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Table of Contents
Volume I

Preface

Chapter F: Foundations: A Prelude to Functions


F.1 The Distance and Midpoint Formulas ...........................................................................................1
F.2 Graphs of Equations in Two Variables; Intercepts; Symmetry ..................................................12
F.3 Lines ............................................................................................................................................28
F.4 Circles .........................................................................................................................................44
Chapter Project ...................................................................................................................................56

Chapter 1: Functions and Their Graphs


1.1 Functions .....................................................................................................................................57
1.2 The Graph of a Function .............................................................................................................71
1.3 Properties of Functions ................................................................................................................79
1.4 Library of Functions; Piece-defined Functions ...........................................................................94
1.5 Graphing Techniques: Transformations ....................................................................................105
1.6 Mathematical Models: Building Functions ...............................................................................123
1.7 Building Mathematical Models Using Variation ......................................................................129
Chapter Review ................................................................................................................................133
Chapter Test .....................................................................................................................................140
Chapter Projects ...............................................................................................................................144

Chapter 2: Linear and Quadratic Functions


2.1 Properties of Linear Functions and Linear Models ...................................................................146
2.2 Building Linear Models from Data ...........................................................................................158
2.3 Quadratic Functions and Their Zeros ........................................................................................163
2.4 Properties of Quadratic Functions .............................................................................................181
2.5 Inequalities Involving Quadratic Functions ..............................................................................202
2.6 Building Quadratic Models from Verbal Descriptions and from Data .....................................220
2.7 Complex Zeros of a Quadratic Function ...................................................................................228
2.8 Equations and Inequalities Involving the Absolute Value Function .........................................233
Chapter Review ................................................................................................................................241
Chapter Test .....................................................................................................................................253
Cumulative Review ..........................................................................................................................257
Chapter Projects ...............................................................................................................................259

Chapter 3: Polynomial and Rational Functions


3.1 Polynomial Functions and Models ............................................................................................263
3.2 The Real Zeros of a Polynomial Function.................................................................................286
3.3 Complex Zeros; Fundamental Theorem of Algebra..................................................................317
3.4 Properties of Rational Functions ...............................................................................................325
3.5 The Graph of a Rational Function .............................................................................................335
3.6 Polynomial and Rational Inequalities........................................................................................390
Chapter Review ................................................................................................................................413
Chapter Test .....................................................................................................................................429
Cumulative Review ..........................................................................................................................433
Chapter Projects ...............................................................................................................................438

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Chapter 4: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions


4.1 Composite Functions .................................................................................................................439
4.2 One-to-One Functions; Inverse Functions ................................................................................457
4.3 Exponential Functions ...............................................................................................................476
4.4 Logarithmic Functions ..............................................................................................................495
4.5 Properties of Logarithms ...........................................................................................................516
4.6 Logarithmic and Exponential Equations ...................................................................................525
4.7 Financial Models .......................................................................................................................545
4.8 Exponential Growth and Decay; Newton’s Law; Logistic Growth
and Decay Models .............................................................................................................552
4.9 Building Exponential, Logarithmic, and Logistic Models from Data .......................................561
Chapter Review ................................................................................................................................567
Chapter Test .....................................................................................................................................578
Cumulative Review ..........................................................................................................................582
Chapter Projects ...............................................................................................................................586

Chapter 5: Trigonometric Functions


5.1 Angles and Their Measure ........................................................................................................589
5.2 Trigonometric Functions; Unit Circle Approach ......................................................................597
5.3 Properties of the Trigonometric Functions ................................................................................614
5.4 Graphs of the Sine and Cosine Functions .................................................................................626
5.5 Graphs of the Tangent, Cotangent, Cosecant, and Secant Functions ........................................646
5.6 Phase Shift; Sinusoidal Curve Fitting .......................................................................................655
Chapter Review ................................................................................................................................667
Chapter Test .....................................................................................................................................675
Cumulative Review ..........................................................................................................................678
Chapter Projects ...............................................................................................................................682

Chapter 6: Analytic Trigonometry


6.1 The Inverse Sine, Cosine, and Tangent Functions ....................................................................686
6.2 The Inverse Trigonometric Functions (Continued) ...................................................................696
6.3 Trigonometric Equations ...........................................................................................................708
6.4 Trigonometric Identities ............................................................................................................727
6.5 Sum and Difference Formulas ...................................................................................................740
6.6 Double-angle and Half-angle Formulas ....................................................................................762
6.7 Product-to-Sum and Sum-to-Product Formulas ........................................................................790
Chapter Review ................................................................................................................................799
Chapter Test .....................................................................................................................................814
Cumulative Review ..........................................................................................................................819
Chapter Projects ...............................................................................................................................824

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4. Cannons The velocity of a projectile depends upon
many factors, in particular, the weight of the ammunition.
(a) Plot a scatter diagram of the data in the table below.
Let x be the weight in kilograms and let y be the
velocity in meters per second.

Initial
Type Weight (kg) Velocity (m/ sec)

MG 17 10.2 905
MG 131 19.7 710
MG 151 41.5 850
MG 151> 20 42.3 695
MG> FF 35.7 575
MK 103 145 860
MK 108 58 520
WGr 21 111 315

(Data and information taken from “Flugzeug-Handbuch,


Ausgabe Dezember 1996: Guns and Cannons of the
Jagdwaffe” at www.xs4all.nl/~rhorta/jgguns.htm)

Functions-A-Unit-Circle-Approach-to-Trigonometry-3rd-Edition-Sullivan-Solutio
(b) Determine which type of function would fit this
data the best: linear or quadratic. Use a graphing
utility to find the function of best fit. Are the results
reasonable?
(c) Based on velocity, we can determine how high a pro-
jectile will travel before it begins to come back down.
If a cannon is fired at an angle of 45° to the horizon-
tal, then the function for the height of the projectile
12
is given by s1t2 = -16t2 + v0 t + s0 , where v0 is the
2
velocity at which the shell leaves the cannon (initial
4. Cannons The velocity of a projectile depends upon velocity), and s0 is the initial height of the nose of the
many factors, in particular, the weight of the ammunition. cannon (because cannons are not very long, we may
(a) Plot a scatter diagram of the data in the table below. assume that the nose and the firing pin at the back
Let x be the weight in kilograms and let y be the are at the same height for simplicity). Graph the func-
velocity in meters per second. tion s = s1t2 for each of the guns described in the
table. Which gun would be the best for anti-aircraft if
Initial the gun were sitting on the ground? Which would be
Type Weight (kg) Velocity (m/ sec) the best to have mounted on a hilltop or on the top of
a tall building? If the guns were on the turret of a ship,
MG 17 10.2 905 which would be the most effective?
MG 131 19.7 710
MG 151 41.5 850
MG 151> 20 42.3 695
MG> FF 35.7 575
MK 103 145 860
MK 108 58 520
WGr 21 111 315

(Data and information taken from “Flugzeug-Handbuch,


Ausgabe Dezember 1996: Guns and Cannons of the
Jagdwaffe” at www.xs4all.nl/~rhorta/jgguns.htm)

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3. Suppose f1x2 = sin x.
p p
(a) Build a table of values for f1x2 where x = 0, , ,
6 4
p p 2p 3p 5p 7p 5p 4p 3p 5p 7p
, , , , , p, , , , , , ,
3 2 3 4 6 6 4 3 2 3 4
11p
, 2p. Use exact values.
6

(b) Find the first differences for each consecutive pair of


¢f1xi2
values in part (a).That is, evaluate g1xi2 = =
f1xi + 12 - f1xi2
¢xi
p
, where x1 = 0, x2 = , Á ,
xi + 1 - xi 6
x17 = 2p. Use your calculator to approximate each
value rounded to three decimal places.

(c) Plot the points 1xi , g1xi22 for i = 1, Á , 16 on a scat-


ter diagram. What shape does the set of points give?
What function does this resemble? Fit a sine curve
of best fit to the points. How does that relate to your
guess?

(d) Find the first differences for each consecutive pair of


¢g1xi2
values in part (b).That is, evaluate h1xi2 =
g1xi + 12 - g1xi2
=
¢xi
p
where x1 = 0, x2 = , Á , x16 =
xi + 1 - xi 6
11p
. This is the set of second differences of f1x2.
6
Use your calculator to approximate each value
rounded to three decimal places. Plot the points
1xi , h1xi22 for i = 1, Á , 15 on a scatter diagram.
What shape does the set of points give? What func-
tion does this resemble? Fit a sine curve of best fit to
the points. How does that relate to your guess?

Cumulative Review
1. Find the real solutions, if any, of the equation
3x2 + x - 1 = 0.
2. Find an equation for the line containing the points 1-2, 52
and 14, -12. What is the distance between these points?
What is their midpoint?
3. Test the equation 3x + y2 = 9 for symmetry with respect
to the x-axis, the y-axis, and the origin. List the intercepts.
4. Use transformations to graph the equation
y = ƒ x - 3 ƒ + 2.
5. Use transformations to graph the equation y = 3ex - 2.
6. Use transformations to graph the equation

b - 1.
p
y = cosax -
2

ugh-Functions-A-Unit-Circle-Approach-to-Trigonometry-3rd-Edition-Sullivan-Solutio
3. Suppose f1x2 = sin x. (e) Find the first differences for each consecutive pair of
¢h1xi2
values in part (d). That is, evaluate k1xi2 =
p p
(a) Build a table of values for f1x2 where x = 0, , ,
6 4
h1xi + 12 - h1xi2
¢xi
p p 2p 3p 5p 7p 5p 4p 3p 5p 7p p
, , , , , p, , , , , , , = , where x1 = 0, x2 = , Á , x15
3 2 3 4 6 6 4 3 2 3 4 xi + 1 - xi 6
11p 7p
, 2p. Use exact values. = . This is the set of third differences of f1x2.
6 4
Use your calculator to approximate each value
(b) Find the first differences for each consecutive pair of rounded to three decimal places. Plot the points
¢f1xi2 1xi , k1xi22 for i = 1, Á , 14 on a scatter diagram.
values in part (a).That is, evaluate g1xi2 = = What shape does the set of points give? What func-
f1xi + 12 - f1xi2
¢xi
tion does this resemble? Fit a sine curve of best fit to
p
, where x1 = 0, x2 = , Á , the points. How does that relate to your guess?
xi + 1 - xi 6
x17 = 2p. Use your calculator to approximate each (f) Find the first differences for each consecutive pair of
¢k1xi2
value rounded to three decimal places.
values in part (e). That is, evaluate m1xi2 =
(c) Plot the points 1xi , g1xi22 for i = 1, Á , 16 on a scat-
k1xi + 12 - k1xi2
¢xi
ter diagram. What shape does the set of points give? p
= , where x1 = 0, x2 = , Á ,
What function does this resemble? Fit a sine curve xi + 1 - xi 6
of best fit to the points. How does that relate to your 5p
guess? x14 = . This is the set of fourth differences of f1x2.
3
Use your calculator to approximate each value
(d) Find the first differences for each consecutive pair of
¢g1xi2
rounded to three decimal places. Plot the points
values in part (b).That is, evaluate h1xi2 = 1xi , m1xi22 for i = 1, Á , 13 on a scatter diagram.
g1xi + 12 - g1xi2
=
p
¢xi What shape does the set of points give? What func-
where x1 = 0, x2 = , Á , x16 = tion does this resemble? Fit a sine curve of best fit to
xi + 1 - xi 6
11p the points. How does that relate to your guess?
. This is the set of second differences of f1x2.
6
Use your calculator to approximate each value (g) What pattern do you notice about the curves that you
rounded to three decimal places. Plot the points found? What happened in part (f )? Can you make a
1xi , h1xi22 for i = 1, Á , 15 on a scatter diagram. generalization about what happened as you com-
What shape does the set of points give? What func- puted the differences? Explain your answers.
tion does this resemble? Fit a sine curve of best fit to
the points. How does that relate to your guess?

Cumulative Review
1. Find the real solutions, if any, of the equation 7. Sketch a graph of each of the following functions. Label
3x2 + x - 1 = 0. at least three points on each graph. Name the inverse func-
2. Find an equation for the line containing the points 1-2, 52 tion of each one and show its graph.
and 14, -12. What is the distance between these points? (a) y = x3
What is their midpoint? (b) y = ex
3. Test the equation 3x + y2 = 9 for symmetry with respect p p
(c) y = sin x, - … x …
to the x-axis, the y-axis, and the origin. List the intercepts. 2 2
4. Use transformations to graph the equation (d) y = cos x, 0 … x … p
y = ƒ x - 3 ƒ + 2.
1 3p
5. Use transformations to graph the equation y = 3ex - 2. 8. If sin u = - and p 6 u 6 , find the exact value of:
3 2
6. Use transformations to graph the equation (a) cos u (b) tan u (c) sin12u2
b - 1. (e) sina u b
p 1 1
y = cosax - (d) cos12u2 (f) cosa ub
2 2 2

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(c) Using the data given in Section 3.4, Problem 15, draw 7. CBL Experiment Locate the motion detector on a
a scatter diagram letting median income, I, represent Calculator Based Laboratory (CBL) or a Calculator
the dependent variable and the midpoint of the age, Based Ranger (CBR) above a bouncing ball.
x, represent the independent variable. (a) Plot the data collected in a scatter diagram with time
as the independent variable.
¢I
(d) Compute for the data given in the table. What do (b) Find the quadratic function of best fit for the sec-
¢x ond bounce.
you notice? Do you think the data are linearly (c) Find the quadratic function of best fit for the third
related? Why? bounce.
(e) Using a graphing utility, graph the equation (d) Find the quadratic function of best fit for the fourth
bounce.
y = 4x2 - 2x + 3. Evaluate the equation for
(e) Compute the maximum height for the second bounce.
¢y
x = -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4. Compute (first difference) (f) Compute the maximum height for the third bounce.
¢x (g) Compute the maximum height for the fourth bounce.
for each consecutive ordered pair. What happens to (h) Compute the ratio of the maximum height of the third
¢y bounce to the maximum height of the second bounce.
as x increases? Why is this result reasonable?
¢x (i) Compute the ratio of the maximum height of the fourth
¢y bounce to the maximum height of the third bounce.
(f) Notice that ¢x = 1 each time you compute . Now (j) Compare the results from parts (h) and (i). What do
¢x
¢y ¢y you conclude?
compute for the values you determined in part
¢x ¢x
¢y2
(e). This is called a second difference, denoted ,
¢x2
since it is the difference of the first differences. What
do you notice about the second differences?
(g) Write a paragraph explaining how first and second
differences can be used to identify data that are
related through a linear or quadratic function.

Cumulative Review
1. Find the distance between the points P = 11, 32 and 11. For the function f defined by f1x2 = 2x2 + x, evaluate:
Q = 1-4, 22. (a) f122
2. Which of the following points are on the graph of (b) f1x2 + f122
y = 2x2 - x - 5? (c) f1-x2
(a) 1-2, -12 (b) 12, 32 (c) 13, 12 (d) -f1x2
3. Determine the intercepts of y = 3x2 + 14x - 5. (e) f1x + 22
f1x + h2 - f1x2
4. Use a graphing utility to find the local maxima and min- (f) ,h Z 0
h
ima of the function f1x2 = x4 - 3x3 + 4x - 1. Deter-
3z - 1
mine where f is increasing and where f is decreasing. 12. Find the domain of h1z2 = 2 .
z - 6z - 7
5. Solve the inequality x2 Ú x and graph the solution set.
13. Determine whether the following graph is the graph of
6. Solve the inequality x2 - 3x 6 4 and graph the solution set. a function.
7. Find a linear function with slope -3 that contains the
point 1-1, 42. Graph the function.
y

8. Find the equation of the line parallel to the line y = 2x + 1


and containing the point 13, 52. Express your answer in
slope-intercept form and graph the line.
9. Graph the equation y = x3. x
10. Determine whether the following relation represents a
function: 513, 62, 11, 32, 12, 52, 13, 826.

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