude of
Active Dynamic the voltages v sa , v sb and v sc . Once more, errors caused by the dynamics of
ib i *cb i fb
Filter Hysteresis
ic Controller i *cc
Current i fa 5th order Butterworth high-pass filters, which separate the powers ~ ph and q~h .
Control
va v b v c Nevertheless, the dc capacitor voltages VC1 and VC2 have been well
regulated through the signal ploss and ε from the dc voltage regulator
Fig. 3.11: Three-phase four-wire shunt active power filter using (Fig. 5.5), as can be seen in Fig. 5.19.
a conventional three-leg converter
48 3. Shunt active power filters 5.5. Analysis of the dynamics of the UPQC 97

well as the harmonic power. In other words, the active filter controller handles lation, if compared with the others mentioned above. A survey upon the in-
the load as "connected to a sinusoidal balanced voltage source". Thus, if ~ p, stantaneous powers involved in this simulation case is given by Fig. 5.20 and
~
q , q and i0 are compensated by the active filter, the source currents must be Fig. 5.21. The real powers and imaginary powers, which are drawn in these
figures, were calculated as follows ( see (2.27) and (2.29) ):
now sinusoidal and contain only the active portion of fundamental positive
sequence component that is in phase with V&+1 . The sinusoidal source current • voltages and currents* transformed into the α-β reference frame:
strategy can be realized if two changes in Fig. 3.9 are made as follows: −1 −1
v sa  −1 −1
isa 
 v sα  2 1 2 2   isα  2 1 2 2  
i)
replace the 800 Hz low-pass filters in Fig. 3.9 with the circuit of v  =  3 − 3   sb 
v ; i  =  3 − 3   sb 
i ;
 sβ  3 0 2   sβ  3 0 2  
v sc 
Fig. 3.7; 2 2
isc 
ii) remove the 50 Hz low-pass filter that obtains p 0 in Fig. 3.9, because
v ca  ica 
the new input voltages v a′ , v b′ and v c′ contain no zero sequence com-  vcα  2 1 −1 −1
2  icα  2 1 −1 −1
2  
ponents and p 0 is always zero. v  =  3
2
v 
− 3   cb 
; i  =  3
2
− 3   cb 
i ;
 cβ  3 0 2   cβ  3 0 2  
v cc 
2 2
Fig. 3.10 shows the complete control block diagram of the shunt active icc 
power filter that realizes the sinusoidal source control strategy. One simplifi-
−1 −1
ia 
cation was done. The voltages vα′ and vβ′ , instead of v a′ , v b′ and v c′ , are
*Note: the symbols of voltages and cur- iα  2 1 2  
i  =
2
rents used here agree with those  3 − 3  b 
i .
used in Fig. 5.3.  β 3 0 2  
directly used in the main control, which exclude the need of (3.8) in the α-β-0 2
ic 
transformation & power calculation box.
⇒ powers of the load:
At this point, it is important to remark that the voltage regulator of
pload = v sα iα + v sβ iβ ; qload = v sα iβ − v sβ iα
Fig. 3.5 that generates the signal ploss has received an additional task besides
those in last section: to correct errors in power compensation. This occurs ⇒ powers of the shunt active filter:
because the feedforward control circuit is now unable to supervise the zero pshunt = v sα icα + v sβ icβ ; qshunt = v sα icβ − v sβ icα
sequence power. Further, another kind of mistake in power compensation will
also appear. To understand this point, a simple example follows. ⇒ powers of the series active filter:
Suppose that the system voltages and load currents comprise only fun- pseries = vcα isα + vcβ isβ ; qseries = vcα isβ − vcβ isα
damental positive and negative sequence components (only V&+1 , V&−1 , I&+1 ⇒ compensated powers:
and I&−1 are present). The active filter will supply the whole negative sequence ps = v sα isα + v sβ isβ ; qs = v sα isβ − v sβ isα
current to the load, because it produces only ~ p and q~ with the new input p: (kW)
20 ps
voltage signals vα′ and vβ′ (contain only V&+1 ). However, the voltages at load 15
q: (kvai) p load
terminal contain also negative sequence component at the same frequency. If qs
10
this is not orthogonal to I&−1 , then, the active filter will supply/absorb a non- 5
zero average negative-sequence power. This causes voltage variation in the dc
0
capacitors and the slower feedback control loop of the voltage regulator will
sense it and will produce ploss , that makes the active filter absorb/supply -5
q load
positive-sequence power, in an attempt to neutralize the voltage variation. -10
This occurs because the active filter current references are now calculated only 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 t(ms)

from V&+1 ( v a′ , v b′ , v c′ or vα′ , vβ′ output from Fig. 3.7). Fig. 5.20: Real power and imaginary power of the load and of
the compensated voltages and currents
46 3. Shunt active power filters 5.6. Experimental results 99

 i0  1 2 1  ia  1 +22
(A)
  2 −1
2
−1  ib 
2
iα  =  1 2 2  , (3.9) i sa 0
i  3
− 3  i 
2  c
3 -22
 β  0 2 +22
i sb 0
 p0  v 0 0 0   i0 
 p=    -22
  0 vα vβ  iα  . (3.10) +22

 q  0 − vβ vα   iβ  i sc 0
 -22
+22
A high-pass filter with 50 Hz cut-off frequency separates the power ~ p
i ca 0
from p and a low-pass filter separates p 0 from p 0 . The powers ~ p and p 0 of
-22
the load, together with q, should be compensated to provide optimal power -80 -40 0 +40 +80 +120 t(ms)
flow to the source. Thus, the α-β current references are found to be
Fig. 5.22: Experimental currents from a successive connection of
the shunt and series active filters
ic∗α  1 vα − vβ   − ~
p + ∆p 
∗  =  vα   − q 
, (3.11)
 ic β  vα2 + vβ2  vβ  +380
v sa v sb v sc v sa
(V)
where ∆p , given by (3.7), provides energy balance inside the active filter. +190

Finally, the α-β-0 inverse transformation box of Fig. 3.9 calculates the
+0
instantaneous current references for the dynamic hysteresis current control of
the VSI:
-190

ica
*  1 1 0  −i 
2  1 
2 0 -380
*  −1 3  i* 
icb  = 2 2  cα  . (3.12) +100 (V)
i *  3 2  * +50 v ca
1 −1 − 3   icβ 
 cc   2 2 2   +0
-50
-100
With this approach the active filter supplies the whole i0 to the load. If
-80 -40 0 +40 +80 +120 t(ms)
zero sequence voltages are not present, the zero sequence power p 0 is zero. In
Fig. 5.23: Experimental voltages from a successive connection of
this case, the zero sequence current i0 of the load is compensated without the the shunt and series active filters
need for energy balance inside the active filter ( p 0 = 0 ).
The compensation principle that provides constant source instantaneous 280 (V)
V C1
power [54][67], presented in section 3.5.1, is realized through the above con- 270 V C2
trol algorithm. It is an improved version of the control strategy proposed by 260
Akagi et al. [56][57][68]. The control algorithm does not use any rms value
250
calculation, but uses a low-pass and a high-pass filter to separate the powers
p 0 and ~ p , which influence the dynamic response of the active filter. It 240
-40 0 +40 +80 +120 +160 +200 +240 t(ms)
should be noted that a simplified control algorithm can be derived directly
Fig. 5.24: Experimental dc capacitor voltages
44 3. Shunt active power filters 5.6. Experimental results 101

The additional portion of real power, equivalent to the power p 0 that the +400
shunt active power filter is delivering to the load, provides energy balance (V)
inside the active filter, when it is compensating the zero sequence current of v sa
the load. Hence, the zero sequence power p 0 that the active filter supplies to -400
the load can be taken as a balanced real power ∆p from the source, since it is +400

always possible to generate p ≠ 0 with ~ p = 0 , even under non-sinusoidal (V)


v sb
conditions [54][67]. An example is given in Fig. 2.6.
-400
The above ideas are illustrated in Fig. 3.8. It shows a power flow dia- +400
gram represented in a circuit, where the a-b-c-phases were replaced by their (V)
equivalent α-β-0 "wires". The active filter is compensating all undesirable v sc
powers of the load ( ~p , q , q~ , p 0 and ~
p0 ) and is doing a balance of energy -400
to retain the dc capacitor voltage around its reference value. -40 -20 0 +20 +40 +60 +80 +100 +120 t(ms)

The active filter provides optimal power conditions to the source, even Fig. 5.26: Experimental voltages at load terminals
under non-sinusoidal conditions. Fig. 3.8 shows that the active filter takes real
power from α-β "wires" ( ∆p ) and supply p 0 to the load through the
+25.0
0-"wire". In other words, it receives positive sequence power (and negative, if
(A)
the voltage source is not balanced) from the source and supply zero sequence i sa
power to the load.
-25.0
_ q +25.0
p (A)
α i sb
β -25.0
+25.0
0 (A)
_ i sc
po
q _ -25.0
∆p
-40 -20 0 +20 +40 +60 +80 +100 +120 t(ms)
p~ + p~o
Fig. 5.27: Experimental currents of the source
C
After the connection of the load at t = 0 ms the source currents begin to
increase slowly and do not present overshoots (Fig. 5.27). Voltage sags occur
at load terminals during the increasing of current, which are partially caused
p~ + p~o by errors in the control algorithm for harmonic isolation (signals v ha , v hb
and v hc in Fig. 5.5). Not only the phase voltages have been well balanced, but
Fig. 3.8: Optimal power flow related to the α-β-0 reference frame also the load currents. The hardly unbalanced load, that draws the neutral
42 3. Shunt active power filters 5.6. Experimental results 103

only in the high frequency components of p' and q'. Two 5th order Butterworth +140
low-pass filters are used for obtaining the average values of the real (= p ′ ) and (V)
imaginary (= q ′ ) power. v ca
-140
Finally, the α-β voltage reference block of Fig. 3.7 calculates the volt- +140
ages vα′ and vβ′ , which correspond to the fundamental positive sequence (V)
component ( V&+1 ) of the system voltage transformed into the α-β axis, as fol- v cb
lows: -140
+140
vα′  1 iα′ iβ′   p ′ 
v′  = 2 i ′ −iα′  q ′ 
. (3.5) (V)
 β  α iβ′
i ′ + 2
β v cc
For several applications, the transformed voltages from (3.5) are useful, -140
and may be directly used in an active filter controller. If necessary, the a-b-c- -40 -20 0 +20 +40 +60 +80 +100 +120 t(ms)
phase voltages ( v a′ , v b′ and v c′ ) can be calculated applying the inverse trans-
formation given by the sub-matrix in (2.28), disregarding the variable v0 . Fig. 5.30: Experimental voltages of the series active filter

Experimental results have shown that the fundamental positive sequence


voltage detector presented above have a good dynamic and a satisfactory accu- (kW ; kvai)
racy, even under non-sinusoidal conditions. It can calculate "exactly" the +10.0 p 3φ s
p 3φ load
amplitude, frequency and phase angle of V&+1 , that are given in form of con- +5.0

tinuous time functions for v a′ , v b′ and v c′ , or for vα′ and vβ′ . The control of +0.0
the series and the shunt active filter, as well as the advanced UPFC device qs
presented in Chapter 6, employs the above positive sequence detector. -5.0
q load
-10.0
-40 -20 0 +20 +40 +60 +80 +100 +120 t(ms)
3.5. Control strategies for the shunt active filter
Fig. 5.31: Instantaneous active three-phase power and imaginary power
The active filter controller is based on the instantaneous power theory
defined in the α-β-0 reference frame, detailed in Chapter 2. Two approaches
have been developed for controlling the shunt active filter. Both control Finally, an interesting experimental case involving zero sequence volt-
strategies consider harmonics, as well as unbalances due to fundamental ages is described. Once more, the same conditions of loading was used. With
negative and zero sequence components, in voltages and currents simultane- the load already in operation a successive connection of the shunt active filter,
ously. The first one: Constant Source Instantaneous Power Strategy provides and then, the series active filter, was recorded. The shunt three-phase trans-
constant real power to the source, even under distorted and unbalanced volt- former ( 2:1 turn ratio transformer in Fig. 5.6) has a very low zero sequence
ages. The second one: Sinusoidal Source Currents Strategy provides sinusoi- impedance, which allows high magnetization currents if excited by zero se-
dal currents to the source, even under distorted and unbalanced voltages. In quence voltages. For the following experiment, the connection of the variable,
both strategies the whole zero-sequence current of the load can be compen- series transformers of Fig. 3.21 was changed to generate unbalance from fun-
sated, but it is impossible to satisfy simultaneously both conditions: sinusoidal damental zero sequence component.
currents and constant power to the source, if the voltages are unbalanced
and/or distorted. The zero sequence unbalance corresponds to the half ( 15 V (rms) ≅ 7%
of unbalance ) of that used in the previous cases having unbalance of negative
40 3. Shunt active power filters 5.6. Experimental results 105

The slower feedback loop provided by ploss is also useful for correcting With the load already in operation, the shunt active filter was connected
voltage variations due to compensation errors that occur during transient re- at t = 0 ms. Fig. 5.34 shows the compensated currents isa , isb and isc flowing
sponse of the shunt active filter. This point is discussed in detail in section from the source and the current is0 in the neutral conductor of the power
3.6.2, where the dynamic performance of the shunt active filter is analyzed. supply. The neutral current is0 has a peak value greater than those of the line
Therefore, the signal ploss is very important for providing energy balance
currents, even during the period 0 < t < 120 ms, when only the shunt active
inside the active filter. filter of the UPQC is connected. This means that the zero sequence currents of
the load, which has a same order of magnitude as that presented in Fig. 5.28,
are not the principal component in the neutral current is0 of the source. Nev-
3.4. Positive sequence voltage detector ertheless, the shape of is0 is different before (t < 0 ms) and after
(0 < t < 120 ms) the connecting of the shunt active filter. Then, the series ac-
The phase voltages v a , v b and v c at load terminal are mainly com- tive filter is connected, compensating the zero sequence voltage unbalance of
posed of positive sequence component, but can be unbalanced (with negative the power supply, and the neutral current is0 vanishes. A great portion of is0
and zero sequence components at fundamental frequency) and can contain consists of the magnetization current of the shunt three-phase transformer.
harmonics. The detection of the fundamental positive sequence component of
v a , v b and v c is necessary if the shunt active filter has to compensate load Hence, the phase of is0 lags 90° from V&0 that is in phase with v sc . This re-
currents, such that only their active portion (real power) of the fundamental sults in 150° phase displacement between the active portion of load current ib
positive sequence component is supplied by the source. (in phase with v sb ) and is0 . This is the reason why isb is smaller than isa
and isc during 0 < t < 120 ms, since is0 3 is flowing through b-phase con-
A. Phase-locked-loop (PLL) circuit ductor.
The positive sequence detector uses a PLL (Phase-Locked-Loop) circuit
locked to the fundamental frequency of the system voltage. The design of the +30.0
(A)
PLL should allow proper operation under distorted and unbalanced voltage
waveforms. An interesting design of PLL circuit, that is almost insensitive to i sa
unbalances and distortions in the voltage waveforms, is described in [66]. -30.0
+30.0
Fig. 3.6 illustrates its functional block diagram. (A)
i sb
-30.0
A EPROM - 1 +30.0
D sin( ω t ) (A)
va
X i sc
-30.0
+30.0
Σ PI-Controller VCO Counter (A)
-v b output to i so
X sine gen. -30.0
A EPROM - 2 -60 -20 0 +20 +60 +100 +140 t(ms)
D sin( ωt+120°)
Fig. 5.34: Experimental currents of the source
Fig. 3.6: Functional block diagram of the PLL circuit [66]
38 3. Shunt active power filters

In the example given in Fig. 3.4, the phase current i f a causes voltage CHAPTER
variations such that at the end of the period the voltage VC1 is higher and VC2
lower. If a dynamic offset level is added to both limits of the hysteresis-band,
it is possible to control the capacitor voltage difference and to keep it within
an acceptable tolerance margin. For the case in Fig. 3.4, a negative offset
6.
counteracts the above voltage variation.
6. Advanced
unified
Therefore, a dynamic offset (εε) should be created from the measurement
of the dc capacitor voltages VC1 and VC2. A scheme for generating the signal ε power flow controller
is presented in the next section. If this signal ε is added to both hysteresis-
band limits, a new dynamic hysteresis current control that provides dc voltage
equalization in the "split-capacitor" inverter topology is given by:

upper hysteresis-band limit = ic*k + ∆(1 + ε)



 , (3.1)
lower hysteresis-band limit = ic k − ∆(1 − ε)
*

where i*ck (k=a,b,c) are the instantaneous current references provided by an


active filter controller and ∆ is a prefixed half-bandwidth. Thus, the signal ε NIFIED Power Flow Controller (UPFC) is a high power electronic de-
( −1 ≤ ε ≤ 1) shifts the hysteresis-band limits, but does not alter the total
bandwidth (equal to 2∆), to change the switching times, such that:
U vice for application in Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS). It
was proposed by Gyugyi [2] and consists of a combination of two static con-
verters connected to a common dc link. The ac output of a converter is con-
ε > 0 ⇒ rises VC1 and lowers VC 2 nected in series with the power system through insertion transformers,
 . (3.2)
ε < 0 ⇒ rises VC 2 and lowers VC1
whereas the other one is in parallel (shunt). This kind of configuration was
already used in this work for realizing the unified power quality conditioner
In the next section, a very simple control circuit is proposed for generat- (UPQC), as described in Chapter 5 ( see Fig. 5.2).
ing the dynamic offset signal ε. Additionally, another signal to provide total
dc bus voltage regulation (VC1+VC2) should be provided to neutralize the con- If the concept of FACTS is understood in a general way as comprising
verter losses, that tend to discharge the dc capacitors. all equipments which can influence the load flow of power systems, there are
not only high power electronic devices, but also electromechanical ones, such
as load-tap-changing transformers and phase-angle regulators [83], which
could be classified as FACTS devices. Phase shifting transformer is perhaps
3.3. Active filter dc voltage regulator the oldest power flow controller [84]. However, it can regulate only the steady-
state power flow, since it has slow time response due the inertia of its moving
The voltages in the dc capacitors C1 and C2 of Fig. 3.3a are controlled parts.
through the active filter dc voltage regulator. Two signals, ploss and ε, are
generated in the dc voltage regulator presented in Fig. 3.5. The use of FACTS devices for controlling dynamically load flow,
damping subsynchronous oscillations, regulating system voltage, and enhanc-
Low-pass filters with a cut-off frequency at 20 Hz are inserted in the ing transient and dynamic stability, was possible only after the emerging of
voltage regulator to render it insensitive to fundamental frequency (50 Hz) high power thyristors [86][87][88][90]. A review of various approaches of
voltage variations, that appear when the active filter compensates the funda- static phase shifters is given in [98]. Other kinds of FACTS devices can be
mental zero sequence current of the load, as explained in Fig. 3.4. assembled by using power thyristors [85]. Static var compensators (SVC) us-

107
36 3. Shunt active power filters 6.1. General description of the advanced unified power flow controller 109

proach compensates only zero sequence currents, whereas the configurations to control the voltage at the end-terminal, as well as to control the active and
given in Fig. 3.3 can compensate not only the neutral current, but also the reactive power flow through this transmission line. Further, harmonic voltages
harmonics from positive and negative sequence components. and currents of one subsystem should not affect the other one. Fig. 6.1 pres-
ents this problem.
In the Chapter 2, general equations were presented relating the symmet-
rical components theory and the instantaneous powers defined in the α-β-0
reference frame. They show how the positive and negative sequence compo- vs is
nents contribute to the real and imaginary power ( see equations (2.46), vs vc
(2.47), (2.48) and (2.49) for p , ~
p , q and q~ , respectively). Later, in Section v
3.5., control circuits for shunt active filters are described, which are better v
understood through those equations. In that section, it is assumed that the
active filtering & unified power flow control
power circuit is able to compensate all kind of harmonics and unbalances. G1
L1
i
The controllability of the "four-leg" inverter topology (Fig. 3.3b) is better
than the "split-capacitor" inverter topology (Fig. 3.3a) [9][10]. However, the
conventional three-leg converter is preferred here because of its lower number vc G2
ih is L2
of power semiconductor devices [13][14].

There are some problems to be solved related to the dc capacitor volt-


ages. The "split-capacitor" inverter topology allows currents to flow through v ic
one of the dc capacitors (C1 or C2) and to return to the ac neutral wire, caus-
ing voltage deviation between the dc capacitors [14]. Once this voltage devia- vs
ih
tion is controlled, the "split-capacitor" inverter topology can become an at-
tractive solution to be generally applied in n-wire systems, since it uses a
(n-1)-leg PWM converter. For example, a 2-leg converter could be used in a ϕ
advanced UPFC
three-phase system, where two phase conductors are connected to the legs and
the third one is connected to the midpoint of the dc bus. An approach to con-
trolling the dc capacitor voltage deviation is proposed in the next section. Fig. 6.1: Combined series and shunt compensation with active filtering and
power flow control capability — the Advanced UPFC

3.2.2. Dynamic hysteresis-band current controller In Fig. 6.1, the harmonic generating load (rectifier) and the distorted
supply voltage are at the same side (left side) of the advanced UPFC. A con-
Fig. 3.4 shows a typical behavior of inverter current controlled by a hys- troller for the advanced UPFC will be developed considering this situation and
teresis-based PWM current control. If the current references i *ck (k=a,b,c) are then, the changes will be indicated for the case of having distorted supply
assumed to be zero sequence quantities, the line currents i f k (k=a,b,c) will voltage at the right side of the Advanced UPFC.
return through the neutral wire. This forces, in the "split-capacitor" inverter
topology, the current of each phase to flow either through C1 or through C2 The current ih of the non-linear load is compensated by the shunt con-
and to return through the ac neutral wire. The currents can flow in both direc- verter ( ic ) of the advanced UPFC, such that neither i nor is contain harmon-
tions through the switches and capacitors. Table 3.1 summarizes the condi- ics from ih. Further, the shunt converter compensates also the neutral current
tions that cause voltage deviations in the capacitors C1 and C2 for a zero se- and the reactive power of this load, in a same way as done in Chapter 5, using
quence current in the "split-capacitor" inverter topology. the UPQC. On the other hand, the series converter ( vc ) compensates the
voltage v, that can be unbalanced and distorted, such that vs becomes bal-
34 3. Shunt active power filters 6.2. Controller of the advanced UPFC 111

same: to force both inverters to behave as controlled current source. It should controller appropriated for applications in three-phase systems without neutral
be noted that no power supply, but only an energy storage element (capacitor conductor.
for the VSI and inductor for the CSI), is connected at the dc side of the invert-
ers. The reason is that the shunt active filter can be controlled to supply the
losses in the PWM inverter from the ac network side. The currents generated v
by the PWM inverters have some high order harmonics due to the switching
of the power semiconductor devices, which can be easily filtered out using a i
vc vs
small high-pass filter, represented by R and C in Fig. 3.2. Ideally, the currents
ih is
ick track strictly its references ic*k (k=a,b,c).
ic
+
S1 S3 S5 S1 S3 S5 L L
L L Id C
i ca i ca
i cb i cb
C L
i cc i cc
S4 S6 S2 S4 S6 S2 i c* vc*
C C if PWM PWM vf
R - R current voltage
control control

v
i fa i *ca i ca i *ca Advanced is
i fb PWM i cb PWM ih
CURRENT i*cb CURRENT i *cb UPFC
i fc CONTROL i cc CONTROL Controller
i*cc i*cc

a) voltage-source inverter (VSI) b) current-source inverter (CSI) Fig. 6.2: Basic configuration of the Advanced Unified Power Flow Controller

Fig. 3.2: PWM inverters for shunt active power filter


The power circuit of the advanced UPFC is the same as that of the uni-
fied power quality conditioner (Fig. 5.3), but considering the way of connect-
A critical comparison of the VSI and CSI is not an objective of this work. ing and the positive direction of voltages and currents as shown in Fig. 6.2.
One may prefer the CSI due to its robustness [59][60] or the VSI due to its low The PWM current control (dynamic hysteresis-band current controller) for the
losses and low initial cost [65]. In fact, the VSI is frequently used to realize shunt converter and the PWM voltage control (improved sine PWM voltage
active power filters and almost all active filters in commercial operation are control) for the series converter are the same as those given in Chapter 3 and
composed from VSI's [3]. 4, respectively. A controller for the advanced UPFC will be developed, adding
auxiliary circuits into the UPQC controller (Fig. 5.5), since the advanced
UPFC should join active filtering and power flow control into a single device.
3.2.1. Converter topologies for
three-phase four-wire systems
6.2. Controller of the advanced UPFC
Three-phase four-wire shunt active power filters have been realized us-
ing four-leg converters [9][10][11]. Alternatively, an attractive solution which The use of the instantaneous powers defined in the α-β-0 reference frame
still uses a conventional three-leg converter is presented here. in the control has proved to be efficient and provides high dynamic perform-
ance. Hence, the basic structure of the controller of the unified power quality
Fig. 3.3 shows two possible converter topologies that can be used as the conditioner (Fig. 5.5) will be used here. Moreover, all new auxiliary control
power circuit of a three-phase four-wire shunt active power filter. The funda- circuits that have to be added should not involve any conventional definitions
mental difference between Fig. 3.3a and Fig. 3.3b is the number of power of power, because of their dependence on rms values of voltages and currents.
32 3. Shunt active power filters 6.2. Controller of the advanced UPFC 113

In this chapter, a detailed survey of the shunt active filter is presented.  ∞ ∞


Several configurations of power circuits for shunt active filters are reviewed
and an interesting alternative for a three-phase four-wire shunt active filter is
 iα =

∑ 3 I+ n sin(ω n t + δ + n ) + ∑ 3 I − n sin(ω n t + δ − n )
n =1 n =1
proposed, without substantial changes in the converter topology. For this pur-  ∞ ∞

pose, a new hysteresis-band current control is developed and the compensation
principle is extended for general application in three-phase systems. A shunt
 iβ =

∑ 3 I+ n cos(ω n t + δ +n ) + ∑− 3 I − n cos(ω n t + δ − n ) ; (6.4)
n =1 n =1
active filter controller, that can be applied in three-phase systems with or  ∞
without neutral wire, is presented. Afterwards, the performance of the active  i0 =
 ∑ 6 I 0 n sin(ω n t + δ 0 n )
filter is analyzed by digital simulation. Finally, experimental results from a  n =1
laboratory prototype are presented to validate the control strategy and the pro-
∞ ∞
∑ 3V+n I+n sin(φ +n − δ +n ) + ∑ −3V− n I−n sin(φ −n − δ −n )
posed converter topology of the power circuit.
q = ; (6.5)
n =1 n =1

3.1. General description of the shunt active filter 


∞ ∞ 

Active power filters are generally composed of two distinct elements: q~ = 

∑∑
m =1
 n =1
(
 3V+ m I+ n sin (ω m − ω n )t + φ + m − δ +n ) +

 m≠ n
1) the PWM converter (power circuit);
∞ ∞ 
2) the active filter controller.
+ ∑
m =1

 n =1
(
 −3V− m I − n sin (ω m − ω n )t + φ − m − δ − n ) +

The PWM converter should have a high switching rate in order to repro- m≠n
duce accurately the compensating currents. Normally, fPWM > 10fhmax , where ∞
∞ 
∑∑ (
 −3V+m I − n sin (ω m + ω n )t + φ + m + δ − n ) +
fhmax represents the frequency of the highest load current harmonic to be com-
pensated. Both voltage-source (VSI) [65] and current-source (CSI) [59][63] +
 n =1 
inverters can be used to implement a shunt active filter. They are similar to m =1
the PWM inverters used for ac motor drives. However, the PWM inverters for ∞ ∞  
shunt active filters must behave as a non-sinusoidal current source. Nowadays,
almost all shunt active filters in commercial operation use voltage-source in-
+ ∑
m =1

 n =1
(
 3V− m I +n sin (ω m + ω n )t + φ − m + δ + n ) 
 
. (6.6)

verters [65]. All experimental results presented in this work were obtained
from a prototype realized with a VSI.

Fig. 3.1 shows the basic configuration of a shunt active filter. It com- 6.2.1.Voltage control through the shunt converter
prises a voltage-source inverter (VSI) with PWM current control (hysteresis
control) and an active filter controller that realizes an almost instantaneous The voltage v in Fig. 6.1 can be regulated by the shunt converter of the
control algorithm. The shunt active filter works in a closed-loop manner, advanced UPFC. It can generate fundamental reactive current, which leads
sensing continuously the load current i and calculating the instantaneous val- (q < 0) or lags (q > 0) 90° the fundamental positive sequence component of
*
ues of the compensating current reference i c for the PWM converter. the voltage v. This reactive current flows through the equivalent inductance
L1 of the power generating subsystem G1, since the current is is controlled by
If the switching ratio of the PWM converter is high enough, the current the series converter and the current ih is assumed as being originated by cur-
i c will contain high frequency harmonics, that can be easily filtered out using rent-source converters. Fig. 6.3 shows the equivalent circuit for voltage regu-
small high-pass filters. In an ideal case, the PWM converter may be consid- lation. This figure suggests a regulation of voltage v by injecting a fundamen-
30 2. Power definitions under non-sinusoidal conditions 6.2. Controller of the advanced UPFC 115

iii) The generalized Fryze's current method results in currents proportional error signal is passed through a PI-Controller to determine the necessary gen-
to the voltages and gives the smallest rms value for the compensated eration of imaginary power to regulate the voltage v. Fig. 6.4 shows a scheme
currents. However, it is not an "instantaneous" algorithm (it is not an
algebraic set of equations). of voltage regulator that can be added to the control of the shunt converter.

iv) The compensation algorithm based on the powers defined in the α-β-0
v'a v'a2
reference frame is very flexible. For instance, the undesirable powers to x2 Kpv
be compensated can be conveniently selected. The instantaneous
imaginary power is calculated "without time delay". The compensation v'b2 qv
v'b +
algorithm using the α-β-0 transformation can compensate three-phase x2 Σ √x Σ Kiv w
x Σ
loads to provide constant instantaneous active power to the source, _
even if the supply voltages are unbalanced and contain harmonics.
v'c v'c2
However, it is more complex than the other methods mentioned in (ii) x2 V rms
and (iii).
Fig. 6.4: Voltage regulator of the shunt converter of advanced UPFC

The output of the control circuit of Fig. 6.4, represented by qv can be di-
rectly added to the signal q in Fig. 5.5. Later, this change and the others that
are necessary in the control of the series converter will be shown in a complete
control block diagram of the advanced UPFC.

6.2.2.Power flow control through the series converter


Besides the active filtering capability of the series converter, the instan-
taneous powers (real and imaginary) produced by v and is (Fig. 6.1) should be
also controlled. Thus, it compensates not only voltage unbalances and har-
monics present in the voltage v to make vs sinusoidal and balanced, but also
controls is to match the desired loading conditions for the controlled trans-
mission line. These desired loading conditions, also known as power order,
can be locally fixed or commanded by a remote control center of power dis-
patching. In terms of α-β-0 components, the power order can be characterized
by a real power order, pref , and an imaginary power order qref .

All modifications in the unified power quality conditioner, to develop an


advanced UPFC hitherto, have needed no additional measurement circuits
(compare Fig. 5.2 with Fig. 6.2). There are only two measurements that were
necessary for the active filtering control and are also involved with the prob-
lem of power flow control, as given in Fig. 6.5. These quantities are the volt-
age v and the current is. Therefore, a power flow control circuit for the series
converter should be developed using only the measurements of v and is, and,
28 2. Power definitions under non-sinusoidal conditions 6.2. Controller of the advanced UPFC 117

more than one harmonic frequency and/or sequence components also produce control circuit in the unified power quality conditioner that can be also used to
~
p and q~ , according to (2.47) and (2.49). On the other hand, the zero se-
generate the desired voltage reference corresponding to vC . This circuit in-
quence power p0 = p0 + ~ p0 ( sum of (2.50) and (2.51) ) always generates the
~ volves the calculation of the signals ihα and ihβ . As can be seen in Fig. 5.5,
oscillating part p0 , even if only the fundamental zero sequence is considered
ihα and ihβ are determined from the positive sequence voltages vα′ and vβ′ ,
( there is only V&01 and I&01 ). and the harmonic powers ~ ph and q~h . In terms of symmetrical components,
vα′ and vβ′ correspond to the instantaneous values of the fundamental posi-
2.6.1. Physical meaning of the instantaneous powers tive sequence component (v) of voltage v, whereas ~ ph and q~h comprise all
defined in the α-β
β -0 reference frame harmonics present in the current is. If a positive average real power pc is
added to ~ ph , the new currents ihα and ihβ should hold a fundamental posi-
The use of the instantaneous powers defined in the α-β-0 reference frame
tive sequence component in phase with vα′ and vβ′ . Thereafter, as can be
to develop control circuits for active power line conditioners can be more
profitable if the physical meaning of those instantaneous powers is clearly seen in Fig. 5.5, the signals ihα and ihβ are transformed into voltage refer-
understood. Fig. 2.7 summarize these concepts. ences ( v ha , v hb , v hc ), after the inverse transformation and the multiplication
by a gain Kr. Therefore, the positive average real power pc that is added to
~
ph produces a balanced fundamental component vC that is in phase with the
q fundamental positive sequence component v of voltage v.
ia
a On the other hand, if a positive average imaginary power qc is added to
ib va q~h , the voltage references will contain a fundamental voltage component vC
b
ic vb that lags 90° the fundamental positive sequence component v of the voltage v.
c
io vc The control of the advanced UPFC uses (6.1) and (6.2). Therefore, a funda-
o mental component vC for the series converter can be generated with any phase
and amplitude, by combining the powers pc and qc in the control. The vec-
tor diagram of Fig. 6.5 illustrates this feature. If there is no voltage component
p + po
vC, then, v = vS and the vectors (in light lines) of current, iS, and voltage, vL2,
across the equivalent impedance L2 of the power generating subsystem G2 are
determined as shown in Fig. 6.5. This vector diagram is useful for understand-
p + p0 : ing the other ones, given by Fig. 6.6.
instantaneous total energy flow per time unit;

q: energy exchanged between the phases without The positive directions of voltages in Fig. 6.5 are so that
transporting energy.
vS = v – vC = vG2 + vL2 . (6.9)

Fig. 2.7: Physical meaning of the instantaneous powers defined in Decoupling of active and reactive power flow control is a common prac-
the α-β-0 reference frame tice in studies of load flow. In fact, variations in the power angle δ affect more
the active power flow, than the reactive power. On the other hand, variations
in the amplitude of voltages affect hardly the reactive power of the system.
The following points should be remarked: These features have been taken into account to develop the power flow control
of the series converter.
26 2. Power definitions under non-sinusoidal conditions 6.2. Controller of the advanced UPFC 119

 ∞ ∞ A scheme for the power flow control is presented in Fig. 6.7. It is possi-
 iα =

∑ 3 I + n sin(ω n t + δ + n ) +∑ 3 I − n sin(ω n t + δ − n ) ble to see that the power flow control circuit makes a crossing between the real
and imaginary powers in the control. It compares the real power order pref
n =1 n =1
 ∞ ∞ with the actual value ( p h ) and gives an output ( qc ) that should be added to

 β

i = ∑ − 3 I +n cos(ω n t + δ +n ) + ∑ 3 I − n cos(ω n t + δ − n ) . (2.45) the imaginary power q~h in Fig. 5.5. The inverse occurs with imaginary power
n =1 n =1
 ∞ order and actual value. Many constants have to be adjusted in the control of
 i0 =
 ∑ 6 I 0 n sin(ω n t + δ 0 n ) the new approach of advanced UPFC. Moreover, limit functions have been
added or replaced in order to limit the effect of each control path. All these
 n =1
changes are described in the next section, where a complete control circuit of
It is possible to see that the positive and the negative sequence compo-
the advanced UPFC is presented.
nents contribute to the α– and β–axis voltages and currents, while the 0-axis
voltage and current comprise only the zero sequence components. ph
Kpp
Further, the real power p, the imaginary power q and the zero sequence _
power p0 as defined in (2.29) can be calculated using the generic voltages p ref qc
+
and currents in terms of symmetrical components given by (2.44) and (2.45). Σ Kip w
x Σ
To better visualize the relation between the conventional concepts of power
and the new ones, the powers p, q and p0 are presented below, divided into
qh
their average values ( p , q , p0 ) and their oscillating parts ( ~
p , q~ , ~
p0 ). Kpq
+
∞ ∞ _ pc
q ref
p = ∑ 3V+ n I+ n cos(φ +n − δ +n ) + ∑ 3V−n I− n cos(φ − n − δ − n ) ; (2.46) Σ Kiq w
x Σ
n =1 n =1
Fig. 6.7: Power flow control of the series converter of the advanced UPFC

 ∞ ∞ 
~
p

= 

∑∑ 
 n =1
+ m +n (
 3V I cos (ω − ω )t + φ
m n +m − δ +n ) +

6.2.3.Control circuit of the advanced UPFC
m =1
 The complete control block diagrams of the shunt and series converters
 m≠n
of the advanced UPFC are shown in Fig. 6.8 and Fig. 6.9, respectively. The
∞ ∞ 
∑ ∑ ( )
necessary measurements of voltage and current to the control are:
+  3V I cos (ω − ω )t + φ +
−m −n −m − δ −n
 m n
 – main controller of the advanced UPFC:
m =1  n =1 
ü currents iha , ihb and ihc of the non-linear load,
m≠ n
ü isa , isb and isc of the controlled transmission line, and
∞ ∞  ü
∑ ∑ ( )
phase-voltages v a , v b and v c at the left side of the advanced UPFC;
+  −3V I cos (ω + ω )t + φ +
+m −n +m + δ −n
 m n
 – dc voltage regulator:
m =1

 n =1 

ü voltages VC1 and VC2 of the dc capacitors;
∞ 
+ ∑ ∑ 
 n =1
−m +n m n (
 −3V I cos (ω + ω )t + φ
−m + δ +n )




 ;

(2.47)
– minor feedback loops of the PWM controls:
ü actual values of compensating currents i fa , i fb , i fc (shunt converter),
m =1 
and voltages v fa , v fb , v fc (series converter).
24 2. Power definitions under non-sinusoidal conditions 6.2. Controller of the advanced UPFC 121

2.6. Relations between the power definitions

4
General equations relating both the instantaneous powers and the sym-
metrical components theory (also called Fortescue Components [51]) in steady

v*cb

v*ca
v*cc
state are presented here. These general equations are fundamental in elucidat-

vc v b va
_

S10

S11

S12
S7

S8

S9
ing some important characteristics of the instantaneous powers and will be

S
v'c v'b v'a

+
_

Control
useful in understanding the control algorithms for the series and shunt active

PWM
S

Sine
power line conditioners introduced in the next chapters.

+
+
S
+
For the present analysis, a three-phase four-wire system is considered in

+
v hb

v ha
v hc
the steady state and with generic voltages and currents. The voltage and cur-

S
+

+
v fb

v fa
v fc
rent waveforms can be decomposed into Fourier Series as:

Inverse
Transf.

Kv

Kv

Kv

v k (t ) = ∑ 2Vkn sin(ω n t + φ kn ) ; k = (a, b, c ) ;

-0 a b
(2.36)

_
i ho

S
i hb
n =1

i ha

Fig. 6.9: Control block diagram of the series converter of the advanced UPFC
Refer.

v*cb

v*ca
Cur.

v*cc
i k (t ) = ∑ 2 I kn sin(ω n t + δ kn ) ; k = ( a, b, c ) ; (2.37)

b-a
n =1

4
+
and rewritten in terms of phasors, including the fundamental and harmonic

S
+
+
phasors, as follows:

pc
qc

_
_

Kro
+
ph

qh
∞ ∞

~
∑ ∑ Vkn

+
V&k = Vkn ∠φ kn = & ; k = ( a, b, c ) ; (2.38)

S
+

+
n =1 n =1

Kr

Kr
∞ ∞
∑ I kn ∠δ kn = ∑ Ikn

Kpp
I&k = & ; k = (a, b, c) .

Kpq
(2.39)

130 Hz

130 Hz
n =1 n =1

~~

~~
Kip

Kiq
_~

_~
Then, the symmetrical components transformation [51] is applied on each
harmonic a-b-c-phasor group of voltages and currents to determine their posi-

~~
+

5 Hz
tive, negative and zero sequence components:

_~
S
+

ph

qh

_
pref

qref
V&0 n  1 1 1  V&an 

iso
&  1 & 
α 2 

Transf.

Calcul.
Power
V+ n  = 3
1 α Vbn  . (2.40)

&
V&− n  1 α 2 α  V&cn 
   

a-b0
.

The indices "0", "+" and "–" correspond to the zero sequence, the positive

isa
isb
isc
v'a

v'b
sequence and the negative sequence component, respectively, and α is the .

1
120° phase shift complex operator: .
22 2. Power definitions under non-sinusoidal conditions 6.2. Controller of the advanced UPFC 123

the Imaginary Volt-Ampere (IVA). In this work, the symbol "vai" will be used The new equations for the α-β current reference box and α-β-0 inverse
for the imaginary volt-ampere unit. transformation in Fig. 6.9 are:

A new algorithm to determine the instantaneous reactive currents can be ihα  1 vα′ −vβ′   pc + ~
ph 
derived from the submatrix in (2.29). First, the imaginary power q is calcu- i  = 2 v ′ 
v α′   qc + q h 
 ~ , (6.11)
 
hβ v ′
α + vβ′ 2  β
lated directly from (2.31) or from (2.29). Then, the α-β reactive currents are
calculated as functions of q, vα and vβ ( p=0, v0 =0 and p0 =0 ) as follows:
1 1 0  i 
v ha 
2  1  h0
2
 iq α   vα − vβ   0  v  = −1 − 3  i  (6.12)
1  hb  2  hα  .
 = 2    . (2.32) 3  2 2

2
 iqβ  v α + vβ  vβ vα   q   v hc  1 −1 3   ihβ 
  2 2 2  

The inverse transformation of iqα and iqβ results in:


6.2.4. Another control circuit for voltage compensation
iqa   1 0 
  2 −1 3  qα
i  As previously mentioned, the advanced UPFC can be installed at the end
iqb  = 3 −1 2 2  i  . (2.33)
of a transmission line, which has harmonic currents coming from the load
iqc   2 − 3   qβ 
  2 side and harmonic voltages coming from the source side. In terms of symbols
used in Fig. 6.2, this means that the active filtering characteristic of the ad-
It should be remarked that the instantaneous reactive currents obtained vanced UPFC should be used to compensate vs and ih, instead of v and ih that
from (2.33), in contrast to (2.20), are not influenced by zero sequence compo- has been done hitherto. In this case, the unbalance and harmonics that are
nents. It is possible to see that the a-b-c-phase voltages, as well as the power present in voltage vs should be compensated to make the voltage v balanced
p3φ , used in (2.20), can be influenced by zero sequence components, while and sinusoidal. Nevertheless, all other characteristics of the advanced UPFC
the α-β-voltages and the power q , used in (2.33), are not affected by these should not be changed.
components.
To implement this new approach, the voltage vs has to be measured and
If no zero sequence components are present in voltage and current, the drawn to the advanced UPFC controller, besides all those given in Fig. 6.2. A
reactive current determined from (2.33) is identical to (2.20). Consequently, second fundamental positive sequence voltage detector, equal to that presented
the active currents i wk = ik – iqk; k=(a,b,c) are the same in this case. However, in Fig. 6.8, should be installed in the control of the series converter (Fig. 6.9),
in the presence of zero sequence components, the compensation methods re- having v sa , v sb , v sc as inputs. The outputs of this additional voltage detector
sult in two different solutions, although neither iqk produce active power, that is named as v sa ′ , v sb
′ , v sc
′ , which correspond to the instantaneous values of
is, fundamental positive sequence component of voltage vs. Only this additional
circuit is sufficient to implement the control that satisfies the new compensa-
p3φ = v a iqa + v b iqb + v c iqc = 0 . (2.34)
‚
tion characteristics. It is accomplished by replacing ¯ ( v a , v b , v c ) with
It was proved in [54] that the presence of zero sequence components al- ƒ
( v sa , v sb , v sc ), and ¯ ( v a′ , v b′ , v c′ ) with ( v sa
′ , v sb
′ , v sc
′ ) in the control of
ters the real power p and the zero sequence power p0 of the minimized cur- the series converter (Fig. 6.9). Simulation results using both approaches have
rents iwa, iwb and iwc given by (2.21), such that they are different to those gen- been carried out and are presented in the next section.
erated by the load currents ia , ib and ic . However, the sum of p and p0
Due to the same reasons of Chapter 5, here, the optimization of the sys-
never changes and is always equal to the sum of p and p0 generated by ia ,
tem parameters has been performed in a digital simulator using a complete
ib and ic . It should be noted that p3φ = p+ p 0 (see (2.30) ). model of the advanced UPFC. The procedure was the same as made in that
chapter and will not be repeated here. Only the values of principal parameters
20 2. Power definitions under non-sinusoidal conditions 6.3. Performance of the advanced UPFC 125

(pu) The normalization of the system parameters involves ac and dc, as well
p3φ(va,b,c, ia,b,c )= p3φ(va,b,c, iwa,b,c ) as three– and single-phase, quantities. It is difficult to find an ac and dc basis
6
of voltage and power, specially when PWM converters are involved in the
problem, so that dc and ac impedances can have some sense of correlation,
4 when they are given as per unity (pu) quantities. This problem has been solved
adopting a non-usual definition of basis. For instance, phase-voltages and
2 line-voltages have been simultaneously used. This and other particularities of
p3φ the basis used in the following normalization are summarized in Appendix A.
0
p3φ(va,b,c, iwa,b,c )
0 10 20 30 t(ms) The basic configuration of the simulated system is given in Fig. 6.1
(refer to Fig. 5.3 to see the symbols of the main parameters of power circuit of
Fig. 2.5: Instantaneous three-phase powers the advanced UPFC). The normalized parameters of the power system are
summarized in Table 6.2. It shows that an unbalanced, distorted voltage
In the next section another set of power definitions is given. With this source is employed in subsystem G1. It contains fundamental zero sequence
new approach, it is possible to compensate separately zero sequence compo- and negative sequence components, and 3rd and 5th harmonic. The voltage
nents, as well as to draw constant instantaneous active power from the source. source of subsystem G2 is balanced and sinusoidal, but it has a greater
equivalent impedance. A non-linear load formed with the same kind of line-
commutated converters as those used in Chapter 3 and 5 is connected at the
left side of the advanced UPFC. The same procedure as that given in Chap-
2.5. Instantaneous powers defined in ter 5 has been used for dimensioning the high-pass filters and commutation
the α-β
β -0 reference frame reactance of the series and shunt PWM converters.

Table 6.3
Akagi et al. [56][57] have proposed new concepts of instantaneous active Principal parameters of the control circuit (Fig. 6.8 and Fig. 6.9)
and reactive power, valid during transient periods, as well as for generic volt-
ages and currents waveforms. Further, this theory is also valid for three-phase Parameter description Value (pu)
four-wire systems. This theory has some interesting but difficult aspects that
need to be clarified. Preliminary discussions have already been published [49] dc voltage regulator:
[55][67]. Next, a detailed survey of this theory is given. PI-Controller Kp = 1.5; Ki = 4.0; (S3φ@ /Vdc@)

The α−β−0 transformation is an algebraic transformation of three-phase rms voltage control:


voltages and currents into a stationary reference frame, also called the Clarke PI-Controller Kpv = 2.03; Kiv = 405; (S3φ@ /V3φ@)
Transformation [53]. The α−β−0 transformation of a three-phase voltage and Limits of output qv = ±0.667
its inverse transformation are given by: power flow control:
PI-Controller Kpp = Kpq = 3.2; Kip = Kiq = 144;
 1 1 1 
 Limits of output pc=qc = ±0.667
 v0  2 2 2  v a 
(S3φ@)
  2  −1 −1 
  
 vα  =  1 2 2 v b  , (2.27) damping circuit:
v  3   v c  α–, β–components Kr = 2
 β  0 3 − 32 zero sequence components Kro = 4
 2  Limits of output unlimited
18 2. Power definitions under non-sinusoidal conditions 6.3. Performance of the advanced UPFC 127

(pu) Fig. 6.10 shows the phase voltages that appear at the left side of the ad-
2 vanced UPFC (voltage v in Fig. 6.1). They are distorted and unbalanced. The
1 ia fundamental zero sequence component in G1 excites a high neutral current
0 that flows through the controlled transmission line, before the connecting of
-1 the series converter of the advanced UPFC (t < 60 ms). This current is shown
-2 in Fig. 6.11. During this period, the neutral current i0 of subsystem G1 is
2 equal to the current is0 of the controlled transmission line, although the shunt
1 ib
0
converter of the advanced UPFC was connected at t = 55 ms. The shunt con-
verter compensates neither the current i, nor the current is, but the current ih
-1
-2
(see Fig. 6.1). The subharmonic at very low frequency that remains in i0 re-
2 lates to the signal ε in the dc voltage regulator, as already explained in Chap-
1 ic ter 5. This unwanted phenomenon disappears in an advanced UPFC without
0 neutral conductor.
-1
-2 (pu)
2
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 t(ms) 1
va 0
Fig. 2.2: Line currents of a hypothetical load -1

1
vb 0
(pu) -1

2 1
i wa
1 vc 0
0 -1
-2
-1 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 t(ms)
-2
2 Fig. 6.10: Phase-voltages at the left side of advanced UPFC
1 i wb
0
(pu)
-1
-2 0.5 i ho
2 0
1
i wc -0.5 i co
0 0.5 io
-1 0
-2 -0.5
0.5 i so
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 t(ms)
0
Fig. 2.3: Minimized currents using (2.21) -0.5
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 t(ms)
Fig. 6.11: Neutral currents
16 2. Power definitions under non-sinusoidal conditions 6.3. Performance of the advanced UPFC 129

If the three-phase system is balanced and sinusoidal, p3φ and 2 (pu) vsa v sb v sc
2 2 2 1
( v a + vb + v c ) are constant. In this case the minimized currents iwa , iwb ,
0
iwc are proportional to the phase voltages v a , v b , v c , respectively. The
-1
currents are sinusoidal and in phase with the voltages. For all other cases, the
-2
proportionality is not guaranteed (see example in page 17), although there are 20 40 80 t(ms) 100
special cases for non-sinusoidal voltages where proportional currents can pro- shunt series
UPFC
duce constant instantaneous active power, as well as zero reactive power.
Certainly the currents from (2.21) never generate reactive power. Fig. 6.14: Compensated voltages at the right side of advanced UPFC

One may consider proportionality between voltages and currents the The non-linear load was connected after t = 100 ms, according to its
most important goal in power compensation. In this case, an extension of the firing angle as given in page no. 126. Fig. 6.15 presents the line currents of
above method may be used, which postulates currents proportional to voltages. the load. They are hardly distorted and unbalanced. Furthermore, they pro-
Unfortunately, these extended method imposes a time delay in a real imple- duce also reactive (imaginary) power which is compensated by the shunt con-
mentation because of the time needed to determine the average active power verter. The neutral current of the load ( ih0 ) is also compensated (Fig. 6.11).
p3φ . This new algorithm is called: generalized Fryze currents [43][46], The real and imaginary power of this load are illustrated in Fig. 6.16. For
which are here represented by iwa , iwb and iwc . The new formulation is regulating the dc voltages of the advanced UPFC, regulating the rms value of
given by: the fundamental positive sequence voltage v (left side), and for compensating
the non-linear load, the shunt converter needs to generate high currents, that,
iwk = Ge vk ; k=(a,b,c) ; (2.22) in the present simulation case, have become greater than 1 pu. This indicates
a poor solution for power compensation from an economical point of view.
p3φ Although successfully implemented, it has been verified that the voltage con-
Ge = 2
; (2.23)
vΣ trol (Fig. 6.4) may lead to very high need of imaginary (reactive) power gen-
eration in the shunt converter, to regulate the voltage v. The functionality is
T T similar to a Static var Compensator (SVC) and might be more useful if the
∫ ∫ (va ia + vb ib + vc ic )dt
1 1
p3φ = p3φ (t )dt = ; (2.24) advanced UPFC is located in a weak area of the power system. Fig. 6.17
T T shows the line currents of the shunt converter. They increase strongly after
0 0
t = 200 ms, and the reason is clarified below.
T

∑ ∑ ∫
2 2 1 2
vΣ = vk = vk (t )dt ; k=(a,b,c) . (2.25)
(pu)
T
k k 0 0.5
The generalized Fryze currents given by (2.22), as the current given by (2.21), i ha 0
never generate reactive power. Further, it is possible to demonstrate that the -0.5
aggregate values of the currents iwa , iwb and iwc (calculated in the same 0.5
i hb 0
way as made in (2.25) for voltages) are smaller than iwa , iwb , iwc . For the
-0.5
sinusoidal case they are equivalent. Thus, 0.5
i hc 0
∑ iwk ≤ iw Σ ∑ iwk
2 2 2 2
iw Σ = = ; k=(a,b,c) . (2.26) -0.5
k k 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 t(ms)

Fig. 6.15: Currents of the non-linear load


14 2. Power definitions under non-sinusoidal conditions 6.3. Performance of the advanced UPFC 131

Compared with the Fryze's definitions, the above active and reactive the unified power flow controller, such that a power reversion of ±1 pu can be
powers have the same fundamental principle, but here instantaneous values of made and reach the steady state in an interval smaller than 30 ms.
a three-phase system are considered. It should be remarked that the idea that
reactive power is related to an oscillating energy flux is abandoned. This oscil- The line currents ia , ib and ic of the power subsystem G1 and isa , isb
lating energy flux between two subsystems now is treated as an instantaneous and isc of the controlled transmission line are presented in Fig. 6.19 and
active three-phase power that has an average value equal to zero. Fig. 6.20, respectively. An interesting characteristic of the proposed control is
Since instantaneous values of voltages and current are used here, the in- the fact of having no compensation errors, even during transient response, that
stantaneous active and reactive powers defined above are also valid during affect the neutral current compensation (Fig. 6.11). Before t = 150 ms, the
transient periods. Further, no restrictions were imposed upon the definitions current is leads vs (qref = –0.33 pu), and lags vs after this instant
and they can be used also under non-sinusoidal conditions. (qref = +0.33 pu). This can be better seen in Fig. 6.21. Before t = 180 ms, the
phase displacement between is and vs is greater than 90° (pref = –1 pu), and
Two methods for instantaneous reactive power calculation are presented smaller than 90° after this instant (pref = +1 pu). Connecting and disconnect-
in the following sections. Both methods provide algebraic equations that do ing load did not affect the line currents of the transmission line (is), but the
not introduce any time delay in the algorithm. They are: currents ia , ib and ic of the power subsystem G1.
i) Reactive power calculation by minimization method ( the Lagrange
Multiplier Method ) (pu)
1.5
ii) Reactive power calculation using the α−β−0 Transformation ( also 1
pref
known as the Clarke Transformation [53] ). pr ps
0

-1

2.4. Reactive power calculation by 1


qs
minimization method 0
qr
qref
-1
The reactive current of a three-phase system is that component of the -1.5
20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 t(ms)
load current which does not produce any active power, but increases the cur-
rent amplitude and the losses in the conductors. The reactive power can be Fig. 6.18: Instantaneous powers of the controlled transmission line
determined through minimization methods. For the formulation of the prob-
lem, a hypothetical three-phase load current i k, k = (a, b, c), is assumed to (pu)
3
consist of an active portion i wk and a reactive portion i qk, that is, 2
1
ia 0
-1
ik = iwk + iqk ; k = (a, b, c) . (2.16) -2
2
1
The method involves minimizing the aggregate currents* in the load, but ib 0
-1
under the constraint that the currents i qk do not generate any active power. -2
2
1
ic 0
-1
-2
-3
* Buchholz [33] established the concept of aggregate current and voltage in 1919 to define 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 t(ms)
an apparent power for ac systems with distorted waveform. Recently, Emanuel [26], De-
penbrock [43] and Czarnecki [38] have also used this concept.
Fig. 6.19: Currents of the power subsystem G1
12 2. Power definitions under non-sinusoidal conditions 6.3. Performance of the advanced UPFC 133

an oscillating component even if the voltages and currents are proportional −0.67 pu ≤ q v ≤ +0.67 pu . Nevertheless, the generation of reactive power
(λ = 1). An example is given in section 2.4, page 17. This oscillating electric reached its minimum, around t = 240 ms, and could not raise the rms value of
power causes mechanical vibration in electric machines. the fundamental positive sequence voltage up to its reference value
(Vrms = 1 pu). Fig. 6.24 shows the instantaneous aggregate values of voltage v
and vs, as defined in (6.8).
2.3. Electric powers in three-phase systems
(pu)
0.5
The analysis of three-phase circuits is usually simplified as a sum of 0.25 p series
three single-phase circuits and the (total) power is calculated as three times
0
the single-phase power or the sum of the three separate powers. The physical
-0.25
meaning of the powers is assumed to be identical in both representations of -0.5
the system. This is a crude simplification, especially in cases involving static 0.5
converters. 0.25 q series
0
The reactive power does not describe the same phenomenon in three- -0.25
phase and in single-phase circuits [54]. For example, an ideal three-phase -0.5
generator supplying a balanced capacitor bank has no mechanical torque if the 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 t(ms)
losses are neglected. On the other hand, a single-phase generator supplying a
Fig. 6.22: Instantaneous powers of the series converter of the advanced UPFC
capacitor has an oscillating mechanical torque. Therefore, it is false to think
that the three-phase reactive power represents an oscillating energy between
source and load if all the phases of the system are considered together. On the (pu)
0.5
other hand, three-phase systems with neutral wire can present unbalances due
to zero sequence components [51], which cause problems unknown in single- 0
-0.5
p shunt
phase circuits.
-1
0.5
A. Apparent three-phase power
0
Two definitions of apparent three-phase power are often used even under -0.5 q shunt
unbalanced, non-sinusoidal conditions [26][29][33][38][43]: -1
-1.25
i) "per Phase" calculation: 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 t(ms)

∑ Sk = ∑ Vk Ik
Fig. 6.23: Instantaneous powers of the shunt converter of the advanced UPFC
S3φ = ; k = (a, b, c) ; (2.13)
k k
1.08 (pu) ||v'Σ || ||v's Σ ||
ii ) "aggregate rms value" calculation*:
1.04
SΣ = ∑ Vk2 ∑ Ik2 ; k = (a, b, c) ; (2.14) 1
0.96
k k
0.92
40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 t(ms)

Fig. 6.24: Aggregate values of the fundamental positive sequence


* From the work of Schering [19], Buchholz introduced the concept of aggregate voltage
voltage v and vs
and current ("Kollektivstrom" and "Kollektivspannung" in the original work written in Ger-
man), in 1919, to define an apparent power for generic loads ( see (2.25) ).
10 2. Power definitions under non-sinusoidal conditions 6.3. Performance of the advanced UPFC 135

The powers defined from (2.1) to (2.5) are well known and widely used. As the currents of the transmission line ( isa , isb , isc ) are also well fil-
However, only the active power P, as defined in (2.3), describes a clear physi- tered, now, the real power pr and imaginary power qr generated by voltage v
cal meaning also under non-sinusoidal conditions [29][35]. The active power and current is should be more smooth than those presented in Fig. 6.18. The
P represents the average value of the instantaneous active power. In other new powers pr and qr are illustrated in Fig. 6.27. It shows that the power re-
words, it represents the average ratio of energy transfer between two electric versions have been successfully realized in the new approach. The active fil-
subsystems. tering capabilities of the unified power quality conditioner as proposed in
Chapter 5 have been satisfactorily preserved, not only from a voltage compen-
In contrast, the reactive power Q from (2.4) and the harmonic power D
sation, but also from a current compensation point of view. This is confirmed
from (2.5) are mathematical formulations that may lead to false interpreta-
by Fig. 6.26 and Fig. 6.28.
tions, particularly when these concepts are extended to the analysis of three-
phase circuits. The above equations treat electric circuits under non-sinusoidal The voltage regulation provided by the shunt converter presented better
conditions as a sum of several independent circuits excited at different fre- results than those given by Fig. 6.24. This can be explained by the fact of now
quencies. The calculated powers do not provide any tool for solving the related having a greater equivalent impedance (L2 of the power subsystem G2) at the
problems. Consequently, they do not provide any consistent basis for design- left side of the advanced UPFC (see Table 6.2). In this case, smaller amplitude
ing passive filters or active power line conditioners [36][42]. of reactive currents is enough for producing the necessary voltage drop across
L2 , which regulates the voltage v. This is the reason why Static var Compen-
Although the apparent power S is considered a fundamental rating of
sators can be more profitable if connected in weak areas of the power system.
electrical equipment, this definition is perhaps the worst, since it shows up in
Fig. 6.29 shows the aggregate voltages at both sides of the advanced UPFC. It
four different ways in a widely recognized technical dictionary [31]. The ap-
parent power given in (2.1) is one of them, named "the rms volt-ampere" [29]. shows that v Σ′ reaches 1 pu before t = 240 ms.
More difficult is to find reasons for the applicability of the apparent power, if
a three-phase, four-wire, non-sinusoidal power supply connected to generic 2 (pu) va vb vc i sa
1.5
loads is considered [19]. These problems are reported in several works and 1
many researchers have tried to solve them [22][23][24][28][30]. 0.5
0
-0.5
-1
2.2. Power definitions in the time domain -1.5
-2
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 t(ms)
In the early 30's, Fryze proposed a set of power definitions in the time Fig. 6.26: Compensated voltages at the left side of the advanced UPFC
domain [32]. An interesting characteristic of this approach is the absence of
Fourier analysis, which was very important at that time, since no measure-
(pu)
ment equipment, such as spectrum analyzers, was available. The basic equa- 1.5
tions according to the Fryze's approach are given below. 1
pr
0.5 p ref
• Active power Pw : 0
-0.5
T T -1

∫ ∫
1 1
Pw = p(t )dt = v(t )i (t )dt = Vw I = VI w . (2.6) 1 qr q ref
T T 0.5
0 0 0
The rms values of voltage and current are calculated as given in (2.2). Three -0.5
-1
units: Pw , V and I form the basis of the Fryze's approach. From them all oth- 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 t(ms)
ers can be calculated, that is,
Fig. 6.27: Instantaneous powers of the controlled transmission line
6.4. Conclusions 137

CHAPTER 6.4. Conclusions

2. The control technique for active filters proposed in the previous chapters
of this work has been successfully introduced into a FACTS device, the Uni-
fied Power Flow Controller. This allowed the improvement of the dynamic
response and additionally provided active filtering capabilities for the FACTS
3. Power definitions under device.

non-sinusoidal conditions A three-phase four-wire power system has been considered in the analy-
sis, which allowed the evaluation of the performance of the advanced UPFC
under all kind of unbalance and harmonic pollution that can arise in three-
phase systems. The control algorithm is so flexible that a simplification can be
easily made to adapt the equipment for applications in three-phase systems
without neutral conductor.

The advanced UPFC incorporates almost all compensation characteris-


tics of active power line conditioners, that can be implemented with PWM
converters, into a single device. Most problems of active filtering and power
flow control can be solved with the advanced UPFC, although it might be in-
T HERE are several basic concepts which must be established before the
analysis of active power line conditioners can begin. The calculation of
electric power under non-sinusoidal conditions is perhaps the cornerstone of
teresting, from an economical point of view, to select some compensation
characteristics and to leave others to be executed by equipments that do not
require high power PWM converters.
active power line conditioner analysis. The definitions of power for sinusoidal
ac systems are unique and unequivocal. However, under non-sinusoidal con- Two important points have been left for future works: the dimensioning
ditions, several sets of power definitions are still in use. For instance, the con- of the dc capacitors of the advanced UPFC and the analysis of stability under
ventional concepts of reactive and apparent power lose their usefulness in subsynchronous resonance. These points need a more complex model of power
non-sinusoidal cases [17][18]. This problem has existed for many years and is generating system to be performed and require longer interval of simulation. It
still with us. Unfortunately, no agreement for a universally applicable power might be interesting to develop a model of advanced UPFC in a real-time
theory has achieved. simulator.
Two important approaches for the definition of power under non-
sinusoidal conditions were introduced by Fryze [32] and Budeanu [20], in the
late 20's. Fryze defined the powers in the time domain, whereas Budeanu
worked in the frequency domain. Unfortunately, those power definitions are
not complete and in some cases may lead to misinterpretations. No relevant
contributions have arisen until the 70's, since power generating systems were
satisfactorily represented as balanced and sinusoidal ac systems. However, the
problem has become significant after the beginning of advances in power
electronics, because an increasing number of non-linear equipments is being
connected to the electric power system.

Many approaches for power calculation can be found in the literature. At


the present, the state of the power definitions in the time domain seems to be

8
6 1. Introduction 7. Conclusions 139

interesting but difficult aspects that should be clarified to dispel some miscon- power flow control within an integrated controller, has been developed and its
ceptions still present in this theory. A general control principle using these fundaments discussed in details. A complete model of the advanced UPFC has
new concepts should be delineated. The promising control features of active been implemented in a digital simulator for analysis of transient stability. The
power filters should be extended to the FACTS devices. Using the new con- simulation results are successful.
cepts of instantaneous power, enhanced UPFC controllers could be developed
to provide simultaneously power flow control and active filtering. Important points of this work are summarized below.

i ) The compensation algorithms based on the powers defined in the α-β-0


1.3. Objectives of this Work reference frame is very flexible. Undesirable powers can be compensated
separately. This selective compensation characteristic minimizes the
power rating of the active power line conditioner.
The following objectives have been selected for this work:
ii ) The instantaneous imaginary (reactive) power can be compensated with-
i) to summarize the definitions of power under non-sinusoidal conditions;
out time delay, and without the need of energy storage elements in the
ii) to establish general compensation methods to be applied in active active power line conditioner.
power line conditioners;
iii ) It is possible to implement active power line conditioners for n-wire
iii) to describe the implementation of a shunt active power filter; systems using (n–1)-leg PWM converters.
iv) to evaluate the performance of the shunt active filter under unbalanced
and distorted system voltages; iv ) All types of active power line conditioners, that are proposed in this
work, need no dc power supply, but only energy storage elements at the
v) to develop a prototype of shunt active filter for applications in three- dc link.
phase four-wire systems;
v ) The Unified Power Quality Conditioner improves the power quality of a
vi) to validate the analysis of the shunt active filter through experimental
specified consumer without interfering in the other loads. No remote
results;
control signal, such as system frequency or system configuration, is nec-
vii) to describe a series active filter; essary to put it in operation. The UPQC can be seen as a local, selective
solution for improving the power quality.
viii) to formulate a new control algorithm for a series active filter that di-
rectly compensates system voltage harmonics and voltage unbalances; vi ) Most needs of active filtering and power flow control in power systems
ix) to describe the implementation of a combined series and shunt active can be fulfilled with the proposed approach of Advanced Unified Power
filter; Flow Controller.
x) to develop a prototype of a combined series and shunt active filter to However, there are several important points in the theory of active power
compensate simultaneously load currents and supply voltages; line conditioners that were not covered in this work. Some immediate investi-
xi) to validate the analysis of the combined series and shunt active filter gations for future works are mentioned below.
through experimental results;
xii) to extend the use of active filter control techniques to the FACTS de-
vices;
xiii) to study the possibility of joining the power flow control together with
the active filtering into a single device.
4 1. Introduction

damental load current IF. If the filtering is ideal — the shunt active filter gen-
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5.4. Parameter optimization through simulation 84
List of Symbols 149

v fa , v fb , v fc voltages on the high-pass filter of series PWM converter


Vref reference value for the dc link
Vrms reference value for the terminal voltage of a transmission line
v a′ , v b′ , v c′ instantaneous value of fundamental positive sequence voltage
vC fundamental component of the compensating three-phase voltage
I, I& , i, i, i currents
i instantaneous current
I rms value of current i
I& phasor current(complex quantity)
i three-phase current
IF fundamental current component
Ih harmonic current component
IS ,is three-phase current being drawn from the terminal s
In rms current of the nth–harmonic
Iw, iw active current
Iq, iq reactive current
ia , ib , ic instantaneous line currents of a–, b– and c–phase
ica , icb , icc line currents of the active power line conditioner
isa , isb , isc compensated currents flowing from the source
iwa , iwb , iwc generalized Fryze currents
iΣ aggregate current
iα , iβ , i0 instantaneous current components in the α-β-0 ref. frame
iso neutral current of the source
io neutral current of the load
I&0 n phasor of the zero sequence current of the nth–harmonic
I&+ n phasor of the positive sequence current of the nth–harmonic
I&− n phasor of the negative sequence current of the nth–harmonic
i c* three-phase current references
ih three-phase current of a non-linear load
i*ca , i*cb , i*cc , i*cα , i*cβ instantaneous current references
i fa , i fb , i fc not filtered currents of the shunt PWM converter
ia′ , ib′ , ic′ instantaneous value of fundamental positive sequence current
i fundamental component of a three-phase current
APPENDIX
Abstract
A.
A.Normalization of parameters –
A LL Active Power Line Conditioners studied in this report comprise
power electronic devices made up from PWM converters. Two families
of active power line conditioners have been investigated: a) active power fil-
per unity quantities
ters; b) unified power flow controllers.
At present, there is no unique set of power definitions valid for generic
voltage and current waveforms. The calculation of electric power under non-
sinusoidal conditions is perhaps the cornerstone of active power line condi-
tioner analysis. A detailed discussion is given about various definitions of
electric power and their interrelationships.
The control algorithms developed for the active power filters and unified
power flow controller make use of the concepts of instantaneous active and
reactive power, which allowed high dynamic response.
Harmonic terminal voltages may be produced partially by the power gen-
erator itself (source harmonics) and partially by non-sinusoidal load currents
N ORMALIZED parameters are commonly used in the analysis of power
systems. They simplifies calculations and offer a better interpretation of
values of current, voltage and impedance. For instance, normalized imped-
flowing through the internal impedance of the generator (load harmonics). A ances at both sides of a power transformer can be reduced in a equivalent im-
solution employing active filtering is proposed for each cause of harmonic pedance by adding directly the impedances, without the need of transforma-
generation. Load harmonics has been compensated applying shunt active fil- tion according to the turn ratio of the transformer.
ter, whereas series active filter has been used to compensate source harmonics.
However, difficult aspects arise when the power system involves power
The theory of active power filters has been summarized. New approaches electronic devices, particularly by the presence of PWM converters, because of
of series, shunt, and combined series and shunt active filters have been pro- the absence of a straight voltage relation between dc and ac sides of the con-
posed, discussed, and validated through experimental results from a laboratory verter. Furthermore, the instantaneous real and imaginary powers defined in
prototype.
the α-β-0 reference frame are three-phase quantities that are calculated from
It has been shown that the control techniques used in the active filters "single-phase" voltages and currents (from the phase-voltages, instead from
can be extended to be used also in FACTS devices. A promising type of the line-voltage). Nevertheless, a basis of voltage and power has been defined
FACTS device, the Unified Power Flow Controller, has been explored. A new to be used in the analysis of the advanced UPFC, and its particularity are ex-
control strategy for this equipment, that joins active filtering capabilities and plained below.
power flow control within an integrated controller, has been developed and its
fundaments discussed in details. A complete model of the advanced UPFC has All usual definitions are maintained in the following extended basis, that
been implemented in a digital simulator for analysis of transient stability. In- is, the fundamental values are:
teresting results have been obtained, which are presented in this work. ü three-phase apparent power basis: S3φ@ (VA) ; (A.1)

ü line-voltage basis: V3φ@ (V) ; (A.2)

iv 151
Normalization of parameters – per unity quantities 153

From (A.10) and (A.11) a dc current basis is defined.

ü dc current basis: Idc@ = VPdc@ (Α) , (A.12)


dc @

and a dc resistance basis is found to be

ü dc resistance basis: R dc@ = VIdc@ (Ω) . (A.13)


dc @

Finally, a criterion has to be established to determine a dc capacitance


and inductance basis. In this work, the energy stored in the dc link of the
PWM converter plays an important role. Therefore, a way to correlate energies
at both sides of the converter should be found. The basic idea consists of
finding a dc capacitance basis that stores the same energy as that stored in a
1 pu three-phase capacitor bank at the ac side. In attempt to this constraint,
the following relation can be written.

ü energy basis: W@ =
3
2
1
C @V12φ @ = C dc @Vdc
2
2
@ (J) ,

3 1
or W@ = 2
L @ I@ = L dc @ I dc
2
@ (J) . (A.14)
2 2

From (A.14) it is possible to extract the value of the dc capacitance basis


and dc inductance basis, since all other quantities in these equations were al-
ready determined above.

A per unity quantity is achieved dividing the electrical quantity by its


corresponding value of basis. For example, the pu current of a load deter-
mined by:

ia i i i
ia (pu) = ; ib (pu) = b ; ic (pu) = c ; io (pu) = o . (A.15)
I@ I@ I@ I@

similar equations hold for all other quantities.


LEBENSLAUF
1. Angaben zur Person
Name: Maurício Aredes
geboren: 14.8.1961 in Monte Aprazível, SP, Brasilien
Eltern: João Aredes Filho und Esdier Beloque Aredes
Familienstand: verheiratet seit 1985 mit Marília T.A. Aredes, zwei
Kinder, Mariah (geb. 1987) und Maynara (geb. 1989)
Staatsangehörigkeit: brasilianisch

2. Ausbildungsdaten
WS 92/93 – WS 95/96 Doktorand am Institut für Allgemeine
Elektrotechnik, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Deutschland
SS 92 Deutscher Sprachkurs am Goethe Institut Bremen, Bremen,
Deutschland
1988–1991 Studium an der "Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro" in Rio
de Janeiro, RJ, Brasilien. Abschluß: M.Sc. (Master of Science)
1979–1984 Studium an der "Universidade Federal Fluminense" in Niterói,
RJ, Brasilien. Abschluß: Dipl.-Ing.
1968–1978 Grundschule und Gymnasium mit Ausbildung im Gebiet der
Bautechnik, "EEPSG Capitão Porfírio de Alcântara Pimentel,
Monte Aprazível, SP, Brasilien
3. Berufstätigkeit
1991-1992 Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter an CEPEL Forschungszentrum
in Rio de Janeiro, Brasilien
1988-1991 Ingenieur für Planung und Entwicklung des SCADA-Projektes
beim Itaipu Binacional Wasserkraftwerk, Foz do Iguaçu, Brasilien.
1985-1988 Ingenieur für Einrichtung und Inbetriebnahme des Itaipu HGÜ
Übertragungssystem, São Roque, SP, Brasilien.

Maurício Aredes
Berlin, den 2.01.1996

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